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1

Potential of nine multipurpose tree species to reduce saline groundwater tables in the lower Amu Darya River region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the potential of nine multipurpose tree species for afforestation of degraded land in the Khorezm region, Central Asia, particularly their suitability for biodrainage i.e., lowering the elevated groundwater table through the transpirative capacity of plantations. For this purpose water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and tree physiological factors influencing transpiration were assessed during two consecutive years.

Asia Khamzina; John P. A. Lamers; Christopher Martius; Martin Worbes; Paul L. G. Vlek

2006-01-01

2

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

3

Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.  

PubMed

Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388

Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

2013-01-01

4

Willow (Salix fragilis Linn.): A multipurpose tree species under pest attack in the cold desert of Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India.  

PubMed

Salix fragilis is the most common willow species grown extensively under the indigenous agroforestry system in the cold desert of Lahaul valley located in the northwestern Himalayas, India. Presently, this tree is under severe pest attack, and other infections have made its survival in the area questionable. This deciduous multipurpose tree species provides vegetation cover to the barren landscape of Lahaul and is a significant contributor of fuel and fodder to the region. This study is a detailed profile of the plant in three villages within this region: Khoksar, Jahlma, and Hinsa. The willow provided 69.5%, 29%, and 42% of the total fuelwood requirements of Jahlma, Khoksar, and Hinsa respectively. A striking observation was that only 30.0 +/- 20.1% trees were healthy: 55.2 +/- 16.1% of the willows have dried up and 14.8 +/- 6.1% were in drying condition due to a combination of pest infestation and infection. To sustain this cultivation of willow under the existing agroforestry system in the region, we recommend that locally available wild species and other established varieties of willow growing in similar regions of the Himalayas be introduced on a trial basis. PMID:16615699

Rawat, Yashwant S; Oinam, Santaram S; Vishvakarma, Subhash C R; Kuniyal, Chandra P; Kuniyal, Jagdish C

2006-02-01

5

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

6

Volunteer biomass production between multipurpose tree hedgerows after two years of fallow in southern Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of multipurpose hedgerow tree species to out-compete undesired regrowth during fallow phases was examined. Biomass\\u000a and spatial distribution of grass and broad leaf volunteers was measured after two years of fallow, in two alley cropping\\u000a systems planted at six m interrow distance, at the Humid Forest Ecoregional Centre Research Station, Mbalmayo, southern Cameroon.\\u000a The two experiments had been

S. Hauser

2002-01-01

7

Breeding status of tung tree (Vernicia sp.) in China, a multipurpose oilseed crop with industrial uses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique ...

8

From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep  

E-print Network

From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep Coalescence Events Louxin Zhang Abstract--When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include

Zhang, Louxin

9

Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals. PMID:21447481

Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

2011-10-01

10

Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees on the fur farmlands in the Jebel Marra highlands, Western Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose

S. Miehe

1986-01-01

11

Influence of foliage from African multipurpose trees on activity of rumen protozoa and bacteria.  

PubMed

Samples and extracts of foliage from African multipurpose trees were screened for their effects on rumen protozoa and bacteria with a view to predicting their safety as feed supplements and for identifying species with potential antiprotozoal activity. The species tested were Acacia aneura, Chamaecytisus palmensis, Brachychiton populneum, Flindersia maculosa, Sesbania sesban, Leucaena leucocephala and Vernonia amyedalina. Antimicrobial effects were mild except for S. sesban, which was highly toxic to rumen protozoa in vitro, and A. aneura, which was toxic to rumen bacteria. The antiprotozoal factor in S. sesban was apparently associated with the fraction of the plant containing saponins. When S. sesban was fed to sheep, protozoal numbers fell by 60% after 4 d, but the population recovered after a further 10 d. In vitro experiments demonstrated that washed protozoa from later times were no more resistant to S. sesban than on initial exposure, suggesting that other micro-organisms, probably the bacteria, adapted to detoxify the antiprotozoal agent. Thus S. sesban may be useful in suppressing protozoa and thereby improving protein flow from the rumen, but only if the bacterial metabolism of the antiprotozoal factor can be avoided. PMID:9301414

Newbold, C J; el Hassan, S M; Wang, J; Ortega, M E; Wallace, R J

1997-08-01

12

Multipurpose shade trees in coffee and cocoa plantations in Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee and cocoa are the main cash crops of Côte d'Ivoire. They are mainly produced by small farmers in a rather extensive way. The shade trees used are mostly wild forest species yielding many different products. In the Baoulé region, an inventory of those trees and their, often multiple, uses was established. Of the 41 tree species, 22 are used

F. Herzog

1994-01-01

13

Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees  

E-print Network

Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees gene tree discordance is so common that the most likely gene tree topology to evolve along the branches

Degnan, James

14

A novel multipurpose tree and path matching algorithm with application to airway trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree matching methods have numerous applications in medical imaging, including registration, anatomical labeling, segmentation, and navigation of structures such as vessels and airway trees. Typical methods for tree matching rely on conventional graph matching techniques and therefore suffer potential limitations such as sensitivity to the accuracy of the extracted tree structures, as well as dependence on the initial alignment. We present a novel path-based tree matching framework independent of graph matching. It is based on a point-by-point feature comparison of complete paths rather than branch points, and consequently is relatively unaffected by spurious airways and/or missing branches. A matching matrix is used to enforce one-to-one matching. Moreover our method can reliably match irregular tree structures, resulting from imperfect segmentation and centerline extraction. Also reflecting the nature of these features, our method does not require a precise alignment or registration of tree structures. To test our method we used two thoracic CT scans from each of ten patients, with a median inter-scan interval of 3 months (range 0.5 to 10 months). The bronchial tree structure was automatically extracted from each scan and a ground truth of matching paths was established between each pair of tree structures. Overall 87% of 702 airway paths (average 35.1 per patient matched both ways) were correctly matched using this technique. Based on this success we also present preliminary results of airway-to-artery matching using our proposed methodology.

Kaftan, Jens N.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

2006-03-01

15

From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach  

E-print Network

From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach  

E-print Network

From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Removal of chromium by some multipurpose tree seedlings of Indian thar desert.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to study the potential of chromium (Cr) phytoaccumulatory capabilities of four tree species viz., Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Tecomella undulata, and Salvadora persica Possibility of enhancement of Cr uptake by citric acid and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) amendments were also tried. Cr is a major pollutant of the environment. Chromium can exist in oxidation states from III to VI, but the most stable and common forms of Cr are trivalent and hexavalent species. Cr(VI) was more toxic to the tree growth in terms of collar diameter (CD) increment in all the tree species than Cr(lll). Roots accumulated more Cr than shoots in all the tree species. There was more than 10 fold increase in root Cr content in comparison with shoot Cr content in all the trees at all the concentration of Cr and all sources of Cr. Citric acid significantly increased the Cr content in the tissues of roots in all the species under both speciation of Cr. The highest increase in Cr content brought by 20 mM citric acid addition was in A. latifolia Results suggest that Anogeissus latifolia is a potential Cr accumulator with citric acid as soil amendment. PMID:21166349

Mathur, Nishi; Singh, Joginder; Bohra, Sachendra; Bohra, Avinash; Vyas, Anil

2010-01-01

18

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees  

E-print Network

Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees James H. Degnan1 , Noah A. Rosenberg way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other for which gene tree discordance is so common that the most likely gene tree topology to evolve along

Rosenberg, Noah

19

Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section rf ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately 2-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell's longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation.

Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E. P.

2013-06-01

20

Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species  

PubMed Central

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section RF ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately two-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT, enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell’s longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation. PMID:23609185

Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E.P.

2013-01-01

21

Multipurpose dissociation cell for enhanced ETD of intact protein species.  

PubMed

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section rf ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately 2-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell's longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation. PMID:23609185

Rose, Christopher M; Russell, Jason D; Ledvina, Aaron R; McAlister, Graeme C; Westphall, Michael S; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C; Coon, Joshua J; Syka, John E P

2013-06-01

22

The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

2015-01-01

23

Discriminating tree species using hyperspectral reflectance data  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widely application of Remote Sensing, the request for the accuracy of classification is getting higher and higher in each application fields. The aim of this paper is to test whether spectra reflectance of various tree leaves measured under ground-level conditions contain sufficient spectral information for discriminating tree species, and finds a way to discriminate tree species from their

Yuanyong Dian; Shenghui Fang; Xiaojuan Li; Si Liang

2009-01-01

24

Optimal tree-based release rules for real-time flood control operations on a multipurpose multireservoir system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis study presents a methodology to establish a set of optimal operation release rules which are tree-based rules for real-time flood control on a multipurpose multireservoir system. The derived rules can be used to determine the optimal real-time releases during flood periods. Steps of the proposed methodology involve: (1) collection of data, (2) building of flood database, (3) generation of optimal input-output patterns by running the flood control optimization model, (4) classification of training and testing data, (5) extraction of tree-based release rules for designed scenarios using the decision-tree algorithm (C5.0), (6) determination of optimal tree-based rules, (7) generation of the real-time forecast data by using the hydrological forecast model, (8) processing of reservoir real-time releases by simulating the reservoir real-time flood control operation, and (9) verification of the superior release rules through comparisons of tree-based rules, regression-based rules derived from a multiple-linear regression model and existing release rules. The developed methodology is applied to the Tanshui River Reservoir System in Taiwan to extract the decision trees for each scenario and then select the best ones with highest accuracy as the optimal tree-based rules. The derived optimal tree-based rules, regression-based rules and existing rules are compared by conducting the real-time operations in three historical typhoons, including Aere, Haima and Nock-ten in 2004. Results demonstrate that the solution using the derived tree-based rules have better performance than the regression-based rules and the existing rules in terms of reducing the peak stage at downstream control points, and meeting the target reservoir storage at the end of flood.

Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

2009-02-01

25

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., a multipurpose arid and  

E-print Network

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Acacia senegal (L.) Willd, France Abstract Acacia senegal is a multipurpose African tree that improves the soil fertility of the markers to detect genetic diversity in this species. Keywords: Acacia senegal, conservation, genetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Reconciliation with Non-Binary Species Trees  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|VG| · (kS + hS)) time, where |VG| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, hS is the height of the species tree and kS is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in Notung, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets. PMID:18808330

Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton

2008-01-01

27

From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem  

E-print Network

From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem Roderic The processes of gene duplication, loss, and lineage sorting can result in incongruence between the phylog- enies of genes and those of species. This incongruence complicates the task of inferring the latter from

Page, Roderic

28

iGLASS: An Improvement to the GLASS Method for Estimating Species Trees from Gene Trees  

E-print Network

iGLASS: An Improvement to the GLASS Method for Estimating Species Trees from Gene Trees ETHAN M. JEWETT and NOAH A. ROSENBERG ABSTRACT Several methods have been designed to infer species trees from gene trees while taking into account gene tree/species tree discordance. Although some of these methods

Rosenberg, Noah

29

Discriminating tree species using hyperspectral reflectance data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the widely application of Remote Sensing, the request for the accuracy of classification is getting higher and higher in each application fields. The aim of this paper is to test whether spectra reflectance of various tree leaves measured under ground-level conditions contain sufficient spectral information for discriminating tree species, and finds a way to discriminate tree species from their spectra reflectance. This study is one of the most important prerequisites to the future use of airborne and satellite hyper-spectral data. First, spectral reflectance of 8 tree species in Huazhong district including herbaceous, conifers and hardwoods which between 400nm and 900nm were recorded from canopy, using ASD hand-held Spectrometer. Next, the spectral were statistically tested using one-way ANOVA to see whether they significantly differ at every spectral location. Finally, the spectral separability between each tree species was quantified using the Jeffries-Matusita(J-M)distance measure. It turned out that the 8 species under study were statically different at most spectral locations, with a significant level of 0.01. Moreover, the J-M distance indices calculated for all species illustrated that the trees were spectrally separable.

Dian, Yuanyong; Fang, Shenghui; Li, Xiaojuan; Liang, Si

2009-10-01

30

Crop productivity under differently lopped canopies of multipurpose trees in Central Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-crop mixed farming is the predominant traditional land use in the Central Himalaya. Knowledge on the effect of lopping the over story of trees on the productivity of under story of intercropped food crops is limited. Five levels of lopping regime (no lopping, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% lopping of branches) were established in a 6-year-old mixed plantation of locally

R. L. Semwal; R. K. Maikhuri; K. S. Rao; K. Singh; K. G. Saxena

2002-01-01

31

Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Paola Bonizzoni  

E-print Network

Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Cost Model Paola Bonizzoni Gianluca from evolutionary trees representing the relationships between distinct gene families is of great of minimum tree that reconciles a gene tree and a species tree is correct. We answer affirmatively

Della Vedova, Gianluca

32

Pushing the Pace of Tree Species Migration  

PubMed Central

Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663

Lazarus, Eli D.; McGill, Brian J.

2014-01-01

33

Multipurpose palms: the sugar palm ( Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arenga pinnata is the most important sugar palm of the humid tropics. Besides yielding sugar, it provides a great number of products and benefits to its users, and is one of the most diverse multipurpose tree species in culture.The various ways in which this palm is used are illustrated for the native population of four Indonesian provinces. Although all people

J. Mogea; B. Seibert; W. Smits

1991-01-01

34

Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees  

E-print Network

Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees available for inferring species trees from gene trees, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch (2010 branch length estimates. Further, GLASS and STEAC have been shown to be consistent estimators of tree

Rosenberg, Noah

35

Multipurpose Spaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the emerging trend of multipurpose class spaces, including educational trends influencing multipurpose classroom use, and key issues when using these spaces. Issues discussed include room location, technology integration, food services, acoustics, lighting, outdoor space, capacity, and storage. Design principles emphasized…

Butin, Dan

36

Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis  

E-print Network

in 69 individuals sampled from six species of Ourisia (New Zealand native foxglove). Key wordsInferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full framework for estimating species trees and species demograph- ics from genetic markers. However, practical

Rosenberg, Noah

37

RESOVING THE GENE TREE AND SPECIES TREE PROBLEM BY PHYLOGENETIC MINING  

E-print Network

RESOVING THE GENE TREE AND SPECIES TREE PROBLEM BY PHYLOGENETIC MINING XIAOXU HAN Department of Mathematics and Bioinformatics Program, Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, MI 48197, USA The gene tree and species tree problem remains a central problem in phylogenomics. To overcome this problem, gene

Wong, Limsoon

38

A tree species inventory over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the Corine Land Cover (CLC2000) or Global Land Cover (GLC2000). Possible applications of the inventory include emissions of VOCs and pollen, CO2 fluxes and dry deposition - in general calculations which are tree specie dependent.

Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

2009-04-01

39

Research Articles Consistency Properties of Species Tree Inference by  

E-print Network

of Human Genetics and the Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. JOURNAL for inconsistency. Under a specific model for the evolution of gene trees along the branches of species trees

Rosenberg, Noah

40

A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees  

E-print Network

A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees James H. Degnan, Noah A. Rosenberg, and Tanja Stadler Abstract--Ranked gene trees, which consider both the gene tree topology and the sequence in which gene lineages separate, can potentially provide a new source

Rosenberg, Noah

41

ASTRAL: genome-scale coalescent-based species tree estimation  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Species trees provide insight into basic biology, including the mechanisms of evolution and how it modifies biomolecular function and structure, biodiversity and co-evolution between genes and species. Yet, gene trees often differ from species trees, creating challenges to species tree estimation. One of the most frequent causes for conflicting topologies between gene trees and species trees is incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), which is modelled by the multi-species coalescent. While many methods have been developed to estimate species trees from multiple genes, some which have statistical guarantees under the multi-species coalescent model, existing methods are too computationally intensive for use with genome-scale analyses or have been shown to have poor accuracy under some realistic conditions. Results: We present ASTRAL, a fast method for estimating species trees from multiple genes. ASTRAL is statistically consistent, can run on datasets with thousands of genes and has outstanding accuracy—improving on MP-EST and the population tree from BUCKy, two statistically consistent leading coalescent-based methods. ASTRAL is often more accurate than concatenation using maximum likelihood, except when ILS levels are low or there are too few gene trees. Availability and implementation: ASTRAL is available in open source form at https://github.com/smirarab/ASTRAL/. Datasets studied in this article are available at http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/phylo/datasets/astral. Contact: warnow@illinois.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161245

Mirarab, S.; Reaz, R.; Bayzid, Md. S.; Zimmermann, T.; Swenson, M. S.; Warnow, T.

2014-01-01

42

Isoprene emission capacity for US tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isoprene emission capacity measurements are presented from 18 North American oak ( Quercus) species and species from six other genera previously found to emit significant quantities of isoprene. Sampling was conducted at physiographically diverse locations in North Carolina, Central California, and Northern Oregon. Emissions from several sun leaves of each species were measured at or near standard conditions (leaf temperature of 30°C and photosynthetically active radiation of 1000 ?mol m -2 s -1) using environmentally controlled cuvette systems and gas chromatography with reduction gas detectors. Species mean emission capacity ranged from 39 to 158 ?g C g -1 h -1 (mean of 86), or 22 to 79 nmol m -2 s -1 (mean of 44). These rates are 2-28 times higher than those previously reported from the same species, which were summarized in a recent study where isoprene emission rates were assigned based on published data and taxonomy. These discrepancies were attributed to differences in leaf environment during development, measurement technique (branch or plant enclosure versus leaf enclosure), and lack of environmental measurements associated with some of the earlier branch enclosure measurements. Mass-based emission capacities for 15 of 18 oak species, sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua), and poplars ( Populus trichocarpa and P. deltoides) were within ranges used in current biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission models, while measured rates for the remaining three oak species, Nyssa sylvatica, Platanus occidentalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix nigra, and Populus hybrids ( Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) were considerably higher. In addition, mean specific leaf mass of the oak species was 30% higher than assumed in current emission models. Emission rates reported here and in other recent studies support recent conclusions that isoprene emission capacities for sun leaves of high emitting species may be better represented by a value of 100±50 ?g C g -1 h -1 during hot summer conditions. We also find that intermediate isoprene emission rates previously suggested for some tree species may not represent their true emission capacities, and that broadleaf plant species may have either low (<1.0 ?g C g -1 h -1) or very high (˜100 ?g C g -1 h -1) genetic capacity to emit isoprene when mature foliage is exposed to a high ambient temperature and light environment.

Geron, Chris; Harley, Peter; Guenther, Alex

43

Molecular phylogeography, intraspecific variation and the conservation of tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species are becoming the focus of increasing conservation concern, with some 9000 species now threatened globally. Studies of intraspecific variation can contribute to the development of conservation strategies, by identifying appropriate units for conservation. The recent application of molecular techniques to a variety of tree species has highlighted a far higher degree of population differentiation than indicated by previous

A. C. Newton; T. R. Allnutt; A. C. M. Gillies; A. J. Lowe; R. A. Ennos

1999-01-01

44

Multipurpose Rooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

45

Multilocus species delimitation and species tree inference within the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species complex.  

E-print Network

??The recent renaissance in the development of multilocus coalescent-based species tree inference methods has transformed the study of systematics; however, coalescent-based methods require a priori… (more)

Goldenberg, Julianne R.

2013-01-01

46

Comparative photosynthesis of three gap phase successional tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthesis was measured in situ on trees growing in an open, gap-like site and under a closed canopy. Photosynthetic responses also were monitored on trees grown in the laboratory under either a high or low light regime or on those trees transferred from a low to a high light regime. All three species studied, Liriodendron tulipifera, Acer rubrum and Cornus

L. L. Wallace; E. L. Dunn

1980-01-01

47

Germination ecology of twelve indigenous and eight exotic multipurpose leguminous species from Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination requirements of seeds of 20 leguminous species were studied in three experiments. In the first experiment, seeds were subjected to mechanical scarification, sulphuric acid and boiling water treatments. In the second experiment, they were treated with dry heat at 60, 80 and 100°C. In the third experiment, seeds were placed at different temperature regimes (10, 15, 20, 25

Demel Teketay

1996-01-01

48

Are Temperate Canopy Spiders Tree-Species Specific?  

PubMed Central

Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Bia?owie?a forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood. PMID:24586251

Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas

2014-01-01

49

Fuelwood quality of promising tree species for alkaline soil sites in relation to tree age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuelwood quality of five tree species suitable for afforestation of alkaline soil sites was investigated in relation to tree age for establishing harvest rotation cycles. Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica were found to be the most suitable species for short rotation fuel wood forestry programmes because of their high wood density, biomass yield, low ash and moisture content, and

V. L. Goel; H. M. Behl

1996-01-01

50

Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis  

PubMed Central

The multispecies coalescent provides an elegant theoretical framework for estimating species trees and species demographics from genetic markers. However, practical applications of the multispecies coalescent model are limited by the need to integrate or sample over all gene trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computes the likelihood of a species tree directly from the markers under a finite-sites model of mutation effectively integrating over all possible gene trees. The method applies to independent (unlinked) biallelic markers such as well-spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms, and we have implemented it in SNAPP, a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler for inferring species trees, divergence dates, and population sizes. We report results from simulation experiments and from an analysis of 1997 amplified fragment length polymorphism loci in 69 individuals sampled from six species of Ourisia (New Zealand native foxglove). PMID:22422763

Bryant, David; Bouckaert, Remco; Felsenstein, Joseph; Rosenberg, Noah A.; RoyChoudhury, Arindam

2012-01-01

51

Evidence of Tree Species’ Range Shifts in a Complex Landscape  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to change the distribution of species. For long-lived, sessile species such as trees, tracking the warming climate depends on seedling colonization of newly favorable areas. We compare the distribution of seedlings and mature trees for all but the rarest tree species in California, Oregon and Washington, United States of America, a large, environmentally diverse region. Across 46 species, the mean annual temperature of the range of seedlings was 0.120°C colder than that of the range of trees (95% confidence interval from 0.096 to 0.144°C). The extremes of the seedling distributions also shifted towards colder temperature than those of mature trees, but the change was less pronounced. Although the mean elevation and mean latitude of the range of seedlings was higher than and north of those of the range of mature trees, elevational and latitudinal shifts run in opposite directions for the majority of the species, reflecting the lack of a direct biological relationship between species’ distributions and those variables. The broad scale, environmental diversity and variety of disturbance regimes and land uses of the study area, the large number and exhaustive sampling of tree species, and the direct causal relationship between the temperature response and a warming climate, provide strong evidence to attribute the observed shifts to climate change. PMID:25634090

Monleon, Vicente J.; Lintz, Heather E.

2015-01-01

52

Exploring the Taxonomy of Oaks and Related Tree Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lab in Eastern North America conducted a study to determine the taxonomic relationship between deciduous trees and several species of oaks by calculating the similarity index of all species to be studied. The study enabled students to classify the different species of oaks according to their distinct characteristics.

McMaster, Robert T.

2004-01-01

53

TREE PLANTING SITE EVALUATION FORM "SITE DICTATES SPECIES"  

E-print Network

TREE PLANTING SITE EVALUATION FORM "SITE DICTATES SPECIES" ABOVE GROUND Utilities: Electric ordinances.) Stop signs: Yes______ No______ Business signs: Yes______ No______ Vehicle sight problems: Yes ___________________________ NA______ Utilities: Location and distance from Water meter

54

Computational approaches to species phylogeny inference and gene tree reconciliation  

PubMed Central

An intricate relationship exists between gene trees and species phylogenies, due to evolutionary processes that act on the genes within and across the branches of the species phylogeny. From an analytical perspective, gene trees serve as character states for inferring accurate species phylogenies, and species phylogenies serve as a backdrop against which gene trees are contrasted for elucidating evolutionary processes and parameters. In a 1997 paper, Maddison discussed this relationship, reviewed the signatures left by three major evolutionary processes on the gene trees, and surveyed parsimony and likelihood criteria for utilizing these signatures to computationally elucidate this relationship. Here, we review progress that has been made on developing computational methods for analyses under these two criteria, and survey remaining challenges. PMID:24094331

Nakhleh, Luay

2013-01-01

55

Tree Species’ Tolerance to Water Stress, Salinity and Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a According to climate change predictions, water availability might change dramatically in Europe and adjacent regions. This\\u000a change will undoubtedly have an adverse effect on existing tree species and affect their ability to cope with a lack or an\\u000a excess of water, changes in annual precipitation patterns, soil salinity and fire disturbance. The following chapter will\\u000a describe tree species and provenances

Martin Lukac; Margus Pensa; Gabriel Schiller

56

Mapping urban forest tree species using IKONOS imagery: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stepwise masking system with high-resolution IKONOS imagery was developed to identify and map urban forest tree species\\/groups\\u000a in the City of Tampa, Florida, USA. The eight species\\/groups consist of sand live oak (Quercus geminata), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), live oak (Quercus virginiana), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), pine (species group), palm (species group), camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), and red maple (Acer rubrum).

Ruiliang Pu

2011-01-01

57

Seedling Growth Strategies in Bauhinia Species: Comparing Lianas and Trees  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Lianas are expected to differ from trees in their growth strategies. As a result these two groups of woody species will have different spatial distributions: lianas are more common in high light environments. This study determines the differences in growth patterns, biomass allocation and leaf traits in five closely related liana and tree species of the genus Bauhinia. Methods Seedlings of two light-demanding lianas (Bauhinia tenuiflora and B. claviflora), one shade-tolerant liana (B. aurea), and two light-demanding trees (B. purpurea and B. monandra) were grown in a shadehouse at 25 % of full sunlight. A range of physiological, morphological and biomass parameters at the leaf and whole plant level were compared among these five species. Key Results The two light-demanding liana species had higher relative growth rate (RGR), allocated more biomass to leaf production [higher leaf mass fraction (LMF) and higher leaf area ratio (LAR)] and stem mass fraction (SMF), and less biomass to the roots [root mass fraction (RMF)] than the two tree species. The shade-tolerant liana had the lowest RGR of all five species, and had a higher RMF, lower SMF and similar LMF than the two light-demanding liana species. The two light-demanding lianas had lower photosynthetic rates per unit area (Aarea) and similar photosynthetic rates per unit mass (Amass) than the trees. Across species, RGR was positively related to SLA, but not to LAR and Aarea. Conclusions It is concluded that the faster growth of light-demanding lianas compared with light-demanding trees is based on morphological parameters (SLA, LMF and LAR), and cannot be attributed to higher photosynthetic rates at the leaf level. The shade-tolerant liana exhibited a slow-growth strategy, compared with the light-demanding species. PMID:17720978

Cai, Zhi-Quan; Poorter, Lourens; Cao, Kun-Fang; Bongers, Frans

2007-01-01

58

Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical trees species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of niche vs. neutral assembly mechanisms in structuring tropical tree communities remains an important unsettled question in community ecology [Bell G (2005) Ecology 86:1757-1770]. There is ample evidence that species distributions are determined by soils and habitat factors at landscape (0.5 million individual trees of 1,400 species and 10 essential plant nutrients, we used Monte Carlo simulations of species distributions to test plant-soil associations against null expectations based on dispersal assembly. We found that the spatial distributions of 36-51% of tree species at these sites show strong associations to soil nutrient distributions. Neutral dispersal assembly cannot account for these plant-soil associations or the observed niche breadths of these species. These results indicate that belowground resource availability plays an important role in the assembly of tropical tree communities at local scales and provide the basis for future investigations on the mechanisms of resource competition among tropical tree species. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

John, R.; Dalling, J.W.; Harms, K.E.; Yavitt, J.B.; Stallard, R.F.; Mirabello, M.; Hubbell, S.P.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Vallejo, M.; Foster, R.B.

2007-01-01

59

Geographical Range and Local Abundance of Tree Species in China  

PubMed Central

Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20–25 ha where all individuals ?1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >105 km2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species’ abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges. PMID:24130772

Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping

2013-01-01

60

Bayesian Inference of Species Trees from Multilocus Data  

PubMed Central

Until recently, it has been common practice for a phylogenetic analysis to use a single gene sequence from a single individual organism as a proxy for an entire species. With technological advances, it is now becoming more common to collect data sets containing multiple gene loci and multiple individuals per species. These data sets often reveal the need to directly model intraspecies polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting in phylogenetic estimation procedures. For a single species, coalescent theory is widely used in contemporary population genetics to model intraspecific gene trees. Here, we present a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the multispecies coalescent. Our method coestimates multiple gene trees embedded in a shared species tree along with the effective population size of both extant and ancestral species. The inference is made possible by multilocus data from multiple individuals per species. Using a multiindividual data set and a series of simulations of rapid species radiations, we demonstrate the efficacy of our new method. These simulations give some insight into the behavior of the method as a function of sampled individuals, sampled loci, and sequence length. Finally, we compare our new method to both an existing method (BEST 2.2) with similar goals and the supermatrix (concatenation) method. We demonstrate that both BEST and our method have much better estimation accuracy for species tree topology than concatenation, and our method outperforms BEST in divergence time and population size estimation. PMID:19906793

Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J.

2010-01-01

61

Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species  

E-print Network

and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of extremesClimatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species Niklaus E. Zimmermanna,1 for review March 15, 2009) Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate

Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

62

Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree in Drosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequenced species Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D. melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All three possible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, though recent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sister species. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as the four other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set out to investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D. melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the past incongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D. yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespread incongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions and deletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two key speciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, the incongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supporting the same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different trees was found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes support the same tree most often in regions of low recombination and substitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on the same scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineage sorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant and robust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. We conclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster species complex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting. Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence in many comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct species tree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methods that control for and/or utilize this information will be valuable advancements for the field of comparative genomics. PMID:17132051

Pollard, Daniel A; Eisen, Michael B

2006-01-01

63

Occupancy-abundance models for predicting densities of three leaf beetles damaging the multipurpose tree Sesbania sesban in eastern and southern Africa.  

PubMed

Mesoplatys ochroptera Stål, Exosoma and Ootheca spp. seriously damage sesbania, Sesbania sesban (L.) Merril, a multipurpose leguminous tree widely used in tropical agroforestry. This is discouraging farmers from expanding the planting of sesbania in various agroforestry systems in eastern and south-central Africa. Rapid methods are needed for estimation of population densities of these beetles for decision making in pest management. A study was conducted with the objectives of determining the existence of any positive relationship between the occupancy and abundance of Mesoplatys, Exosoma and Ootheca and determining the model that best predicts abundance from occupancy for rapid estimation of population densities. The Poisson model assuming spatial randomness, the negative binomial distribution (NBD) model assuming spatial aggregation, the Nachman model without any distribution assumption, and a General model incorporating spatial variance-abundance and occupancy-abundance relationships were fitted to data on adult M. ochroptera, Exosoma and Ootheca from western Kenya, southern Malawi and eastern Zambia. Very strong variance to abundance relationships were observed in the spatial pattern of all three beetles. The occupancy-abundance relationships were also positive and strong in all beetles. The occupancy and abundance predicted by the four models were closest to the observed at lower densities compared with higher beetle densities. At higher population densities, the NBD and the General model gave better fit for M. ochroptera and Exosoma. For Ootheca populations, the Poisson and NBD models gave better fit at higher population densities. The relationships established here can be used as guide to estimate beetle densities for decision-making in pest management. PMID:16441906

Sileshi, G; Hailu, G; Mafongoya, P L

2006-02-01

64

The use of tree rings in tropical forest management: Projecting timber yields of four Bolivian tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable management systems for tropical forests require information on tree growth. Generally, growth rates of commercial tropical tree species are derived from repeated measurements in permanent sample plots. Here, we present an alternative method: the use of tree ring analysis. It has some important advantages over plot studies.The aims of this study were (1) to demonstrate how tree ring analysis

Roel J. W. Brienen; Pieter A. Zuidema

2006-01-01

65

Oviposition preference of Anoplophora glabripennis emerging from five host tree species under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is a polyphagous woodborer of hardwood trees. In order to well understand the oviposition preference of A. glabripennis emerging from different larval host tree species, we selected five common host tree species in the field and evaluated its\\u000a oviposition preferences. The five host tree species are Acer negundo (AN), Salix matsudana f.

Xiong-fei Yan; Xiao-juan Li; You-qing Luo; Zhi-chun Xu; Gui-fang Tian; Tie-lin Zhang

2008-01-01

66

Predicting Abundance of 80 Tree Species Following Climate Change in the Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projected climate warming will potentially have profound effects on the earth's biota, including a large redistribution of tree species. We developed models to evaluate potential shifts for 80 individual tree species in the eastern United States. First, environmental factors associated with current ranges of tree species were assessed using geographic information systems (GIS) in conjunction with regression tree analysis (RTA).

Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad

1998-01-01

67

Species mixing boosts root yield in mangrove trees.  

PubMed

Enhanced species richness can stimulate the productivity of plant communities; however, its effect on the belowground production of forests has scarcely been tested, despite the role of tree roots in carbon storage and ecosystem processes. Therefore, we tested for the effects of tree species richness on mangrove root biomass: thirty-two 6 m by 6 m plots were planted with zero (control), one, two or three species treatments of six-month-old Avicennia marina (A), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (B) and Ceriops tagal (C). A monoculture of each species and the four possible combinations of the three species were used, with four replicate plots per treatment. Above- and belowground biomass was measured after three and four years' growth. In both years, the all-species mix (ABC) had significant overyielding of roots, suggesting complementarity mediated by differences in rhizosphere use amongst species. In year four, there was higher belowground than aboveground biomass in all but one treatment. Belowground biomass was strongly influenced by the presence of the most vigorously growing species, A. marina. These results demonstrate the potential for complementarity between fast- and slow-growing species to enhance belowground growth in mangrove forests, with implications for forest productivity and the potential for belowground carbon sequestration. PMID:23073636

Lang'at, Joseph K Sigi; Kirui, Bernard K Y; Skov, Martin W; Kairo, James G; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Huxham, Mark

2013-05-01

68

tropiTree: An NGS-Based EST-SSR Resource for 24 Tropical Tree Species  

PubMed Central

The development of genetic tools for non-model organisms has been hampered by cost, but advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have created new opportunities. In ecological research, this raises the prospect for developing molecular markers to simultaneously study important genetic processes such as gene flow in multiple non-model plant species within complex natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we report the use of bar-coded multiplexed paired-end Illumina NGS for the de novo development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers at low cost for a range of 24 tree species. Each chosen tree species is important in complex tropical agroforestry systems where little is currently known about many genetic processes. An average of more than 5,000 EST-SSRs was identified for each of the 24 sequenced species, whereas prior to analysis 20 of the species had fewer than 100 nucleotide sequence citations. To make results available to potential users in a suitable format, we have developed an open-access, interactive online database, tropiTree (http://bioinf.hutton.ac.uk/tropiTree), which has a range of visualisation and search facilities, and which is a model for the efficient presentation and application of NGS data. PMID:25025376

Russell, Joanne R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Cardle, Linda; Dancey, Siobhan; Morris, Jenny; Booth, Allan; Odee, David; Mwaura, Lucy; Omondi, William; Angaine, Peter; Machua, Joseph; Muchugi, Alice; Milne, Iain; Kindt, Roeland; Jamnadass, Ramni; Dawson, Ian K.

2014-01-01

69

The exotic legume tree species, Acacia mearnsii, alters microbial soil functionalities and the early development of a native tree species,  

E-print Network

The exotic legume tree species, Acacia mearnsii, alters microbial soil functionalities May 2013 Available online 10 June 2013 Keywords: Exotic invasive plant Acacia mearnsii Soil microbial community Ectomycorrhiza a b s t r a c t Acacia mearnsii is one of the most planted Australian Acacia around

Thioulouse, Jean

70

Preliminary experimentation in mechanically planting large seeded tree species  

SciTech Connect

Present methods of reforestation are very limiting to the mining industry in its attempts to reclaim large areas to commercially important tree species. A possible solution to some of the limitations would be the use of a mechanical planter that can plant and fertilize tree seed on steep mine slopes. This paper is a report on the preliminary work being done in the development of such a planter. A commercially available planter is being modified for this purpose and initial success is encouraging further development.

Richards, T.W.; Graves, D.H.

1980-12-01

71

Contrasting water-uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species  

E-print Network

Contrasting water-uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species ABSTRACT Growth responses of riparian trees to changes in water availability are poorly understood, thereby individual tree rings for two co-occurring riparian species, Fraxinus excelsior and Populus nigra. Trees were

Stella, John C.

72

A multigene species tree for Western Mediterranean painted frogs (Discoglossus).  

PubMed

Painted frogs (Discoglossus) are an anuran clade that originated in the Upper Miocene. Extant species are morphologically similar and have a circum-Mediterranean distribution. We assembled a multilocus dataset from seven nuclear and four mitochondrial genes for several individuals of all but one of the extant species and reconstructed a robust phylogeny by applying a coalescent-based species-tree method and a concatenation approach, both of which gave congruent results. The earliest phylogenetic split within Discoglossus separates D. montalentii from a clade comprising all other species. Discoglossus montalentii is monophyletic for haplotype variation at all loci and has distinct morphological, bioacoustic and karyotypic characters. We find moderate support for a sister-group relationship between the Iberian taxa and the Moroccan D. scovazzi, and high support for a D. pictus -D. sardus clade distributed around the Tyrrhenian basin. Topological discordance among gene trees during the speciation of D. galganoi, D. scovazzi, D. pictus and D. sardus is interpreted as the consequence of nearly simultaneous, vicariant diversification. The timing of these events is unclear, but possibly coincided with the final geotectonic rearrangement of the Western Mediterranean in the Middle Miocene or later during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Iberian taxa D. galganoi galganoi and D. g. jeanneae are reciprocally monophyletic in mitochondrial DNA but not in nuclear gene trees, and are therefore treated as subspecies of D. galganoi. PMID:22641173

Pabijan, Maciej; Crottini, Angelica; Reckwell, Dennis; Irisarri, Iker; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Vences, Miguel

2012-09-01

73

Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate change requires knowledge of the determinants of the environmental niche and species range limits. Mean values of climatic variables are often used in such analyses. In contrast, the increasing frequency of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate parameters) explain and predict spatial patterns of 11 tree species in Switzerland. We find clear, although comparably small, improvement (+20% in adjusted D2, +8% and +3% in cross-validated True Skill Statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of extremes in addition to means. The primary effect of including information on climate extremes is a correction of local overprediction and underprediction. Our results demonstrate that measures of climate extremes are important for understanding the climatic limits of tree species and assessing species niche characteristics. The inclusion of climate variability likely will improve models of species range limits under future conditions, where changes in mean climate and increased variability are expected.

Zimmermann, N.E.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Meier, E.S.; Thuiller, W.; Guisan, A.; Schmatz, D.R.; Pearman, P.B.

2009-01-01

74

Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting  

SciTech Connect

The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be valuableadvancements for the field of comparative genomics.

Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

2006-08-28

75

Allometric equations for four valuable tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four tree species were harvested periodically over a 13-year period from plantations in the humid lowlands of Costa Rica: Cedrela odorata, Cordia alliodora, Hyeronima alchorneoides, and Euterpe oleracea. The soil was a well-drained, volcanic alluvium, and high fertility coupled with 4m of annual rainfall and high temperatures led to rapid growth rates; at age 13 many individual were >30cm dbh

Thomas G. Cole; John J. Ewel

2006-01-01

76

Genetic engineering and lignin biosynthetic regulation in forest tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic engineering of forest tree species is regarded as a strategy to reduce worldwide pressure on natural forests, to conserve\\u000a genetic resources and ameliorate stress on global climate, and to meet growing demand for forest wood and timber products.\\u000a Genetic engineering approaches toward the control or management of fungal pathogens, arthropod herbivores, bacterial and viral\\u000a diseases, the use of pest

Tang Wei; Janet Ogbon; Aquilla McCoy

2001-01-01

77

Relating tree growth to rainfall in Bolivian rain forests: a test for six species using tree ring analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many tropical regions show one distinct dry season. Often, this seasonality induces cambial dormancy of trees, particularly if these belong to deciduous species. This will often lead to the formation of annual rings. The aim of this study was to determine whether tree species in the Bolivian Amazon region form annual rings and to study the influence of the total

Roel J. W. Brienen; Pieter A. Zuidema

2005-01-01

78

Relating tree growth to rainfall in Bolivian rain forests: a test for six species using tree ring analysis.  

PubMed

Many tropical regions show one distinct dry season. Often, this seasonality induces cambial dormancy of trees, particularly if these belong to deciduous species. This will often lead to the formation of annual rings. The aim of this study was to determine whether tree species in the Bolivian Amazon region form annual rings and to study the influence of the total amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall on diameter growth. Ring widths were measured on stem discs of a total of 154 trees belonging to six rain forest species. By correlating ring width and monthly rainfall data we proved the annual character of the tree rings for four of our study species. For two other species the annual character was proved by counting rings on trees of known age and by radiocarbon dating. The results of the climate-growth analysis show a positive relationship between tree growth and rainfall in certain periods of the year, indicating that rainfall plays a major role in tree growth. Three species showed a strong relationship with rainfall at the beginning of the rainy season, while one species is most sensitive to the rainfall at the end of the previous growing season. These results clearly demonstrate that tree ring analysis can be successfully applied in the tropics and that it is a promising method for various research disciplines. PMID:16012820

Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A

2005-11-01

79

Seasonal variations in isoprene emission from tropical deciduous tree species.  

PubMed

Isoprene is a dominant constituent of the global biogenic volatile organic compounds budget. It plays an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including tropospheric ozone concentrations. In this study, monthly measurements of isoprene emission rates were carried out over a 1-year period (December 2002-November 2003) from four Indian deciduous tree species, namely Ficus relegiosa, Ficus infectoria, Pongamia pinnata, and Morus alba, using branch enclosure method. Significantly high monthly variations in isoprene emission rates were observed in all four-plant species. Also, each plant species exhibited pronounced seasonal variation in isoprene emission. Maximum isoprene emissions were observed during summer and minimum during the winter or spring months. PMID:17242968

Singh, Abhai Pratap; Varshney, C K; Singh, U K

2007-08-01

80

Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation  

PubMed Central

The degree to which plant pathogen infestation occurs in a host plant is expected to be strongly influenced by the level of species diversity among neighbouring host and non-host plant species. Since pathogen infestation can negatively affect host plant performance, it can mediate the effects of local biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. We tested the effects of tree diversity and the proportion of neighbouring host and non-host species with respect to the foliar fungal pathogens of Tilia cordata and Quercus petraea in the Kreinitz tree diversity experiment in Germany. We hypothesized that fungal pathogen richness increases while infestation decreases with increasing local tree diversity. In addition, we tested whether fungal pathogen richness and infestation are dependent on the proportion of host plant species present or on the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species. Leaves of the two target species were sampled across three consecutive years with visible foliar fungal pathogens on the leaf surface being identified macro- and microscopically. Effects of diversity among neighbouring trees were analysed: (i) for total fungal species richness and fungal infestation on host trees and (ii) for infestation by individual fungal species. We detected four and five fungal species on T. cordata and Q. petraea, respectively. High local tree diversity reduced (i) total fungal species richness and infestation of T. cordata and fungal infestation of Q. petraea and (ii) infestation by three host-specialized fungal pathogen species. These effects were brought about by local tree diversity and were independent of host species proportion. In general, host species proportion had almost no effect on fungal species richness and infestation. Strong effects associated with the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species on fungal species richness and infestation were, however, recorded. Synthesis. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated that for two common forestry tree species, foliar fungal pathogen richness and infestation depend on local biodiversity. Thus, local tree diversity can have positive impacts on ecosystem functioning in managed forests by decreasing the level of fungal pathogen infestation.

Hantsch, Lydia; Bien, Steffen; Radatz, Stine; Braun, Uwe; Auge, Harald; Bruelheide, Helge

2014-01-01

81

Foliar mercury accumulation and exchange for three tree species.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to (1) investigate plant mercury (Hg) uptake using different air and soil Hg concentrations near natural background values for three tree species, and (2) test if measured foliar Hg fluxes could explain observed foliar Hg concentrations. Plants were exposed to three soil treatments (<0.01, 0.09 +/- 0.02, and 0.92 +/- 0.27 microg Hg g(-1)), and to three atmospheric exposure concentrations (5.9 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 2.7, and 30.1 +/- 3.5 ng Hg m(-3)). Foliar Hg concentrations were found to be influenced primarily by atmospheric Hg concentrations and to a lesser extent by soil Hg exposures. Data indicated that deciduous species might play a more active role in ecosystem Hg cycling than evergreen trees. Foliar mercury fluxes quantified using a dynamic single-plant gas-exchange chamber for two species were variable and accumulation rates were lower than those predicted based on foliar Hg concentrations. A hypothesis to explain this discrepancy is that the plant gas-exchange chamber measures net flux which includes emission, deposition, adsorption, and reemission of Hg at the leaf surface, while total foliar accumulation represents only deposition and assimilation. PMID:17051791

Millhollen, Allison G; Gustin, Mae S; Obrist, Daniel

2006-10-01

82

Limits to tree species invasion in pampean grassland and forest plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors limiting tree invasion in the Inland Pampas of Argentina were studied by monitoring the establishment of four alien tree species in remnant grassland and cultivated forest stands. We tested whether disturbances facilitated tree seedling recruitment and survival once seeds of invaders were made available by hand sowing. Seed addition to grassland failed to produce seedlings of two study species,

Noemí C. Mazia; Enrique J. Chaneton; Claudio M. Ghersa; Rolando J. C. León

2001-01-01

83

Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial characterization of the tree rhizosphere provides important information relating to the screening of tree species for re-vegetation of degraded land. Rhizosphere soil samples collected from a few predominant tree species growing in the coal mining ecosystem of Dhanbad, India, were analyzed for soil organic carbon (SOC), mineralizable N, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), active microbial biomass carbon (AMBC), basal soil

Shipra Sinha; R. E. Masto; L. C. Ram; V. A. Selvi; N. K. Srivastava; R. C. Tripathi; Joshy George

2009-01-01

84

Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.  

PubMed

Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely. PMID:23404439

Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

2012-01-01

85

A maximum pseudo-likelihood approach for estimating species trees under the coalescent model  

PubMed Central

Background Several phylogenetic approaches have been developed to estimate species trees from collections of gene trees. However, maximum likelihood approaches for estimating species trees under the coalescent model are limited. Although the likelihood of a species tree under the multispecies coalescent model has already been derived by Rannala and Yang, it can be shown that the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the species tree (topology, branch lengths, and population sizes) from gene trees under this formula does not exist. In this paper, we develop a pseudo-likelihood function of the species tree to obtain maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates (MPE) of species trees, with branch lengths of the species tree in coalescent units. Results We show that the MPE of the species tree is statistically consistent as the number M of genes goes to infinity. In addition, the probability that the MPE of the species tree matches the true species tree converges to 1 at rate O(M -1). The simulation results confirm that the maximum pseudo-likelihood approach is statistically consistent even when the species tree is in the anomaly zone. We applied our method, Maximum Pseudo-likelihood for Estimating Species Trees (MP-EST) to a mammal dataset. The four major clades found in the MP-EST tree are consistent with those in the Bayesian concatenation tree. The bootstrap supports for the species tree estimated by the MP-EST method are more reasonable than the posterior probability supports given by the Bayesian concatenation method in reflecting the level of uncertainty in gene trees and controversies over the relationship of four major groups of placental mammals. Conclusions MP-EST can consistently estimate the topology and branch lengths (in coalescent units) of the species tree. Although the pseudo-likelihood is derived from coalescent theory, and assumes no gene flow or horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the MP-EST method is robust to a small amount of HGT in the dataset. In addition, increasing the number of genes does not increase the computational time substantially. The MP-EST method is fast for analyzing datasets that involve a large number of genes but a moderate number of species. PMID:20937096

2010-01-01

86

The vertical foliage distributions of six understory tree species in a Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the amounts of foliage and heights of trees were studied for the dominant understory tree species, including three evergreen and three deciduous species, in a secondary forest of Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. The relationships showed two phases: leaf increasing and stationary phases. In the leaf-increasing phase, the height growth allowed these species to expand the canopy by increasing

I. P. G. Ardhana; Hiroshi Takeda; Michinori Sakimoto; Toshio Tsutsumi

1988-01-01

87

Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia  

E-print Network

Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia University, Perth, 6150, Australia Abstract: In this study seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are described from baobab (Adansonia gibbosa) and surrounding endemic tree species growing in the Kimberley

88

Responses of 20 Native Tree Species to Reforestation Strategies for Abandoned Farmland in Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation in the tropics often leads to unproductive agriculture and results in abandoned, degraded grasslands that tree species recolonize poorly. To evaluate why forests do not regenerate naturally and to identify potential species for use in reforestation of degraded areas, we planted 15 000 seeds of 20 native tree species, varying in seed size and shade tolerance, in abandoned Panamanian

Elaine Hooper; Richard Condit; Pierre Legendre

2002-01-01

89

CROSS INFECTION OF LATENT PATHOGENS AMONG FOUR NATIVE SOUTH AFRICAN TREE SPECIES  

E-print Network

CROSS INFECTION OF LATENT PATHOGENS AMONG FOUR NATIVE SOUTH AFRICAN TREE SPECIES Prepared by Dr. Fahimeh Jami Four native South African tree species that were sampled in this study and their fungal, Botryosphaeriaceae species overlap on four unrelated, native South African hosts. Fungal Biology 118: 168-179. www

90

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Species mixing boosts root yield in mangrove trees  

E-print Network

ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL RESEARCH Species mixing boosts root yield in mangrove trees Joseph K and ecosystem processes. Therefore, we tested for the effects of tree species richness on mangrove root biomass- and slow-growing species to enhance belowground growth in mangrove forests, with implications for forest

Mencuccini, Maurizio

91

Effect of adenine sulphate interaction on growth and development of shoot regeneration and inhibition of shoot tip necrosis under in vitro condition in adult Syzygium cumini L.--a multipurpose tree.  

PubMed

An efficient method for cloning Syzygium cumini (above 40 years old) through mature nodal segments has been successfully developed and that could be exploited for large-scale production of this valuable multipurpose tree. Nodal segments from mature tree were taken as explants and cultured on MS basal medium with different cytokinins (BA, Kin, AdS). The application of BA proved to be the best responsive cytokinin for the induction of shoot buds and shoots, but the proliferated shoots exhibited slower and stunted growth accompanied with abscission of leaves and shoot tip necrosis (STN). The problem of leaf abscission and STN was considerably reduced by the application of an adjuvant, adenine sulphate (AdS) in the optimal medium which led to the production of a maximum of 14 shoots. Further improvement in shoot bud regeneration and improved growth pattern of the regenerating tissue was obtained on the media comprised of MS?+?BA (10 ?M)?+?GA3 (2.5 ?M). A total number of 15 shoots with mean shoot length of 5.9 cm was obtained. The healthy elongated shoots were then rooted on MS basal augmented with NAA (5 ?M). The plantlets obtained were healthy and were successfully acclimatized and transferred under field condition with 70 % survival rate. PMID:24682901

Naaz, Afshan; Shahzad, Anwar; Anis, Mohammad

2014-05-01

92

Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species  

PubMed Central

Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000?km2, we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C.; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D.; Mikusi?ski, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

2013-01-01

93

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from nine tree species used in an urban tree-planting program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions of nine urban tree species were studied to assess the air quality impacts from planting a large quantity of these trees in the City and County of Denver, Colorado, through the Mile High Million tree-planting initiative. The deciduous tree species studied were Sugar maple, Ohio buckeye, northern hackberry, Turkish hazelnut, London planetree, American basswood, Littleleaf linden, Valley Forge elm, and Japanese zelkova. These tree species were selected using the i-Tree Species Selector (itreetools.org). BVOC emissions from the selected tree species were investigated to evaluate the Species Selector data under the Colorado climate and environmental growing conditions. Individual tree species were subjected to branch enclosure experiments in which foliar emissions of BVOC were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges. The cartridge samples were analyzed for monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), and other C10-C15 BVOC using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectroscopy (GC-FID/MS). Individual compounds and their emission rates (ER) were identified. MT were observed in all tree species, exhibiting the following total MT basal emission rates (BER; with a 1-? lower bound, upper bound uncertainty window): Sugar maple, 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) ?g g-1 h-1; London planetree, 0.15 (0.02, 0.27) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.33 (0.09, 0.57) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.42 (0.26, 0.58) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.71 (0.33, 1.09) ?g g-1 h-1; Valley Forge elm, 0.96 (0.01, 1.92) ?g g-1 h-1; Turkish hazelnut, 1.30 (0.32, 2.23) ?g g-1 h-1; American basswood, 1.50 (0.40, 2.70) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 6.61 (1.76, 11.47) ?g g-1 h-1. SQT emissions were seen in five tree species with total SQT BER of: London planetree, 0.11 (0.01, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.11 (0.05, 0.16) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.13 (0.06, 0.21) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.20 (0.11, 0.30) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 0.44 (0.06, 0.83) ?g g-1 h-1. The following trees exhibited emissions of other C10-C15 volatile organic compounds (VOC): Littleleaf linden, 0.15 (0.10, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Ohio buckeye, 0.39 (0.14, 0.65) ?g g-1 h-1; and Turkish hazelnut, 0.72 (0.49, 0.95) ?g g-1 h-1. All tree species studied in this experiment were confirmed to be low isoprene emitters. Compared to many other potential urban tree species, the selected trees can be considered low to moderate BVOC emitters under Colorado growing conditions, with total emission rates one-tenth to one-hundredth the rates of potential high-BVOC emitting trees. The emissions data were used to estimate the impact of this targeted tree planting on the urban BVOC flux and atmospheric VOC burden. Selecting the low-emitting tree species over known high BVOC emitters is equivalent to avoiding VOC emissions from nearly 500,000 cars from the inner city traffic.

Curtis, A. J.; Helmig, D.; Baroch, C.; Daly, R.; Davis, S.

2014-10-01

94

Canopy tree growth responses following selection harvest in seven species varying in shade tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used tree ring measurements to investigate the temporal response of basal area increment (BAI) of canopy trees following selection harvests by sampling across a chronosequence of stands with known harvest dates in tolerant hard- wood (Great Lakes - St. Lawrence) stands in central Ontario. Seven tree species of various shade tolerances ranged widely in their responses to reduced competition.

Trevor A. Jones; Grant M. Domke; Sean C. Thomas

2009-01-01

95

VARIABILITY IN LEAF OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF MESOAMERICAN TREES AND THE POTENTIAL FOR SPECIES CLASSIFICATION  

E-print Network

spectral reflectance were considered in light of potential tree crown classifications from remote airborne optical properties of tropical trees is scarce. Here, we examine leaf reflectance of Mesoamerican trees, thickness) and leaf spectral reflectance. Within species, shape and amplitude differences between spectra

Quesada Avendaño, Mauricio

96

Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (?5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. PMID:25588119

Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

2015-03-15

97

Measuring and Modeling Interspecies Competition of Tree Species in Logged Boreal Mixed Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest tree species strongly affect biogeochemical cycles, and the differences are especially pronounced between evergreen and deciduous trees. Many boreal forests are mixed stands containing evergreen and deciduous species. The balance of evergreen and deciduous species changes during succession, yet most biogeochemical field studies and process models ignore mixed stands. The objective of the study was to determine the successional trends of tree species for a boreal logging age sequence in northern Manitoba. The experimental design consisted of eight replicate plots in four different-aged stands that originated from clearcut harvests in 1935 (mature), 1971, 1983, 1990. Dominant tree species were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and black spruce (Picea mariana). Six trees of each major tree species were harvested and diameter * height growth relationships were determined by analyzing radial growth of stem disks collected every 0.25 m up the stem. Trembling aspen was the dominant tree species in the younger stands (1983, 1990) while jack pine and black spruce were the dominant tree species in the older stands (1971, mature). Annual growth rings of jack pine and trembling aspen decreased with age and annual radial growth of black spruce increased with stand age. The relationship of annual radial growth with stand age for the three species is discussed in relation to canopy architecture and biogeochemical cycles.

Martin, J.; Plaut, J.; Gower, S. T.; Weber, J.

2001-12-01

98

Remnant Trees Affect Species Composition but Not Structure of Tropical Second-Growth Forest  

PubMed Central

Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields. PMID:24454700

Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.

2014-01-01

99

ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE SURFACES FOR NORTH AMERICAN BOREAL TREE SPECIES AND THEIR USE IN FOREST CLASSIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Empirical ecological response surfaces were derived for eight dominant tree species in the boreal forest region of Canada. tepwise logistic regression was used to model species dominance as a response to five climatic predictor variables. he predictor variables (annual snowfall, ...

100

Tree species diversity in small, tropical riparian forest fragments in Belize, Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species diversity was measured in a network of very small galleryforests within the Mountain Pine Ridge savanna in Belize. Research focussed onforest patches smaller than 1 ha in size (micro-forests) and linearstrips of trees along creeks lacking interior core zones with low understoreylight levels (tree thickets). Twenty-five micro-forests and 51 tree thicketsites were sampled throughout the savanna. A total

Richard Pither; Martin Kellman

2002-01-01

101

Population and species differences in treeline tree species germination in response to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of plant species to recruit within and beyond their current geographic ranges in response to climate warming may be constrained by population differences in response. A number of studies have highlighted the degree to which genotype and environment are strongly linked in forest trees (i.e., provenances), but few studies have examined whether these local adaptations are at all predictive of population or species response to change. We report the results of lab germination experiments using high and low elevation populations of both limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), which are important treeline species in the Rocky Mountains. Seeds collected in 2008 were germinated under two different temperature regimes (ambient and +5°C) and two different moisture regimes, and followed for 17 weeks. For both species and source elevations, warmer temperatures advanced the timing of emergence by up to 20 days, whereas the effects of moisture were less consistent. At harvest, high elevation limber pine had less root and shoot biomass, and a slightly lower root:shoot ratio, under the +5°C treatment, whereas low elevation limber pine seedling mass was not sensitive to temperature. Whether these differences persist under field conditions will be tested in a field experiment now established at Niwot Ridge, CO. The ability to accurately predict tree seedling recruitment and ultimately shifts in treeline position with climate change will improve our ability to model changes in surface albedo, water cycling and carbon cycling, all of which can generate feedbacks to regional and global climate.

Kueppers, L. M.; Faist, A.; Castanha, C.

2009-12-01

102

TREE SPECIES EFFECTS ON DECOMPOSITION AND FOREST FLOOR DYNAMICS IN A COMMON GARDEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous

Sarah E. Hobbie; Peter B. Reich; Jacek Oleksyn; Megan Ogdahl; Roma Zytkowiak; Cynthia Hale; Piotr Karolewski

2006-01-01

103

University of Alberta Conservation planning for forests, tree species, and their genetic populations  

E-print Network

University of Alberta Conservation planning for forests, tree species, and their genetic% of the 8.4 million km² landbase of western North America is covered by forests, which provide critical provides an overview of how different jurisdictions protect forests, tree species, and their genetic

Hamann, Andreas

104

A Model for Monitoring and Conserving Forest Trees Threatened by Climate Change and Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

As climate change impacts add to those from new introductions of forest insects and pathogens, forest tree species are increasingly at risk and their distribution on the landscape will be heavily impacted. The United States Forest Service (FS) presents an integrated 8 -step process for identifying and conserving tree species that are most at risk from the effects of climate

Eric Smith; Robert D. Mangold; Borys Tkacz; Frank Sapior

2009-01-01

105

Species effects on earthworm density in tropical tree plantations in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species differ in the quantity and quality of litter produced, and these differences may significantly affect ecosystem structure and function. I examined the importance of tree species in determining earthworm densities in replicated stands of Eucalyptus saligna Sm. and Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg, and in mixed stands (25% albizia and 75% eucalyptus). Mean earthworm densities ranged from 92 m-2

Xiaoming Zou

1993-01-01

106

Tree species preferences of foraging insectivorous birds in a northern hardwoods forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds searching for insects in the canopy of a northern hardwoods forest depart significantly from random in their use of tree species, even when these trees are generally similar in life form. All 10 foliage-dwelling bird species in the Hubbard Brook forest showed preferences for Yellow Birch, most had an aversion to Beech and Sugar Maple, and a few had

Richard T. Holmes; Scott K. Robinson

1981-01-01

107

The pristine rain forest? Remnants of historical human impacts on current tree species composition and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Tropical rain forests are often regarded as pristine and undisturbed by humans. In Central Africa, community-wide disturbances by natural causes are rare and therefore current theory predicts that natural gap phase dynamics structure tree species compo- sition and diversity. However, the dominant tree species in many African forests recruit poorly, despite the presence of gaps. To explain this, we

Gemerden van B. S; Han Olff; Marc P. E. Parren; F. J. J. M. Bongers

2003-01-01

108

Ambient levels of ozone reduce net photosynthesis in tree and crop species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to measure the photosynthetic response of three crop and four tree species to realistic concentrations of ozone and (for tree species only) simulated acidic rain. The ozone concentrations were representative of those found in clean ambient air, in mildly to moderately polluted air such as occurs in much of the US during the summer, and in more

P. B. Reich; R. G. Amundson

1985-01-01

109

Ambient Levels of Ozone Reduce Net Photosynthesis in Tree and Crop Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to measure the photosynthetic response of three crop and four tree species to realistic concentrations of ozone and (for tree species only) simulated acidic rain. The ozone concentrations were representative of those found in clean ambient air, in mildly to moderately polluted air such as occurs in much of the United States during the summer, and in

Peter B. Reich; Robert G. Amundson

1985-01-01

110

Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.  

PubMed

The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management. PMID:25655130

Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

2015-03-01

111

Photosynthetic induction responses of two rainforest tree species in relation to light environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic induction of in situ saplings of two Costa Rican rainforest tree species wre compared in relation to their light environment, using infrared gas analysis and hemispherical photography. The species studied were Dipteryx panamensis, a climax species found in bright microsites, and Cecropia obtusifolia, a pioneer species. In the morning, when leaves were most responsive, induction time necessary to reach

Lourens Poorter; Steven F. Oberbauer

1993-01-01

112

Response of five temperate deciduous tree species to water stress.  

PubMed

Gas exchange, tissue water relations, and leaf/root dry weight ratios were compared among young, container-grown plants of five temperate-zone, deciduous tree species (Acer negundo L., Betula papyrifera Marsh, Malus baccata Borkh, Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. There was a small decrease (mean reduction of 0.22 MPa across species) in the water potential at which turgor was lost (Psi(tlp)) in response to water stress. The Psi(tlp) for water-stressed plants was -1.18, -1.34, -1.61, -1.70, and -2.12 MPa for B. papyrifera, A. negundo, U. parvifolia, R. pseudoacacia, and M. baccata, respectively. Variation in Psi(tlp) resulted primarily from differences in tissue osmotic potential and not tissue elasticity. Rates of net photosynthesis declined in response to water stress. However, despite differences in Psi(tlp), there were no differences in net photosynthesis among water-stressed plants under the conditions of water stress imposed. In A. negundo and M. baccata, water use efficiency (net photosynthesis/transpiration) increased significantly in response to water stress. Comparisons among water-stressed plants showed that water use efficiency for M. baccata was greater than for B. papyrifera or U. parvifolia. There were no significant differences in water use efficiency among B. papyrifera, U. parvifolia, A. negundo, and R. pseudoacacia. Under water-stressed conditions, leaf/root dry weight ratios (an index of transpiration to absorptive capacity) ranged from 0.77 in R. pseudoacacia to 1.05 in B. papyrifera. PMID:14972935

Ranney, T G; Whitlow, T H; Bassuk, N L

1990-12-01

113

Species tree estimation for a deep phylogenetic divergence in the New World monkeys (Primates: Platyrrhini).  

PubMed

The estimation of a robust phylogeny is a necessary first step in understanding the biological diversification of the platyrrhines. Although the most recent phylogenies are generally robust, they differ from one another in the relationship between Aotus and other genera as well as in the relationship between Pitheciidae and other families. Here, we used coding and non-coding sequences to infer the species tree and embedded gene trees of the platyrrhine genera using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the multispecies coalescent (*BEAST) for the first time and to compared the results with those of a Bayesian concatenated phylogenetic analysis. Our species tree, based on all available sequences, shows a closer phylogenetic relationship between Atelidae and Cebidae and a closer relationship between Aotus and the Cebidae clade. The posterior probabilities are lower for these conflictive tree nodes compared to those in the concatenated analysis; this finding could be explained by some gene trees showing no concordant topologies between Aotus and the other genera. Moreover, the topology of our species tree also differs from the findings of previous molecular and morphological studies regarding the position of Aotus. The existence of discrepancies between morphological data, gene trees and the species tree is widely reported and can be related to processes such as incomplete lineage sorting or selection. Although these processes are common in species trees with low divergence, they can also occur in species trees with deep and rapid divergence. The sources of the inconsistency of morphological and molecular traits with the species tree could be a main focus of further research on platyrrhines. PMID:22841656

Perez, S Ivan; Klaczko, Julia; dos Reis, Sérgio F

2012-11-01

114

Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia.  

PubMed

In this study seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are described from baobab (Adansonia gibbosa) and surrounding endemic tree species growing in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae were predominantly endophytes isolated from apparently healthy sapwood and bark of endemic trees; others were isolated from dying branches. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and EF1-alpha sequence data revealed seven new species: Dothiorella longicollis, Fusicoccum ramosum, Lasiodiplodia margaritacea, Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae, Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae, P. ardesiacum and P. kimberleyense. PMID:19202840

Pavlic, Draginja; Wingfield, Michael J; Barber, Paul; Slippers, Bernard; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

2008-01-01

115

Designing mixed species tree plantations for the tropics: balancing ecological attributes of species with landholder preferences in the Philippines.  

PubMed

A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30-40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop. PMID:24751720

Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

2014-01-01

116

Water-use Comparison of the Invasive Tree Species, Melaleuca Quinquenervia, and two Native Tree Species,Taxodium Distichum and Pinus Elliottii, in Southwest Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), an invasive tree species in southern Florida, is generally thought to have higher transpiration rates than the native vegetation, however little empirical data is available to support this claim. In this study, thermal dissipation probes were used to measure transpiration rates of the three species growing in a hydric ecotone in southwest Florida. Transpiration rates of melaleuca, slash pine (Pinus elliottii), and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) were compared to assess seasonal variability between the wet and dry seasons. Individually trees of both bald cypress and slash pine showed significantly higher water fluxes than melaleuca (p<0.05). However, when individual tree fluxes were scaled to the ecosystem-level, melaleuca contributed 21% of the water flux and bald cypress contributed 72% during the wet season. Melaleuca's increased contribution at the landscape-level results from higher tree densities at our study site. Following leaf senescence in the early dry season, bald cypress continues to be a significant water user at the landscape level. With higher atmospheric demands for water, bald cypress was the least conservative of the three species with respect to water use, whereas on days with low atmospheric demands for water the three species function similarly. These results do not support the hypothesis that melaleuca uses more water than the native Florida tree species, however, they suggest the density of melaleuca at the landscape-scale is important in our understanding of its role in the hydrologic cycle.

Knight, T. M.; Leisure, R. M.; Everham, E. M.; Bovard, B. D.

2008-12-01

117

Species-environment relationships and vegetation patterns: Effects of spatial scale and tree life-stage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Do relationships between species and environmental gradients strengthen or weaken with tree life-stage (i.e., small seedlings, large seedlings, saplings, and mature trees)? Strengthened relationships may lead to distinct forest type boundaries, or weakening connections could lead to gradual ecotones and heterogeneous forest landscapes. We quantified the changes in forest dominance (basal area of tree species by life-stage) and environmental factors (elevation, slope, aspect, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), summer soil moisture, and soil depth and texture) across 14 forest ecotones (n = 584, 10 m x 10 m plots) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A. Local, ecotone-specific species-environment relationships, based on multiple regression techniques, generally strengthened from the small seedling stage (multiple R2 ranged from 0.00 to 0.26) to the tree stage (multiple R2 ranged from 0.20 to 0.61). At the landscape scale, combined canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) among species and for all tree life-stages suggested that the seedlings of most species became established in lower-elevation, drier sites than where mature trees of the same species dominated. However, conflicting evidence showed that species-environment relationships may weaken with tree life-stage. Seedlings were only found in a subset of plots (habitats) occupied by mature trees of the same species. At the landscape scale, CCA results showed that species-environment relationships weakened somewhat from the small seedling stage (86.4% of the variance explained by the first two axes) to the tree stage (76.6% of variance explained). The basal area of tree species co-occurring with Pinus contorta Doug. ex. Loud declined more gradually than P. contorta basal area declined across ecotones, resulting in less-distinct forest type boundaries. We conclude that broad, gradual ecotones and heterogeneous forest landscapes are created and maintained by: (1) sporadic establishment of seedlings in sub-optimal habitats; (2) survivorship of saplings and mature trees in a wider range of environmental conditions than seedlings presently endure; and (3) the longevity of trees and persistence of tree species in a broad range of soils, climates, and disturbance regimes.

Stohlgren, T.J.; Bachand, R.R.; Onami, Y.; Binkley, D.

1998-01-01

118

Conspecific Plant-Soil Feedbacks of Temperate Tree Species in the Southern Appalachians, USA  

PubMed Central

Many tree species have seedling recruitment patterns suggesting that they are affected by non-competitive distance-dependent sources of mortality. We conducted an experiment, with landscape-level replication, to identify cases of negative distance-dependent effects and whether variation in these effects corresponded with tree recruitment patterns in the southern Appalachian Mountains region. Specifically, soil was collected from 14 sites and used as inocula in a 62 day growth chamber experiment determining whether tree seedling growth was less when interacting with soil from conspecific (like) than heterospecific (other) tree species. Tests were performed on six tree species. Three of the tree species had been previously described as having greater recruitment around conspecifics (i.e. facilitator species group) compared to the other half (i.e. inhibitor species group). We were then able to determine whether variation in negative distance-dependent effects corresponded with recruitment patterns in the field. Across the six species, none were negatively affected by soil inocula from conspecific relative to heterospecific sources. Most species (four of six) were unaffected by soil source. Two species (Prunus serotina and Tsuga canadensis) had enhanced growth in pots inoculated with soil from conspecific trees vs. heterospecifics. Species varied in their susceptibility to soil pathogens, but trends across all species revealed that species classified as inhibitors were not more negatively affected by conspecific than heterospecific soil inocula or more susceptible to pathogenic effects than facilitators. Although plant-soil biota interactions may be important for individual species and sites, it may be difficult to scale these interactions over space or levels of ecological organization. Generalizing the importance of plant-soil feedbacks or other factors across regional scales may be especially problematic for hyperdiverse temperate forests where interactions may be spatially variable. PMID:22808231

Reinhart, Kurt O.; Johnson, Daniel; Clay, Keith

2012-01-01

119

A species tree for the Australo-Papuan Fairy-wrens and allies (Aves: Maluridae).  

PubMed

We explored the efficacy of species tree methods at the family level in birds, using the Australo-Papuan Fairy-wrens (Passeriformes: Maluridae) as a model system. Fairy-wrens of the genus Malurus are known for high intensities of sexual selection, resulting in some cases in rapid speciation. This history suggests that incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) of neutrally evolving loci could be substantial, a situation that could compromise traditional methods of combining loci in phylogenetic analysis. Using 18 molecular markers (5 anonymous loci, 7 exons, 5 introns, and 1 mitochondrial DNA locus), we show that gene tree monophyly across species could be rejected for 16 of 18 loci, suggesting substantial ILS at the family level in these birds. Using the software Concaterpillar, we also detect three statistically distinct clusters of gene trees among the 18 loci. Despite substantial variation in gene trees, species trees constructed using four different species tree estimation methods (BEST, BUCKy, and STAR) were generally well supported and similar to each other and to the concatenation tree, with a few mild discordances at nodes that could be explained by rapid and recent speciation events. By contrast, minimizing deep coalescences produced a species tree that was topologically more divergent from those of the other methods as measured by multidimensional scaling of trees. Additionally, gene and species trees were topologically more similar in the BEST analysis, presumably because of the species tree prior employed in BEST which appropriately assumes that gene trees are correlated with each other and with the species tree. Among the 18 loci, we also discovered 102 independent indel markers, which also proved phylogenetically informative, primarily among genera, and displayed a ?4-fold bias towards deletions. As suggested in earlier work, the grasswrens (Amytornis) are sister to the rest of the family and the emu-wrens (Stipiturus) are sister to fairy-wrens (Malurus, Clytomyias). Our study shows that ILS is common at the family level in birds yet, despite this, species tree methods converge on broadly similar results for this family. PMID:21978990

Lee, June Y; Joseph, Leo; Edwards, Scott V

2012-03-01

120

Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.  

PubMed

The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. PMID:25041417

Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

2014-12-01

121

Patterns in tree species richness as a test of the glacial extinction hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well established that Europe has far fewer tree species and genera than either eastern North America or eastern Asia1-3. Fossil evidence shows that west-central Europe had a much richer tree flora during the Upper Tertiary (25-2 Myr BP), with many genera which now survive only in temperate regions of North America and Asia3. These trees seem to have

J. M. Adams; F. I. Woodward

1989-01-01

122

Testing the low latitude/high defense hypothesis for broad-leaved tree species.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that leaves of broad-leaved tree species are more highly defended at low latitudes than at high latitudes. We used canonical discriminant analysis to compare tree species from Panama (9°N, 39 species), Missouri, USA (38°N, 37 species), and southern Ontario, Canada (44°N, 34 species) with respect to two structural and five nutritional traits, taking into account each species' tolerance to shade. Trees from the three locations differed significantly, with Panamanian species the most distinct. Defenses of shade-tolerant species were significantly greater than those of shade-intolerant species, but only for the Panamanian sample, which is consistent with the low latitude/high defense hypothesis. Because we sampled many of the same tree species from Missouri and southern Ontario, and many tree species in the same taxonomic families in Missouri and Panama, we were able to control for the potential confounding effects of phylogeny. Overall defense levels, calculated by summing the z-scores for individual traits in each location, were significantly higher for Panama compared to Missouri, and marginally so for Missouri compared to southern Ontario, again consistent with the low latitude/high defense hypothesis. Traits contributing to these differences were mostly structural factors (e.g., fiber) and to a lesser degree nutritional traits, while secondary compounds made no independent contribution to differences in overall defense levels (four traits compared between Panama and Missouri). Contrary to our expectation, the number and types of secondary compounds per species reported in the literature for our species did not differ between temperate and tropical locations, while the diversity of these compounds was greater for the temperate species. Overall, our results provide some support for the hypothesis that leaf defenses against herbivory are better developed in tropical than in temperate trees, but the differences were due to structural and nutritional factors rather than secondary compounds. PMID:22271200

Marquis, Robert J; Ricklefs, Robert E; Abdala-Roberts, Luis

2012-07-01

123

Cellulase in Anoplophora glabripennis adults fed on original host tree species and non-original host trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulase activities of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) adults from two host plants (Populus simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu. and Salix matsudana Koidz) fed on three different host tree species (Acer negundo Linn., S. matsudana Koidz and P. simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu.) were investigated. Enzyme activities of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase in the intestines of the insects were

Xiao-juan Li; Xiong-fei Yan; You-qing Luo; Gui-fang Tian; Yin-jie Nian; Hong Sun

2010-01-01

124

A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae)  

E-print Network

A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae) ROBBIN C-mail: ejs7@duke.edu Abstract. Morphological and plastid rbcL and trnG-R sequence data suggest that the fern currently recognized as Megalastrum lasiernos (Dryopteridaceae) is in fact a tree fern (Cyatheaceae

Schuettpelz, Eric

125

Contrasting water-uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species  

E-print Network

individual tree rings for two co-occurring riparian species, Fraxinus excelsior and Populus nigra. Trees were decreased growth during drought years, but F. excelsior demonstrated less variation in annual growth across source. P. nigra also suffered more growth inhibition than F. excelsior in dry years when water tables

Singer, Michael

126

Influence of bark pH on the occurrence and distribution of tree canopy myxomycete species  

E-print Network

Influence of bark pH on the occurrence and distribution of tree canopy myxomycete species Sydney E in the canopy of living trees and neighboring grapevines. Corticolous myxomycetes of three temperate forestsH. The double-rope climbing technique was used to access the canopy and sample bark up to 16.5 m. Bark samples

Everhart, Sydney E.

127

Genetically-based trait variation within a foundation tree species influences a dominant bark lichen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichens frequently exhibit preference for tree species, however, tree traits that influence preference also vary intraspecifically. We hypothesized that genetically-based trait variation within Populus angustifolia affects bark lichens. To test this hypothesis, we quantified the lichen Xanthomendoza galericulata, and factors that could influence its distribution, including photosynthetically active radiation, bark roughness, bark condensed tannins, bark nitrogen and bole circumference on

L. J. Lamit; M. A. Bowker; L. M. Holeski; R. Reese Næsborg; S. C. Wooley; M. Zinkgraf; R. L. Lindroth; T. G. Whitham; C. A. Gehring

2011-01-01

128

The phenology of diecious Ficus spp. tree species and its importance for forest restoration projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ficus spp. are keystone tree species in tropical forest ecosystems and therefore, it is vital to include them in tree planting for forest restoration programs. However, lack of knowledge about critical aspects of their reproductive ecology currently limits their use, particularly optimal seed collection times and potential interruption of their highly specialized pollination mechanisms. Therefore, the reproductive phenology of seven

Cherdsak Kuaraksa; Stephen Elliott; Martine Hossaert-Mckey

129

Genetic variation of Prunus cerasoides D. Don, a framework tree species in northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prunus cerasoides D. Don has been identified as an excellent ‘framework tree species’ for restoring evergreen forest in seasonally dry tropical forestlands. Here we describe the level of microsatellite variation in P. cerasoides trees within and among three National Parks in northern Thailand: Doi Suthep-Pui, Doi Inthanon and Doi Ang Khang, using published primers developed for peach, sweet cherry and

Greuk Pakkad; Celia James; Franck Torre; Stephen Elliott; David Blakesley

2004-01-01

130

SIMULATION OF OZONE EFFECTS ON EIGHT TREE SPECIES AT SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an assessment of potential effects of air pollutants on the vegetation of Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), we simulated the growth of eight important tree species using TREGRO, a mechanistic model of individual tree growth. Published TREGRO parameters for black cherry...

131

SHIFTS IN RELATIVE STOCKING OF COMMON TREE SPECIES IN KENTUCKY FROM 1975 TO 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in species-specific relative stocking indicate the extent to which a species is either increasing or decreasing in a particular system. Changes in relative stocking values of common tree species in Kentucky from 1988 to 2004 were compared to values calculated for 1975 to 1988. Mean annual increase in relative stocking between 1988 and 2004 was greatest for eastern white

Christopher M. Oswalt; Jeffrey W. Stringer; Jeffery A. Turner

132

Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

2014-01-01

133

publication 450-237 Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia  

E-print Network

. This native species is beautiful in flower (May). It prefers deep, moist, fertile, acid soils, but tolerates, pendulous flowers in May. This species, native to the cen- tral and southern states, tolerates drypublication 450-237 Many of the tree species commonly planted in Virginia landscapes suffer from

Liskiewicz, Maciej

134

Mountain landscapes offer few opportunities for high-elevation tree species migration.  

PubMed

Climate change is anticipated to alter plant species distributions. Regional context, notably the spatial complexity of climatic gradients, may influence species migration potential. While high-elevation species may benefit from steep climate gradients in mountain regions, their persistence may be threatened by limited suitable habitat as land area decreases with elevation. To untangle these apparently contradictory predictions for mountainous regions, we evaluated the climatic suitability of four coniferous forest tree species of the western United States based on species distribution modeling (SDM) and examined changes in climatically suitable areas under predicted climate change. We used forest structural information relating to tree species dominance, productivity, and demography from an extensive forest inventory system to assess the strength of inferences made with a SDM approach. We found that tree species dominance, productivity, and recruitment were highest where climatic suitability (i.e., probability of species occurrence under certain climate conditions) was high, supporting the use of predicted climatic suitability in examining species risk to climate change. By predicting changes in climatic suitability over the next century, we found that climatic suitability will likely decline, both in areas currently occupied by each tree species and in nearby unoccupied areas to which species might migrate in the future. These trends were most dramatic for high elevation species. Climatic changes predicted over the next century will dramatically reduce climatically suitable areas for high-elevation tree species while a lower elevation species, Pinus ponderosa, will be well positioned to shift upslope across the region. Reductions in suitable area for high-elevation species imply that even unlimited migration would be insufficient to offset predicted habitat loss, underscoring the vulnerability of these high-elevation species to climatic changes. PMID:24353188

Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

2014-05-01

135

Statistical analysis of genealogical trees for polygamic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitions within a given genealogical tree provide some information about the degree of consanguineity of a population. They can be analyzed with techniques usually employed in statistical physics when dealing with fixed point transformations. In particular, we show that the tree features strongly depend on the fractions of males and females in the population, and also on the offspring probability distribution. We check different possibilities, some of them relevant to human groups, and compare them with simulations.

de Los Rios, Paolo; Pla, Oscar

2000-05-01

136

Two new species of Gliricola (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus, in Peru.  

E-print Network

Two new species of Gliricola, G. woodmani and G. halli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), are described and illustrated for specimens from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Peru. Resumen--Se ...

Price, Roger D.; Timm, Robert M.

1993-06-01

137

Reintroduced Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii): using major food tree species as indicators of habitat suitability.  

PubMed

Reintroducing orangutans (Pongo spp.) into the wild requires a suitable, secure habitat. To identify acceptable areas for their reintroduction and define priority conservation sites, we analysed the tree species composition in the Bukit Tigapuluh ecosystem in Jambi, Sumatra. We used this information to determine the distribution patterns of those species that represent an essential part of the diet of reintroduced orangutans. Important orangutan food tree species showed significant differences in composition, frequency and abundance among topographic forest types and recovered selectively logged and unlogged forests. Riparian forests and recovered selectively logged areas offered a vegetation composition and forest structure most suitable for the reintroduction of orangutans and showed numerous important tree species that serve as indicator species, i.e. species growing predominantly or exclusively in a specific forest type. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24504132

Kelle, Doris; Gärtner, Stefanie; Pratje, Peter H; Storch, Ilse

2014-01-01

138

Leapfrogging of tree species provenances? Interaction of microclimate and genetics on upward shifts in tree species' range limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elevation limit of tree growth (alpine treeline) is considered to be constrained by environmental (i.e., thermal) and genetic (i.e., inability to adapt to climatic conditions) limitations to growth. Warming conditions due to climate change are predicted to cause upward shifts in the elevation of alpine treelines, through relief of cold-induced physiological limitations on seedling recruitment beyond current treeline boundaries. To determine how genetics and climate may interact to affect seedling establishment, we transplanted recently germinated seedlings from high- and low-elevation provenances (HI and LO, respectively) of Pinus flexilis in common gardens arrayed along an elevation and canopy gradient from subalpine forest into the alpine zone at Niwot Ridge, CO. We compared differences in microclimate and seedling ecophysiology among sites and between provenances. During the first summer of growth, frequently cloudy skies resulted in similar solar radiation incidence and air and soil temperatures among sites, despite nearly a 500 m-span in elevation across all sites. Preliminary findings suggest that survival of seedlings was similar between the lowest and highest elevations, with greater survival of LO (60%) compared to HI (40%) seedlings at each of these sites. Photosynthesis, carbon balance (photosynthesis/respiration), and conductance increased more than 2X with elevation for both provenances, and were 35-77% greater in LO seedlings compared to HI seedlings. There were no differences in dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) among sites or between provenances. However, in a common-garden study at low elevation, we observed no differences in carbon or water relations between two naturally-germinated mitochondrial haplotypes of P. flexilis (of narrow and wide-ranging distributions). We did observe water-related thresholds on seedling carbon balance and survival that occurred when soil volumetric water content dropped below 10% and seedling water potentials went below -4 MPa. Our preliminary results suggest that for high-elevation conifer seedlings such as P. flexilis: 1) individuals can survive and even have enhanced physiological performance at and above treeline when/where clouds or other conditions minimize factors like cold-induced photoinhibition; 2) in the field, provenances selected for aboveground growth may out-perform those selected for stress-resistance in the absence of harsh climatic conditions, even well above the species' range limits in the alpine; 3) water, and not thermal, limitations might explain treeline altitude in this particular mountain range; 4) forest genetics may be important to understanding and managing species' range adjustments due to climate change.

Reinhardt, K.; Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

2011-12-01

139

Gas Exchange and Water Use Efficiency of Three Native Tree Species in Hunshandak Sandland of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only three tree species, i.e. Ulmus pumila, Malus baccata, and Prunus padus, are distributed in Hunshandak Sandland (HS) in Inner Mongolia, China. Field studies of gas exchange and chlorophyll (Chl)\\u000a fluorescence of these three tree species were conducted in three arid periods of growth season 2002. Net photosynthetic rate\\u000a (P\\u000a N), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g\\u000a s), and Fv\\/Fm

Y. G. Li; G. M. Jiang; S. L. Niu; M. Z. Liu; Y. Peng; S. L. Yu; L. M. Gao

2003-01-01

140

Host preferences and differential contributions of deciduous tree species shape mycorrhizal species richness in a mixed Central European forest.  

PubMed

Mycorrhizal species richness and host ranges were investigated in mixed deciduous stands composed of Fagus sylvatica, Tilia spp., Carpinus betulus, Acer spp., and Fraxinus excelsior. Acer and Fraxinus were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizas and contributed 5% to total stand mycorrhizal fungal species richness. Tilia hosted similar and Carpinus half the number of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal taxa compared with Fagus (75 putative taxa). The relative abundance of the host tree the EM fungal richness decreased in the order Fagus?>?Tilia?>?Carpinus. After correction for similar sampling intensities, EM fungal species richness of Carpinus was still about 30-40% lower than that of Fagus and Tilia. About 10% of the mycorrhizal species were shared among the EM forming trees; 29% were associated with two host tree species and 61% with only one of the hosts. The latter group consisted mainly of rare EM fungal species colonizing about 20% of the root tips and included known specialists but also putative non-host associations such as conifer or shrub mycorrhizas. Our data indicate that EM fungal species richness was associated with tree identity and suggest that Fagus secures EM fungal diversity in an ecosystem since it shared more common EM fungi with Tilia and Carpinus than the latter two among each other. PMID:20886243

Lang, Christa; Seven, Jasmin; Polle, Andrea

2011-05-01

141

Growth Strategies of Tropical Tree Species: Disentangling Light and Size Effects  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the drivers of tree growth at the species level is required to predict likely changes of carbon stocks and biodiversity when environmental conditions change. Especially in species-rich tropical forests, it is largely unknown how species differ in their response of growth to resource availability and individual size. We use a hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify the impact of light availability and tree diameter on growth of 274 woody species in a 50-ha long-term forest census plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Light reaching each individual tree was estimated from yearly vertical censuses of canopy density. The hierarchical Bayesian approach allowed accounting for different sources of error, such as negative growth observations, and including rare species correctly weighted by their abundance. All species grew faster at higher light. Exponents of a power function relating growth to light were mostly between 0 and 1. This indicates that nearly all species exhibit a decelerating increase of growth with light. In contrast, estimated growth rates at standardized conditions (5 cm dbh, 5% light) varied over a 9-fold range and reflect strong growth-strategy differentiation between the species. As a consequence, growth rankings of the species at low (2%) and high light (20%) were highly correlated. Rare species tended to grow faster and showed a greater sensitivity to light than abundant species. Overall, tree size was less important for growth than light and about half the species were predicted to grow faster in diameter when bigger or smaller, respectively. Together light availability and tree diameter only explained on average 12% of the variation in growth rates. Thus, other factors such as soil characteristics, herbivory, or pathogens may contribute considerably to shaping tree growth in the tropics. PMID:21966498

Rüger, Nadja; Berger, Uta; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Condit, Richard

2011-01-01

142

Inferring species trees from gene trees: a phylogenetic analysis of the Elapidae (Serpentes) based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins.  

PubMed

Toward the goal of recovering the phylogenetic relationships among elapid snakes, we separately found the shortest trees from the amino acid sequences for the venom proteins phospholipase A2 and the short neurotoxin, collectively representing 32 species in 16 genera. We then applied a method we term gene tree parsimony for inferring species trees from gene trees that works by finding the species tree which minimizes the number of deep coalescences or gene duplications plus unsampled sequences necessary to fit each gene tree to the species tree. This procedure, which is both logical and generally applicable, avoids many of the problems of previous approaches for inferring species trees from gene trees. The results support a division of the elapids examined into sister groups of the Australian and marine (laticaudines and hydrophiines) species, and the African and Asian species. Within the former clade, the sea snakes are shown to be diphyletic, with the laticaudines and hydrophiines having separate origins. This finding is corroborated by previous studies, which provide support for the usefulness of gene tree parsimony. PMID:9417893

Slowinski, J B; Knight, A; Rooney, A P

1997-12-01

143

The mycorrhizal status and colonization of 26 tree species growing in urban and rural environments.  

PubMed

Urban environments are highly disturbed and fragmented ecosystems that commonly have lower mycorrhizal fungal species richness and diversity compared to rural or natural ecosystems. In this study, we assessed whether the mycorrhizal status and colonization of trees are influenced by the overall environment (rural vs. urban) they are growing in. Soil cores were collected from the rhizosphere of trees growing in urban and rural environments around southern Ontario. Roots were extracted from the soil cores to determine whether the trees were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi, or both, and to quantify the percent colonization of each type of mycorrhizal fungi. All 26 tree species were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and seven tree species were dually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Overall, arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in trees growing in urban compared to rural environments. It is not clear what 'urban' factors are responsible for the reduction in mycorrhizal fungal colonization; more research is needed to determine whether inoculating urban trees with mycorrhizal fungi would increase colonization levels and growth of the trees. PMID:20422233

Bainard, Luke D; Klironomos, John N; Gordon, Andrew M

2011-02-01

144

Nonasymptotic Species Richness Models and the Insects of British Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonasymptotic models of species diversity are those that do not consider negative feedback between number of species in a biota and the net rate of species addition. These models propose species richness differences to be primarily the product of geologic age differences among biotas. Nonasymptotic explanations are traditional for various diversity difference spectra, including latitudinal diversity gradients and the greater

Donald R. Strong

1974-01-01

145

Long range correlations in tree ring chronologies of the USA: Variation within and across species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract <span class="hlt">Tree</span> ring width data are among the best proxies for reconstructing past temperature and precipitation records. The discovery of fractal scaling and long-memory in meteorological and hydrological signals motivates us to investigate such properties in <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring chronologies. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis are utilized to estimate the Hurst parameter values of 697 <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring chronologies from the continental United States. We find significant differences in the Hurst parameter values across the 10 <span class="hlt">species</span> studied in the work. The long-range scaling relations found here suggest that the behavior of <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring growth observed in a short calibration period may be similar to the general behavior of <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring growth in a much longer period, and therefore, the limited calibration period may be more useful than originally thought. The variations of the long-range correlations within and across <span class="hlt">species</span> may be further explored in future to better reconstruct paleoclimatic records.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2694365"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Previous studies have shown that plants often have <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are often adjacent to areas dominated by another <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, with the highest nitrogen (N) concentration and lowest lignin?N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin?N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid mites did not. Conclusions/Significance Although some soil characteristics were unaffected by <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity, our results clearly demonstrate that these dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are associated with soils that differ in several physical, chemical, and biotic properties. Ongoing environmental changes in this region, e.g. changes in fire regime, frequency of insect outbreaks, changes in precipitation patterns and snowpack, and land-use change, may alter the relative abundance of these <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> over coming decades, which in turn will likely alter the soils. PMID:19536334</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simmons, Breana L.; Wall, Diana H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21134088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flowering phenological pattern in crowns of four temperate deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and its reproductive implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperate deciduous forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> flower in spring, a period that starts when the <span class="hlt">trees</span> lack leaves and when weather is unpredictable, including frost events, and ends when the forest becomes green and vertical microclimatic gradients are established. This paper asks whether there are spatio-temporal patterns in the development of flowering in <span class="hlt">trees</span>, and how they relate to reproductive processes. Using a crane, flowering phenology was studied in the crowns of ca. 200 <span class="hlt">trees</span> of four <span class="hlt">species</span>, from early spring (ash) through the period of leaf-unfolding (maples) to early summer (lime). Flowering levels in different crown regions were documented quantitatively and repeatedly during the flowering season and compared among individuals and among <span class="hlt">species</span>. Early-flowering <span class="hlt">trees</span> displayed a clear and consistent acropetalous and centrifugal flowering pattern, while this pattern disappeared in <span class="hlt">species</span> that flowered after leaves unfolded. This pattern was superposed on the basic flowering rhythm of each <span class="hlt">species</span>, and was influenced by effects of direct sunlight, acting at a small scale in early spring and at a large scale in early summer. As this acropetalous centrifugal pattern contrasts the microclimatic gradients that develop only after leaves unfold, it might indicate physiological processes in the 'awakening' of <span class="hlt">trees</span>, as well as evolutionary processes that took place in temperate <span class="hlt">trees</span> during adaptation to a temperate climate. PMID:21134088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tal, O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ehleringer.net/Jim/Publications/395.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Summary Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that dominates riparian systems at mid elevations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that dominates riparian systems. One exception is the domi- nant North American riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder have shown that female A. negundo <span class="hlt">trees</span> occur at higher frequencies along stream mar- gins, whereas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ehleringer, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fabinet.up.ac.za/groups/cthb/information_nuggets/4150545743c5523dff69524236accf61.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of three new fungal <span class="hlt">species</span> from dying Baobab <span class="hlt">trees</span> in South Africa and Madagascar Prepared by Elsie Cruywagen</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discovery of three new fungal <span class="hlt">species</span> from dying Baobab <span class="hlt">trees</span> in South Africa and Madagascar Prepared by Elsie Cruywagen Baobab <span class="hlt">trees</span> are iconic plants that represent some of the most recognisable <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the world. The eight known <span class="hlt">species</span> of baobab belong to a single genus, Adansonia. Madagascar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ehleringer.net/Jim/Publications/379.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Box elder (Acer negundo)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Box elder is a dioecious riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients stream channel) male and female Acer negundo <span class="hlt">trees</span> occurring in Red Butte Canyon near Salt Lake City</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ehleringer, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/gt742849818u8285.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pioneer <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Amazonian floodplains: Three key <span class="hlt">species</span> form monospecific stands in different habitats</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> —Salix humboldtiana, Cecropia latiloba, Senna reticulata — form monospecific stands in the Central Amazonian white-water flood plain. In contrast toterra firma forests where <span class="hlt">species</span> composition is unpredictable even for pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span>, in Central Amazonianvárzea the occurrence of the main colonizing <span class="hlt">species</span> seems to be predictable. This predictability is linked to characteristic habitat\\u000a conditions and the low</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pia Parolin; Astrid C. Oliveira; Maria Teresa F. Piedade; Florian Wittmann; Wolfgang J. Junk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=64306"> <span id="translatedtitle">ISOPRENE EMISSION CAPACITY FOR U.S. <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isoprene emission capacity measurements are presented from 18 North American oak (Quercus) <span class="hlt">species</span> and <span class="hlt">species</span> from six other genera previously found to emit significant quantities of isoprene. Sampling was conducted at physiographically diverse locations in North Carolina...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140016963&hterms=bag&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbag"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Cargo Transfer Bag</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20560312"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of waterlogging on the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aimed to understand the waterlogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, a simulated field experiment was conducted to study the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of one-year-old seedlings of Taxodium distichum, Carya illinoensis, and Sapium sebiferum. Three treatments were installed, i. e., CK, waterlogging, and flooding, with the treatment duration being 60 days. Under waterlogging and flooding, the relative growth of test <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was in the order of T. distichum > C. illinoensis > S. sebiferum, indicating that T. distichum had the strongest tolerance against waterlogging and flooding, while S. sebiferum had the weakest one. Also under waterlogging and flooding, the root/crown ratio of the three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> increased significantly, suggesting that more photosynthates were allocated in roots, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> also had a significant increase. Among the test <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, T. distichum had the lowest increment of LDH and ADH activities under waterlogging and flooding, but the increment could maintain at a higher level in the treatment duration, while for C. illinoensis and S. sebiferum, the increment was larger during the initial and medium period, but declined rapidly during the later period of treatment. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphohexose (HPI), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) -6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) activities of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> under waterlogging and flooding had a significant decrease, and the decrement was the largest for T. distichum, being 35.6% for MDH, 21.0% for HPI, and 22.7% for G6PDH - 6PGDH under flooding. It was suggested that under waterlogging and flooding, the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with strong waterlogging tolerance had a higher ability to maintain energy-metabolic balance, and thus, its growth could be maintained at a certain level. PMID:20560312</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Gui-Bin; Cao, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wang-Xiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24575236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flowering and fruiting phenology of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in mount papandayan nature reserve, west java, indonesia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mount Papandayan Nature Reserve (MPNR) is an area highly rich in biodiversity, however deforestation has left a vast area urgently in need of reforestation. When reforestation is designed to restore some level of biodiversity, it is imperative that native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are used for planting. This research aimed to provide information on the flowering and fruiting phenology of native <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Such information can be useful to plan seed collection and mass seedling production in the nursery. The observations were conducted each month during August 2009-July 2010 by recording flowering and fruiting <span class="hlt">trees</span> along two survey track passing through the middle of the mixed forest of MPNR. Data gathered were used to construct a simple phenology calendar. During the study, there were 155 <span class="hlt">trees</span> of 43 <span class="hlt">species</span> found flowering or fruiting along the survey track. The peak time of flowering and fruiting was in July (13 <span class="hlt">species</span> flowering and 19 <span class="hlt">species</span> fruiting), while the lowest level was in October (1 <span class="hlt">species</span> flowering and 3 <span class="hlt">species</span> fruiting). According to the phenology calendar constructed, March to July were considered to be the appropriate time to collect seeds of native <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Mount Papandayan. PMID:24575236</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sulistyawati, Endah; Mashita, Nusa; Setiawan, Nuri Nurlaila; Choesin, Devi N; Suryana, Pipin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/86/87/77/PDF/Bontemps_al_2012_Oikos_UncorrectedProof_HAL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shifts in the height-related competitiveness of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> following recent climate warming and implications for <span class="hlt">tree</span> community composition: the case of common beech and sessile oak</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 Shifts in the height-related competitiveness of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> following recent climate warming : 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20080.x #12;2 Abstract Height growth is a trait that contributes to <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> fitness. How height growth responds to environmental changes may therefore provide indications</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6553"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological niche modeling and local knowledge predict new populations of *Gymnocladus assamicus* a critically endangered <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> endemic to northeastern India. Local inhabitants traditionally used this <span class="hlt">species</span> for a variety of purposes. However, rapid population declines led to the <span class="hlt">species</span> being considered extinct...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menon, Shaily; Choudhury, Bahrul I.; Khan, M. Latif; Peterson, A. Townsend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Fumigation on Pythium <span class="hlt">Species</span> Associated with Forest <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Nurseries of Oregon and Washington</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pythium <span class="hlt">species</span> cause damping off of conifer seedlings in forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> nurseries. Identification of the <span class="hlt">species</span> responsible for the disease has been traditionally based on morphology. However, newer DNA-based identification methods may allow more accurate identification and assessment of soil popul...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.rnr.lsu.edu/people/wu/PDFFiles/Kofuwood2001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">WOOD PROPERTIES AND THEIR VARIATIONS WITHIN THE <span class="hlt">TREE</span> STEM OF LESSER-USED <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span> OF TROPICAL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">WOOD PROPERTIES AND THEIR VARIATIONS WITHIN THE <span class="hlt">TREE</span> STEM OF LESSER-USED <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span> OF TROPICAL to utilization about the <span class="hlt">species</span>. This paper examines physical and mechanical properties of wood. There was an overall increase of wood's physical and mechanical properties from the breast height to the top</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fabinet.up.ac.za/publication/pdfs/294-chen_et_al._2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Taxonomy and pathogenicity of Ceratocystis <span class="hlt">species</span> on Eucalyptus <span class="hlt">trees</span> in South China, including</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Taxonomy and pathogenicity of Ceratocystis <span class="hlt">species</span> on Eucalyptus <span class="hlt">trees</span> in South China, including C in South China, especially during the past 20 years, to meet the needs of a rapidly growing national economy. As part of a survey of fungal diseases affecting Eucalyptus <span class="hlt">species</span> in South China, Ceratocystis</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m80205725v424706.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proximate composition and mineral content of two edible <span class="hlt">species</span> of Cnidoscolus (<span class="hlt">tree</span> spinach)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proximate composition and mineral content of raw and cooked leaves of two edible <span class="hlt">tree</span> spinach <span class="hlt">species</span> (Cnidoscolus chayamansa and C. aconitifolius), known locally as ‘chaya’, were determined and compared with that of a traditional green vegetable, spinach (Spinicia oleraceae). Results of the study indicated that the edible leafy parts of the two chaya <span class="hlt">species</span> contained significantly (p0.05) differences were found</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. O. Kuti; H. O. Kuti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/16624"> <span id="translatedtitle">What matters for predicting spatial distributions of <span class="hlt">trees</span>: Techniques, data, or <span class="hlt">species</span>’ characteristics?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mean AUC value across techniques#2; pAUC§Code Genus <span class="hlt">Species</span> Training data set Test data set#3; abialb Abies alba 3357 3326 0.730 useful acecam Acer campestre 710 119 0.841 useful acepla Acer platanoides x 482 107 0.795 useful acepse Acer pseudoplatanus... of the 30 modeled Swiss <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: (a) Acer pseudoplatanus, (b) Carpinus betulus, (c) Castanea sativa, and (d) Fagus sylvatica. TABLE 2. Biological and ecological traits for the 30 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> modeled. Traits Variable type Details Classes in Fig. 6 Code...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guisan, A.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Elith, J.; Graham, C. H.; Phillips, S.; Peterson, A. Townsend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) <span class="hlt">Species</span>, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood <span class="hlt">Trees</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 <span class="hlt">species</span> were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic <span class="hlt">species</span>. Five <span class="hlt">species</span> [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the Ã?Â?Ã?Â?rst time. Of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 <span class="hlt">trees</span> receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than <span class="hlt">trees</span> receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 <span class="hlt">trees</span> attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D.R. Coyle; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16539132"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) <span class="hlt">species</span>, flight, and attack on living eastern cottonwood <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 <span class="hlt">species</span> were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic <span class="hlt">species</span>. Five <span class="hlt">species</span> [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 <span class="hlt">trees</span> receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than <span class="hlt">trees</span> receiving irrigation, irrigation + fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 <span class="hlt">trees</span> attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids. PMID:16539132</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Coyle, D R; Booth, D C; Wallace, M S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59732426"> <span id="translatedtitle">Demography of exploited <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Bolivian Amazon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical forests are threatened world-wide. Therefore, there is a search for ways to use the forests in a sustainable way, as this could assist in the conservation of these special ecosystems. Non-timber products collected from <span class="hlt">trees</span> in tropical forests are\\u000a often mentioned as examples of sustainable exploitation. Their collection causes far less disturbance to forest structure and\\u000a functioning than the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. A. Zuidema</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B13B0476R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wind Disturbance Produced Changes in <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Assemblage in the Peruvian Amazon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wind disturbance has been a frequently overlooked abiotic cause of mass <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality in the Amazon basin. In the Peruvian Amazon these wind disturbances are produced by meteorological events such as convective systems. Downbursts for example produce short term descendent wind speeds that can be in excess of 30 m s-1. These are capable of producing <span class="hlt">tree</span> blowdowns which have been reported to be as large as 33 km2 in the Amazon basin. We used the chronosequence of Landsat Satellite imagery to find and locate where these blowdowns have occurred in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. Spectral Mixture Analysis was used to estimate the proportion landcover of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil and shade in each pixel. The change in NPV was calculated by subtracting the NPV signal in the Landsat image prior to the blowdown occurrence, from the image following the disturbance. Our prior research has established a linear relationship between <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality and change in NPV. It is hypothesized that these mass <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality events result in changes in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assemblage of affected forests. Here we present preliminary <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assemblage data from two sites in the Peruvian Amazon near Iquitos, Peru. The site (ALP) at the Allpahuayo Mishana reserve (3.945 S, 73.455 W) is 30 km south of Iquitos, Peru, and hosts the remnants of a 50 ha blowdown that occurred in either 1992 or 1993. Another site (NAPO) on the Napo river about 60 km north of Iquitos, is the location of an approximately 300 ha blowdown that occurred in 1998. At each site, a 3000 m x 10 m transect encompassing non disturbed and disturbed areas was installed, and <span class="hlt">trees</span> greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured for diameter, height and were identified to the <span class="hlt">species</span>. Stem density of <span class="hlt">trees</span> with diameter at breast height > 10 cm, and <span class="hlt">tree</span> height appear to be similar both inside and outside the blowdown affected areas of the forests at both sites. At the ALP and NAPO sites the most dramatic change in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assemblage has been a three and an eleven fold increase in the pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> family, Cecropiaceae, respectively. This preliminary data suggests that wind disturbance is capable of producing large shifts in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assemblage of affected Amazon forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rifai, S. W.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Ramirez, F.; Tello, R.; Alegria Muñoz, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.......74T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem radial growth of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in an unmanaged southern taiga stand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radial growth of stems was measured in altogether 32 sample <span class="hlt">trees</span> of 5 <span class="hlt">species</span> (Picea abies (L.)Karst., Populus tremula L., Betula alba L., Sorbus aucuparia L. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench) during the growing season 2000 in a mixed uneven-aged stand dominated by spruce and aspen in the region of upper Volga within the framework of international project “Volgaforest”. Measurement was done by band dendrometers read every two weeks from May to late October 2000. In addition, two readings were done in 2001 (the last one in November, i.e. only the total seasonal growth for this year was obtained). Subsequently the woody cores were taken from all sample spruce and aspen <span class="hlt">trees</span> in October 2002 in order to evaluate the stem growth over a longer period of time. The growing season 2000 was characterized by late spring frost (approximately until May 20) and very wet summer. In contrast the season 2001 was hot and dry. Radial growth of stems in majority of sample <span class="hlt">trees</span> of all <span class="hlt">species</span> started during early May and continued until mid August. However the smallest spruce <span class="hlt">trees</span> and some deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span> (especially birches) started growing later (in late May or even in mid June) and the relatively small aspen <span class="hlt">trees</span> (although reaching DBH up to 33 cm) did not grew at all during the whole season. As an exception, growth of 2 sample <span class="hlt">trees</span> (spruce and aspen) continued during the whole season up to mid October. The most interesting seems that aspen showed significantly lower growth of basal area in absolute and relative terms when compared to spruce. This difference was observed in both years under consideration, but was more pronounced in 2000, when the relative growth of basal area reached 1 to 6% in spruce, and was increasing with <span class="hlt">tree</span> DBH, whereas for aspens the same parameter ranged from 0% for smaller <span class="hlt">trees</span> to 0.8% for the largest ones. Such difference was not so pronounced and occurred only in small and medium DBH <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the more favorable growing season of 2001. However, radial growth of the largest aspen <span class="hlt">tree</span> was similar as in spruce <span class="hlt">trees</span> with comparable DBH. The reduced growth of aspens can be explained by different factors including normal decrease of growth for the given, rather old age for the <span class="hlt">species</span> (about 60 years) and the specific conditions of the season 2000 (especially strong spring frost). This result well corresponds with the observed succession changes. Massive occurrence of stem rot and following windfall of aspen <span class="hlt">trees</span> was manifested. No young aspen <span class="hlt">trees</span> occurred in the stand, whereas gradual prevailing of regenerated spruce was evident.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tatarinov, F.; Nadezhdina, N.; Bochkarev, Yu.; Cermak, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22864803"> <span id="translatedtitle">The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several fast-growing and <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume <span class="hlt">tree</span> hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that <span class="hlt">species</span> of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host <span class="hlt">species</span>. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota. PMID:22864803</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3630193"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition Influences Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass in the Rhizosphere: A Rhizobox Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monoculture causes nutrient losses and leads to declines in soil fertility and biomass production over successive cultivation. The rhizosphere, a zone of usually high microbial activities and clearly distinct from bulk soil, is defined as the volume of soil around living roots and influenced by root activities. Here we investigated enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere under different <span class="hlt">tree</span> compositions. Six treatments with poplar, willow, and alder mono- or mixed seedlings were grown in rhizoboxes. Enzyme activities associated with nitrogen cycling and microbial biomass were measured in all rhizosphere and bulk soils. Both enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere differed significantly <span class="hlt">tree</span> compositions. Microbial biomass contents were more sensitive to the changes of the rhizosphere environment than enzyme activities. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence did not consistently increase tested enzyme activities and microbial biomass, but varied depending on the complementarities of <span class="hlt">species</span> traits. In general, impacts of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and coexistence were more pronounced on microbial composition than total biomass, evidenced by differences in microbial biomass C/N ratios stratified across the rhizosphere soils. Compared to poplar clone monoculture, other <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> addition obviously increased rhizosphere urease activity, but greatly reduced rhizosphere L-asparaginase activity. Poplar growth was enhanced only when coexisted with alder. Our results suggested that a highly productive or keystone plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in a community had greater influence over soil functions than the contribution of diversity. PMID:23637838</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fang, Shengzuo; Liu, Dong; Tian, Ye; Deng, Shiping; Shang, Xulan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4240985"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple <span class="hlt">species</span> of wild <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies gave rise to the ‘king of flowers’, Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of cultivated <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies, known as the ‘king of flowers' in China for more than 1000 years, has attracted considerable interest, but remained unsolved. Here, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of explicitly sampled traditional cultivars of <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies and all wild <span class="hlt">species</span> from the shrubby section Moutan of the genus Paeonia based on sequences of 14 fast-evolved chloroplast regions and 25 presumably single-copy nuclear markers identified from RNA-seq data. The phylogeny of the wild <span class="hlt">species</span> inferred from the nuclear markers was fully resolved and largely congruent with morphology and classification. The incongruence between the nuclear and chloroplast <span class="hlt">trees</span> suggested that there had been gene flow between the wild <span class="hlt">species</span>. The comparison of nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies including cultivars showed that the cultivated <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies originated from homoploid hybridization among five wild <span class="hlt">species</span>. Since the origin, thousands of cultivated varieties have spread worldwide, whereas four parental <span class="hlt">species</span> are currently endangered or on the verge of extinction. The documentation of extensive homoploid hybridization involved in <span class="hlt">tree</span> peony domestication provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the origins of garden ornamentals and the way of preserving natural genetic resources through domestication. PMID:25377453</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Shi-Liang; Zou, Xin-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Jing; Xu, Chao; Yu, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Da-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Ge, Song; Sang, Tao; Pan, Kai-Yu; Hong, De-Yuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25377453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple <span class="hlt">species</span> of wild <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies gave rise to the 'king of flowers', Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of cultivated <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies, known as the 'king of flowers' in China for more than 1000 years, has attracted considerable interest, but remained unsolved. Here, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of explicitly sampled traditional cultivars of <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies and all wild <span class="hlt">species</span> from the shrubby section Moutan of the genus Paeonia based on sequences of 14 fast-evolved chloroplast regions and 25 presumably single-copy nuclear markers identified from RNA-seq data. The phylogeny of the wild <span class="hlt">species</span> inferred from the nuclear markers was fully resolved and largely congruent with morphology and classification. The incongruence between the nuclear and chloroplast <span class="hlt">trees</span> suggested that there had been gene flow between the wild <span class="hlt">species</span>. The comparison of nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies including cultivars showed that the cultivated <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies originated from homoploid hybridization among five wild <span class="hlt">species</span>. Since the origin, thousands of cultivated varieties have spread worldwide, whereas four parental <span class="hlt">species</span> are currently endangered or on the verge of extinction. The documentation of extensive homoploid hybridization involved in <span class="hlt">tree</span> peony domestication provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the origins of garden ornamentals and the way of preserving natural genetic resources through domestication. PMID:25377453</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhou, Shi-Liang; Zou, Xin-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Jing; Xu, Chao; Yu, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Da-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Ge, Song; Sang, Tao; Pan, Kai-Yu; Hong, De-Yuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4019853"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-richness and topographic complexity along the riparian edge of the Potomac River</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the riparian edge of a central portion of the Potomac River in order to test the hypothesis of a positive relationship between small-scale topographic complexity of the riverbank profile and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-richness. A total of 153 5m-wide transects established at 530m intervals, containing 2568 <span class="hlt">trees</span>, were measured along 97km of the river corridor between Harpers Ferry, WV and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel A Everson; Douglas H. Boucher</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48232705"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oviposition preference and larval performance of Aeolesthes sarta (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in six hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sarta longhorned beetle (SLB), Aeolesthes sarta Solsky, is an economically important pest of fruit and shade <span class="hlt">trees</span> in central and east Asia. Choice, no-choice, and larval\\u000a insertion experiments were conducted to determine SLB oviposition preference and larval host suitability on six hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span>\\u000a <span class="hlt">species</span> including Ulmus carpinifolia Borkh., Ulmus carpinifolia var. umbraculifera Rehd., Platanus orientalis L., Populus alba L., Salix</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Afsaneh Mazaheri; Jahangir Khajehali; Bijan Hatami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/atlas/"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Climate Change Atlas For 80 Forest <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Of The Eastern United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution atlas. It contains information for 80 <span class="hlt">species</span> in the eastern half of the United States (east of the 100th meridian). The site contains distribution maps and tables for different climate change scenarios, life-history and disturbance attributes, ecological attributes, forest type maps, sorted lists of <span class="hlt">species</span> importance values (by state and county) for different climate change scenarios, and more.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iverson, Louis; Prasad, Anantha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/34711401"> <span id="translatedtitle">Robinia pseudoacacia L.: A Lesser Known <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> for Biomass Production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments with fast-growing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for biomass production in Germany have been mainly focused on the growth performance\\u000a of Populus and Salix spp. Among the lesser-known <span class="hlt">species</span> for energy plantations is Robinia pseudoacacia L. Special features of this <span class="hlt">species</span> are its drought tolerance and its ability to fix nitrogen. Given the large share of marginal\\u000a arable land in NE-Germany and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holger Grünewald; Christian Böhm; Ansgar Quinkenstein; Philipp Grundmann; Jörg Eberts; Georg von Wühlisch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40153400"> <span id="translatedtitle">Different photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in deciduous hardwood and evergreen coniferous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationship between photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and leaf nitrogen concentration (N) among all C3 <span class="hlt">species</span> can be described roughly with one general equation, yet within that overall pattern <span class="hlt">species</span> groups or individual <span class="hlt">species</span> may have markedly different Amax-N relationships. To determine whether one or several predictive, fundamental Amax-N relationships exist for temperate <span class="hlt">trees</span> we measured Amax, specific leaf area (SLA)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. B. Reich; M. B. Walters; B. D. Kloeppel; D. S. Ellsworth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p6k368415j220172.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shade does not ameliorate drought effects on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> fern <span class="hlt">species</span> Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the responses of two <span class="hlt">tree</span> fern <span class="hlt">species</span> (Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis) growing under moderate and high light regimes to short-term water deficit followed by rewatering. Under adequate water supply,\\u000a morphological and photosynthetic characteristics differed between <span class="hlt">species</span>. D. antarctica, although putatively the more shade and less drought adapted <span class="hlt">species</span>, had greater chlorophyll a\\/b ratio, and greater water use</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liubov VolkovaLauren; Lauren T. Bennett; Andrew Merchant; Michael Tausz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18959329"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> control rates of free-living nitrogen fixation in a tropical rain forest.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical rain forests represent some of the most diverse ecosystems on earth, yet mechanistic links between <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity and ecosystem function in these forests remains poorly understood. Here, using free-living nitrogen (N) fixation as a model, we explore the idea that interspecies variation in canopy nutrient concentrations may drive significant local-scale variation in biogeochemical processes. Biological N fixation is the largest "natural" source of newly available N to terrestrial ecosystems, and estimates suggest the highest such inputs occur in tropical ecosystems. While patterns of and controls over N fixation in these systems remain poorly known, the data we do have suggest that chemical differences among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> canopies could affect free-living N fixation rates. In a diverse lowland rain forest in Costa Rica, we established a series of vertical, canopy-to-soil profiles for six common canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and we measured free-living N fixation rates and multiple aspects of chemistry of live canopy leaves, senesced canopy leaves, bulk leaf litter, and soil for eight individuals of each <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Free-living N fixation rates varied significantly among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for all four components, and independent of <span class="hlt">species</span> identity, rates of N fixation ranged by orders of magnitude along the vertical profile. Our data suggest that variations in phosphorus (P) concentration drove a significant fraction of the observed <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific variation in free-living N fixation rates within each layer of the vertical profile. Furthermore, our data suggest significant links between canopy and forest floor nutrient concentrations; canopy P was correlated with bulk leaf litter P below individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> crowns. Thus, canopy chemistry may affect a suite of ecosystem processes not only within the canopy itself, but at and beneath the forest floor as well. PMID:18959329</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C; Townsend, Alan R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23632032"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> reconstruction of a poorly resolved clade of salamanders (Ambystomatidae) using multiple nuclear loci.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analysis of diverse data sets can yield different phylogenetic estimates that challenge systematists to explain the source of discordance. The mole salamanders (family Ambystomatidae) are a classic example of this phylogenetic conflict. Previous attempts to resolve the ambystomatid <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> using allozymic, morphological, and mitochondrial sequence data have yielded different estimates, making it unclear which data source best approximates ambystomatid phylogeny and which ones yield phylogenetically inaccurate reconstructions. To shed light on this conflict, we present the first multi-locus DNA sequence-based phylogenetic study of the Ambystomatidae. We utilized a range of analyses, including coalescent-based methods of <span class="hlt">species-tree</span> estimation that account for incomplete lineage sorting within a locus and concordance-based methods that estimate the number of sampled loci that support a particular clade. We repeated these analyses with the removal of individual loci to determine if any locus has a disproportionate effect on our phylogenetic results. Collectively, these results robustly resolved many deep and relatively shallow clades within Ambystoma, including the placement of A. gracile and A. talpoideum as the sister clade to a clade containing all remaining ambystomatids, and the placement of A. maculatum as the sister lineage to all remaining ambystomatids excluding A. gracile and A. talpoideum. Both Bayesian coalescent and concordance methods produced similar results, highlighting strongly supported branches in the <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Furthermore, coalescent-based analyses that excluded loci produced overlapping <span class="hlt">species-tree</span> posterior distributions, suggesting that no particular locus--including mtDNA--disproportionately contributed to our <span class="hlt">species-tree</span> estimates. Overall, our phylogenetic estimates have greater similarity with previous allozyme and mitochondrial sequence-based phylogenetic estimates. However, intermediate depths of divergence in the ambystomatid <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> remain unresolved, potentially highlighting a region of rapid <span class="hlt">species</span> radiation or a hard polytomy, which limits our ability to comment on previous morphologically-based taxonomic groups. PMID:23632032</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Williams, Joshua S; Niedzwiecki, John H; Weisrock, David W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4021425"> <span id="translatedtitle">An empirical evaluation of two-stage <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> inference strategies using a multilocus dataset from North American pines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background As it becomes increasingly possible to obtain DNA sequences of orthologous genes from diverse sets of taxa, <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> are frequently being inferred from multilocus data. However, the behavior of many methods for performing this inference has remained largely unexplored. Some methods have been proven to be consistent given certain evolutionary models, whereas others rely on criteria that, although appropriate for many parameter values, have peculiar zones of the parameter space in which they fail to converge on the correct estimate as data sets increase in size. Results Here, using North American pines, we empirically evaluate the behavior of 24 strategies for <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> inference using three alternative outgroups (72 strategies total). The data consist of 120 individuals sampled in eight ingroup <span class="hlt">species</span> from subsection Strobus and three outgroup <span class="hlt">species</span> from subsection Gerardianae, spanning ?47 kilobases of sequence at 121 loci. Each “strategy” for inferring <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> consists of three features: a <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> construction method, a gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> inference method, and a choice of outgroup. We use multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering to identify <span class="hlt">tree</span> characteristics that are robustly observed across strategies, as well as to identify groups of strategies that produce <span class="hlt">trees</span> with similar features. We find that strategies that construct <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> using only topological information cluster together and that strategies that use additional non-topological information (e.g., branch lengths) also cluster together. Strategies that utilize more than one individual within a <span class="hlt">species</span> to infer gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> tend to produce estimates of <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> that contain clades present in <span class="hlt">trees</span> estimated by other strategies. Strategies that use the minimize-deep-coalescences criterion to construct <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> tend to produce <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimates that contain clades that are not present in <span class="hlt">trees</span> estimated by the Concatenation, RTC, SMRT, STAR, and STEAC methods, and that in general are more balanced than those inferred by these other strategies. Conclusions When constructing a <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> from a multilocus set of sequences, our observations provide a basis for interpreting differences in <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimates obtained via different approaches that have a two-stage structure in common, one step for gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation and a second step for <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation. The methods explored here employ a number of distinct features of the data, and our analysis suggests that recovery of the same results from multiple methods that tend to differ in their patterns of inference can be a valuable tool for obtaining reliable estimates. PMID:24678701</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954149"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influences of Forest Structure, Climate and <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition on <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Mortality across the Eastern US</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few studies have quantified regional variation in <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality, or explored whether <span class="hlt">species</span> compositional changes or within-<span class="hlt">species</span> variation are responsible for regional patterns, despite the fact that mortality has direct effects on the dynamics of woody biomass, <span class="hlt">species</span> composition, stand structure, wood production and forest response to climate change. Using Bayesian analysis of over 430,000 <span class="hlt">tree</span> records from a large eastern US forest database we characterised <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality as a function of climate, soils, <span class="hlt">species</span> and size (stem diameter). We found (1) mortality is U-shaped vs. stem diameter for all 21 <span class="hlt">species</span> examined; (2) mortality is hump-shaped vs. plot basal area for most <span class="hlt">species</span>; (3) geographical variation in mortality is substantial, and correlated with several environmental factors; and (4) individual <span class="hlt">species</span> vary substantially from the combined average in the nature and magnitude of their mortality responses to environmental variation. Regional variation in mortality is therefore the product of variation in <span class="hlt">species</span> composition combined with highly varied mortality-environment correlations within <span class="hlt">species</span>. The results imply that variation in mortality is a crucial part of variation in the forest carbon cycle, such that including this variation in models of the global carbon cycle could significantly narrow uncertainty in climate change predictions. PMID:20967250</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lines, Emily R.; Coomes, David A.; Purves, Drew W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010004212&hterms=bag&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbag"> <span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-4 Branch Bag Data From Boreal <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The BOREAS TE-4 team collected continuous records of gas exchange under ambient conditions from intact boreal forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the BOREAS NSA from 23-Jul-1996 until 14-Aug-1996. These measurements can be used to test models of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration, such as SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model (Collatz et al., 1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Berry, Joseph A.; Fu, Wei; Fredeen, Art; Gamon, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041741"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality in a mixed <span class="hlt">species</span> woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Widespread <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies during and shortly after <span class="hlt">tree</span> damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting <span class="hlt">trees</span> in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed <span class="hlt">species</span> woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead <span class="hlt">trees</span> had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-<span class="hlt">tree</span> image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead <span class="hlt">tree</span> classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality across areas with differences in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition. We found that 38% of <span class="hlt">tree</span> crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas experiencing wildfire and management activity. -Our results demonstrate that unsupervised clustering of bi-temporal NDVI and RGI differences can be used to detect <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality resulting from numerous causes and in several forest cover types.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9592I"> <span id="translatedtitle">The response of European <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to drought: a meta-analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we provide first results of a meta-analysis of the response of European <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to drought. A literature search was conducted in order to collect available studies of the response of the gas exchange of European <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to either natural or imposed water shortage. The resulting publications were screened and parameters at organ (e.g. leaf or shoot), individual (i.e. <span class="hlt">tree</span>) and ecosystem scale were transferred to a data base. Here we present preliminary results from queries of the data base aiming at identifying differences in the drought response between <span class="hlt">species</span> that may have implications for forest productivity and composition under likely future warmer and drier conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Irschick, C.; Mayr, S.; Wohlfahrt, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4110017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negative Density Dependence Regulates Two <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> at Later Life Stage in a Temperate Forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous studies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">tree</span> survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for <span class="hlt">trees</span> with dbh (diameter at breast height) ?2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) <span class="hlt">species</span>. We found NDD existed for both <span class="hlt">species</span> at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in <span class="hlt">species</span>' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Negative density dependence regulates two <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at later life stage in a temperate forest.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous studies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">tree</span> survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for <span class="hlt">trees</span> with dbh (diameter at breast height) ?2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) <span class="hlt">species</span>. We found NDD existed for both <span class="hlt">species</span> at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in <span class="hlt">species</span>' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620581"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diversity and utilization of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Meitei homegardens of Barak Valley, Assam.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An inventory of <span class="hlt">tree</span> diversity in traditional homegardens of Meitei community was conducted in a Bontarapur village in Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Meitei homegarden locally called Ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. Seventy one <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. Among the families encountered, Rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 <span class="hlt">species</span>) followed by Meliaceae (5 genus and 5 <span class="hlt">species</span>), Arecaceae (4 genus and 4 <span class="hlt">species</span>) and Moraceae (3 genus and 5 <span class="hlt">species</span>). Total 7946 <span class="hlt">tree</span> individuals were recorded, with the density of 831 No ha(-1) of and total basal area of 9.54 m2 ha(-1). Areco catechu was the dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> with the maximum number of individuals. Other dominant <span class="hlt">trees</span> include Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Citrus grandis, Parkia timoriana, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Being a cash crop, the intensification of betel nut has been preferred in many homegardens. Homegardens form an important component of land use of Meitei community which fulfills the socio-cultural and economic needs of the family and helps in conserving plant diversity through utilization. PMID:24620581</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Devi, N Linthoingambi; Das, Ashesh Kumar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJAEO..28..140G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> discrimination in western Himalaya using EO-1 Hyperion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The information acquired in the narrow bands of hyperspectral remote sensing data has potential to capture plant <span class="hlt">species</span> spectral variability, thereby improving forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping. This study assessed the utility of spaceborne EO-1 Hyperion data in discrimination and classification of broadleaved evergreen and conifer forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in western Himalaya. The pre-processing of 242 bands of Hyperion data resulted into 160 noise-free and vertical stripe corrected reflectance bands. Of these, 29 bands were selected through step-wise exclusion of bands (Wilk's Lambda). Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms were applied to the selected bands to assess their effectiveness in classification. SVM was also applied to broadband data (Landsat TM) to compare the variation in classification accuracy. All commonly occurring six gregarious <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, viz., white oak, brown oak, chir pine, blue pine, cedar and fir in western Himalaya could be effectively discriminated. SVM produced a better <span class="hlt">species</span> classification (overall accuracy 82.27%, kappa statistic 0.79) than SAM (overall accuracy 74.68%, kappa statistic 0.70). It was noticed that classification accuracy achieved with Hyperion bands was significantly higher than Landsat TM bands (overall accuracy 69.62%, kappa statistic 0.65). Study demonstrated the potential utility of narrow spectral bands of Hyperion data in discriminating <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a hilly terrain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George, Rajee; Padalia, Hitendra; Kushwaha, S. P. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910009823&hterms=radiation+shielding+multilayer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dradiation%2Bshielding%2Bmultilayer"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> hardened spacecraft insulation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steimer, Carlos H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322961"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Compact Spectrometric Unit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8921E..07D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> clssification based on airborne hyper-spectral imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest precision classification products were the basic data for surveying of forest resource, updating forest subplot information, logging and design of forest. However, due to the diversity of stand structure, complexity of the forest growth environment, it's difficult to discriminate forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using multi-spectral image. The airborne hyperspectral images can achieve the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery of forest canopy, so it will good for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> level classification. The aim of this paper was to test the effective of combining spatial and spectral features in airborne hyper-spectral image classification. The CASI hyper spectral image data were acquired from Liangshui natural reserves area. Firstly, we use the MNF (minimum noise fraction) transform method for to reduce the hyperspectral image dimensionality and highlighting variation. And secondly, we use the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) to extract the texture features of forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopy from the hyper-spectral image, and thirdly we fused the texture and the spectral features of forest canopy to classify the <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using support vector machine (SVM) with different kernel functions. The results showed that when using the SVM classifier, MNF and texture-based features combined with linear kernel function can achieve the best overall accuracy which was 85.92%. It was also confirm that combine the spatial and spectral information can improve the accuracy of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> classification.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dian, Yuanyong; Li, Zengyuan; Pang, Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70004657"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complementary models of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-soil relationships in old-growth temperate forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecosystem level studies identify plant soil feed backs as important controls on soil nutrient availability,particularly for nitrogen and phosphorus. Although site and <span class="hlt">species</span> specific studies of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> soil relationships are relatively common,comparatively fewer studies consider multiple coexisting speciesin old-growth forests across a range of sites that vary underlying soil fertility. We characterized patterns in forest floor and mineral soil nutrients associated with four common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> across eight undisturbed old-growth forests in Oregon, USA, and used two complementary conceptual models to assess <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> soil relationships. Plant soil feedbacks that could reinforce sitelevel differences in nutrient availability were assessed using the context dependent relationships model, where by relative <span class="hlt">species</span> based differences in each soil nutrient divergedorconvergedas nutrient status changed across sites. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> soil relationships that did not reflect strong feedbacks were evaluated using a site independent relationships model, where by forest floor and surface mineral soil nutrient tools differed consistently by <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> across sites,without variation in deeper mineral soils. We found that theorganically cycled elements carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus exhibited context-dependent differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in both forest floor and mineral soil, and most of ten followed adivergence model,where by <span class="hlt">species</span> differences were greatest at high-nutrient sites. These patterns are consistent with the oryemphasizing biotic control of these elements through plant soil feedback mechanisms. Site independent <span class="hlt">species</span> differences were strongest for pool so if the weather able cations calcium, magnesium, potassium,as well as phosphorus, in mineral soils. Site independent <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in forest floor nutrients we reattributable too nespecies that displayed significant greater forest floor mass accumulation. Our finding confirmed that site-independent and context-dependent <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-soil relationships occur simultaneouslyinold-grow the temperate forests, with context-dependent relationships strongest for organically cycled elements, and site-independent relationships strongest for weather able elements with in organic cycling phases. These models provide complementary explanations for patterns of nutrient accumulation and cycling in mixed <span class="hlt">species</span> old-growth temperate forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25292455"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem CO2 efflux in six co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: underlying factors and ecological implications.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stem respiration plays a role in <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence and forest dynamics. Here we examined the intra- and inter-specific variability of stem CO2 efflux (E) in dominant and suppressed <span class="hlt">trees</span> of six deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> in a mixed forest stand: Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl, Quercus pyrenaica?Willd., Prunus avium?L., Sorbus aucuparia?L. and Crataegus monogyna?Jacq. We conducted measurements in late autumn. Within <span class="hlt">species</span>, dominants had higher E per unit stem surface area (Es ) mainly because sapwood depth was higher than in suppressed <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Across <span class="hlt">species</span>, however, differences in Es corresponded with differences in the proportion of living parenchyma in sapwood and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). Across <span class="hlt">species</span>, Es was strongly and NSC marginally positively related with an index of drought tolerance, suggesting that slow growth of drought-tolerant <span class="hlt">trees</span> is related to higher NSC concentration and Es . We conclude that, during the leafless period, E is indicative of maintenance respiration and is related with some ecological characteristics of the <span class="hlt">species</span>, such as drought resistance; that sapwood depth is the main factor explaining variability in Es within <span class="hlt">species</span>; and that the proportion of NSC in the sapwood is the main factor behind variability in Es among <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:25292455</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús; López, Rosana; Salomón, Roberto; Gordaliza, Guillermo G; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Oleksyn, Jacek; Gil, Luis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..53..783S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Right <span class="hlt">Tree</span> for the Job? Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Species</span> Suitability for the Provision of Ecosystem Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stakeholders in plantation forestry are increasingly aware of the importance of the ecosystem services and non-market values associated with forests. In New Zealand, there is significant interest in establishing <span class="hlt">species</span> other than Pinus radiata D. Don (the dominant plantation <span class="hlt">species</span>) in the belief that alternative <span class="hlt">species</span> are better suited to deliver these services. Significant risk is associated with this position as there is little objective data to support these views. To identify which <span class="hlt">species</span> were likely to be planted to deliver ecosystem services, a survey was distributed to examine stakeholder perceptions. Stakeholders were asked which of 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> attributes contributed to the provision of five ecosystem services (amenity value, bioenergy production, carbon capture, the diversity of native habitat, and erosion control/water quality) and to identify which of 22 candidate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> possessed those attributes. These data were combined to identify the <span class="hlt">species</span> perceived most suitable for the delivery of each ecosystem service. Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. closely matched the stakeholder derived ideotypes associated with all five ecosystem services. Comparisons to data from growth, physiological and ecological studies demonstrated that many of the opinions held by stakeholders were inaccurate, leading to erroneous assumptions regarding the suitability of most candidate <span class="hlt">species</span>. Stakeholder perceptions substantially influence <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> selection, and plantations established on the basis of inaccurate opinions are unlikely to deliver the desired outcomes. Attitudinal surveys associated with engagement campaigns are essential to improve stakeholder knowledge, advancing the development of fit-for-purpose forest management that provides the required ecosystem services.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smaill, Simeon J.; Bayne, Karen M.; Coker, Graham W. R.; Paul, Thomas S. H.; Clinton, Peter W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21444307"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic variation in a tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic differences among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, their hybrids and within <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-<span class="hlt">species</span> genetic variation in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of <span class="hlt">trees</span> and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the <span class="hlt">tree</span>, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the <span class="hlt">tree</span>, and the invertebrates found on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> trunk. This means that the more genetically similar <span class="hlt">trees</span> are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zytynska, Sharon E; Fay, Michael F; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3081567"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic variation in a tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Genetic differences among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, their hybrids and within <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-<span class="hlt">species</span> genetic variation in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of <span class="hlt">trees</span> and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the <span class="hlt">tree</span>, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the <span class="hlt">tree</span>, and the invertebrates found on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> trunk. This means that the more genetically similar <span class="hlt">trees</span> are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zytynska, Sharon E.; Fay, Michael F.; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24178615"> <span id="translatedtitle">Micropropagation of Sterculia urens Roxb. - an endangered <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An in vitro procedure for large scale multiplication of Sterculia urens Roxb. (Gum Kadaya <span class="hlt">Tree</span>) has been developed using cotyledonary node segments. An average of 4.0 shoots per node were obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 2.0 mgl(-1) 6-benzyl amino-purine (BAP) within 21 days of initial culture. Upon subsequent subculture 16 shoots/node could be harvested every three weeks and upto three times. Sixty per cent of the shoots were successfully rooted. Rooted plantlets were transferred to plastic pots containing soil under mist house conditions before they were finally exposed to an external environment. Fifty seven per cent of the plantlets survived in nursery sheds. PMID:24178615</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purohit, S D; Dave, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25337997"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data concatenation, Bayesian concordance and coalescent-based analyses of the <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> for the rapid radiation of Triturus newts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phylogenetic relationships for rapid <span class="hlt">species</span> radiations are difficult to disentangle. Here we study one such case, namely the genus Triturus, which is composed of the marbled and crested newts. We analyze data for 38 genetic markers, positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions of protein-coding genes, obtained with 454 sequencing. Our dataset includes twenty Triturus newts and represents all nine <span class="hlt">species</span>. Bayesian analysis of population structure allocates all individuals to their respective <span class="hlt">species</span>. The branching patterns obtained by data concatenation, Bayesian concordance analysis and coalescent-based estimations of the <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> differ from one another. The data concatenation based <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> shows high branch support but branching order is considerably affected by allele choice in the case of heterozygotes in the concatenation process. Bayesian concordance analysis expresses the conflict between individual gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> for part of the Triturus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> as low concordance factors. The coalescent-based <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> is relatively similar to a previously published <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> based upon morphology and full mtDNA and any conflicting internal branches are not highly supported. Our findings reflect high gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> discordance due to incomplete lineage sorting (possibly aggravated by hybridization) in combination with low information content of the markers employed (as can be expected for relatively recent <span class="hlt">species</span> radiations). This case study highlights the complexity of resolving rapid radiations and we acknowledge that to convincingly resolve the Triturus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> even more genes will have to be consulted. PMID:25337997</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Pabijan, Maciej; Babik, Wieslaw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4206468"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data Concatenation, Bayesian Concordance and Coalescent-Based Analyses of the <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Tree</span> for the Rapid Radiation of Triturus Newts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phylogenetic relationships for rapid <span class="hlt">species</span> radiations are difficult to disentangle. Here we study one such case, namely the genus Triturus, which is composed of the marbled and crested newts. We analyze data for 38 genetic markers, positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions of protein-coding genes, obtained with 454 sequencing. Our dataset includes twenty Triturus newts and represents all nine <span class="hlt">species</span>. Bayesian analysis of population structure allocates all individuals to their respective <span class="hlt">species</span>. The branching patterns obtained by data concatenation, Bayesian concordance analysis and coalescent-based estimations of the <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> differ from one another. The data concatenation based <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> shows high branch support but branching order is considerably affected by allele choice in the case of heterozygotes in the concatenation process. Bayesian concordance analysis expresses the conflict between individual gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> for part of the Triturus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> as low concordance factors. The coalescent-based <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> is relatively similar to a previously published <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> based upon morphology and full mtDNA and any conflicting internal branches are not highly supported. Our findings reflect high gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> discordance due to incomplete lineage sorting (possibly aggravated by hybridization) in combination with low information content of the markers employed (as can be expected for relatively recent <span class="hlt">species</span> radiations). This case study highlights the complexity of resolving rapid radiations and we acknowledge that to convincingly resolve the Triturus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> even more genes will have to be consulted. PMID:25337997</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W.; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Pabijan, Maciej; Babik, Wieslaw</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7243571"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sustainable <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> production systems for Nepal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60250933"> <span id="translatedtitle">Net production relations of three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. [Liriodendron tulipifera; Quercus alba; Pinus echinata</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurement of productivity of forests is a difficult problem which has been variously approached. Results from an exploratory application of one approach (Whittaker 1961) to <span class="hlt">trees</span> of three <span class="hlt">species</span> - Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip <span class="hlt">tree</span> or yellow poplar), Quercus alba (white oak), and Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine) - are reported here. The <span class="hlt">trees</span> were felled in a logging operation at Oak</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. H. Whittaker; N. Cohen; J. S. Olson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.unm.edu/~pockman/pubs/storage.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Summary <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem-succulent <span class="hlt">species</span> with low-</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem, stem-succulent <span class="hlt">trees</span>, stem water storage, tropical dry forest. Introduction <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of tropical semi-deciduous) throughout the year, to "drought-tolerant" deciduous hardwood <span class="hlt">species</span>(wood density > 0.75 g cm­3 ), which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pockman, William T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://liris.cnrs.fr/laure.tougne/publications/CVIU2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding leaves in natural images A model-based approach for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identification q,qq</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">July 2013 Keywords: Plant recognition <span class="hlt">Tree</span> leaf Image segmentation Natural background Active contours of segmentation and classification, considering a database of 50 European broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> success, being with user- based (<span class="hlt">Tree</span>Id,2 Fleurs en Poche3 ) or automatic recognition (Leaf- Snap4</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mille, Julien</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40756242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leaf litter decomposition and mulch performance from mixed and monospecific plantations of native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Costa Rica</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experiment with native <span class="hlt">trees</span> was established in 1991 on degraded pasture in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica to examine the influence of mixed and monospecific plantation designs on <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth and nutrient cycling. As part of this study, leaf litter decomposition rates and mulch performance were compared among four native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Callophylum brasiliense Cambess, Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rachel Byard; Kristin C. Lewis; Florencia Montagnini</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19690000403&hterms=arg&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Darg"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> timer for laboratories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25127455"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within <span class="hlt">species</span>, between <span class="hlt">species</span>, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 <span class="hlt">species</span> of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 <span class="hlt">species</span> of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The objectives of this study were to model how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are generally higher in cold, humid temperate climates than in dry, hot climates. PMID:25127455</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21691855"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity and interactions with neighbors determine nutrient leaching in model tropical forests.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An ecosystem containing a mixture of <span class="hlt">species</span> that differ in phenology, morphology, and physiology might be expected to resist leaching of soil nutrients to a greater extent than one composed of a single <span class="hlt">species</span>. We tested the effects of <span class="hlt">species</span> identity and plant-life-form richness on nutrient leaching at a lowland tropical site where deep infiltration averages >2 m year(-1). Three indigenous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with contrasting leafing phenologies (evergreen, dry-season deciduous, and wet-season deciduous) were grown in monoculture and together with two other life-forms with which they commonly occur in tropical forests: a palm and a giant, perennial herb. To calculate nutrient leaching over an 11-year period, concentrations of nutrients in soil water were multiplied by drainage rates estimated from a water balance. The effect of plant-life-form richness on retention differed according to <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity and nutrient. Nitrate retention was greater in polycultures of the dry-season deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (mean of 7.4 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of NO(3)-N lost compared to 12.7 in monoculture), and calcium and magnesium retention were greater in polycultures of the evergreen and wet-season deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Complementary use of light led to intensification of soil exploitation by roots, the main agent responsible for enhanced nutrient retention in some polycultures. Other mechanisms included differences in nutrient demand among <span class="hlt">species</span>, and avoidance of catastrophic failure due to episodic weather events or pest outbreaks. Even unrealistically simple multi-life-form mimics of tropical forest can safeguard a site's nutrient capital if careful attention is paid to <span class="hlt">species</span>' characteristics and temporal changes in interspecific interactions. PMID:21691855</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ewel, John J; Bigelow, Seth W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22155423"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring diversity in cryptorhynchine weevils (Coleoptera) using distance-, character- and <span class="hlt">tree</span>-based <span class="hlt">species</span> delineation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Species</span> boundaries are studied in a group of beetles, the western Palaearctic Cryptorhynchinae. We test for congruence of 'traditionally' identified morphospecies with <span class="hlt">species</span> inferred through parsimony networks, distance-based clustering and the ultrametric <span class="hlt">tree</span>-based generalized mixed yule-coalescent (GMYC) approach. For that purpose, we sequenced two variable fragments of mitochondrial DNA (CO1 and 16S) for a total of 791 specimens in 217 <span class="hlt">species</span> of Cryptorhynchinae. Parsimony networks, morphology-calibrated distance clusters and the different <span class="hlt">tree</span>-based <span class="hlt">species</span> inferences all achieved low congruence with morphospecies, at best 60%. Although the degree of match with morphospecies was often similar for the different approaches, the composition of clusters partially varied. A barcoding gap was absent in morphospecies-oriented distances as well as for GMYC <span class="hlt">species</span> clusters. This demonstrates that not only erroneous taxonomic assignments, incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization, or insufficient sampling can compromise distance-based identification, but also differences in speciation rates and uneven <span class="hlt">tree</span> structure. The initially low match between morphospecies and the different molecular <span class="hlt">species</span> delineation methods in this case study shows the necessity of combining the output of various methods in an integrative approach. Thereby we obtain an idea about the reliability of the different results and signals, which enables us to fine-tune sampling, delineation technique and data collection, and to identify <span class="hlt">species</span> that require taxonomic revision. PMID:22155423</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Astrin, Jonas J; Stüben, Peter E; Misof, Bernhard; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Gimnich, France; Raupach, Michael J; Ahrens, Dirk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21516889"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modern <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya <span class="hlt">tree</span>-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> used for daily household needs, on the modern <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of <span class="hlt">species</span> useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that <span class="hlt">species</span> composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. <span class="hlt">Species</span> composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" <span class="hlt">species</span> still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the <span class="hlt">species</span> composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans. PMID:21516889</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ross, Nanci J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5888..180T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polarimetric reflectance and depolarization ratio from several <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a growing interest toward using lidar for forest remote sensing. The Multiwavelength Airborne Polarimetric Lidar (MAPL) was designed primarily for vegetation remote sensing purposes. The system has full lidar waveform capture and polarimetric measurement capabilities at 532-nm and 1064-nm wavelengths. To study the polarimetric reflectance from different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, ground experiments were conducted using the MAPL system. Three <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies with distinct features were selected for this study. These are cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black willow (Salix nigra) and red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana). The test results revealed that the shapes of the lidar waveforms, the depolarization ratios, and the percent reflectance data all have distinct features for different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The MAPL system is proved to be able to detect all these features. Our study indicates that the MAPL data have the potential to be used toward developing a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> discrimination algorithm. In addition, it is also believed that these data can be used to detect <span class="hlt">tree</span> stress conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tan, Songxin; Narayanan, Ram M.; Helder, Dennis L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25371435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward more accurate ancestral protein genotype-phenotype reconstructions with the use of <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>-aware gene <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The resurrection of ancestral proteins provides direct insight into how natural selection has shaped proteins found in nature. By tracing substitutions along a gene phylogeny, ancestral proteins can be reconstructed in silico and subsequently synthesized in vitro. This elegant strategy reveals the complex mechanisms responsible for the evolution of protein functions and structures. However, to date, all protein resurrection studies have used simplistic approaches for ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR), including the assumption that a single sequence alignment alone is sufficient to accurately reconstruct the history of the gene family. The impact of such shortcuts on conclusions about ancestral functions has not been investigated. Here, we show with simulations that utilizing information on <span class="hlt">species</span> history using a model that accounts for the duplication, horizontal transfer, and loss (DTL) of genes statistically increases ASR accuracy. This underscores the importance of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> topology in the inference of putative ancestors. We validate our in silico predictions using in vitro resurrection of the LeuB enzyme for the ancestor of the Firmicutes, a major and ancient bacterial phylum. With this particular protein, our experimental results demonstrate that information on the <span class="hlt">species</span> phylogeny results in a biochemically more realistic and kinetically more stable ancestral protein. Additional resurrection experiments with different proteins are necessary to statistically quantify the impact of using <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>-aware gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> on ancestral protein phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results suggest the need for incorporating both sequence and DTL information in future studies of protein resurrections to accurately define the genotype-phenotype space in which proteins diversify. PMID:25371435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Groussin, Mathieu; Hobbs, Joanne K; Szöll?si, Gergely J; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Arcus, Vickery L; Gouy, Manolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4271536"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward More Accurate Ancestral Protein Genotype–Phenotype Reconstructions with the Use of <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Tree</span>-Aware Gene <span class="hlt">Trees</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The resurrection of ancestral proteins provides direct insight into how natural selection has shaped proteins found in nature. By tracing substitutions along a gene phylogeny, ancestral proteins can be reconstructed in silico and subsequently synthesized in vitro. This elegant strategy reveals the complex mechanisms responsible for the evolution of protein functions and structures. However, to date, all protein resurrection studies have used simplistic approaches for ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR), including the assumption that a single sequence alignment alone is sufficient to accurately reconstruct the history of the gene family. The impact of such shortcuts on conclusions about ancestral functions has not been investigated. Here, we show with simulations that utilizing information on <span class="hlt">species</span> history using a model that accounts for the duplication, horizontal transfer, and loss (DTL) of genes statistically increases ASR accuracy. This underscores the importance of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> topology in the inference of putative ancestors. We validate our in silico predictions using in vitro resurrection of the LeuB enzyme for the ancestor of the Firmicutes, a major and ancient bacterial phylum. With this particular protein, our experimental results demonstrate that information on the <span class="hlt">species</span> phylogeny results in a biochemically more realistic and kinetically more stable ancestral protein. Additional resurrection experiments with different proteins are necessary to statistically quantify the impact of using <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>-aware gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> on ancestral protein phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results suggest the need for incorporating both sequence and DTL information in future studies of protein resurrections to accurately define the genotype–phenotype space in which proteins diversify. PMID:25371435</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Groussin, Mathieu; Hobbs, Joanne K.; Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Arcus, Vickery L.; Gouy, Manolo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24584221"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiological minimum temperatures for root growth in seven common European broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, compared them with the <span class="hlt">species</span>' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all <span class="hlt">species</span>, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among <span class="hlt">species</span> between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those <span class="hlt">species</span> that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated <span class="hlt">species</span>, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across <span class="hlt">species</span>, the specific root length (m g(-1) root) was reduced by, on average, 60% at temperatures below 7 °C. A significant correlation of minimum temperatures for root growth with the natural high elevation limits of the investigated <span class="hlt">species</span> indicates <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific thermal requirements for basic physiological processes. Although these limits are not necessarily directly causative for the upper distribution limit of a <span class="hlt">species</span>, they seem to belong to a syndrome of adaptive processes for life at low temperatures. The anatomical changes at the cold limit likely hint at the mechanisms impeding meristematic activity at low temperatures. PMID:24584221</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25555688"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of mariner-like transposons of the mauritiana Subfamily in seven <span class="hlt">tree</span> aphid <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are Class II transposons present in all eukaryotic genomes in which MLEs have been searched for. This article reports the detection of MLEs in seven of the main fruit <span class="hlt">tree</span> aphid <span class="hlt">species</span> out of eight <span class="hlt">species</span> studied. Deleted MLE sequences of 916-919 bp were characterized, using the terminal-inverted repeats (TIRs) of mariner elements belonging to the mauritiana Subfamily as primers. All the sequences detected were deleted copies of full-length elements that included the 3'- and 5'-TIRs but displayed internal deletions affecting Mos1 activity. Networks based on the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit-I (CO-I) and MLE sequences were incongruent, suggesting that mutations in transposon sequences had accumulated before speciation of <span class="hlt">tree</span> aphid <span class="hlt">species</span> occurred, and that they have been maintained in this <span class="hlt">species</span> via vertical transmissions. This is the first evidence of the widespread occurrence of MLEs in aphids. PMID:25555688</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kharrat, Imen; Mezghani, Maha; Casse, Nathalie; Denis, Françoise; Caruso, Aurore; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23277438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Certified and uncertified logging concessions compared in Gabon: changes in stand structure, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and biomass.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all <span class="hlt">trees</span> >10 cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and <span class="hlt">tree</span> damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3 months after the 508 ha FSC study area and the 200 ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7 m(3)/ha (0.39 <span class="hlt">trees</span>/ha) and 11.4 m(3)/ha (0.76 <span class="hlt">trees</span>/ha). For each <span class="hlt">tree</span> felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other <span class="hlt">trees</span> were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9 % more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7 % more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4 % at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities. PMID:23277438</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medjibe, V P; Putz, Francis E; Romero, Claudia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..519..446S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and meteorological effects on differential stemflow funneling ratios for two deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stemflow is an important subcanopy flux that delivers enriched rainfall to soils immediately surrounding a <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Stemflow volume represents the quantity of this hydrologic flux while funneling ratio (FR) represents the efficiency with which individual <span class="hlt">trees</span> scavenge water during rainfall events. Stemflow hydrology and storm meteorological characteristics were monitored from 2007 through 2012 to determine the interspecific differences in stemflow flux with a focus on FR efficiency. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and size on stemflow FR, determine how seasonality affects stemflow FR, and quantify the role of storm meteorological conditions on stemflow FR. The results presented in this paper build upon 2 years of previous hydrologic research from the Fair Hill, MD field site, which strengthen previous findings via larger storm sample size and highlight more complex stemflow hydrologic relationships than originally assumed. Specifically, this study has demonstrated (1) the efficiency with which smaller <span class="hlt">trees</span> gain access to rainfall via higher FR than larger <span class="hlt">trees</span>, (2) the FR variability of F. grandifolia induced by the <span class="hlt">species</span>' ease of generating stemflow under many storm conditions, and (3) the necessity of many years of hydrometeorological sampling to capture long-term rainfall characteristics and trends. The efficiency of smaller <span class="hlt">trees</span> to preferentially funnel water to their <span class="hlt">tree</span> base has implications for forests undergoing change. Forest disturbance and subsequent regrowth is dominated by smaller <span class="hlt">trees</span>, but additional research is necessary to understand how saplings compete among one another to gain access to stemflow and how this may be influenced by changing climates and forest composition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siegert, C. M.; Levia, D. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influences of calcium availability and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on Ca isotope fractionation in soil and vegetation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The calcium (Ca) isotope system is potentially of great use for understanding biogeochemical processes at multiple scales in forest ecosystems, yet remains largely unexplored for this purpose. In order to further our understanding of Ca behavior in forests, we examined two nearly adjacent hardwood-dominated catchments with differing soil Ca concentrations, developed from crystalline bedrock, to determine the variability of 44Ca/ 40Ca ratios (expressed as ??44Ca) within soil and vegetation pools. For both sugar maple and American beech, the Ca isotope compositions of the measured roots and calculated bulk <span class="hlt">trees</span> were considerably lighter than those of soil pools at these sites, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">trees</span> were able to preferentially take up light Ca at the root-soil interface. The Ca isotope compositions of three of four root samples were among the lightest values yet reported for terrestrial materials (??44Ca ???-3.95???). Our results further indicate that Ca isotopes were fractionated along the transpiration streams of both <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with roots having the least ??44Ca values and leaf litter the greatest. An approximately 2??? difference in ??44Ca values between roots and leaf litter of both <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> suggests a persistent fractionation mechanism along the transpiration stream, likely related to Ca binding in wood tissue coupled with internal ion exchange. Finally, our data indicate that differing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> demand for Ca and soil Ca concentrations together may influence Ca isotope distribution within the <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Inter-catchment differences in Ca isotope distributions in soils and <span class="hlt">trees</span> were minor, indicating that the results of our study may have broad transferability to studies of forest ecosystems in catchments developed on crystalline substrates elsewhere. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Page, B.D.; Bullen, T.D.; Mitchell, M.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/82/6/859.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slow Leaf Development of Evergreen Broad-leaved <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Japanese Warm Temperate Forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rates of light-saturated net photosynthesis (PNmax) and dark respiration (Rd) on a leaf area basis, leaf dry mass per area (LMA), leaf nitrogen content on a leaf area basis (LNa) and instantaneous nitrogen use efficiency (NUE=PNmax\\/LNa) were followed during leaf development in six evergreen broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> typical of warm-temperate forests in Japan. These <span class="hlt">species</span> wereCastanopsis sieboldii, Quercus myrsinaefolia, Quercus</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SHIN-ICHI MIYAZAWA; SHIGENARI SATOMI; ICHIRO TERASHIMA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/p4hbf6qwr4jc8jmg.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Leaf Traits of Four Broad-Leaved <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> along a Hillside Gradient</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary: In order to support an appropriate <span class="hlt">species</span> selection for the establishment of mixed forest stands, we studied the changes in growth and leaf traits of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> ( Fagus sylvaticaL., Acer pseudoplatanusL. , Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Fraxinus excelsior L.) along a hillside gradient. The nutrient-rich soils at the study site in North-Hesse (Central Germany) are derived mainly from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dirk Hölscher; Stephanie Schmitt; Katrin Kupfer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/508l3pr2un6k0l51.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem and leaf hydraulics of congeneric <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from adjacent tropical savanna and forest ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leaf and stem functional traits related to plant water relations were studied for six congeneric <span class="hlt">species</span> pairs, each composed\\u000a of one <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> typical of savanna habitats and another typical of adjacent forest habitats, to determine whether there\\u000a were intrinsic differences in plant hydraulics between these two functional types. Only individuals growing in savanna habitats\\u000a were studied. Most stem traits,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guang-You Hao; William A. Hoffmann; Fabian G. Scholz; Sandra J. Bucci; Frederick C. Meinzer; Augusto C. Franco; Kun-Fang Cao; Guillermo Goldstein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a 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href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B52C..06K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leaf nitrate assimilation during leaf expansion period: comparison of temperate and boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined nitrate assimilation in several <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to test the hypothesis that plant N acquisition is highest in early spring due to the N demands of leaf growth and the seasonal availability of soil N. Specifically, we advance the idea that <span class="hlt">trees</span> acquire N most actively during the leaf expansion period, which serves to offset growth-dilution of foliar N. However, it has been observed that boreal <span class="hlt">species</span> expand their leaves more rapidly than do temperate <span class="hlt">species</span>, suggesting that they exhibit a different seasonal pattern of N acquisition than do temperate <span class="hlt">species</span>. To examine these relationships we measured leaf nitrate reductase activity (NRA) as a proxy for nitrate assimilation, leaf expansion rates, and foliar N concentrations on three boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and three temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> throughout their leaf expansion period. An evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span> (Quercus glauca) and two deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> (Acer palmatum and Zelkova serrata) were investigated in temperate Japan, and three deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> Alnus crispa, Betula papyrifera and Populus tremuloides were chosen in a boreal forest in interior Alaska, US. The patterns of foliar N concentrations were very similar across all six <span class="hlt">species</span>, but the mean leaf expansion period was shorter in the boreal <span class="hlt">species</span> (about 25 days) than in temperate <span class="hlt">species</span> (about 29 days). All temperate <span class="hlt">species</span> showed clear peaks of leaf NRA in the middle of leaf expansion period, suggesting that leaves partly compensate for the N dilution during expansion via foliar nitrate assimilation, and that plant nitrate acquisition was effectively timed to coincide with soil N availability generally increased in early spring. By contrast, peak NRA in the boreal <span class="hlt">species</span> were observed in different stage of leaf expansion, but as in the temperate <span class="hlt">species</span> declined to very low levels after the leaves were fully expanded. Our results demonstrate that plant nitrate assimilation is concentrated during leaf expansion in spring and early summer, but declines to very low levels during the remaining part of the growing season. This high rate of acquisition in early spring may reflect the seasonal nature of soil nitrate dynamics as well as acquisition of N liberated over-winter in both biomes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koyama, L.; Tokuchi, N.; Kielland, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/eab/files/2012/03/Alternatives-to-Ash-for-Professionals.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternative to Ash <span class="hlt">Trees</span>: Commercially Available <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Cultivars Dr. Laura G. Jull</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ã? freemanii, Acer rubrum, Acer platanoides, Acer saccharum, etc. Plant no more than 10% of a <span class="hlt">species</span>: i.e. Acer platanoides Large to medium-sized Street/Urban <span class="hlt">Trees</span> Acer Ã? freemanii: Freeman maple, Zone 3b-4 Acer platanoides: Norway maple, Zone 4b, native to Europe, wide-spreading, rounded, dense form, 40</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balser, Teri C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25065257"> <span id="translatedtitle">Responses of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to heat waves and extreme heat events.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The number and intensity of heat waves has increased, and this trend is likely to continue throughout the 21st century. Often, heat waves are accompanied by drought conditions. It is projected that the global land area experiencing heat waves will double by 2020, and quadruple by 2040. Extreme heat events can impact a wide variety of <span class="hlt">tree</span> functions. At the leaf level, photosynthesis is reduced, photooxidative stress increases, leaves abscise and the growth rate of remaining leaves decreases. In some <span class="hlt">species</span>, stomatal conductance increases at high temperatures, which may be a mechanism for leaf cooling. At the whole plant level, heat stress can decrease growth and shift biomass allocation. When drought stress accompanies heat waves, the negative effects of heat stress are exacerbated and can lead to <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality. However, some <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibit remarkable tolerance to thermal stress. Responses include changes that minimize stress on photosynthesis and reductions in dark respiration. Although there have been few studies to date, there is evidence of within-<span class="hlt">species</span> genetic variation in thermal tolerance, which could be important to exploit in production forestry systems. Understanding the mechanisms of differing <span class="hlt">tree</span> responses to extreme temperature events may be critically important for understanding how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> will be affected by climate change. PMID:25065257</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teskey, Robert; Wertin, Timothy; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Steppe, Kathy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://webdocs.dow.wur.nl/internet/fem/uk/pdf/pena%20%20JTE%202002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of forest successional stage on seed removal of tropical rain forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seed removal was evaluated at the macro- and micro-habitat level in areas differing in successional stage in the Bolivian Amazon. The successional stages consisted of secondary forests of 2, 10 and 20 years old and primary forest. Seeds of nine <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were artificially dispersed and the number of seeds removed was evaluated over 7 weeks. Several stand characteristics were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marielos Peña-Claros; Henneleen De Boo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://biology.unm.edu/jhbrown/Documents/Publications/2000s/2009-12%20Temperature%20dependence.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity in eastern Asia and North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity in eastern Asia and North America in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and spatial scale and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, James H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fabinet.up.ac.za/publication/pdfs/375-2011_chen_et_al_mycologia.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">species</span> of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium <span class="hlt">trees</span> in China and Indonesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Novel <span class="hlt">species</span> of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium <span class="hlt">trees</span> in China and Indonesia ShuaiFei Chen cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/fine/Site/Gabriel_files/geiger%20et%20al%202011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distinct roles of savanna and forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in regeneration under fire suppression in a</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Distinct roles of savanna and forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in regeneration under fire suppression in a Brazilian savanna Erika L. Geiger, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gabriel Damasco, M. Haridasan, Augusto C. Franco & William A. Hoffmann Keywords Cerrado; fire; forest expansion; forest­savanna boundary; tropical savanna</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fine, Paul V.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov/691/cv/kletetschka/telomere.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research article Analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of various</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research article Analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of various replicative capacity. With each cell division, telomeres (the physical ends of linear chromosomes. Some cells maintain telomere length by the action of the telomerase enzyme. The bristlecone pine, Pinus</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kletetschka, Gunther</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331429"> <span id="translatedtitle">TECHNO – ECONOMIC DATA ON <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span> OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS FROM KARNATAKA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Techno – economic data on 44 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> used as crude drugs in various ayurvedic preparations are provided. To maintain quality and reasonable trice, it is suggested that the procurement and sale of crude / raw drugs should be carried out by government agency. PMID:22557576</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Nair, K. Vasudevan; Holla, B. V.; Keshavamurthy, K.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49322360"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the vulnerability of fifteen <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> under changing climate in Northwest North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Pacific northwestern (PNW) region of North America, climatic conditions have significantly warmed since a predominantly cool phase of the Pacific North American circulation patterns between 1950 and 1975. What are the implications of this shift in climate for the vulnerability of native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>? To address this question, we combined mechanistic and statistical models to assess where a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicholas C. Coops; Richard H. Waring</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biosci.unl.edu/facultyfiles/russo/russo%20et%20al%202005%20j%20ecol.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil-related performance variation and distributions of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a Bornean rain forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1 Spatial distributions of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> often correlate with environmental variation, suggesting that ecological sorting caused by niche differentiation may be important for maintaining <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. 2 Four soil types have been identified in a 52-ha forest dynamics plot in Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest (ranked by increasing fertility and moisture: sandy loam, loam, fine loam, and clay). The distributions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SABRINA E. RUSSO; STUART J. DAVIES; DAVID A. KING; SYLVESTER TAN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/88/25/06/PDF/hal-00882506.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Germination and storage of recalcitrant seeds of some tropical forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Germination and storage of recalcitrant seeds of some tropical forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> F. Corbineau D and Roberts, 1979). The aim of the present study was to analyze the germination of some recalci- trant seeds of freshly harvested seeds Freshly harvested seeds had no dorman- cy. In all cases, germination was best</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cfbiodiv.org/UploadFile/2007Vertical_structure_and_spatial_associations_of_dominant_tree_species_in_an_old-growth_temperate_forest.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vertical structure and spatial associations of dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in an old-growth temperate forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 25-ha broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest plot was established on Changbai Mountain, PR China, in 2004 in order to gain insights into the processes driving regeneration and succession of the forest. All <span class="hlt">trees</span> at least 1cm in diameter at breast height were mapped and identified to <span class="hlt">species</span>. In this study, the spatial distribution patterns and spatial associations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhanqing Hao; Jian Zhang; Bo Song; Ji Ye; Buhang Li</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pol.j.ecol.cbe-pan.pl/article/ar56_2_04.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">FOLIAR RESORPTION OF NUTRIENTS IN SELECTED SYMPATRIC <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span> IN GALLERY FOREST ?BLACK SEA REGION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gallery forests in Central Black Sea Region are dominated by Platanus orientalis L. The studies were performed in four sites (Mert River, Adalar, Kurupelit and Taflan Regions) located in V-shaped river valleys and differing with soil conditions. Nutrient concen- trations were measured in green and senescent leaves in selected sympatric <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Foliar nutrient resorption efficiency (RE; as the ratio</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hamdi Güray KUTBAY; Duygu KILIC; Hasan KORKMAZ; Erkan YALÇIN; Zeki APAYDIN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40916430"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary operational genetic management units of a highly fragmented forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of southern South America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The management of the genetic resources of any wild <span class="hlt">species</span> requires the definition of genetically homogeneous units about which practical decisions can be taken. To this end, a structure analysis was performed on the Patagonian cypress Austrocedrus chilensis (D.Don) Pic. Ser. et Bizzarri. A total of 746 seed <span class="hlt">trees</span> corresponding to 27 natural populations sampled across its entire Argentinean range</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mario J. Pastorino; Leonardo A. Gallo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/fine/Site/publications_files/brewer_etal2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships of phytogeography and diversity of tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with limestone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in southern Belize Steven W. Brewer1 *, Marcel Rejma´nek2 , Molly A. H. Webb3 and Paul V. A. Fine4 1 of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a limestone area of Belize. Location Maya Mountains, Belize, Mesoamerica. Methods, lower and upper slopes, and ridges were compared in southern Belize using 2 · 500 m transects as sample</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fine, Paul V.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/treesandhurricanes/documents/pdf/EffectsOnTropicalAndSubtropicalTreeSpecies.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: II. Effects on Tropical and Subtropical <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: II. Effects on Tropical and Subtropical <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Mary L. Duryea, Eliana Kampf, Ramon C. Littell, and Carlos D. Rodríguez-Pedraza Abstract. In 1998 when Hurricane Georges (177 km/h) crossed over the entire island of Puerto Rico, and in 2004 when Hurricanes Jeanne (193</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jawitz, James W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/treesandhurricanes/documents/pdf/EffectsOnSEUSCoastalPlainTreeSpecies.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: I. Effects on Southeastern United States Coastal Plain <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: I. Effects on Southeastern United States Coastal Plain <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Mary L. Duryea, Eliana Kampf, and Ramon C. Littell Abstract. Several hurricanes struck Florida, U of these hurricanes on the urban forest and combined these results with four other hurricanes to present an assessment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jawitz, James W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/mvt3833015643956.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic responses to light in seedlings of selected Amazonian and Australian rainforest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seedlings of the Caesalpinoids Hymenaea courbaril, H. parvifolia and Copaifera venezuelana, emergent <span class="hlt">trees</span> of Amazonian rainforest canopies, and of the Araucarian conifers Agathis microstachya and A. robusta, important elements in tropical Australian rainforests, were grown at 6% (shade) and 100% full sunlight (sun) in glasshouses. All <span class="hlt">species</span> produced more leaves in full sunlight than in shade and leaves of sun</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. H. Langenheim; C. B. Osmond; A. Brooks; P. J. Ferrar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.1499B"> <span id="translatedtitle">VOC Emissions from Amazonian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Investigation of primary emission at leaf level</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vegetation is regarded as the major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the atmosphere. Little information is currently available regarding emissions of VOCs from tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at leaf level. 14 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from the different environments of the Amazon basin, i.e.Terra firme, Várzea and Igapó, were screened for VOCs emission at leaf level with a branch enclosure system. Analysis of volatile organics was performed online by PTR-MS and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. Even though standard emission variability between individual of the same <span class="hlt">species</span> was quite high in a few cases, we observed that six of the screened <span class="hlt">species</span> emitted methanol, four isoprene, four monoterpenes and one acetone, independently from their original environment. Highest standard emissions, given based on leaf dry weight. were observed for isoprene (63-12 µg g-1 s-1) followed by monoterpenes (26-0.5 µg g-1 s-1), methanol (9.5-0.5µg g-1 s-1) and acetone (0.5-0.3µg g-1 s-1). The main monoterpene <span class="hlt">species</span> emitted was ?-pinene followed by limonene, sabinene and ß-pinene, with variable emission patterns depending on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Light dependent VOC emission correlates very well with the Guenther algorithm 1995.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bracho Nunez, A.; Knothe, N.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Sci...230..566R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ambient Levels of Ozone Reduce Net Photosynthesis in <span class="hlt">Tree</span> and Crop <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments were conducted to measure the photosynthetic response of three crop and four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to realistic concentrations of ozone and (for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> only) simulated acidic rain. The ozone concentrations were representative of those found in clean ambient air, in mildly to moderately polluted air such as occurs in much of the United States during the summer, and in more heavily polluted air. However, the highest concentrations of ozone used were lower than those found regularly in the Los Angeles area. The mean pH of the simulated acid rain treatments ranged from more alkaline to much more acidic than the mean pH of precipitation in the United States. Exposure to any increase in ozone reduced net photosynthesis in all <span class="hlt">species</span> tested. In contrast, acidic rain had no negative effect on photosynthesis in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and no interaction between ozone and acidic rain was observed. Ozone-induced reductions in photosynthesis were related to declines in growth or yield. <span class="hlt">Species</span> with higher stomatal conductances and thus higher potential for pollutant uptake exhibited greater negative responses to similar ozone treatments. Since exposure to ozone concentrations typical of levels of the pollutant observed in the eastern half of the United States reduced the rates of net photosynthesis of all <span class="hlt">species</span> tested, reductions in net photosynthesis may be occurring over much of the eastern United States.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reich, Peter B.; Amundson, Robert G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5224196"> <span id="translatedtitle">Narrowing historical uncertainty: probabilistic classification of ambiguously identified <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in historical forest survey data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems. Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set of this type is the Public Land Survey (PLS) of the United States General Land Office, which contains data on multiple <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, sizes, and distances recorded at each survey point, located at half-mile (0.8 km) intervals on a 1-mi (1.6 km) grid. This survey method was begun in the 1790s on US federal lands extending westward from Ohio. Thus, the data have the potential of providing a view of much of the US landscape from the mid-1800s, and they have been used extensively for this purpose. However, historical data sources, such as those describing the <span class="hlt">species</span> composition of forests, can often be limited in the detail recorded and the reliability of the data, since the information was often not originally recorded for ecological purposes. Forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> are sometimes recorded ambiguously, using generic or obscure common names. For the PLS data of northern Wisconsin, USA, we developed a method to classify ambiguously identified <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using logistic regression analysis, using data on <span class="hlt">trees</span> that were clearly identified to <span class="hlt">species</span> and a set of independent predictor variables to build the models. The models were first created on partial data sets for each <span class="hlt">species</span> and then tested for fit against the remaining data. Validations were conducted using repeated, random subsets of the data. Model prediction accuracy ranged from 81% to 96% in differentiating congeneric <span class="hlt">species</span> among oak, pine, ash, maple, birch, and elm. Major predictor variables were <span class="hlt">tree</span> size, associated <span class="hlt">species</span>, landscape classes indicative of soil type, and spatial location within the study region. Results help to clarify ambiguities formerly present in maps of historic ecosystems for the region and can be applied to PLS datasets elsewhere, as well as other sources of ambiguous historical data. Mapping the newly classified data with ecological land units provides additional information on the distribution, abundance, and associations of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, as well as their relationships to environmental gradients before the industrial period, and clarifies the identities of <span class="hlt">species</span> formerly mapped only to genus. We offer some caveats on the appropriate use of data derived in this way, as well as describing their potential.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mladenoff, D.J.; Dahir, S.E.; Nordheim, E.V.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11406862"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antimicrobial study of bark from five <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of the bark of Gymnanthes lucida, Gliricidia sepium, Lysiloma divaricata, Lysiloma tergemina and Coccolaba cozumelensis were tested against S. lutea, E. coli, S. epidermidis, L. monocytogenes, S. choleraesuis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus, S. typhimurium, P. vulgaris, V. cholerae and C. albicans. It was found that methanol extracts of the two Lysiloma <span class="hlt">species</span> and G. sepium had antimicrobial effects against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus and V. cholerae at doses of 200 microg. The major inhibitory effect was observed with L. tergemina which showed a bacteriostatic effect on S. epidermidis at doses of 400 microg/mL. PMID:11406862</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pérez G, S; Zavala S, M A; Arias G, L; Pérez G, C; Pérez G, R M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11693093"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Host <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> on Attractiveness of Tunneling Pine Engravers, Ips pini, to Conspecifics and Insect Predators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on the attractiveness of tunneling Ips pini to flying beetles and their insect predators in Wisconsin was investigated. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> influenced the flight response of both predators and prey in the same rank order. Ips pini and its major predators, Thanasimus dubius and Platysoma cylindrica, were more attracted to I. pini males boring into</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nadir Erbilgin; Kenneth F. Raffa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cerambycoidea.com/titles/morewood2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Four Eastern North American Hardwood <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is an invasive wood-boring cerambycid beetle that kills hardwood <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The host range of this <span class="hlt">species</span> is unusually broad but is not well deÞned in the available literature and may include <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that have not been reported as hosts because they have not previously been exposed to the beetle. We evaluated oviposition by A. glabripennis offered</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. D. Morewood; P. R. Neiner; J. R. McNeil; J. C. Sellmer; K. Hoover</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57937317"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Development of a New Dendrometer and Its Application to Deciduous Broadleaf <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Hokkaido, Northern Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new sensitive dendrometer system was invented by using a potentiometer and datalogger and applied to the stem of some canopy <span class="hlt">trees</span> of a stand of deciduous broad-leaf <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> native to Hokkaido, northern Japan. Different types of diameter\\/age growth curves were observed at the fine level for different <span class="hlt">species</span>: (1) an ordinary type with smooth and gradual growth; and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryuichi Tabuchi; Kunihide Takahashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/PlantSoil%20279,%20173-185,%202006%20Soethe.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Root morphology and anchorage of six native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a tropical montane forest and an elfin forest in Ecuador</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Root morphology and anchorage of six native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a tropical montane forest in revised form 12 July 2005 Key words: aspect ratio, buttress, root architecture, root asymmetry, slope, stilt root Abstract Root architecture of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was investigated at two different altitudes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lehmann, Johannes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gfawesome.org/~flashVersion=true/school/lessons/ECOLOGY-2/01_-_Trees/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trees</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This tutorial covers various aspects of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. It explains which chemicals cause leaves to change colors, how the process of photosynthesis works, the functions of bark, roots, pollen and leaves, and the effect of <span class="hlt">trees</span> on nearby temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16995629"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on decomposition via leaf litter chemistry vs. effects on the decomposition environment. Decomposition rates of litter in its plot of origin were negatively correlated with litter lignin and positively correlated with mean annual soil temperature (MAT(soil)) across <span class="hlt">species</span>. Likewise, decomposition of a common litter type across all plots was positively associated with MAT(soil), and decomposition of litter from all plots in a common plot was negatively related to litter lignin but positively related to litter Ca. Taken together, these results indicate that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> influenced microbial decomposition primarily via differences in litter lignin (and secondarily, via differences in litter Ca), with high-lignin (and low-Ca) <span class="hlt">species</span> decomposing most slowly, and by affecting MAT(soil), with warmer plots exhibiting more rapid decomposition. In addition to litter bag experiments, we examined forest floor dynamics in each plot by mass balance, since earthworms were a known component of these forest stands and their access to litter in litter bags was limited. Forest floor removal rates estimated from mass balance were positively related to leaf litter Ca (and unrelated to decay rates obtained using litter bags). Litter Ca, in turn, was positively related to the abundance of earthworms, particularly Lumbricus terrestris. Thus, while <span class="hlt">species</span> influence microbially mediated decomposition primarily through differences in litter lignin, differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in litter Ca are most important in determining <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on forest floor leaf litter dynamics among these 14 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, apparently because of the influence of litter Ca on earthworm activity. The overall influence of these <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on leaf litter decomposition via effects on both microbial and faunal processing will only become clear when we can quantify the decay dynamics of litter that is translocated belowground by earthworms. PMID:16995629</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Ogdahl, Megan; Zytkowiak, Roma; Hale, Cynthia; Karolewski, Piotr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010004211&hterms=roma+staff+member&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Droma%2Bstaff%2Bmember"> <span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-4 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The BOREAS TE-4 team collected steady-state gas exchange and reflectance data from several <span class="hlt">species</span> in the BOREAS SSA during 1994 and in the NSA during 1996. Measurements of light, CO2, temperature, and humidity response curves were made by the BOREAS TE-4 team during the summers of 1994 and 1996 using intact attached leaves of boreal forest <span class="hlt">species</span> located in the BOREAS SSA and NSA. These measurements were conducted to calibrate models used to predict photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration. The 1994 and 1996 data can be used to construct plots of response functions or for parameterizing models. Parameter values are suitable for application in SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model of Collatz et al. (1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Collatz, G. James; Berry, Joseph A.; Gamon, John; Fredeen, Art; Fu, Wei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/283030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> choice in dendrochemistry studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, element concentrations in <span class="hlt">tree</span> rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of <span class="hlt">species</span> which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of <span class="hlt">species</span> with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American <span class="hlt">species</span> include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, <span class="hlt">species</span> such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.0N16Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large difference of inhibitive effect of nitrogen deposition on soil methane oxidation between plantations with N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and non-N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The responses of soil methane (CH4) net fluxes to nitrogen (N) addition in a N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Acacia auriculiformis (AA)) and a non-N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Eucalyptus citriodora (EU)) plantation were studied in southern China. Treatments were conducted at each plantation with three N levels (0, 50, and 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for control, medium-N, and high-N treatment, respectively, abbreviated as C, MN, and HN). From August 2010 to July 2011, CH4 flux was measured biweekly using a static chamber and gas chromatography technique. The soils of both sites acted as sink of atmospheric CH4. The CH4 uptake rate in control of the AA site (36.3 ± 3.2 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) was greater than that of the EU plantation (29.9 ± 0.9 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1). In the AA plantation, the averaged rates of CH4 uptake for the MN (28.6 ± 2.3 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) and HN treatment (23.8 ± 2.8 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) were decreased by 21% and 35%, respectively, compared to the control. However, there was no change of soil CH4 uptake between N-treated plots and the controls in the EU site. Our results indicated that there might be large difference of inhibitive effect of N deposition on soil CH4 oxidation between the AA and EU plantations. The projected increase of N deposition would weaken the capability of N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> plantations for atmospheric CH4 sink in tropical and subtropical regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiaomin; Liu, Lei; Fu, Shenglei; Chen, Hao; Huang, Juan; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Mo, Jiangming</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140009601&hterms=food+deserts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2528food%2Bdeserts%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> Density and <span class="hlt">Species</span> Decline in the African Sahel Attributable to Climate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increased aridity and human population have reduced <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover in parts of the African Sahel and degraded resources for local people. Yet, <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover trends and the relative importance of climate and population remain unresolved. From field measurements, aerial photos, and Ikonos satellite images, we detected significant 1954-2002 <span class="hlt">tree</span> density declines in the western Sahel of 18 +/- 14% (P = 0.014, n = 204) and 17 +/- 13% (P = 0.0009, n = 187). From field observations, we detected a significant 1960-2000 <span class="hlt">species</span> richness decline of 21 +/- 11% (P = 0.0028, n = 14) across the Sahel and a southward shift of the Sahel, Sudan, and Guinea zones. Multivariate analyses of climate, soil, and population showed that temperature most significantly (P < 0.001) explained <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover changes. Multivariate and bivariate tests and field observations indicated the dominance of temperature and precipitation, supporting attribution of <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover changes to climate variability. Climate change forcing of Sahel climate variability, particularly the significant (P < 0.05) 1901-2002 temperature increases and precipitation decreases in the research areas, connects Sahel <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover changes to global climate change. This suggests roles for global action and local adaptation to address ecological change in the Sahel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonzalez, Patrick; Tucker, Compton J.; Sy, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24486469"> <span id="translatedtitle">Converting probabilistic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> range shift projections into meaningful classes for management.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper deals with the management problem how to decide on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> suitability under changing environmental conditions. It presents an algorithm that classifies the output of a range shift model for major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Europe into multiple classes that can be linked to qualities characterizing the ecological niche of the <span class="hlt">species</span>. The classes: i) Core distribution area, ii) Extended distribution area, iii) Occasional occurrence area, and iv) No occurrence area are first theoretically developed and then statistically described. The classes are interpreted from an ecological point of view using criteria like population structure, competitive strength, site spectrum and vulnerability to biotic hazards. The functioning of the algorithm is demonstrated using the example of a generalized linear model that was fitted to a pan-European dataset of presence/absence of major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with downscaled climate data from a General Circulation Model (GCM). Applications of the algorithm to <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> suitability classification on a European and regional level are shown. The thresholds that are used by the algorithm are precision-based and include Cohen's Kappa. A validation of the algorithm using an independent dataset of the German National Forest Inventory shows good accordance of the statistically derived classes with ecological traits for Norway spruce, while the differentiation especially between core and extended distribution for European beech that is in the centre of its natural range in this area is less accurate. We hypothesize that for <span class="hlt">species</span> in the core of their range regional factors like forest history superimpose climatic factors. Problems of uncertainty issued from potentially applying a multitude of modelling approaches and/or climate realizations within the range shift model are discussed and a way to deal with the uncertainty by revealing the underlying attitude towards risk of the decision maker is proposed. PMID:24486469</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanewinkel, Marc; Cullmann, Dominik A; Michiels, Hans-Gerd; Kändler, Gerald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.1649L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on Taihang Mountain, North China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> acted as sinks for atmospheric N2O. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> had a significant effect on CO2 and N2O releases but not on CH4 uptake. The lower net global warming potential in natural regenerated vegetation suggested that natural regenerated vegetation were more desirable plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in reducing global warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geological Substrates Shape <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal <span class="hlt">species</span>, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. <span class="hlt">Species</span> distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. <span class="hlt">Species</span> associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span> rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of <span class="hlt">species</span> and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies. PMID:22905127</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frédéric; Swaine, Michael; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22445447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene <span class="hlt">trees</span>, <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span>, and morphology converge on a similar phylogeny of living gars (Actinopterygii: Holostei: Lepisosteidae), an ancient clade of ray-finned fishes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extant gars represent the remaining members of a formerly diverse assemblage of ancient ray-finned fishes and have been the subject of multiple phylogenetic analyses using morphological data. Here, we present the first hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among living gar <span class="hlt">species</span> based on molecular data, through the examination of gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> heterogeneity and coalescent <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> analyses of a portion of one mitochondrial (COI) and seven nuclear (ENC1, myh6, plagl2, S7 ribosomal protein intron 1, sreb2, tbr1, and zic1) genes. Individual gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> displayed varying degrees of resolution with regards to <span class="hlt">species</span>-level relationships, and the gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> inferred from COI and the S7 intron were the only two that were completely resolved. Coalescent <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> analyses of nuclear genes resulted in a well-resolved and strongly supported phylogenetic <span class="hlt">tree</span> of living gar <span class="hlt">species</span>, for which Bayesian posterior node support was further improved by the inclusion of the mitochondrial gene. <span class="hlt">Species</span>-level relationships among gars inferred from our molecular data set were highly congruent with previously published morphological phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of two <span class="hlt">species</span>, Lepisosteus osseus and L. platostomus. Re-examination of the character coding used by previous authors provided partial resolution of this topological discordance, resulting in broad concordance in the phylogenies inferred from individual genes, the coalescent <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> analysis, and morphology. The completely resolved phylogeny inferred from the molecular data set with strong Bayesian posterior support at all nodes provided insights into the potential for introgressive hybridization and patterns of allopatric speciation in the evolutionary history of living gars, as well as a solid foundation for future examinations of functional diversification and evolutionary stasis in a "living fossil" lineage. PMID:22445447</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wright, Jeremy J; David, Solomon R; Near, Thomas J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70123146"> <span id="translatedtitle">The brown <span class="hlt">tree</span> snake, an introduced pest <span class="hlt">species</span> in the central Pacific Islands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The reproduction of endangered Mariana crows (Corvus kubaryi) is intensively monitored, nests are protected, and (when necessary) eggs or young are moved to the safety of lab conditions until they are less vulnerable to the threats in natural habitats. Barriers on <span class="hlt">tree</span> trunks and judicious pruning of adjacent <span class="hlt">trees</span> are used in attempts to exclude snakes from nest <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Two birds unique to Guam--the Micronesian kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) and Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni)-- are maintained at captive propagation facilities on Guam and in mainland zoos. Studies of these and other <span class="hlt">species</span>, in captivity and on nearby islands, are underway to bolster our biological understanding of their behavior, reproduction, habitat use, and population biology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fritts, Thomas H.; Rodda, Gordon H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902686"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three <span class="hlt">species</span> of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three <span class="hlt">species</span>, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrews' attention. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes <span class="hlt">species</span> were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of "tuning," notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous <span class="hlt">species</span> sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrew sensitivity maxima. PMID:22902686</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3493410"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tuning of color contrast signals to visual sensitivity maxima of <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrews by three Bornean highland Nepenthes <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three <span class="hlt">species</span> of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three <span class="hlt">species</span>, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrews' attention. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes <span class="hlt">species</span> were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of “tuning,” notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous <span class="hlt">species</span> sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrew sensitivity maxima. PMID:22902686</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moran, Jonathan A.; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3362550"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strong Neutral Spatial Effects Shape <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Distributions across Life Stages at Multiple Scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditionally, ecologists use lattice (regional summary) count data to simulate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions to explore <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence. However, no previous study has explicitly compared the difference between using lattice count and basal area data and analyzed <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions at both individual <span class="hlt">species</span> and community levels while simultaneously considering the combined scenarios of life stage and scale. In this study, we hypothesized that basal area data are more closely related to environmental variables than are count data because of strong environmental filtering effects. We also address the contribution of niche and the neutral (i.e., solely dependent on distance) factors to <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions. Specifically, we separately modeled count data and basal area data while considering life stage and scale effects at the two levels with simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. A principal coordinates of neighbor matrix (PCNM) was used to model neutral spatial effects at the community level. The explained variations of <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution data did not differ significantly between the two types of data at either the individual <span class="hlt">species</span> level or the community level, indicating that the two types of data can be used nearly identically to model <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions. Neutral spatial effects represented by spatial autoregressive parameters and the PCNM eigenfunctions drove <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions on multiple scales, different life stages and individual <span class="hlt">species</span> and community levels in this plot. We concluded that strong neutral spatial effects are the principal mechanisms underlying the <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions and thus shape biodiversity spatial patterns. PMID:22666497</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Yue-Hua; Lan, Guo-Yu; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min; Tang, Yong; Li, Yi-De; Xu, Da-Ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/318771"> <span id="translatedtitle">How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Species</span> composition of temperate forests vary with successional age and seems likely to change in response to significant global climate change. Because photosynthesis rates in co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can differ in their sensitivity to environmental conditions, these changes in <span class="hlt">species</span> composition are likely to alter the carbon dynamics of temperate forests. To help improve their understanding of such atmosphere-biosphere interactions, the authors explored changes in leaf-level photosynthesis in a 60--70 yr old temperate mixed-deciduous forest in Petersham, Massachusetts (USA). Diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions differentially influenced in situ leaf-level photosynthesis rates in the canopies of four mature temperate deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The authors measured in situ photosynthesis at two heights within the canopies through a diurnal time course on 7 d over two growing seasons. They simultaneously measured a suite of environmental conditions surrounding the leaf at the time of each measurement. The authors used path analysis to examine the influence of environmental factors on in situ photosynthesis in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bassow, S.L.; Bazzaz, F.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70003746"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and soil nutrient profiles in old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most <span class="hlt">species</span>-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental control of daily stem growth patterns in five temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> ring analysis investigates growth processes at time horizons of several weeks to millennia, but lacks the detail of short-term fluctuation in cambial activity. This study used electronic high-precision dendrometry for analyzing the environmental factors controlling stem diameter variation and radial growth in daily resolution in five co-existing temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) with different growth and survival strategies. Daily stem radius change (SRC(d)) was primarily influenced by the atmospheric demand for water vapor (expressed either as vapor pressure deficit (D) or relative air humidity (RH)) while rainfall, soil matrix potential, temperature and radiation were only secondary factors. SRC(d) increased linearly with increasing RH and decreasing D in all <span class="hlt">species</span>. The positive effect of a low atmospheric water vapor demand on SRC(d) was largest in June during the period of maximal radial growth rate and persisted when observation windows of 7 or 21 days instead of 1 day were used. We found a high synchronicity in the day-to-day growth rate fluctuation among the <span class="hlt">species</span> with increment peaks corresponding to air humidity maxima, even though the mean daily radial growth rate differed fivefold among the <span class="hlt">species</span>. The five -<span class="hlt">species</span> also differed in the positive slope of the growth/RH relationship with the steepest increase found in Fraxinus and the lowest in Fagus. We explain the strong positive effect of high RH and low D on radial stem increment by lowered transpiration which reduces negative pressure in the conducting system and increases turgor in the stem cambium cells, thereby favoring cell division and expansion. The results suggest that mechanistic models of <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth need to consider the atmospheric water status in addition to the known controlling environmental factors: temperature, soil moisture and precipitation. The results further have implications for sensitivity analyses of <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth to climatic changes. PMID:22659458</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4183311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">species</span>’ range limits from functional traits for the <span class="hlt">tree</span> flora of North America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using functional traits to explain <span class="hlt">species</span>’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a <span class="hlt">tree</span>)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a <span class="hlt">species</span> range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of <span class="hlt">species</span>. Maximum height affects the <span class="hlt">species</span> range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting <span class="hlt">species</span>' range limits from functional traits for the <span class="hlt">tree</span> flora of North America.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using functional traits to explain <span class="hlt">species</span>' range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a <span class="hlt">tree</span>)--indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations--explain the climate ranges of 250 North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a <span class="hlt">species</span> range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of <span class="hlt">species</span>. Maximum height affects the <span class="hlt">species</span> range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic "no-go areas" for North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23928890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual <span class="hlt">trees</span>. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among <span class="hlt">trees</span> of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in <span class="hlt">tree</span> height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small <span class="hlt">trees</span> to tall <span class="hlt">trees</span> because the effects of height and light can be complex. PMID:23928890</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.outdoorbiology.com/files/resources/activities/TreeTally.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> Tally</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this outdoor activity and fun race, learners first find the most common type of <span class="hlt">tree</span> in a forest site. Learners use a "transect," a kind of sampling technique, to estimate the number of different kinds of <span class="hlt">trees</span>, and a histogram, or simple graph, to record how frequently different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> occur in the forest. Learners also select one <span class="hlt">species</span> of <span class="hlt">tree</span>, and run a forest leap frog race between <span class="hlt">trees</span> of that <span class="hlt">species</span>. (Older learners can just run between <span class="hlt">trees</span> without leapfrogging.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Science, Lawrence H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118849"> <span id="translatedtitle">Epigenetic Variability in the Genetically Uniform Forest <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Pinus pinea L</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest <span class="hlt">species</span> and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a <span class="hlt">species</span> characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated <span class="hlt">trees</span> from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated <span class="hlt">trees</span> allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated <span class="hlt">tree</span>. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed <span class="hlt">trees</span>. PMID:25084460</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161610"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Papionina using concatenation and <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> methods.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Papionina is a geographically widespread subtribe of African cercopithecid monkeys whose evolutionary history is of particular interest to anthropologists. The phylogenetic relationships among arboreal mangabeys (Lophocebus), baboons (Papio), and geladas (Theropithecus) remain unresolved. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed marked gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> incongruence for these taxa, and several recent concatenated phylogenetic analyses of multilocus datasets have supported different phylogenetic hypotheses. To address this issue, we investigated the phylogeny of the Lophocebus + Papio + Theropithecus group using concatenation methods, as well as alternative methods that incorporate gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> heterogeneity to estimate a '<span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>.' Our compiled DNA sequence dataset was ?56 kb pairs long and included 57 independent partitions. All analyses of concatenated alignments strongly supported a Lophocebus + Papio clade and a basal position for Theropithecus. The Bayesian concordance analysis supported the same phylogeny. A coalescent-based Bayesian method resulted in a very poorly resolved <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>. The topological agreement between concatenation and the Bayesian concordance analysis offers considerable support for a Lophocebus + Papio clade as the dominant relationship across the genome. However, the results of the Bayesian concordance analysis indicate that almost half the genome has an alternative history. As such, our results offer a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the Papio/Lophocebus/Theropithecus trichotomy, while at the same time providing evidence for a complex evolutionary history that likely includes hybridization among lineages. PMID:24161610</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guevara, Elaine E; Steiper, Michael E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16459548"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity and composition in logged and unlogged rainforest of Kudremukh National Park, South India.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Species</span> composition and diversity in logged and unlogged forests were assesed to understand the regeneration of the residual stand twenty years after logging in Kudremukh National Park, South India. Relative density, frequency and basal area were measured by Point Centered Quarter method to calculate the diversity and stand quality. The logged forest harbored lower stem density of mature <span class="hlt">trees</span> (508 ha(-1)) than unlogged ones (630 ha(-1)). Indeed, logging operations increased the <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity in the regenerative phase (seedling phase) due to the creation of larger canopy gaps. The extra radiation reaching the ground, facilitated the colonization of early and late secondary <span class="hlt">species</span>. Ramakrishanan Index of Stand Quality (RISQ) values in logged forest was higher in comparison with unlogged forest, indicating the dominance of early and late secondary <span class="hlt">species</span>, especially at sapling phase. The light demanding secondary forest <span class="hlt">species</span> contribute higher percentage to the overall <span class="hlt">tree</span> population in logged forest. It is observed from the study that a sufficient period of felling cycle should be practiced to reinstate the same set of <span class="hlt">species</span> prevailed before logging. PMID:16459548</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nagaraja, B C; Somashekar, R K; Raj, M Bunty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24027913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A total of 45 native Costa Rican <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered <span class="hlt">Species</span> (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other <span class="hlt">species</span> based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened <span class="hlt">species</span> of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these <span class="hlt">species</span>, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight <span class="hlt">species</span>, water extract fluorescence was positive in six <span class="hlt">species</span> and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 <span class="hlt">species</span>. Almost all <span class="hlt">species</span> were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of <span class="hlt">species</span>, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification. PMID:24027913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39795054"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and wood ash affect soil in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and wood ash application in plantations of short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) may have important effects on the\\u000a soil productive capacity through their influence on soil organic matter (SOM) and exchangeable cations. An experiment was\\u000a conducted to assess changes in soil C and N contents and pH within the 0–50 cm depth, and exchangeable cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fabio Sartori; Rattan Lal; Michael H. Ebinger; Raymond O. Miller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21971584"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host <span class="hlt">trees</span> and performance of two outbreak insect <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on the foliar quality of two deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and the performance of two outbreak herbivore <span class="hlt">species</span>. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE research site in northern Wisconsin, USA, under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO(2) and O(3). We measured the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on aspen and birch phytochemistry and on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) performance. Elevated CO(2) nominally affected foliar quality for both <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Elevated O(3) negatively affected aspen foliar quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO(2) slightly improved herbivore performance, while elevated O(3) decreased herbivore performance, and both responses were stronger on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO(2) largely offset decreased herbivore performance under elevated O(3). Nitrogen, lignin, and C:N were identified as having strong influences on herbivore performance when larvae were fed aspen, but no significant relationships were observed for insects fed birch. Our results support the notion that herbivore performance can be affected by atmospheric change through altered foliar quality, but how herbivores will respond will depend on interactions among CO(2), O(3), and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. An emergent finding from this study is that <span class="hlt">tree</span> age and longevity of exposure to pollutants may influence the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant-herbivore interactions, highlighting the need to continue long-term atmospheric change research. PMID:21971584</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Lindroth, Richard L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40912579"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional frequencies of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> associated with anthropogenic disturbances in three forest types</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used a probability-based sampling scheme to survey the forested lands of Georgia and Alabama, two adjacent states in southeastern USA. Using a nationally consistent plot design and field methods, we evaluated the presence\\/absence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at 123 1\\/15ha plots for individuals having a diameter at breast height >2.5cm. Three forest cover types were considered: loblolly-shortleaf pine, oak-hickory, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin A Stapanian; David L Cassell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/31yryval8b2qm1n5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abundance of springtails (Collembola) under four agroforestry <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with contrasting litter quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The soil- and litter-dwelling Collembola under four agroforestry <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Treculia africana, Dactyladenia (Acioa) barteri, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala) were monitored monthly for a period of 12 months and results were compared with those of a secondary forest and a grass\\u000a plot. Treculia and Dactyladenia produced lower quality litter, leading to lower soil temperature and higher soil moisture under</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Badejo; T. I. Nathaniel; G. Tian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39795891"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation between leaf litter and fine root decomposition among subtropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elucidating the processes of leaf litter and fine root decomposition has been a major research focus, while how the correlation\\u000a between leaf litter and fine root decomposition is unclear. We studied the in situ decomposition and N dynamics of leaf litter\\u000a and fine root of four subtropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei and Mytilaria laosensis) to determine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hui Wang; Shirong Liu; Jiangming Mo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40764195"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stand growth of deciduous pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on fertile agricultural land in southern Sweden</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were compared in a trial in southern Sweden with the aim of evaluating non-coppice short rotation forestry systems on agricultural land. The trial comprised two clones of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides), hybrid aspen (Populus tremula×tremuloides), one Swedish provenance of Betula pendula, grey alder (Alnus incana), a mixture of A. incana and Salix fragilis, and a mixture</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. F. Telenius</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19882174"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fine root decomposition rates do not mirror those of leaf litter among temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elucidating the function of and patterns among plant traits above ground has been a major research focus, while the patterns and functioning of belowground traits remain less well understood. Even less well known is whether <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in leaf traits and their associated biogeochemical effects are mirrored by differences in root traits and their effects. We studied fine root decomposition and N dynamics in a common garden study of 11 temperate European and North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra and Tilia cordata) to determine whether leaf litter and fine root decomposition rates are correlated across <span class="hlt">species</span> as well as which <span class="hlt">species</span> traits influence microbial decomposition above versus below ground. Decomposition and N immobilization rates of fine roots were unrelated to those of leaf litter across <span class="hlt">species</span>. The lack of correspondence of above- and belowground processes arose partly because the tissue traits that influenced decomposition and detritus N dynamics different for roots versus leaves, and partly because influential traits were unrelated between roots and leaves across <span class="hlt">species</span>. For example, while high hemicellulose concentrations and thinner roots were associated with more rapid decomposition below ground, low lignin and high Ca concentrations were associated with rapid aboveground leaf decomposition. Our study suggests that among these temperate <span class="hlt">trees</span>, <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on C and N dynamics in decomposing fine roots and leaf litter may not reinforce each other. Thus, <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in rates of microbially mediated decomposition may not be as large as they would be if above- and belowground processes were working in similar directions (i.e., if faster decomposition above ground corresponded to faster decomposition below ground). Our results imply that studies that focus solely on aboveground traits may obscure some of the important mechanisms by which plant <span class="hlt">species</span> influence ecosystem processes. PMID:19882174</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Eissenstat, David M; Reich, Peter B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53C0262A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil Terpene Emissions in a Subalpine Coniferous Forest: <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>, Soil Temperature and Moisture Effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Some studies have shown soils can contribute significantly to the canopy level fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in some ecosystem types during some seasons. Yet patterns of soil VOCs fluxes as well as controls are poorly known and so the potential importance of soil VOCs emissions on the total global BVOCs emissions from terrestrial sources remains unclear. We measured soil terpene emission at a high-elevation, mixed conifer, subalpine forest site at the Niwot Ridge Ameriflux Site in Colorado. Given the important role of terpenes on the formation of secondary organic aerosols and given that high amounts of terpenes are produced and stored in coniferous tissues (e. g. roots and litter) we focused only on these compounds in this study. The objectives were to quantify soil terpene flux and its contribution to the canopy level flux and to identify environmental variables controlling soil terpene emissions in this forest, such as <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> density, total soil organic matter content, soil temperature and soil moisture . During the summer 2009 (August), soil terpene emission rates were measured in soil chambers regularly distributed in a 200 x 200 m area around the flux tower. To test the effect of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on soil emissions, additional chambers were placed on relative pure stands of each one of the representative <span class="hlt">species</span>. The average total monoterterpene emission rate during August 2009 was 21 ?g C m-2 h-1. These emissions represent 9% of the total terpene canopy fluxes reported in this forest during the same period on previous summers (August 2007, 238 ?g C m-2 h-1). The range of monoterpene emission was found to be high; emissions went up to 368 ?g C m-2 h-1 under specific conditions. Total sesquiterpene emissions were much lower than monoterpenes (0.04 ± 0.01 ?g C m-2 h-1). Due to the high variability found, no clear effect of the space distribution was identified. However, soil terpene emissions were significantly affected by the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (higher emissions under Pine > Spruce > Fir) and consequently <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> density was found to explain better soil terpene emissions variability. When data from all soil emission measurements were pooled and regressed against total soil organic matter content, soil temperature or soil moisture no significant linear relationship was found. These results show soil terpene emissions can be significant compared to canopy level fluxes during some periods of the year and that could be altered in response to vegetation changes. The fact that no significant linear relationship was found between soil terpene emissions and soil temperature and moisture suggest other possible factors may be controlling soil emission in this ecosystem, such as roots or microbial activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asensio, D.; Duhl, T.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Monson, R. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1011037L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on Taihang Mountain, North China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variance in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 through April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were significantly correlated with soil organic carbon, total N, and soil bulk density, while soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter resulted in significant decreases in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes, but had no significant influence on N2O fluxes. Soils in six <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, Soils in all sites acted as sinks for atmospheric N2O. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> had a significant effect on CO2 and N2O fluxes but not on CH4 uptake. The lower net global warming potential in natural regenerated vegetation suggested that natural regenerated vegetation were more desirable plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in reducing global warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25173280"> <span id="translatedtitle">High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions--a <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> machine to study paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> on well defined single crystal surfaces.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, which are typically minority <span class="hlt">species</span> in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> with a density of approximately 5 × 10(11) spins/cm(2), which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology. PMID:25173280</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rocker, J; Cornu, D; Kieseritzky, E; Seiler, A; Bondarchuk, O; Hänsel-Ziegler, W; Risse, T; Freund, H-J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3532498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eucalypt <span class="hlt">species</span> are a group of flowering <span class="hlt">trees</span> widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for use as biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:23300786</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3308K"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the functional role of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in two forest ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecosystems can be characterized in different ways depending on the point of view or the scientific background. Summarizing these views, one can describe ecosystems by their structure and metabolism. The <span class="hlt">species</span> composition is part of the ecosystem structure. Moreover, ecosystem structures are detailed by biomass or soil and canopy architecture. Ecosystem metabolism represents the functional side. It can be described by primary production, nutrient retention, or control and use of water resources. Structure and function are connected. The biomass that is produced by the ecosystem metabolism is used to construct the ecosystem structure, which vice versa the structure controls the efficiency of the ecosystem metabolism. One hypothesis is that ecosystems with many <span class="hlt">species</span> provide a more efficient metabolism than ecosystems with fewer <span class="hlt">species</span>. We tested this hypothesis by using two ecosystems functional parameters in several deciduous forest ecosystems. The first example are possible relations between canopy carbon uptake capacity (FP,max) as measured with the eddy covariance technique (ecosystem metabolism) and LAI as well as spatial and temporal variability of leaf traits (ecosystem structure). We investigated leaf traits of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a mixed deciduous forest in northern Germany in search for an explanation for the differences in canopy photosynthetic capacity between different forest sectors consisting of different <span class="hlt">species</span> and <span class="hlt">species</span> numbers (Quercus robur + Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior + Alnus glutinosa, pure Fagus sylvatica). We identified leaf traits that were adjusted to the canopy light profile in <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific ways, and for these traits the plasticity indices were calculated. Canopy photosynthetic capacity did neither correlate with leaf area index (LAI) alone nor with canopy plasticity indices which were almost similar between the three sectors although it differed at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level. It is suggested that the spatial variability of FP,max in deciduous forests can be explained by a combined effect of LAI and some <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific reference leaf traits, rather than by the plasticity index or by pure LAI. In a second study we compared a mixed canopy of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior to a pure Fagus sylvatica stand during a drought period in summer 2006. Leaf gas exchange measurements suggested that beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> responded faster and stronger to soil drought and changed stomatal sensitivity to leaf to air water vapour pressure deficit, while ash <span class="hlt">trees</span> remained more progressive. Scaling these results in a modelling approach resulted in an lower impact of drought in a two-<span class="hlt">species</span> canopy than in a beech monoculture and an increase of the Fraxinus contribution to total ecosystem carbon uptake. Both results support the hypothesis that multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> canopies may buffer unfavourable environmental constraints and increase efficiency in the use of resources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kutsch, Werner Leo; Herbst, Mathias; Liu, Chunjiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48672930"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential diameter-size effects of forest management on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and community structure: implications for conservation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper we tested the hypothesis that logging effects in the adult <span class="hlt">tree</span> community reverberate upon the regeneration\\u000a contingent. We examined the differences on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> community between forest reserves and 10 year-old logged areas in the\\u000a Yucatan Peninsula. We used a paired design in three independent sites to estimate the effects of logging on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness,\\u000a diversity, composition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabriel Gutierrez-GranadosDiego; Diego R. Pérez-Salicrup; Rodolfo Dirzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25000744"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> partition N uptake by soil depth in boreal forests.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is recognized that the coexistence of herbaceous <span class="hlt">species</span> in N-depleted habitats can be facilitated by N partitioning; however, the existence of such a phenomenon for <span class="hlt">trees</span> has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we show from both foliage and soil 15N natural abundance values and from a 12-year in situ 15N addition experiment, that black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana), two widespread <span class="hlt">species</span> of the Canadian boreal forest, take up N at different depths. While black spruce takes up N from the organic soil, jack pine acquires it deeper within the highly N-depleted mineral soil. Systematic difference in foliar 15N natural abundance between the two <span class="hlt">species</span> across seven sites distributed throughout the eastern Canadian boreal forest shows that N spatial partitioning is a widespread phenomenon. Distinct relationships between delta15N and N concentration in leaves of both <span class="hlt">species</span> further emphasize their difference in N acquisition strategies. This result suggests that such complementary mechanisms of N acquisition could facilitate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence in such N-depleted habitats and could contribute to the positive biodiversity-productivity relationship recently revealed for the eastern Canadian boreal forest, where jack pine is present. It also has implications for forest management and provides new insights to interpret boreal forest regeneration following natural or anthropogenic perturbations. PMID:25000744</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houle, D; Moore, J D; Ouimet, R; Marty, C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5320909"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological response surfaces for north American boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and their use in forest classification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Empirical ecological response surfaces were derived for eight dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the boreal forest region of Canada. Stepwise logistic regression was used to model <span class="hlt">species</span> dominance as a response to five climatic predictor variables. The predictor variables (annual snowfall, degree-days, absolute minimum temperature, annual soil moisture deficit, and actual evapotranspiration summed over the summer months) influence the response of plants more directly than the annual or monthly measures of temperature and precipitation commonly used in response surface modeling. The response surfaces provided estimates of the probability of <span class="hlt">species</span> dominance across the spatial extent of North America with a high degree of success. Much of the variation in the probability of dominance could be related to the <span class="hlt">species</span>' individualistic response to climatic constraints within different airmass region. A forest type classification for the Canadian boreal forest region was derived by a cluster analysis based on the probability estimates. (Copyright (c) IAVS: Opulus Press Uppsala. Printed in Sweden, 1993.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lenihan, J.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3040169"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of Recent Climate Change on <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Height Growth Differs with <span class="hlt">Species</span> and Spatial Environment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant <span class="hlt">trees</span> at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both <span class="hlt">species</span> was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration, did not only differ with <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, but also their growing spatial environment. PMID:21358817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB22F..03S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Native <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> on Leaf Breakdown Dynamics of the Invasive <span class="hlt">Tree</span> of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima) in an Urban Stream</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystem processes is increasingly being explored in urban settings. One profound impact is the striking increase in the distribution of invasive plant <span class="hlt">species</span>. For example, <span class="hlt">Tree</span> of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima, TOH), introduced into the U.S. from Asia in 1784, is a successful colonist of recently deforested habitats. As a result, remnant patches in urban ecosystems have become overrun with this <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, excluding native <span class="hlt">species</span> via fast growth and allelopathy. While suffering from human-induced degradation, urban streams still support food webs that function to process riparian-derived organic matter (e.g., leaves, wood). The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate leaf litter breakdown of native <span class="hlt">tree</span> leaves and those of TOH in an urban stream, (2) study the detritivore feeding rate of the same leaf <span class="hlt">species</span>, and (3) determine if increasing native <span class="hlt">species</span> richness of leaf litter can alter breakdown of TOH leaves. Field manipulations of leaf pack composition were done in a highly urbanized stream (>30% upstream urban land use) in Baltimore County, Maryland, USA. This was complimented by a series of laboratory feeding experiments employing similar leaf treatments and local shredding invertebrate taxa. Breakdown of TOH alone was extremely rapid, significantly exceeding that of all native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> employed. Furthermore, mixing TOH with native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, red maple and white oak, substantially reduced TOH decay compared to decay of TOH alone. However, supporting laboratory studies showed that TOH was a preferred resource by shredding invertebrates over all native <span class="hlt">species</span>. Subsequent analysis of the structural integrity of all leaf <span class="hlt">species</span> revealed that TOH was the least resistant to force, possibly explaining the counterintuitive decrease of TOH decay in mixtures. We interpret this as meaning the stream invertebrates, while preferring to consume TOH, appeared not to influence TOH decay in mixtures with native <span class="hlt">species</span>. Instead, the relatively tougher nature of native <span class="hlt">species</span> appeared to slow TOH breakdown by armoring the invasive from the highly-variable flow regime characteristic of urban streams. Therefore, the presence of native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in urban riparian zones may be critical to how invasive <span class="hlt">trees</span>, like TOH, could alter carbon flux in urban streams.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swan, C.; Healey, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B31G0384N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detecting CO2 Fertilization in <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Ring Records: Evidence from Natural Populations of Boreal Forest <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global increases of atmospheric CO2 concentration are predicted to enhance <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth, particularly where water limitation is important, but evidence of CO2 fertilization in Canada's forests is limited. This study examined the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring increments in south-east Yukon, west-central Manitoba and northern Ontario, sampling the dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at each site: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), white spruce (Picea glauca) and black spruce (Picea mariana), respectively. Over 50 <span class="hlt">tree</span> cores from each site were sampled, analysed for ring-width, cross- dated and averaged, generating a ~100 y chronology for each population. We examined the residuals following a regression with climate variables for a positive trend over time, which has been interpreted in prior studies as evidence for a CO2 fertilization effect. We were only able to detect an increase in ring width residuals over time in the Manitoba white spruce population, which were located at the most water-limited site. We did further analyses to see whether CO2 fertilization was stronger or more detectable in younger <span class="hlt">trees</span> or more water-limited years. Although we were unable to find any evidence that drier years experienced increases in relative growth as a result of increased CO2 availability, we did find stronger CO2 responses in younger <span class="hlt">trees</span>. In conclusion, forest populations that are water-limited or young in age are more likely to benefit from global increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, and are better able to contribute to overall boreal forest carbon sequestration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, E. A.; Thomas, S. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25220499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical taxonomy of <span class="hlt">tree</span> peony <span class="hlt">species</span> from China based on root cortex metabolic fingerprinting.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The section Moutan of the genus Paeonia consists of eight <span class="hlt">species</span> that are confined to a small area in China. A wide range of metabolites, including monoterpenoid glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, triterpenoids, steroids, paeonols, and phenols, have been found in the <span class="hlt">species</span> belonging to section Moutan. However, although previous studies have analyzed the metabolites found in these <span class="hlt">species</span>, the metabolic similarities that can be used for the chemotaxonomic distinction of section Moutan <span class="hlt">species</span> are not yet clear. In this study, HPLC-DAD-based metabolic fingerprinting was applied to the classification of eight <span class="hlt">species</span>: Paeoniasuffruticosa, Paeoniaqiui, Paeoniaostii, Paeoniarockii, Paeoniajishanensis, Paeoniadecomposita, Paeoniadelavayi, and Paeonialudlowii. In total, of the 47 peaks that exhibited an occurrence frequency of 75% in all 23 <span class="hlt">tree</span> peony samples, 43 of these metabolites were identified according to their retention times and UV absorption spectra, together with combined HPLC-QTOF-MS. These data were compared with reference standard compounds. The 43 isolated compounds included 17 monoterpenoid glucosides, 11 galloyl glucoses, 5 flavonoids, 6 paeonols and 4 phenols. Principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), showed a clear separation between the <span class="hlt">species</span> based on metabolomics similarities and four groups were identified. The results exhibited good agreement with the classical classification based on the morphological characteristics and geographical distributions of the subsections Vaginatae F.C. Stern and Delavayanae F.C. Stern with the exception of P. decomposita, which was found to be a transition <span class="hlt">species</span> between these two subsections. According to their metabolic fingerprinting characteristics, P. ostii and P. suffruticosa can be considered one <span class="hlt">species</span>, and this result is consistent with the viewpoint of medicinal plant scientists but different from that of classical morphological processing. Significantly large variations were obtained in the metabolic profiles of P. delavayi, whereas no significant difference was found between P. delavayi and P. ludlowii. This indicates that these two <span class="hlt">species</span> have a close genetic relationship. In conclusion, the combination of HPLC-DAD and multivariate analyses has great potential for guiding future chemotaxonomic studies to examine the potential pharmaceutical value of the effective constituents of <span class="hlt">tree</span> peony <span class="hlt">species</span> and appears to be able to clarify the confusion and skepticism associated with the reported morphology- and molecular phylogenetics-based taxonomy of <span class="hlt">tree</span> peonies. PMID:25220499</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, Chunnian; Peng, Bing; Dan, Yang; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4070915"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leaf Phenological Characters of Main <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Urban Forest of Shenyang</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Plant leaves, as the main photosynthetic organs and the high energy converters among primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems, have attracted significant research attention. Leaf lifespan is an adaptive characteristic formed by plants to obtain the maximum carbon in the long-term adaption process. It determines important functional and structural characteristics exhibited in the environmental adaptation of plants. However, the leaf lifespan and leaf characteristics of urban forests were not studied up to now. Methods By using statistic, linear regression methods and correlation analysis, leaf phenological characters of main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in urban forest of Shenyang were observed for five years to obtain the leafing phenology (including leafing start time, end time, and duration), defoliating phenology (including defoliation start time, end time, and duration), and the leaf lifespan of the main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Moreover, the relationships between temperature and leafing phenology, defoliating phenology, and leaf lifespan were analyzed. Findings The timing of leafing differed greatly among <span class="hlt">species</span>. The early leafing <span class="hlt">species</span> would have relatively early end of leafing; the longer it took to the end of leafing would have a later time of completed leafing. The timing of defoliation among different <span class="hlt">species</span> varied significantly, the early defoliation <span class="hlt">species</span> would have relatively longer duration of defoliation. If the mean temperature rise for 1°C in spring, the time of leafing would experience 5 days earlier in spring. If the mean temperature decline for 1°C, the time of defoliation would experience 3 days delay in autumn. Interpretation There is significant correlation between leaf longevity and the time of leafing and defoliation. According to correlation analysis and regression analysis, there is significant correlation between temperature and leafing and defoliation phenology. Early leafing <span class="hlt">species</span> would have a longer life span and consequently have advantage on carbon accumulation compared with later defoliation <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24963625</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Sheng; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei; He, Xingyuan; Huang, Yanqing; Wen, Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource001830_Rep2590.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Borers in New Hampshire Apple <span class="hlt">Trees</span> Several <span class="hlt">species</span> of insects bore into New Hampshire apple <span class="hlt">trees</span>, including roundheaded apple <span class="hlt">tree</span> borer,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">serious, killing the <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Controls for RHATB: 3. Keep trunks exposed, free of vegetation, weeds or trash Roundheaded apple-<span class="hlt">tree</span> borer larva #12;control apple maggot, leafminers, and other pests. Backyard <span class="hlt">trees</span>, covered in the current New England <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Fruit Management Guide. 6. You could try mechanical "worming</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">New Hampshire, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40155242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the central cascades of Oregon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mature and old growth <span class="hlt">trees</span> of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michele L. Pruyn; Mark E. Harmon; B. L. Gartner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://geogweb.leeds.ac.uk/people/t.feldpausch/pdf/Santos.Goncalves.Feldpausch.2006.Growth%20leaf%20nutrient%20concentration%20and%20photosynthesis%20tropical%20tree%20Amazonia.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth, leaf nutrient concentration and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency in tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted in degraded areas in central Amazonia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The success of initial <span class="hlt">tree</span> seedling establishment is related to the capture and use of primary resources such as light and nutrients. The selection of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with a greater potential to assimilate carbon and capacity to efficiently utilize nutrients and light would facilitate the revegetation of degraded areas, primarily where irradiance is high and soil nutrient availability low. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ulysses Moreira dos Santos Jr.; José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves; Ted R. Feldpausch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1571..302N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community structure, diversity and total biomass of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at Kapur dominated forests in Peninsular Malaysia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to determine the <span class="hlt">species</span> composition, diversity and biomass of Kapur (Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f.) dominated forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Three forests were selected in different geographical zones, namely Bukit Bauk Virgin Jungle Reserve (BBVJR), Terengganu, Lesong Forest Reserve (LFR), Pahang and Gunung Belumut Recreational Forest (GBRF), Johor. Thirty plots of 0.1 ha (50 m × 20 m) were established with a total sampling area of 1.0 ha at each forest site. All <span class="hlt">trees</span> with ?5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were tagged, measured and voucher specimens were collected. Floristic composition in the study plot at BBVJR recorded 55 families, 147 genera and 336 <span class="hlt">species</span>. In LFR, there were 52 families, 138 genera and 288 <span class="hlt">species</span>, whereas in GBRF there were 52 families, 132 genera and 271 <span class="hlt">species</span>. D. aromatica was the most important <span class="hlt">species</span> in all study plots with the Importance Value Index (IVi) of 17.81%, 23.01% and 16.25% in BBVJR, LFR and GBRF, respectively. Similar trend at family level showed the Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family in each of the areas with the family Importance Value Index (FIVi) of 27.95% (BBVJR), 26.09% (LFR) and 27.16% (GBRF). Shannon diversity index (H'f) and Shannon evenness index (J'f) of <span class="hlt">trees</span> at BBVJR was 5.02 and 0.86; LFR was 4.63 and 0.82; and GBRF was 4.82 and 0.86, respectively. Sorensen's community similarity coefficient (CCs) showed that <span class="hlt">tree</span> communities between BBVJR, LFR and GBRF had low similarities with values of 0.3 to 0.4. The highest total biomass estimated was in LFR with a value of 739.44 t/ha, followed by BBVJR at 701.34 t/ha and GBRF at 606.29 t/ha.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Norafida, N. A. Nik; Nizam, M. S.; Juliana, W. A. Wan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033546"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of flooding and sedimentation on seed germination of two bottomland hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by <span class="hlt">species</span>. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by <span class="hlt">species</span>. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierce, A.R.; King, S.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40381809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes in pioneer and late-successional tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> grown under sun and shade conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To investigate the ability of pioneer and late-successional <span class="hlt">species</span> to adapt to a strong light environment in a reforestation area, we examined the activities of antioxidant enzymes in relation to photosystem II, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentration for eight tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> grown under 100% (sun) and 10% (shade) sunlight irradiation. The pioneer (early-succession) <span class="hlt">species</span> (PS) were Cecropia</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viviane F. Favaretto; Carlos A. Martinez; Hilda H. Soriani; Rosa P. M. Furriel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.umb.edu/liam.revell/pdfs/Reynolds_etal_2014.MPE.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward a <span class="hlt">Tree</span>-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus <span class="hlt">species</span>-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Toward a <span class="hlt">Tree</span>-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus <span class="hlt">species</span>-level phylogeny of boas and pythons are familiar, taxonomy and evolutionary relationships within these families remain published study has produced a <span class="hlt">species</span>-level molecular phylogeny for more than 61% of boa <span class="hlt">species</span> or 65</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Revell, Liam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/WishnieConditEtAl.FEM2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted across a precipitation gradient in the Republic of Panama</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted across a , N. Ceden~o a , D. Ibarra a , R. Condit a , P.M.S. Ashton b a Native <span class="hlt">Species</span> Reforestation Project 34002, USA b Native <span class="hlt">Species</span> Reforestation Project (PRORENA), Yale School of Forestry and Environmental</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bermingham, Eldredge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24713858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spring phenology of temperate forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span> Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in <span class="hlt">trees</span> that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of <span class="hlt">tree</span> phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here. PMID:24713858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basler, David; Körner, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14972896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sodium and chloride distribution in salt-stressed Prunus salicina, a deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measurements were made over four growing seasons of the Na(+) and Cl(-) content of leaves and woody tissues (twigs, branches, trunk and roots) of mature, fruit-bearing Prunus salicina Lindl. (on Marianna 2624 rootstock) <span class="hlt">trees</span> irrigated during the growing season with water containing 3, 14 or 28 mM salt (2/1 molar ratio of NaCl and CaCl(2)). At the beginning of the study, the <span class="hlt">trees</span> were 19 years old. Woody tissues of <span class="hlt">trees</span> irrigated with water containing 14 or 28 mM salt accumulated Na(+) and Cl(-). Leaves of <span class="hlt">trees</span> irrigated with water containing 14 or 28 mM salt accumulated Cl(-), but not Na(+), unless they had visible symptoms of salt injury. X-Ray microanalysis of leaf mesophyll cells indicated some ability of the cells to sequester Cl(-) in the vacuole. The data demonstrate a capacity for ion compartmentation among tissues and cell organelles in mature Prunus salicina, which may explain the ability of the <span class="hlt">species</span> to survive low levels of salinity for several years in the field. PMID:14972896</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ziska, L H; DeJong, T M; Hoffman, G F; Mead, R M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177404"> <span id="translatedtitle">Size-Class Effect Contributes to <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Assembly through Influencing Dispersal in Tropical Forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Specifically our work examined (1) whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2) which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining <span class="hlt">species</span>-area relationships (SARs) and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the <span class="hlt">species</span> and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape <span class="hlt">species</span>’ distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to <span class="hlt">species</span> assembly and enhances our understanding of <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence. PMID:25251538</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Yue-Hua; Kitching, Roger L.; Lan, Guo-Yu; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15334971"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Characters of greening <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in heavy metal pollution protection in Shanghai].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, the stream banks nearby Qibao town and the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company were selected as the typical areas contaminated by heavy metals. The polluted status was investigated by measuring the heavy metal concentrations of the sampled soils. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the soils of stream banks were a little higher than the control, but obviously higher in the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company. The growth status of the greening <span class="hlt">trees</span> was recorded, and their heavy metal concentrations were measured by ICP. According to the research results and historic data, the excellent greening <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mainly applied in polluted factory area were Viburnum awabuki, Lagerstroemia indica, Hibiscus mutabilis, Ligustrum lucidum and Sabina chinensis, which could grow well on contaminated soil, and accumulate high concentrations of heavy metal elements. The other <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> such as Distylium racemosum, Nerium indicum, and Photinia serrulata might be also available in greening for heavy metal pollution protection. PMID:15334971</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Xuejun; Tang, Dongqin; Xu, Dongxin; Wang, Xinhua; Pan, Gaohong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC52B..03M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deciduous <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Alter Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability in Mid-successional Alaskan Boreal Forest</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Alaskan boreal forest, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering successional processes and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Fire is a common disturbance in Interior Alaska and typically burns forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> associated with slow nutrient turnover and high soil organic matter accumulation rates. Historically, low severity fires have driven black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow nutrient cycling rates and large soil organic matter stocks. In contrast, high severity fires consume the organic layer and can lead to the establishment of deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on exposed mineral soil, which produce less recalcitrant leaf litter and exhibit faster nutrient cycling rates. To improve our understanding of the long-term impacts of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition on nutrient cycling in boreal forest, we quantified nitrogen (N) cycling rates and estimated soil N, phosphorus (P), and base cation pools in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1960 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Results indicate significantly higher net N mineralization in paper birch soils relative to black spruce for both the fibric organic layer and top 10 cm of mineral soil during 30-day and 90-day lab incubation studies. Net nitrification was significantly higher in the paper birch fibric layer after 90 days. Total soil N concentrations did not differ between paper birch and black spruce stands, however the black spruce organic layer was significantly larger than that of birch, resulting in larger organic layer N stocks (130 vs. 87 g N m2). In contrast, total P concentrations were significantly higher in the organic layer in birch forest, but the total P stocks did not differ significantly between <span class="hlt">species</span> because of the larger mass of soil organic matter in the black spruce. These findings suggest that a shift towards greater deciduous forest cover may result in long-term changes ecosystem N and P availability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2805504"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiological characteristics of tropical rain forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: A basis for the development of silvicultural technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The physiological characteristics of the dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the tropical rain forest mainly belonging to dipterocarps as well as the environmental conditions especially for the light in the forest were studied to establish the silvicultural system for the forest regeneration in the tropical South Asia. The flowering patterns of the dipterocarp <span class="hlt">trees</span> are usually irregular and unpredictable, which make difficult to collect sufficient seeds for raising the seedlings. The field survey revealed the diverged features of the so-called gregarious or simultaneous flowering of various <span class="hlt">species</span> of this group. Appropriate conditions and methods for the storage of the seeds were established according to the detailed analyses of the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seeds such as the low temperature tolerance and the moisture contents. The intensity and spectra of the light in the forest primarily determine the growth and the morphological development of the seedlings under the canopy. Based on the measurements of the diffused light at the sites in the tropical forest in the varying sunlight, the parameters such as “the steady state of the diffuse light” and “the turning point” were defined, which were useful to evaluate the light conditions in the forest. To improve the survival of the transplanted seedlings, a planting method of “the bare-root seedlings”, the seedlings easy to be handled by removal of all leaves, soil and pots, was developed. Its marked efficiency was proved with various dipterocarps and other tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> by the field trial in the practical scale. Tolerance of the various <span class="hlt">species</span> to the extreme environmental conditions such as fires, acid soils and drought were examined by the experiments and the field survey, which revealed marked adaptability of Shorea roxburghii as a potential <span class="hlt">species</span> for regeneration of the tropical forests. PMID:18941286</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SASAKI, Satohiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9690K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Local adaptation to drought and warming in grass and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change is characterized by a general warming trend, combined with an increase in the occurrence of extreme events such as drought. Plant <span class="hlt">species</span> are known to differ in their responsiveness to these factors. Below the <span class="hlt">species</span> level, however, intraspecific variability or ecotypes may differ considerably in their performance, especially in widely distributed <span class="hlt">species</span>, with implications for modelling future <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions and adaptation to climate change. Here, we selected five provenances for each of four grass (Holcus lanatus, Arrhenatherum elatius, Alopecurus pratensis and Festuca pratensis) and one <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Pinus nigra) on the basis that climate of the origin was similar to future local projections for our site. Target areas were located from Spain in the southwest to Hungary in the southeast. The selected provenances were compared to local provenances in a pot experiment under warming (+1.5°C) and a single, severe drought (1000-year recurrence) in a fully factorial design. Survival, biomass production and phenology were measured as response variables. This study is part of the EVENT-experiments in Bayreuth. The results imply that local adaptation occurs mainly with respect to drought. The mean performance of at least some of the selected provenances generally surpassed the mean performance of the local provenance in each <span class="hlt">species</span>. It seems therefore possible to select pre-adapted ecotypes as an adaptation strategy in the face of climate change. Furthermore, climate envelope models may considerably over-estimate the plasticity of <span class="hlt">species</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreyling, Juergen; Thiel, Daniel; Beierkuhnlein, Carl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..148R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geographic range predicts photosynthetic and growth response to warming in co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Populations near the warm edge of <span class="hlt">species</span> ranges may be particularly sensitive to climate change, but lack of empirical data on responses to warming represents a key gap in understanding future range dynamics. Herein we document the impacts of experimental warming on the performance of 11 boreal and temperate forest <span class="hlt">species</span> that co-occur at the ecotone between these biomes in North America. We measured in situ net photosynthetic carbon gain and growth of >4,100 juvenile <span class="hlt">trees</span> from local seed sources exposed to a chamberless warming experiment that used infrared heat lamps and soil heating cables to elevate temperatures by +3.4 °C above- and belowground for three growing seasons across 48 plots at two sites. In these ecologically realistic field settings, <span class="hlt">species</span> growing nearest their warm range limit exhibited reductions in net photosynthesis and growth, whereas <span class="hlt">species</span> near their cold range limit responded positively to warming. Differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in their three-year growth responses to warming parallel their photosynthetic responses to warming, suggesting that leaf-level responses may scale to whole-plant performance. These responses are consistent with the hypothesis, from observational data and models, that warming will reduce the competitive ability of currently dominant southern boreal <span class="hlt">species</span> compared with locally rarer co-occurring <span class="hlt">species</span> that dominate warmer neighbouring regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Reich, Peter B.; Sendall, Kerrie M.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy L.; Stefanski, Artur; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Rebecca A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clade Age and <span class="hlt">Species</span> Richness Are Decoupled Across the Eukaryotic <span class="hlt">Tree</span> of Life</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Explaining the dramatic variation in <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across the <span class="hlt">tree</span> of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">species</span> richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that <span class="hlt">species</span> richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described <span class="hlt">species</span>. We find no evidence that clade age predicts <span class="hlt">species</span> richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of <span class="hlt">species</span> richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms. PMID:22969411</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22969411"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clade age and <span class="hlt">species</span> richness are decoupled across the eukaryotic <span class="hlt">tree</span> of life.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Explaining the dramatic variation in <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across the <span class="hlt">tree</span> of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">species</span> richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that <span class="hlt">species</span> richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described <span class="hlt">species</span>. We find no evidence that clade age predicts <span class="hlt">species</span> richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of <span class="hlt">species</span> richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms. PMID:22969411</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rabosky, Daniel L; Slater, Graham J; Alfaro, Michael E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H11E1097S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasts in growth and water sources in co-occurring Mediterranean riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Evidence from <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring isotopes and dendrochronology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Riparian <span class="hlt">trees</span> have growth responses to varying water sources that are more subtle than those of their upland counterparts, but differences in water use between co-occurring riparian <span class="hlt">species</span> are not easily discerned by conventional dendrochronology. While <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring isotopes have been developed as a useful tool for understanding past climate (temperature and precipitation) at the growth limits for particular <span class="hlt">species</span>, relatively little research has investigated responses in <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth in water-rich environments, where co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may express differential adaptation to water availability and shifting water sources. Better understanding of such subtle adaptations will improve predictions of the response of lowland riparian forests to climate changes that manifest as shifts in: regional ground water tables; the spatial/temporal distribution of precipitation; or volumes and timing of streamflow. We use an approach that combines dendrochronology and <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring isotopes (?18O) to discern the relationships between <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth and water sources for two contrasting, co-occurring Mediterranean riparian <span class="hlt">species</span>-- Fraxinus excelsior and Populus nigra. We developed growth time series via two methods (one de-trended for climate) and extracted alpha-cellulose from <span class="hlt">tree</span> rings to assess relative responses to water stress via ?18O, and we analyzed these data alongside streamflow and precipitation data for the Ain River basin in France. We find that both <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibit decreased growth during drought years, but F. excelsior demonstrates more consistent annual growth than P. nigra. In contrast, oxygen isotopic values in P. nigra have low interannual variability compared with ?18O in F. excelsior. These differences suggest contrasting patterns of water use by these co-occurring <span class="hlt">species</span>, wherein F. excelsior functions as an opportunist, scavenging water from the vadose zone where and when it cannot access groundwater. In contrast, the P. nigra demonstrates consistent groundwater usage (consistent with its moniker-obligate phreatophyte) and tends to struggle in drought years. These observations are consistent with ancillary data on rooting depths which show that F. excelsior maintains its roots above the gravel layer, where it can extract soil water from precipitation or overbank flooding. In contrast, P. nigra roots deeply into the phreatic zone without maintaining significant vadose zone roots, and is therefore less adaptable to rapid declines in the water table. These factors suggest, in contrast to prior work, that poplars may be more sensitive to drought than ash <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Such dynamics in water use between such co-occurring, yet contrasting riparian <span class="hlt">trees</span> within a riparian floodplain may indicate the response in succession and stand composition to climate changes or major anthropogenic impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singer, M. B.; Dufour, S.; Stella, J. C.; Piégay, H.; Johnstone, L.; Wilson, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and composition on moose winter browsing damage and foraging selectivity: an experimental study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The optimal foraging theory, the nutrient balance hypothesis, and the plant association theories predict that foraging decisions and resulting <span class="hlt">tree</span> damage by large mammalian browsers may be influenced by the <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and <span class="hlt">species</span> composition of forest stands. This may lead to either associational susceptibility (increased damage on a focal plant in a mixed stand) or associational resistance (reduced damage in a mixed stand). Better understanding of the mechanisms and the relative importance of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and composition effects on foraging by mammalian browsers is needed to support sustainable management of forests and mammal populations. However, existing knowledge of forest diversity effects on foraging by large mammalian browsers comes largely from observational studies while experimental evidence is limited. We analysed winter browsing by moose (Alces alces L.) in a long-term, large-scale experiment in Finland, which represents a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness gradient from monocultures to 2-, 3- and 5-<span class="hlt">species</span> mixtures composed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). The intensity of browsing per plot increased with <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness while browsing selectivity decreased with <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> being targeted more equally in <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich mixtures. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition of a plot was also an important determinant of intensity of browsing. The greatest browsing occurred in plots containing preferred <span class="hlt">species</span> (pine and birch) while intermediate preference <span class="hlt">species</span> (larch and alder) experienced associational susceptibility when growing with pine and birch compared with their monocultures or mixtures without pine and birch. In contrast, we found no evidence of associational resistance; the presence of a least preferred <span class="hlt">species</span> (spruce) in a mixture had no significant effect on moose browsing on other <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We demonstrate that the presence of alternative forage <span class="hlt">species</span> allows moose to spend longer opportunistically foraging in a plot, resulting in increased level of damage in <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich stands and stands containing preferred <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Our results highlight the limitations of the optimal foraging theory in predicting browsing patterns and demonstrate the importance of associational effects within mixed stands. PMID:23363076</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Milligan, Harriet T; Koricheva, Julia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25345038"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Distribution of fine root biomass of main planting <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Loess Plateau, China].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The distribution of fine roots of Pinus tabuliformis, Populus tomentosa, Prunus armeniaca, Robinia pseudoacacia, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Caragana korshinskii was investigated by using soil core method and the fine root was defined as root with diameter less than 2 mm. The soil moisture and soil properties were measured. The results showed that in the horizontal direction, the distribution of fine root biomass of P. tabuliformis presented a conic curve, and the fine root biomass of the other <span class="hlt">species</span> expressed logarithm correlation. Radial roots developed, the fine root biomass were concentrated within the scope of the 2-3 times crown, indicating that <span class="hlt">trees</span> extended their roots laterally to seek water farther from the <span class="hlt">tree</span>. In the vertical direction, the fine root biomass decreased with the increasing soil depth. Fine root biomass had significant negative correlation with soil water content and bulk density, while significant positive correlation with organic matter and total N contents. PMID:25345038</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jian, Sheng-Qi; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Fang, Shu-Min; Yu, Kai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805976"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temporal variability of forest communities: empirical estimates of population change in 4000 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term surveys of entire communities of <span class="hlt">species</span> are needed to measure fluctuations in natural populations and elucidate the mechanisms driving population dynamics and community assembly. We analysed changes in abundance of over 4000 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in 12 forests across the world over periods of 6-28 years. Abundance fluctuations in all forests are large and consistent with population dynamics models in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role. At some sites we identify clear environmental drivers, such as fire and drought, that could underlie these patterns, but at other sites there is a need for further research to identify drivers. In addition, cross-site comparisons showed that abundance fluctuations were smaller at <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich sites, consistent with the idea that stable environmental conditions promote higher diversity. Much community ecology theory emphasises demographic variance and niche stabilisation; we encourage the development of theory in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role. PMID:24805976</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chisholm, Ryan A; Condit, Richard; Rahman, K Abd; Baker, Patrick J; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chen, Yu-Yun; Chuyong, George; Dattaraja, H S; Davies, Stuart; Ewango, Corneille E N; Gunatilleke, C V S; Nimal Gunatilleke, I A U; Hubbell, Stephen; Kenfack, David; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon; Lin, Yiching; Makana, Jean-Remy; Pongpattananurak, Nantachai; Pulla, Sandeep; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Sukumar, Raman; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Sun, I-Fang; Suresh, H S; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Duncan; Yap, Sandra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2710175"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Test of the Scale-dependence of the <span class="hlt">Species</span> Abundance–People Correlation for Veteran <span class="hlt">Trees</span> in Italy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims The spatial correlation of the presence of people and <span class="hlt">species</span> has been suggested to be scale-dependent. At local scales, large numbers of people often result in <span class="hlt">species</span> impoverishment. At coarse scales, <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich regions tend to be densely inhabited. Recently, broad-scale human presence has been shown to be correlated not only with numbers of <span class="hlt">species</span> but also with their abundance, as predicted by the more-individuals hypothesis. However, it is not known whether the <span class="hlt">species</span> abundance–human presence correlation could also be scale-dependent. Methods This hypothesis was tested by use of a database of veteran <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Italy. Veteran <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and number of individuals were modelled as a function of human population size at two grains of analysis (provinces and regions), controlling for variations in area, latitude and spatial autocorrelation. Key Results A positive correlation was found between human presence and veteran <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. As predicted, this correlation was stronger at a coarser resolution. However, only at the provincial but not regional level was there a positive correlation between human presence and veteran <span class="hlt">tree</span> abundance when controlling for area and latitude. These results were confirmed for native and exotic <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Conclusions The present findings rule out the more-individuals hypothesis as an explanation of the scale-dependence of the <span class="hlt">species</span>–people correlation for veteran <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Italy. Potential mechanisms behind the observed spatial coincidence of high numbers of people and veteran <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are discussed and implications for conservation are highlighted. PMID:18250107</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pautasso, Marco; Chiarucci, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cyf-kr.edu.pl/~rotofils/robinson2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Myrmecological News 11 1-7 Vienna, August 2008 The use of native and non-native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for foraging and nesting habitat by the</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Myrmecological News 11 1-7 Vienna, August 2008 The use of native and non-native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on reducing non-native plant <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, changing the <span class="hlt">species</span> profile of a habitat can have highly woodland management focussed on reducing non-native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. A habitat survey of the woodlands showed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tofilski , Adam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17269315"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Morphological-ecological characters and growth patterns of main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> leaves in urban forest of Shenyang].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study with statistic and multivariate analyses showed that the main meteorological factors affecting the growth and development rhythms of main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> leaves in urban forest of Shenyang were > or = 5 degrees C accumulated temperature, accumulated sunshine hours, and mean temperature in the middle ten days of each phenological period. The meteorological factors needed by the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> varied with their phenological period. Necessary low temperature and CI were required in germination period, and suitable WI and HI were needed in the growth period. The major quantitative morphological characters of 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Shenyang urban forest were displayed in their leaf morphology and size, which decreased in the sequence of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya > Syringa oblata > Sophora japonica > Populus alba > Cornus alba > Lonicera maackii > Ligustrum obtusifolium > Fraxinus mandshurica > Prunus padus > Phellodondron amurense. As for the leaf area, it was decreased in the order of S. oblata > P. alba > P. amurense > P. padus > F. mandshurica > C. alba > L. cyrtobotrya > L. maackii > S. japonica > L. obtusifolium. The relationships of leaf length with leaf width, perimeter and area accorded with the model of y = ax(k), and the growth trend belonged to allometic type. The k value between leaf length and width of all test <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> except P. alba was lower than 1, and that between leaf length and perimeter was > 1 for P. amuresne, approximately 1 for P. alba, and < 1 for other <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. As for the k value between leaf length and area, it was > 1 for all the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, with that of P. alba being 2. 1028. The increasing rate of leaf area was about 2 times higher than that of leaf length. An optimum regression assessment model of the 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> leaf area was built and tested. PMID:17269315</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Wenduo; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Wen, Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989313"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chimpanzees Preferentially Select Sleeping Platform Construction <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> with Biomechanical Properties that Yield Stable, Firm, but Compliant Nests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The daily construction of a sleeping platform or “nest” is a universal behavior among large-bodied hominoids. Among chimpanzees, most populations consistently select particular <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for nesting, yet the principles that guide <span class="hlt">species</span> preferences are poorly understood. At Semliki, Cynometra alexandri constitutes only 9.6% of all <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the gallery forest in which the study populations ranges, but it was selected for 73.6% of the 1,844 chimpanzee night beds we sampled. To determine whether physical properties influence nesting site selection, we measured the physical characteristics of seven common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. We determined stiffness and bending strength for a sample of 326 branches from the seven most commonly used <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We selected test-branches with diameters typically used for nest construction. We measured internode distance, calculated mean leaf surface area (cm2) and assigned a <span class="hlt">tree</span> architecture category to each of the seven <span class="hlt">species</span>. C. alexandri fell at the extreme of the sample for all four variables and shared a <span class="hlt">tree</span> architecture with only one other of the most commonly selected <span class="hlt">species</span>. C. alexandri was the stiffest and had the greatest bending strength; it had the smallest internode distance and the smallest leaf surface area. C. alexandri and the second most commonly selected <span class="hlt">species</span>, Cola gigantea, share a ‘Model of Koriba’ <span class="hlt">tree</span> architecture. We conclude that chimpanzees are aware of the structural properties of C. alexandri branches and choose it because its properties afford chimpanzees sleeping platforms that are firm, stable and resilient. PMID:24740283</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Samson, David R.; Hunt, Kevin D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JARS....7.3480A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploiting machine learning algorithms for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> classification in a semiarid woodland using RapidEye image</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classification of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in semiarid areas can be challenging as a result of the change in leaf structure and orientation due to soil moisture constraints. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping is, however, a key parameter for forest management in semiarid environments. In this study, we examined the suitability of 5-band RapidEye satellite data for the classification of five <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in mopane woodland of Botswana using machine leaning algorithms with limited training samples.We performed classification using random forest (RF) and support vector machines (SVM) based on EnMap box. The overall accuracies for classifying the five <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was 88.75 and 85% for both SVM and RF, respectively. We also demonstrated that the new red-edge band in the RapidEye sensor has the potential for classifying <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in semiarid environments when integrated with other standard bands. Similarly, we observed that where there are limited training samples, SVM is preferred over RF. Finally, we demonstrated that the two accuracy measures of quantity and allocation disagreement are simpler and more helpful for the vast majority of remote sensing classification process than the kappa coefficient. Overall, high <span class="hlt">species</span> classification can be achieved using strategically located RapidEye bands integrated with advanced processing algorithms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi; Cho, Moses Azong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..153F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian calibration of the Unified budburst model in six temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerous phenology models developed to predict the budburst date of <span class="hlt">trees</span> have been merged into one Unified model (Chuine, 2000, J. Theor. Biol. 207, 337-347). In this study, we tested a simplified version of the Unified model (Unichill model) on six woody <span class="hlt">species</span>. Budburst and temperature data were available for five sites across Belgium from 1957 to 1995. We calibrated the Unichill model using a Bayesian calibration procedure, which reduced the uncertainty of the parameter coefficients and quantified the prediction uncertainty. The model performance differed among <span class="hlt">species</span>. For two <span class="hlt">species</span> (chestnut and black locust), the model showed good performance when tested against independent data not used for calibration. For the four other <span class="hlt">species</span> (beech, oak, birch, ash), the model performed poorly. Model performance improved substantially for most <span class="hlt">species</span> when using site-specific parameter coefficients instead of across-site parameter coefficients. This suggested that budburst is influenced by local environment and/or genetic differences among populations. Chestnut, black locust and birch were found to be temperature-driven <span class="hlt">species</span>, and we therefore analyzed the sensitivity of budburst date to forcing temperature in those three <span class="hlt">species</span>. Model results showed that budburst advanced with increasing temperature for 1-3 days °C-1, which agreed with the observed trends. In synthesis, our results suggest that the Unichill model can be successfully applied to chestnut and black locust (with both across-site and site-specific calibration) and to birch (with site-specific calibration). For other <span class="hlt">species</span>, temperature is not the only determinant of budburst and additional influencing factors will need to be included in the model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fu, Yongshuo H.; Campioli, Matteo; Demarée, Gaston; Deckmyn, Alex; Hamdi, Rafiq; Janssens, Ivan A.; Deckmyn, Gaby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20082671"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis: a comparison of boreal and temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> along a latitudinal transect.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Common gardens were established along a approximately 900 km latitudinal transect to examine factors limiting geographical distributions of boreal and temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in eastern North America. Boreal representatives were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), while temperate <span class="hlt">species</span> were eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr ex. Marsh var. deltoides) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). The <span class="hlt">species</span> were compared with respect to adjustments of leaf photosynthetic metabolism along the transect, with emphasis on temperature sensitivities of the maximum rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation (E(V)) and regeneration (E(J)). During leaf development, the average air temperature (T(growth)) differed between the coolest and warmest gardens by 12 degrees C. Evidence of photosynthetic thermal acclimation (metabolic shifts compensating for differences in T(growth)) was generally lacking in all <span class="hlt">species</span>. Namely, neither E(V) nor E(J) was positively related to T(growth). Correspondingly, the optimum temperature (T(opt)) of ambient photosynthesis (A(sat)) did not vary significantly with T(growth). Modest variation in T(opt) was explained by the combination of E(V) plus the slope and curvature of the parabolic temperature response of mesophyll conductance (g(m)). All in all, <span class="hlt">species</span> differed little in photosynthetic responses to climate. Furthermore, the adaptive importance of photosynthetic thermal acclimation was overshadowed by g(m)'s influence on A(sat)'s temperature response. PMID:20082671</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21560675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Above- and belowground interactions drive habitat segregation between two cryptic <span class="hlt">species</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the lowlands of central Panama, the Neotropical pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> Trema micrantha (sensu lato) exists as two cryptic <span class="hlt">species</span>: "landslide" Trema is restricted to landslides and road embankments, while "gap" Trema occurs mostly in treefall gaps. In this study, we explored the relative contributions of biotic interactions and physical factors to habitat segregation in T. micrantha. Field surveys showed that soils from landslides were significantly richer in available phosphorus and harbored distinct arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities compared to gap soils. Greenhouse experiments designed to determine the effect of these abiotic and biotic differences showed that: (1) both landslide and gap <span class="hlt">species</span> performed better in sterilized soil from their own habitat, (2) the availability of phosphorus and nitrogen was limiting in gap and landslide soils, respectively, (3) a standardized AMF inoculum increased performance of both <span class="hlt">species</span>, but primarily on gap soils, and (4) landslide and gap <span class="hlt">species</span> performed better when sterilized soils were inoculated with the microbial inoculum from their own habitat. A field experiment confirmed that survival and growth of each <span class="hlt">species</span> was highest in its corresponding habitat. This experiment also showed that browsing damage significantly decreased survival of gap Trema on landslides. We conclude that belowground interactions with soil microbes and aboveground interactions with herbivores contribute in fundamental ways to processes that may promote and reinforce adaptive speciation. PMID:21560675</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pizano, Camila; Mangan, Scott A; Herre, Edward Allen; Eom, Ahn-Heum; Dalling, James W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16007470"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting responses to ectomycorrhizal inoculation in seedlings of six tropical African <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five caesalpinioid legumes, Afzelia africana, Afzelia bella, Anthonotha macrophylla, Cryptosepalum tetraphylum and Paramacrolobium coeruleum, and one Euphorbiaceae <span class="hlt">species</span>, Uapaca somon, with a considerable range in seed sizes, exhibited different responses to inoculation by four <span class="hlt">species</span> of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Scleroderma dictyosporum, S. verrucosum, Pisolithus sp. and one thelephoroid sp. in greenhouse conditions. Thelephoroid sp. efficiently colonized seedlings of all of the five caesalpinioid legumes except U. somon, but provided no more growth benefit than the other fungi. Thelephoroid sp. and S. dictyosporum colonized seedlings of U. somon poorly, but stimulated plant growth more than the other fungi. The relative mycorrhizal dependency (RMD) values of the caesalpinioid legumes were never higher than 50%, whilst U. somon had RMD values ranging from 84.6 to 88.6%, irrespective of the fungal <span class="hlt">species</span>. The RMD values were negatively related to seed mass for all plant <span class="hlt">species</span>. Potassium concentrations in leaves were more closely related than phosphorus to the stimulation of seedling biomass production by the ECM fungi. Our data support the hypothesis that African caesalpinioid legumes and euphorbe <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with smaller seeds show higher RMD values than those with the larger seeds. PMID:16007470</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diédhiou, A G; Guèye, O; Diabaté, M; Prin, Y; Duponnois, R; Dreyfus, B; Bâ, A M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/sp2userfiles/place/19260000/mtsmith/6_age-specific.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age-Specific Fecundity of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Three <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Infested in the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spread of Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Asian long horned bettle), in the United States is dependent on its rates of reproduction and dispersal among host-<span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Therefore, investigations of the reproductive characteristics of A. glabripennis, including preovipo- sitional period, age <span class="hlt">speci</span>Þc fecundity and survival, on Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), red maple (Acerrubrum L.), and black willow (Salixnigra Marshall) were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael T. Smith; Jay Bancroft; Joseph Tropp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/97/5/813.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Leaf Life Span, Photosynthesis and Defensive Traits Across Seven <span class="hlt">Species</span> of Deciduous Broad-leaf <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Seedlings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">? Background and Aims Leaf life span, photosynthetic parameters and defensive traits were compared across seven <span class="hlt">species</span> of deciduous broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> seedlings native to northern Japan to test the 'cost-benefit hypothesis' that more productive leaves are more susceptible to herbivore attack than less productive leaves. ? Methods Studies were made on three early successional <span class="hlt">species</span>, Alnus hirsuta, Betula maximowicziana and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">SAWAKO M ATSUKI; T AKAYOSHI K OIKE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2164-11-650.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bioinformatic analysis of ESTs collected by Sanger and pyrosequencing methods for a keystone forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: oak</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND: The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody <span class="hlt">species</span> worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saneyoshi Ueno; Grégoire Le Provost; Valérie Léger; Christophe Klopp; Céline Noirot; Jean-Marc Frigerio; Franck Salin; Jérôme Salse; Michael Abrouk; Florent Murat; Oliver Brendel; Jérémy Derory; Pierre Abadie; Patrick Léger; Cyril Cabane; Aurélien Barré; Antoine de Daruvar; Arnaud Couloux; Patrick Wincker; Marie-Pierre Reviron; Antoine Kremer; Christophe Plomion</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000298"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping regional distribution of a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span>, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification <span class="hlt">trees</span>) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Landenburger, L.; Lawrence, R.L.; Podruzny, S.; Schwartz, C.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21937729"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liberomyces gen. nov. with two new <span class="hlt">species</span> of endophytic coelomycetes from broadleaf <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During a study of endophytic and saprotrophic fungi in the sapwood and phloem of broadleaf <span class="hlt">trees</span> (Salix alba, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula) fungi belonging to an anamorphic coelomycetous genus not attributable to a described taxon were detected and isolated in pure culture. The new genus, Liberomyces, with two <span class="hlt">species</span>, L. saliciphilus and L. macrosporus, is described. Both <span class="hlt">species</span> have subglobose conidiomata containing holoblastic sympodial conidiogenous cells. The conidiomata dehisce irregularly or by ostiole and secrete a slimy suspension of conidia. The conidia are hyaline, narrowly allantoid with a typically curved distal end. In L. macrosporus simultaneous production of synanamorph with thin filamentous conidia was observed occasionally. The genus has no known teleomorph. Related sequences in the public databases belong to endophytes of angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a position close to the Xylariales (Sordariomycetes), but family and order affiliation remained unclear. PMID:21937729</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pazoutová, Sylvie; Srutka, Petr; Holusa, Jaroslav; Chudícková, Milada; Kubátová, Alena; Kolarík, Miroslav</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1066344"> <span id="translatedtitle">15N2 Fixation and H2 Evolution by Six <span class="hlt">Species</span> of Tropical Leguminous <span class="hlt">Trees</span> 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The C2H4/15N2 and H2/15N2 ratios for six <span class="hlt">species</span> of tropical leguminous <span class="hlt">trees</span> are reported. C2H4/15N2 ratios ranged from 2.4 to 4.7; values for the H2/15N2 ratios were between 0.6 and 1.4. Relative efficiency values, based on C2H2 reduction, 15N incorporation, and H2 evolution during 15N incorporation varied between 0.68 and 0.84 for the six <span class="hlt">species</span>. Overall, approximately 30% of the electron flow through nitrogenase was used for H2 evolution. PMID:16663109</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Kessel, Christopher; Roskoski, Joann P.; Wood, Timothy; Montano, Jorge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3705482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping Regional Distribution of a Single <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span>, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification <span class="hlt">trees</span>) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Landenburger, Lisa; Lawrence, Rick L.; Podruzny, Shannon; Schwartz, Charles C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892354"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (Amass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five <span class="hlt">species</span> on sedimentary soils and five <span class="hlt">species</span> on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. Amass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Mean Amass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24455122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (A mass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five <span class="hlt">species</span> on sedimentary soils and five <span class="hlt">species</span> on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. A mass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Mean A mass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3708130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall <span class="hlt">tree</span> performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL), fine root diameter (D) and branching intensity (BI) of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e., plasticity). The first dataset included saplings of 12 North American temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four <span class="hlt">species</span> (present in both datasets) co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e., humid organic, mesic, and xeric podzolic).The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e., relative growth rate) were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for Abies balsamea and Acer rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total variability most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity). This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in <span class="hlt">trees</span>. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI. PMID:23874347</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tobner, Cornelia M.; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9245E..0ZR"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a boreal forest area using RapidEye and Lidar data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition is one of the criteria required for assessing forest reclamation in the province of Alberta in Canada. This information is also very important for forest management and conservation purposes. In this paper the performances of RapidEye data alone and in combination with the Light Detection And Ranging data is assessed for mapping <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a boreal forest area in Alberta. Both the random forest and support vector machine classification techniques were evaluated. A significant improvement in the classification outputs was observed when using both data types. Random forest outperformed the support vector machine classifier. Overall, the difference in acquisition time between the RapidEye and Light Detection And Ranging data did not seem to affect significantly the classification results. Using random forest, six input variables were identified as the most important for the classification process including digital elevation model, terrain slope, canopy height, the red-edge normalized difference vegetation index, and the red-edge and near-infrared bands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rochdi, N.; Yang, X.; Staenz, K.; Patterson, Shane; Purdy, Brett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285658"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leaves of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> as biomonitors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study extends the current knowledge regarding the use of plants for the passive accumulation of anthropogenic PAHs that are present in the atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is of major relevance because the anthropic emissions of TSP containing PAHs are significant in these regions, but their monitoring is still scarce. We compared the biomonitor efficiency of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava 'Paluma') that were growing in an intensely TSP-polluted site in Cubatão (SE Brazil), and established the <span class="hlt">species</span> with the highest potential for alternative monitoring of PAHs. PAHs present in the TSP indicated that the region is impacted by various emission sources. L. multiflorum showed a greater efficiency for the accumulation of PAH compounds on their leaves than the tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The linear regression between the logBCF and logKoa revealed that L. multiflorum is an efficient biomonitor of the profile of light and heavy PAHs present in the particulate phase of the atmosphere during dry weather and mild temperatures. The grass should be used only for indicating the PAHs with higher molecular weight in warmer and wetter periods. PMID:22285658</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa; Dias, Ana P L; Esposito, Jéssica B N; Pagliuso, Josmar D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25224379"> <span id="translatedtitle">Where to nest? Ecological determinants of chimpanzee nest abundance and distribution at the habitat and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> scale.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conversion of forests to anthropogenic land-uses increasingly subjects chimpanzee populations to habitat changes and concomitant alterations in the plant resources available to them for nesting and feeding. Based on nest count surveys conducted during the dry season, we investigated nest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> selection and the effect of vegetation attributes on nest abundance of the western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus, at Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), Guinea-Bissau, a forest-savannah mosaic widely disturbed by humans. Further, we assessed patterns of nest height distribution to determine support for the anti-predator hypothesis. A zero-altered generalized linear mixed model showed that nest abundance was negatively related to floristic diversity (exponential form of the Shannon index) and positively with the availability of smaller-sized <span class="hlt">trees</span>, reflecting characteristics of dense-canopy forest. A positive correlation between nest abundance and floristic richness (number of plant <span class="hlt">species</span>) and composition indicated that <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich open habitats are also important in nest site selection. Restricting this analysis to feeding <span class="hlt">trees</span>, nest abundance was again positively associated with the availability of smaller-sized <span class="hlt">trees</span>, further supporting the preference for nesting in food <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from dense forest. Nest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> selection was non-random, and oil palms were used at a much lower proportion (10%) than previously reported from other study sites in forest-savannah mosaics. While this study suggests that human disturbance may underlie the exclusive arboreal nesting at LCNP, better quantitative data are needed to determine to what extent the construction of elevated nests is in fact a response to predators able to climb <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Given the importance of LCNP as refuge for Pan t. verus our findings can improve conservation decisions for the management of this important umbrella <span class="hlt">species</span> as well as its remaining suitable habitats. Am. J. Primatol. 77:186-199, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25224379</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carvalho, Joana S; Meyer, Christoph F J; Vicente, Luis; Marques, Tiago A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4012946"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Rapidly Evolving Intron Markers to Estimate Multilocus <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of Rodents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related <span class="hlt">species</span>, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> approaches. Rodent <span class="hlt">species</span> represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent <span class="hlt">species</span> belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of <span class="hlt">species</span> and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister <span class="hlt">species</span> the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different <span class="hlt">species</span> of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability. PMID:24804779</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodríguez-Prieto, Ana; Igea, Javier; Castresana, Jose</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12844251"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the central cascades of Oregon.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mature and old growth <span class="hlt">trees</span> of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten <span class="hlt">species</span>. These predictions of sapwood volume were used to scale respiratory potential to the main-bole level (excluding all branches). On the core level, <span class="hlt">species</span> that maintained narrow sapwood (8-16% of bole radius) such as Pseudotusga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata, had sapwood respiratory potentials in the lower bole that were 50% higher (P<0.05) than <span class="hlt">species</span> with wide sapwood (>16% of bole radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed for inner bark respiratory potential, or for sapwood respiratory potential within the crown. On the main-bole level, respiratory potential per unit volume was inversely correlated to the live bole volumetric fraction (inner bark plus sapwood divided by whole bole volume) (Adj. R(2)=0.6). Specifically, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with 18-20% of the main bole alive potentially respired 1.3-3 times more per unit live bole volume than <span class="hlt">species</span> with over 40%, suggesting that the live bole was less metabolically active in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that maintained large volumes of sapwood. PMID:12844251</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pruyn, Michele L; Harmon, Mark E; Gartner, B L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25281923"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is the extremely rare Iberian endemic plant <span class="hlt">species</span> Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Compositae, Anthemideae) a 'living fossil'? Evidence from a multi-locus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> reconstruction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study provides results of multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> coalescent <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> analyses of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear and plastid regions to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the subtribe Leucanthemopsidinae (Compositae, Anthemideae), to which besides the annual Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Degen, Hervier & É.Rev.) Vogt & Oberp., one of the rarest flowering plant <span class="hlt">species</span> of the Iberian Peninsula, two other unispecific genera (Hymenostemma, Prolongoa), and the polyploidy complex of the genus Leucanthemopsis belong. Based on sequence information from two single- to low-copy nuclear regions (C16, D35, characterised by Chapman et al. (2007)), the multi-copy region of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, and two intergenic spacer regions of the cpDNA gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> were reconstructed using Bayesian inference methods. For the reconstruction of a multi-locus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> we applied three different methods: (a) analysis of concatenated sequences using Bayesian inference (MrBayes), (b) a <span class="hlt">tree</span> reconciliation approach by minimizing the number of deep coalescences (PhyloNet), and (c) a coalescent-based <span class="hlt">species-tree</span> method in a Bayesian framework ((?)BEAST). All three <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> reconstruction methods unequivocally support the close relationship of the subtribe with the hitherto unclassified genus Phalacrocarpum, the sister-group relationship of Castrilanthemum with the three remaining genera of the subtribe, and the further sister-group relationship of the clade of Hymenostemma+Prolongoa with a monophyletic genus Leucanthemopsis. Dating of the (?)BEAST phylogeny supports the long-lasting (Early Miocene, 15-22Ma) taxonomical independence and the switch from the plesiomorphic perennial to the apomorphic annual life-form assumed for the Castrilanthemum lineage that may have occurred not earlier than in the Pliocene (3Ma) when the establishment of a Mediterranean climate with summer droughts triggered evolution towards annuality. PMID:25281923</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomasello, Salvatore; Alvarez, Inés; Vargas, Pablo; Oberprieler, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21990024"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leaf respiratory acclimation to climate: comparisons among boreal and temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> along a latitudinal transect.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In common gardens along an ?900 km latitudinal transect through Wisconsin and Illinois, U.S.A., <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> typical of boreal and temperate forests were compared with respect to the nature and magnitude of leaf respiratory acclimation to contrasting climates. The boreal representatives were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), while the temperate <span class="hlt">species</span> were eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr ex. Marsh var. deltoides) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). Assessments were conducted on seedlings grown from seed sources collected near southern and northern range boundaries, respectively. Nighttime rates of leaf dark respiration (R(d)) at common temperatures, as well as R(d)'s short-term temperature sensitivity (energy of activation, E(o)), were assessed for all <span class="hlt">species</span> and gardens twice during a growing season. Little evidence of R(d) thermal acclimation was observed, despite a 12 °C range in average air temperature across gardens. Instead, R(d) variation at warm temperatures was linked most closely with prior leaf photosynthetic performance, while R(d) variation at cooler temperatures was most strongly related to leaf nitrogen concentration. Moreover, E(o) differences across <span class="hlt">species</span> and gardens appeared to stem from the somewhat independent limitations on warm versus cool R(d). Based on this construct, an empirical model relying on R(d) estimates from leaf photosynthesis and nitrogen concentration explained 55% of the observed E(o) variation. PMID:21990024</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21470981"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus aucuparia over 3 months. We measured the instantaneous surface tension and followed changes over a period of 0.5-5 h using the pendant drop technique. In all three <span class="hlt">species</span> the instantaneous surface tension was equal to or within a few percent of that of pure water. Further, in B. papyrifera and S. aucuparia the change over time following drop establishment, although significant, was very small. In P. tremuloides, however, there was a steep decline in surface tension over time that leveled off towards values 21-27% lower than that of pure water. This indicated the presence of surfactants. The values were lower for thinner distal branch segments than for proximal ones closer to the trunk. In some <span class="hlt">species</span> it appears valid to assume that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of water. However, in branch segments of P. tremuloides close to the terminal bud and hence potentially in other <span class="hlt">species</span> as well, it may be necessary to take into account the presence of surfactants that reduce the surface tension over time. PMID:21470981</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christensen-Dalsgaard, Karen K; Tyree, Melvin T; Mussone, Paolo G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10540979"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proximate composition and mineral content of two edible <span class="hlt">species</span> of Cnidoscolus (<span class="hlt">tree</span> spinach).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proximate composition and mineral content of raw and cooked leaves of two edible <span class="hlt">tree</span> spinach <span class="hlt">species</span> (Cnidoscolus chayamansa and C. aconitifolius), known locally as 'chaya', were determined and compared with that of a traditional green vegetable, spinach (Spinicia oleraceae). Results of the study indicated that the edible leafy parts of the two chaya <span class="hlt">species</span> contained significantly (p<0.05) greater amounts of crude protein, crude fiber, Ca, K, Fe, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene than the spinach leaf. However, no significant (p>0.05) differences were found in nutritional composition and mineral content between the chaya <span class="hlt">species</span>, except minor differences in the relative composition of fatty acids, protein and amino acids. Cooking of chaya leaves slightly reduced nutritional composition of both chaya <span class="hlt">species</span>. Cooking is essential prior to consumption to inactivate the toxic hydrocyanic glycosides present in chaya leaves. Based on the results of this study, the edible chaya leaves may be good dietary sources of minerals (Ca, K and Fe) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene). PMID:10540979</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuti, J O; Kuti, H O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hla.agsci.colostate.edu/faculty/bauerle/ECO_MODEL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting the growth of deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in response to water stress: FVS-BGC model parameterization, application, and evaluation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An individual-<span class="hlt">tree</span>, distance-independent forest stand projection model (FVS-BGC) was applied to study deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> response to water stress. FVS-BGC couples the process model STAND-BGC to the empirically based forest vegetation simulator (FVS). We sought to determine whether the hybrid model could be expanded to simulate deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span> and their response to water stress, where to date the model has not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ying Wang; William L. Bauerle; Robert F. Reynolds</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39911653"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on apple <span class="hlt">trees</span> and in surrounding vegetation in southern Finland. Densities and <span class="hlt">species</span> composition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Leaf samples were collected from sprayed (n=29) and unsprayed (n=19) apple orchards, from the surrounding vegetation (n=58) and from one arboretum (n=12), altogether from 46 plant <span class="hlt">species</span> (1–5 samples each). The density of phytoseiid mites averaged 1.2 mites\\/leaf on unsprayed apple <span class="hlt">trees</span>, but only 0.06 mites\\/leaf on sprayed <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The phytoseiid density exceeded 1\\/leaf onAesculus hippocastani, Aristolochia macrophylla, Corylus avellana,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Tuovinen; J. A. H. Rokx</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/1m11246534835860.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Betula maximowicziana , a long-lived pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and noble hardwood in Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Betula maximowicziana is an ecologically and economically important <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Japan. In order to examine the phylogeographical pattern of\\u000a the <span class="hlt">species</span> in detail, maternally inherited chloroplast (cp) DNA variations of 25 natural populations of Betula maximowicziana and a total of 12 populations of three related <span class="hlt">species</span> were evaluated by PCR-RFLP analysis. Two main haplotypic groups of\\u000a B. maximowicziana populations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoshiaki Tsuda; Yuji Ide</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.canopyants.com/Oecol-99.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of leaf litter <span class="hlt">species</span> on macroinvertebrate community properties and mosquito yield in Neotropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> hole microcosms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detritus quality and quantity affect macroinvertebrate productivity and distribution in many freshwater ecosystems. This\\u000a study experimentally investigated the effects of leaf litter from Ceiba pentandra, Dipteryx panamensis, Ficus yoponensis, and Platypodium elegans on macroinvertebrate <span class="hlt">species</span> composition, richness, and abundance in artificial water-filled <span class="hlt">tree</span> holes in a lowland moist\\u000a forest of Panama. <span class="hlt">Species</span> composition was similar among treatments, but <span class="hlt">species</span> richness</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephen P. Yanoviak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3268544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unrestricted quality of seeds in European broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> growing at the cold boundary of their distribution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims The low-temperature range limit of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may be determined by their ability to produce and disperse viable seeds. Biological processes such as flowering, pollen transfer, pollen tube growth, fertilization, embryogenesis and seed maturation are expected to be affected by cold temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of seeds of nine broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> close to their elevational limit. Methods We studied nine, mostly widely distributed, European broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the genera Acer, Fagus, Fraxinus, Ilex, Laburnum, Quercus, Sorbus and Tilia. For each <span class="hlt">species</span>, seeds were collected from stands close to optimal growth conditions (low elevation) and from marginal stands (highest elevation), replicated in two regions in the Swiss Alps. Measurements included seed weight, seed size, storage tissue quality, seed viability and germination success. Key Results All <span class="hlt">species</span> examined produced a lot of viable seeds at their current high-elevation range limit during a summer ranked ‘normal’ by long-term temperature records. Low- and high-elevation seed sources showed hardly any trait differences. The concentration of non-structural carbohydrates tended to be higher at high elevation. Additionally, in one <span class="hlt">species</span>, Sorbus aucuparia, all measured traits showed significantly higher seed quality in high-elevation seed sources. Conclusions For the broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> taxa studied, the results are not in agreement with the hypothesis of reduced quality of seeds in <span class="hlt">trees</span> at their high-elevation range limits. Under the current climatic conditions, seed quality does not constitute a serious constraint in the reproduction of these broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at their high-elevation limit. PMID:22156401</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kollas, C.; Vitasse, Y.; Randin, C. F.; Hoch, G.; Körner, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://nfs.unl.edu/documents/Marketing%20&%20Utilization/2012_Annual%20Report%20From%20Adversity%20Rises%20Opportunity%20-%20pp12-13.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">USEFUL RESOURCES. (Right) Aggressive eastern redcedar impacts a variety of Nebraska resources. Utilizing this <span class="hlt">species</span> can help preserve rare native <span class="hlt">tree</span> stands and increase available grazing land. This</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">. Utilizing this <span class="hlt">species</span> can help preserve rare native <span class="hlt">tree</span> stands and increase available grazing land of emerald ash borer (EAB) are all taking their toll. Still, there is one <span class="hlt">species</span> that continues to thrive and grazing lands, and the riparian forests along the Platte and Niobrara rivers. This aggressive <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farritor, Shane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/r5g21t28016v5w56.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of reforestation potential of 83 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted on Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland – A case study from South Kalimantan, Indonesia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Survival and growth of 83 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were tested in three separate <span class="hlt">species</span> elimination trials on Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The trial layout was randomized complete blocks design with 6–8 replications of 5-<span class="hlt">tree</span> line plots. At the age of two years exotics, like several Acacia <span class="hlt">species</span> (A. mangium, A. crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis, A. cincinnata, A. leptocarpa),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antti Otsamo; Göran Ådjers; Tjuk Samito Hadi; Jussi Kuusipalo; Risto Vuokko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39813089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Potential of <span class="hlt">Trees</span> for Afforestation of Degraded Landscapes in the Aral Sea Basin of Uzbekistan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Land degradation is a serious hindrance to agricultural development in Uzbekistan, a country striving to rebuild its agricultural\\u000a sector for self-sustained production. The potential of <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> for upgrading degraded land is enormous. However,\\u000a knowledge is lacking about the establishment and growth characteristics of different <span class="hlt">species</span>, the energy content of firewood\\u000a and the nutritive value of fodder. This study presents</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Khamzina; J. P. A. Lamers; M. Worbes; E. Botman; P. L. G. Vlek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17169898"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in four northern hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seedling responses to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and solar irradiance were measured over two growing seasons in shade-tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh. and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina, a J.F. Ehrh. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. Seedlings were exposed to a factorial combination of [CO2] (ambient and elevated (658 micromol mol-1)) and understory shade (deep and moderate) in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. The elevated [CO(2)] treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rate by 63% in the shade-tolerant <span class="hlt">species</span> and 67% in the shade-intolerant <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, when measured at the elevated [CO(2)], long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10% lower than the instantaneous enhancement seen in ambient-[CO(2)]-grown plants (P < 0.021). Overall, growth light environment affected long-term photosynthetic enhancement by elevated [CO(2)]: as the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated [CO(2)] decreased from 97% for plants grown in deep shade to 47% for plants grown in moderate shade. Results suggest that in N-limited northern temperate forests, <span class="hlt">trees</span> grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere than <span class="hlt">trees</span> growing in more moderate shade, because of greater downregulation in the latter environment. If photosynthetic gains by deep-shade-grown plants in response to elevated [CO(2)] translate into improved growth and survival of shade-intolerant <span class="hlt">species</span>, it could alter the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities. PMID:17169898</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sefcik, Lesley T; Zak, Donald R; Ellsworth, David S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18817913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flavylium chromophores as <span class="hlt">species</span> markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the <span class="hlt">species</span> and could be used as markers to differentiate among <span class="hlt">species</span>. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as <span class="hlt">species</span> markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among <span class="hlt">species</span> of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered <span class="hlt">species</span> of dragon's blood and the <span class="hlt">species</span> being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:18817913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18203858"> <span id="translatedtitle">The exotic legume <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Acacia holosericea alters microbial soil functionalities and the structure of the arbuscular mycorrhizal community.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast-growing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared to the crop soil surrounding the A. holosericea plantation, this exotic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, associated or not with the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, induced strong modifications in soil microbial functionalities (assessed by measuring the patterns of in situ catabolic potential of microbial communities) and reduced soil resistance in response to increasing stress or disturbance (salinity, temperature, and freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles). In addition, A. holosericea strongly modified the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities. These results show clearly that exotic plants may be responsible for important changes in soil microbiota affecting the structure and functions of microbial communities. PMID:18203858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Remigi, P; Faye, A; Kane, A; Deruaz, M; Thioulouse, J; Cissoko, M; Prin, Y; Galiana, A; Dreyfus, B; Duponnois, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EnMan..52..851S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Data From Seed-Dispersal Modelling to Manage Invasive <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: The Example of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall in Europe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Management strategies to control invasive <span class="hlt">species</span> need information about dispersal distances to predict establishment potential. Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a North American anemochorous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that is invasive in many Central European floodplain forests. To predict seed-dispersal potential, the stochastic model WaldStat was used, which enables different options for directionality (isotropic and anisotropic) to be simulated. In this article, we (1) show empirical results of fructification and seed dispersal for this <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The model predicts approximately 250,000 seeds for one F. pennsylvanica <span class="hlt">tree</span>. These results were used to (2) calculate <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific dispersal distances and effects of wind direction. To consider the influence of wind on dispersal potential of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, long-distance dispersal (LDD [95th percentile dispersal distance]) was calculated. Mean dispersal distances varied between 47 and 66 m. LDD values modelled along the main wind direction ranged from 60 to 150 m. Seed production, dispersal distance, and direction data were (3) incorporated into theoretical management scenarios for forest ecosystems. Finally (4), we discuss management options and the practical relevance of model scenarios in relation to the accuracy of spatial dispersal predictions. Further analyses should be focused on possible, well-adapted management concepts at stand level that could restrict the potential spread of invasive <span class="hlt">species</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmiedel, Doreen; Huth, Franka; Wagner, Sven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJAEO..31...57S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping in tropical forests using multi-temporal imaging spectroscopy: Wavelength adaptive spectral mixture analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of imaging spectroscopy for florisic mapping of forests is complicated by the spectral similarity among co-existing <span class="hlt">species</span>. Here we evaluated an alternative spectral unmixing strategy combining a time series of EO-1 Hyperion images and an automated feature selection in Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). The temporal analysis provided a way to incorporate <span class="hlt">species</span> phenology while feature selection indicated the best phenological time and best spectral feature set to optimize the separability between <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Instead of using the same set of spectral bands throughout the image which is the standard approach in MESMA, our modified Wavelength Adaptive Spectral Mixture Analysis (WASMA) approach allowed the spectral subsets to vary on a per pixel basis. As such we were able to optimize the spectral separability between the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> present in each pixel. The potential of the new approach for floristic mapping of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Hawaiian rainforests was quantitatively assessed using both simulated and actual hyperspectral image time-series. With a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.65, WASMA provided a more accurate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> map compared to conventional MESMA (Kappa = 0.54; p-value < 0.05. The flexible or adaptive use of band sets in WASMA provides an interesting avenue to address spectral similarities in complex vegetation canopies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Somers, B.; Asner, G. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using data from seed-dispersal modelling to manage invasive <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: the example of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall in Europe.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Management strategies to control invasive <span class="hlt">species</span> need information about dispersal distances to predict establishment potential. Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a North American anemochorous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that is invasive in many Central European floodplain forests. To predict seed-dispersal potential, the stochastic model WaldStat was used, which enables different options for directionality (isotropic and anisotropic) to be simulated. In this article, we (1) show empirical results of fructification and seed dispersal for this <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The model predicts approximately 250,000 seeds for one F. pennsylvanica <span class="hlt">tree</span>. These results were used to (2) calculate <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific dispersal distances and effects of wind direction. To consider the influence of wind on dispersal potential of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, long-distance dispersal (LDD [95th percentile dispersal distance]) was calculated. Mean dispersal distances varied between 47 and 66 m. LDD values modelled along the main wind direction ranged from 60 to 150 m. Seed production, dispersal distance, and direction data were (3) incorporated into theoretical management scenarios for forest ecosystems. Finally (4), we discuss management options and the practical relevance of model scenarios in relation to the accuracy of spatial dispersal predictions. Further analyses should be focused on possible, well-adapted management concepts at stand level that could restrict the potential spread of invasive <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:23974901</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmiedel, Doreen; Huth, Franka; Wagner, Sven</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15..577W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the contribution of leaf respiration to the carbon economy of tropical rainforest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tropical rainforests are among the most important biomes in terms of annual primary productivity; hence, assessing their sensitivity to potential shifts in global and regional temperatures patterns is a necessary step to model future local, regional, and global carbon cycling. However, how the changes in future climate including increased temperatures in short- and long-term basis might impact on the carbon cycling in these tropical rainforests is little studied and remain poorly understood. Given this, this study examined the impact of short and long term changes in temperature on leaf respiration in tropical lowland rainforest located in Far North Queensland, Australia. We quantified how leaf respiration responded to short-term changes in temperature and associated leaf chemical and structural traits in 16 tropical rainforest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at two canopy heights; upper and lower level of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopy. Further we measured rates of photosynthesis (A) and leaf respiration (R) both in the dark and light, and relationships between those traits and associated leaf structural and chemical traits. Four of these <span class="hlt">species</span> were subsequently exposed to three different growth temperatures of 25° C, 30° C and 35° C under controlled environment conditions and ability of leaf respiration to acclimate to new temperature regimes was examined. In the field, upper canopy leaves showed higher rates of leaf respiration in darkness and in light than lower canopy leaves at a given set temperature (28° C). Moreover, at any given leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf nitrogen [N] and leaf phosphorus [P] value, rates of respiration were higher in upper canopy leaves (compared to lower canopy leaves). The short-term temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration (Q10) was found to be constant around 1.89 at 25° C irrespective of <span class="hlt">species</span> or canopy position. Three out of four <span class="hlt">species</span> subjected to different long-term growth temperatures under control environment conditions exhibited some ability to acclimate; acclimation resulted in homeostasis of leaf respiration measured at the prevailing growth temperatures. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of canopy position in determining rates of leaf respiration in this tropical forest, the ability of tropical rainforest <span class="hlt">species</span> to acclimate to changes in temperature in future warmer world, and appropriateness of current climate models using Q10 of 2 to describe temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration for this forest type. Key words: Respiration, carbon cycle, acclimation, tropical rain forests</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weerasinghe, Lasantha; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine; Xiang, Shuang; Atkin, Owen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18595851"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gender-specific patterns of aboveground allocation, canopy conductance and water use in a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Acer negundo.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that dominates riparian systems at mid elevations throughout the southwest and Intermountain West of the United States. Previous studies have shown that female A. negundo <span class="hlt">trees</span> occur at higher frequencies along stream margins, whereas males occur at higher frequencies in drier microsites. To better understand the adaptive significance of sex ratio biases and their impact on the ecohydrology of riparian ecosystems, we examined whole-plant water relations and hydraulic properties of mature male and female A. negundo <span class="hlt">trees</span> occurring within 1 m of a perennial stream channel. We hypothesized that (1) females would have significantly greater canopy water fluxes than males (particularly during periods of seed production: May-June), and (2) xylem in females is more hydraulically efficient but more vulnerable to cavitation than xylem in males. Mean sap flux density (J(s)) during the early growing season (May and June) was 43% higher in female <span class="hlt">trees</span> than in male <span class="hlt">trees</span> (n = 6 and 7 <span class="hlt">trees</span> respectively, P < 0.0001). Mean J(s) in July and August remained 17% higher in females than in males (P = 0.0009). Mean canopy stomatal conductance per unit leaf area (g(s,leaf)) in May and June was on average 140% higher in females than in males (P < 0.0001). Mean g(s,leaf) in July and August remained 69% higher in female <span class="hlt">trees</span> than in male <span class="hlt">trees</span> (P < 0.0001). Canopy stomatal conductance scaled to basal area was 90 and 31% higher in females relative to males during May-June and July-August, respectively (P < 0.0001 during both periods). Conversely, there were no apparent differences in either branch hydraulic conductance or branch xylem cavitation vulnerability between genders. These results improve our capacity to describe the adaptive forces that shape the spatial distribution of male and female <span class="hlt">trees</span> in dioecious <span class="hlt">species</span>, and their consequences for ecohydrological processes in riparian ecosystems. PMID:18595851</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hultine, K R; Bush, S E; West, A G; Burtch, K G; Pataki, D E; Ehleringer, J R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812288"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of NaCl stress on the seedling growth and K(+)- and Na(+) -allocation of four leguminous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Taking the pot-cultured seedlings of four leguminous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Albizia julibrissin, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, and Gleditsia sinensis) as test materials, this paper studied their growth indices, critical salt concentration (C50), and K+ and Na+ allocation under different levels of NaCl stress, aimed to understand the difference of test <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in salt tolerance. NaCl stress inhibited the seedling growth of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Under NaCl stress, the dry matter accumulation decreased, while the root/shoot ratio increased, especially for A. julibrissin and G. sinensis. Quadratic regression analysis showed that the C50 of A. julibrissin, R. pseudoacacia, S. japonica, and G. sinensis was 3.0 per thousand, 5.0 per thousand, 4.5 per thousand, and 3.9 per thousand, respectively, i.e., the salt tolerance of the four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was in the order of R. pseudoacacia > S. japonica > G. sinensis > A. julibrissin. In the root, stem, and leaf of the four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> seedlings, the Na+ content increased with the increase of NaCl stress, while the K+ content (except in the root of A. julibrissin) decreased after an initial increase, resulting in a larger difference in the K+/Na+ ratio in the organs. Under the same NaCl stress, the allocation of Na+ in different organs of the four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> seedlings decreased in the order of root>stem>leaf, while that of K+ differed with <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and NaCl stress, and leaf was the main storage organ for K+. The K+/Na+ ratio in different organs decreased in the sequence of leaf>stem>root. R. pseudoacacia under NaCl stress accumulated more K+ and less Na+ in stem and leaf, and had higher K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and higher dry mass, being assessed to be more salt-tolerant. In contrast, A. julibrissin under high NaCl stress accumulated more Na+ in stem and leaf, and had a lower K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and lower dry mass, being evaluated to be lesser salt-tolerant. The K+ accumulation in seedling stem and leaf and the Na+ retention in seedling root could be the main reasons for the salt tolerance of leguminous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> under NaCl stress. PMID:21812288</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mo, Hai-Bo; Yin, Yun-Long; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Wei, Xiu-Jun; Xu, Jian-Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997SPIE.3200...44B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> system for ecological monitoring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Moscow Research Television Institute has conducted theoretical and experimental researches concerning the integration of image sensors operating in different ranges on board of vehicles. On the base of these researches a prototype of <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> system for ecological monitoring is made. The scope of the system: ecological monitoring of each and water surface, control of sources of pollution and zones of ecological disasters; monitoring of oil, gaz and other pipelines; and control of forests and arable land and so on. The combination of technical means operating in visible, IR and SHF bands allows to gather of the information at any time of day, night or season in different meteorological conditions. The use of high resolution image sensors and the large coverage zone of the substrate surface (up to nine altitudes of aircraft) allows to obtain a large volume of information per one sortie of aircraft. The video information is displayed on board of aircraft together with geographical coordinates and auxiliary data. For obtaining the information in real time at the terrestrial site the wideband RF link is provided. The <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> System for Ecological Monitoring may be used in different on-board complexes of various aircraft (manned or unmanned), planes and copters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berezansky, Vladimir M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278464"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elevated night-time temperatures increase growth in seedlings of two tropical pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Increased night-time temperatures, through their influence on dark respiration, have been implicated as a reason behind decreasing growth rates in tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the face of contemporary climate change. Seedlings of two neo-tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Ficus insipida and Ochroma pyramidale) were grown in controlled-environment chambers at a constant daytime temperature (33°C) and a range of increasing night-time temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31°C) for between 39 d and 54 d. Temperature regimes were selected to represent a realistic baseline condition for lowland Panama, and a rise in night-time temperatures far in excess of those predicted for Central America in the coming decades. Experiments were complemented by an outdoor open-top chamber study in which night-time temperatures were elevated by 2.4°C above ambient. Increasing night-time temperatures resulted in > 2-fold increase in biomass accumulation in growth-chamber studies despite an increase in leaf-level dark respiration. Similar trends were seen in open-top chambers, in which elevated night-time temperatures resulted in stimulation of growth. These findings challenge simplistic considerations of photosynthesis-directed growth, highlighting the role of temperature-dependent night-time processes, including respiration and leaf development as drivers of plant performance in the tropics. PMID:23278464</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21888233"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum <span class="hlt">tree</span> survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban. PMID:21888233</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24583020"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation of North American chorus frogs (Hylidae: Pseudacris) with parallel tagged amplicon sequencing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The field of phylogenetics is changing rapidly with the application of high-throughput sequencing to non-model organisms. Cost-effective use of this technology for phylogenetic studies, which often include a relatively small portion of the genome but several taxa, requires strategies for genome partitioning and sequencing multiple individuals in parallel. In this study we estimated a multilocus phylogeny for the North American chorus frog genus Pseudacris using anonymous nuclear loci that were recently developed using a reduced representation library approach. We sequenced 27 nuclear loci and three mitochondrial loci for 44 individuals on 1/3 of an Illumina MiSeq run, obtaining 96.5% of the targeted amplicons at less than 20% of the cost of traditional Sanger sequencing. We found heterogeneity among gene <span class="hlt">trees</span>, although four major clades (Trilling Frog, Fat Frog, crucifer, and West Coast) were consistently supported, and we resolved the relationships among these clades for the first time with strong support. We also found discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear datasets that we attribute to mitochondrial introgression and a possible selective sweep. Bayesian concordance analysis in BUCKy and <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> analysis in (*)BEAST produced largely similar topologies, although we identify taxa that require additional investigation in order to clarify taxonomic and geographic range boundaries. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of a reduced representation library approach for marker development and parallel tagged sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq for phylogenetic studies of non-model organisms. PMID:24583020</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrow, Lisa N; Ralicki, Hannah F; Emme, Sandra A; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24510059"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a semiarid plantation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Responses of transpiration (Ec) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall Ec development and recovery rate, and (2) the <span class="hlt">species</span> responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance (Gc) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibited the same hydraulic control (-dG c/dlnVPD to Gcref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low Ec. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand Ec. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the Ec recovery. Further, the stand Ec was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. Ec enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (?VWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two <span class="hlt">species</span> had different response patterns of post-rainfall Ec recovery. Ec recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall Ec increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the <span class="hlt">species</span> differences of Ec in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes. PMID:24510059</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1569C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a semiarid plantation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Responses of transpiration ( E c) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall E c development and recovery rate, and (2) the <span class="hlt">species</span> responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance ( G c) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibited the same hydraulic control (-d G c/dlnVPD to G cref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low E c. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand E c. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the E c recovery. Further, the stand E c was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. E c enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (?VWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two <span class="hlt">species</span> had different response patterns of post-rainfall E c recovery. E c recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall E c increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the <span class="hlt">species</span> differences of E c in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25319714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of tannin source and concentration from <span class="hlt">tree</span> leaves on two <span class="hlt">species</span> of tadpoles.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (<span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole <span class="hlt">species</span> (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both <span class="hlt">species</span>, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:120-126. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25319714</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..139...40G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing variation in bacterial composition between the rhizospheres of two mangrove <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study aimed to determine to what extent roots from the common mangrove <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa are able to impose a selective force on the composition of sediment bacterial communities in mangrove intertidal sediments using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4 hyper-variable region). The novel results showed that root systems of A. schaueriana and L. racemosa are associated with increased bacterial dominance, lower richness and compositional shifts of sediment bacterial communities. The proportion of OTUs (operational taxonomc units) belonging to the orders Rhizobiales and Vibrionales were enriched in rhizosphere samples from both plant <span class="hlt">species</span> and sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the order Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were enriched in the rhizosphere of A. schaueriana. In addition, Clostridium and Vibrio populations were more abundant in different mangrove rhizospheres. A. schaueriana and L. racemosa roots appear to be able to impose a selective force on the composition of mangrove sediment bacterial communities and this phenomenon appears to be plant <span class="hlt">species</span> specific. Our findings provide new insights into the potential ecological roles of bacterial guilds in plant-microbe interactions and may aid rhizoengineering approaches for replanting impacted mangrove areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomes, Newton C. M.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Pires, Ana C. C.; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3867374"> <span id="translatedtitle">High Genetic Diversity in a Potentially Vulnerable Tropical <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Despite Extreme Habitat Loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the last 150 years, Singapore’s primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining <span class="hlt">species</span> may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter), 193 saplings (>1 yr), and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr) of the canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae). We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1) that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2) K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He?=?0.843–0.854), high allelic richness (R?=?16.7–19.5), low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS?=?0.013–0.076), and a large proportion (30.1%) of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%). However, spatial genetic structure (SGS) analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0–10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult <span class="hlt">trees</span>) are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm?=?0.961), calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee <span class="hlt">species</span> in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss. PMID:24367531</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noreen, Annika M. E.; Webb, Edward L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9106416"> <span id="translatedtitle">RESEARCH: Shrub Propagation Techniques for Biological Control ofInvading <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">/ The use of relatively stable shrub communities to control invasionby <span class="hlt">trees</span> could be an efficient way of reducing herbicide applications, andthus represents an environmental gain, in areas such as rights-of-way. Thequestion is how to favor the expansion of these relatively stable shrubcommunities using different propagation techniques. Three experimentaltreatments, cutting back, layering, and cutting back-layering were performedon Cornus stolonifera, Salix petiolaris, and Spiraea albaclones already located within the corridor of an electrical power line. Toestablish the efficiency of treatments, we examined the statisticaldifferences of growth traits between <span class="hlt">species</span> and treatments.An analysis of the effects of layering shows, after the first growth season,differences for all growth traits in only one <span class="hlt">species</span>, Spiraea alba.After the second growth season, we observed the development of new aerialstems. Layering favors horizontal expansion of shrubs over heightdevelopment. The third year after treatment, the effect of layering isreduced except for Cornus stolonifera, which continuously increases,as shown by the significant progression of the clone issued from the layereven five years after treatments. With the cutting back technique, weexpected a distinct vertical growth of the shrubs at the expense ofincreasing the crown diameter. This technique would be best associated withthe rejuvenation of clones, followed by a layering of new shoots to allow ahorizontal expansion of the shrubs. Therefore, the formation of a dense shrubcommunity by layering should be considered a valuable approach for thebiological control of undesirable <span class="hlt">trees</span> in powerline rights-of-way.KEY WORDS: Layering; Cutting back; Right-of-way; Cornus stolonifera;Salix petiolaris; Spiraea alba; Quebec PMID:9106416</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meilleur; Veronneau; Bouchard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41921135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chloroplast microsatellite markers for the mangrove <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Bruguiera gymnorrhiza , Kandelia candel , and Rhizophora stylosa , and cross-amplification in other mangrove <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed for three ecologically and economically important <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in\\u000a the mangrove family, Rhizophoraceae: Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel, and Rhizophora stylosa. Noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from each <span class="hlt">species</span> were separately amplified using universal chloroplast primers.\\u000a Six, two, and three polymorphic cpSSR loci in B. gymnorrhiza, K. candel, and R. stylosa, respectively, were developed from amplified noncoding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chunlan Lian; Qifang Geng; Norikazu Kameyama; Taizo Hogetsu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://climchange.cr.usgs.gov/data/atlas/little/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Digital Representations of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Range Maps from "Atlas of United States <span class="hlt">Trees</span>" by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (and other publications)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Earth Surface Dynamics section of the USGS provides this excellent collection of graphics, depicting range maps for more than 100 common North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. From Abies amabilis to Yucca brevifolia, these color maps may be viewed or downloaded (.pdf, .zip, tgz). Most of the ranges depicted here were digitized by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (USDA Forest Service) for vegetation-climate modeling studies; graphics are best viewed as downloaded files.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25301477"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovering <span class="hlt">species</span> demographic history from multi-model inference: the case of a Neotropical savanna <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundGlaciations were recurrent throughout the Quaternary and potentially shaped <span class="hlt">species</span> genetic structure worldwide by affecting population dynamics. Here, we implemented a multi-model inference approach to recover the distribution dynamics and demographic history of a Neotropical savanna <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Tabebuia aurea (Bignoniaceae). Exploring different algorithms and paleoclimatic simulations, we used ecological niche modelling to generate alternative hypotheses of potential demographic changes through the last glacial cycle and estimated genetic parameters using coalescent modelling.ResultsComparing predictions from demographic hypotheses with genetic parameters of modern populations, our findings revealed a likely scenario of population decline, with spatial displacement towards Northeast Brazil from the last glacial maximum to the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, populations expanded in response to the return of the climatically suitable conditions in Central-West Brazil. Nevertheless, a wide historical refugium across Central Brazil likely maintained large populations connected throughout time. The expected genetic signatures from such predicted distribution dynamics are also corroborated by spatial genetic structure observed in modern populations.ConclusionBy exploring uncertainties inherent in multiple working hypotheses, we have shown that multi-model inference is a fruitful and efficient approach to recover the nature, timing and geographical context of the Tabebuia aurea population dynamic in response to the Quaternary climate changes. PMID:25301477</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Collevatti, Rosane G; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi; Guedes, Ludymila; Rosa, Fernanda F; Telles, Mariana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24027905"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Anatomic characterization of growth-rings in 80 potential <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for dendrocronological studies in the Central Forest, Perú].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The knowledge about the existence of annual <span class="hlt">tree</span> rings in tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>, which was already found at the beginning of the last century, was ignored by many scientists for a long time. Wood samples of 80 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from seven different sites belonging to Satipo and Chanchamayo provinces in Central Forest, Perú. Wood slices were taken at 1.30 m height, following the Peruvian Technical Norms (NTP) 251-008, COPANT norms 30:1-019 and IAWA (1989). Results showed that 24 of the 80 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> analyzed showed a potential for dendrocronological studies, 25 had problems for growth-rings analysis, and 31 did not have potential. The problems most frequently found were: barely visible or irregular ring growth, parenchyma bands and multiseriate rays difficult to be identified in rings growth. The "T" Student test showed that the significant variation in vessel and fiber diameters between growth zones (Early-wood and late-wood) of <span class="hlt">species</span> with potential for dendrocronology, do have a periodic cells production, so is possible to suggest the annual formation of each growth-ring. However, those <span class="hlt">species</span> without potential to dendrocronology may be influenced by of a lot of factors, such as biotic and abiotic conditions of environment, as well as the genetic aspect of each <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24027905</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beltrán Gutiérrez, Lizandro Adal; Valencia Ramos, Gina Mariela</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/f7645u3grl417220.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biosafety in Populus spp. and other forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>: from non-native <span class="hlt">species</span> to taxa derived from traditional breeding and genetic engineering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> are fundamental components of our environment, mainly due to their long lifetime and important role in forest ecology. In the past, some non-native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and taxa from traditional breeding have induced severe environmental impacts such as biological invasion, changes in the ‘gene pool’, and spread of diseases in forestry. Genetically modified <span class="hlt">trees</span> obtained in different research groups</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hans Hoenicka; Matthias Fladung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://college.indiana.edu/science/academy/Forestry.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">DESCRIPTION: In this event, students will be asked to identify <span class="hlt">trees</span> by their scientific names (Genus and <span class="hlt">species</span>) and answer correlated</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forestry DESCRIPTION: In this event, students will be asked to identify <span class="hlt">trees</span> by their scientific names (Genus and <span class="hlt">species</span>) and answer correlated questions pertaining to <span class="hlt">tree</span> structure and ecology parts of the <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Indentification will be based on an examination of living or preserved leaf</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Indiana University</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9239E..0GM"> <span id="translatedtitle">Object based technique for delineating and mapping 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using VHR WorldView-2 imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monitoring and analyzing forests and <span class="hlt">trees</span> are required task to manage and establish a good plan for the forest sustainability. To achieve such a task, information and data collection of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> are requested. The fastest way and relatively low cost technique is by using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we proposed an approach to identify and map 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Mangish sub-district, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Image-objects (IOs) were used as the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping unit. This is achieved using the shadow index, normalized difference vegetation index and texture measurements. Four classification methods (Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance, Neural Network, and Spectral Angel Mapper) were used to classify IOs using selected IO features derived from WorldView-2 imagery. Results showed that overall accuracy was increased 5-8% using the Neural Network method compared with other methods with a Kappa coefficient of 69%. This technique gives reasonable results of various <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> classifications by means of applying the Neural Network method with IOs techniques on WorldView-2 imagery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mustafa, Yaseen T.; Habeeb, Hindav N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stem water storage in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: significance, temporal dynamics and dependence on <span class="hlt">tree</span> functional traits.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The functional role of internal water storage is increasingly well understood in tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> and conifers, while temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> have only rarely been studied. We examined the magnitude and dynamics of the use of stem water reserves for transpiration in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> with largely different morphology and physiology (genera Fagus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Carpinus and Acer). We expected that differences in water storage patterns would mostly reflect <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in wood anatomy (ring vs. diffuse-porous) and wood density. Sap flux density was recorded synchronously at five positions along the root-to-branch flow path of mature <span class="hlt">trees</span> (roots, three stem positions and branches) with high temporal resolution (2 min) and related to stem radius changes recorded with electronic point dendrometers. The daily amount of stored stem water withdrawn for transpiration was estimated by comparing the integrated flow at stem base and stem top. The temporal coincidence of flows at different positions and apparent time lags were examined by cross-correlation analysis. Our results confirm that internal water stores play an important role in the four diffuse-porous <span class="hlt">species</span> with estimated 5-12 kg day(-1) being withdrawn on average in 25-28 m tall <span class="hlt">trees</span> representing 10-22% of daily transpiration; in contrast, only 0.5-2.0 kg day(-1) was withdrawn in ring-porous Fraxinus. Wood density had a large influence on storage; sapwood area (diffuse- vs. ring-porous) may be another influential factor but its effect was not significant. Across the five <span class="hlt">species</span>, the length of the time lag in flow at stem top and stem base was positively related to the size of stem storage. The stem stores were mostly exhausted when the soil matrix potential dropped below -0.1 MPa and daily mean vapor pressure deficit exceeded 3-5 hPa. We conclude that stem storage is an important factor improving the water balance of diffuse-porous temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> in moist periods, while it may be of low relevance in dry periods and in ring-porous <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:23999137</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.kirj.ee/public/Ecology/2008/issue_4/ecol-2008-4-269-278.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Screening indigenous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for suitable <span class="hlt">tree</span>–crop combinations in the agroforestry system of Mizoram, India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The study was conducted in the northeastern state of Mizoram in India to find out the allelopathic effect of <span class="hlt">trees</span> on agricultural crops. The study was conducted in a bioassay culture and a pot culture. The following results were received: • In the bioassay culture, the germination and radicle length of all food crops decreased in leaf and bark extracts</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Munesh Kumar; S Singshi; B Singh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource003554_Rep5091.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">NH Champion <span class="hlt">Trees</span> (in accordance with American Forests' National Register of Big <span class="hlt">Trees</span>) <span class="hlt">Species</span> Latin Name Nat'l</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fraxinus pennsylvanica 395 195 100 84 44 2009 Good Portsmouth Rockingham 514State Friday, November 08, 2013 625County 144 90 41 51 1988 Good Hanover Grafton 24County Ash Black Fraxinus nigra 242 157 66 81 38) Year City County <span class="hlt">Tree</span> ID CondCo Champ White Fraxinus americana 409 350 221 103 102 2009 Excell Derry</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">New Hampshire, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource002901_Rep4258.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">NH Champion <span class="hlt">Trees</span> (in accordance with American Forests' National Register of Big <span class="hlt">Trees</span>) <span class="hlt">Species</span> Latin Name Nat'l</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fraxinus pennsylvanica 395 195 100 84 44 2009 Good Portsmouth Rockingham 514State Monday, January 21, 2013 25County 144 90 41 51 1988 Good Hanover Grafton 24County Ash Black Fraxinus nigra 242 157 59 92 23) Year City County <span class="hlt">Tree</span> ID CondCo Champ White Fraxinus americana 409 350 221 103 102 2009 Excell Derry</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">New Hampshire, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a 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href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource004177_Rep6008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">NH Champion <span class="hlt">Trees</span> (in accordance with American Forests' National Register of Big <span class="hlt">Trees</span>) <span class="hlt">Species</span> Latin Name Nat'l</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fraxinus pennsylvanica 395 195 100 84 44 2009 Good Portsmouth Rockingham 514State Saturday, August 02, 2014 25County 144 90 41 51 1988 Good Hanover Grafton 24County Ash Black Fraxinus nigra 242 157 66 81 38) Year City County <span class="hlt">Tree</span> ID CondCo Champ White Fraxinus americana 409 350 221 103 102 2009 Excell Derry</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">New Hampshire, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n80251u802581180.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bark thickness determines fire resistance of selected <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from fire-prone tropical savanna in north Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the fire resistance conferred by bark of seven common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in north Australian tropical savannas.\\u000a We estimated bark thermal conductance and examined the relative importance of bark thickness, density and moisture content\\u000a for protecting the cambium from lethal fire temperatures. Eucalypt and non-eucalypt <span class="hlt">species</span> were contrasted, including the\\u000a fire-sensitive conifer Callitris intratropica. Cambial temperature responses to bark</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael J. Lawes; Anna Richards; Josefine Dathe; Jeremy J. Midgley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m544n769260653v5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sensitivity to magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was assessed on five common roadside <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> by maintaining soil concentrations at 0-, 400-, 800-, or 1,600-ppm chloride\\u000a via MgCl2 solution over four growing seasons. Evaluations of growth, leaf retention, foliar damage, and ion concentrations were conducted.\\u000a Water potentials were measured on two <span class="hlt">species</span>. Foliar chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with\\u000a foliar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Betsy A. Goodrich; William R. Jacobi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g5513p35830x4kx1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation in the tolerance to ozone between sporophytes and male gametophytes of several fruit and nut <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Rosaceae)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyzed relative sensitivities to ozone partial pressure for male gametophytes (pollen and pollen tubes) of five <span class="hlt">tree</span>-crop <span class="hlt">species</span> in the family Rosaceae (almond, apple, apricot, nectarine\\/peach, pear) and of four cultivars of almond. Relative sensitivities to ozone partial pressure were previously described using field-based, whole-plant, physiological measurements for the sporophytes of each of the <span class="hlt">species</span> and cultivars used in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. I. Hormaza; K. Pinney; V. S. Polito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B32D..04E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Process-based modeling of <span class="hlt">species</span>' responses to climate change - a proof of concept using western North American <span class="hlt">trees</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current attempts to forecast how <span class="hlt">species</span>' distributions will change in response to climate change suffer under a fundamental trade-off: between modeling many <span class="hlt">species</span> superficially vs. few <span class="hlt">species</span> in detail (between correlative vs. mechanistic models). The goals of this talk are two-fold: first, we present a Bayesian multilevel modeling framework, dynamic range modeling (DRM), for building process-based forecasts of many <span class="hlt">species</span>' distributions at a time, designed to address the trade-off between detail and number of distribution forecasts. In contrast to '<span class="hlt">species</span> distribution modeling' or 'niche modeling', which uses only <span class="hlt">species</span>' occurrence data and environmental data, DRMs draw upon demographic data, abundance data, trait data, occurrence data, and GIS layers of climate in a single framework to account for two processes known to influence range dynamics - demography and dispersal. The vision is to use extensive databases on plant demography, distributions, and traits - in the Botanical Information and Ecology Network, the Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIA), and the International <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Ring Data Bank - to develop DRMs for North American <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Second, we present preliminary results from building the core submodel of a DRM - an integral projection model (IPM) - for a sample of dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in western North America. IPMs are used to infer demographic niches - i.e., the set of environmental conditions under which population growth rate is positive - and project population dynamics through time. Based on >550,000 data points derived from FIA for nine <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in western North America, we show IPM-based models of their current and future distributions, and discuss how IPMs can be used to forecast future forest productivity, mortality patterns, and inform efforts at assisted migration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, M. E.; Merow, C.; Record, S.; Menlove, J.; Gray, A.; Cundiff, J.; McMahon, S.; Enquist, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21365547"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of microsatellite markers for the endangered Neotropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci for Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae), an endangered <span class="hlt">species</span> with narrow and disjunct range, endemics to a few localities in "cerrado rupestre" from Central Brazil. These microsatellites were obtained by sequencing of a genomic shotgun library for primer design. Leaves from 96 individuals collected in the three known local populations were genotyped using the 12 primers designed to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six; two loci were monomorphic. Among the polymorphic loci, expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.161 to 0.714. Combined paternity exclusion probability was 0.957 and combined genetic identity (0.051) was high for studies on parentage. Tibouchina papyrus is a rare and endemic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of outcrop quartzite and sandstone soils, with highly isolated populations, which may have lead to the low degree of polymorphism that we detected. Also, motifs of most loci are larger than dinucleotide, which typically display lower levels of polymorphism. PMID:21365547</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Telles, M P C; Peixoto, F P; Lima, J S; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Walter, M E M T; Collevatti, R G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5120N"> <span id="translatedtitle">OH reactivity measurements from Boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a plant chamber</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Boreal forest covers a large area (ca. 15 million km2) comparable in size to the Tropical rain forest (ca. 17 million km2). The vegetation in Boreal regions is typically conifer forest which is known to emit significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS), such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, methanol and acetone. Many of these organic chemicals react rapidly with hydroxyl (OH) radicals to produce aerosols or secondary pollutants such as ozone. The total effect of the emitted <span class="hlt">species</span> on the OH radical can be determined by measuring the total OH reactivity directly. Therefore a new measurement method was recently devised (Sinha et al., 2008). The Jülich plant atmosphere chamber (JPAC) at the Forschungszentrum-Jülich was used to investigate the overall reactivity of emissions from several Boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> under controlled conditions in October 2009. Vegetation, temperature and light intensities typical of the Hyytiälä measurement station in Finland were used in these experiments and the levels of CO2, humidity and NOx were controlled. In addition to the reactivity measurement, a gas chromatograph (GC), a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTRMS) and a time-of-flight PTRMS (TOF-PTRMS) were used to quantify individual organic chemicals emitted by the plants for comparison with the overall reactivity. Experiments were performed under three different conditions. 1) Lower temperatures (T=20° C) resulted in low plant emissions with no diurnal variation. The total measured OH reactivity ranged from below detection limit (3 sec-1) to 7 sec-1 during the day and overnight rose to 8-13 sec-1. 2) Higher temperatures (T=35° C) produced higher emissions of volatile organic compounds and a clear diurnal trend. Reactivity data matched well with these results rising to 30-50 sec-1 by day and during the night sinking again to 8-13 sec-1. 3) Finally a control experiment was performed without <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the plant chamber. In this experiment, reactivity showed no nocturnal or diurnal variation and measured values remained below detection limit. Significant fractions of the diurnal reactivity could be explained by the individual VOC measurements; however, for all measured organic <span class="hlt">species</span> we found higher emissions during periods of illumination than during periods of darkness. Also subsequent laboratory tests have eliminated interferences and influences of CO2 and water vapor concentrations as a possible explanation. The elevated nighttime values can be attributed to the presence of the plants and not to a chamber related artefact. The cause of the high nocturnal reactivity remains unexplained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nölscher, Anke; Custer, Thomas; Sinha, Vinayak; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kleist, Einhard; Tillmann, Ralf; Wildt, Jürgen; Williams, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biology.duke.edu/jackson/aob2014.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a semi-arid habitat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from of tomography for vessel network analysis and the important role of 3-D xylem organization in plant hydraulic Root water uptake and hydraulic transport through xylem are critical for plant functioning and survival</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jackson, Robert B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ecnr.berkeley.edu/vfs/PPs/Prugh-LauR/web/ReichetalEcolMonograph2004.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">LEAF DEMOGRAPHY AND PHENOLOGY IN AMAZONIAN RAIN FOREST: A CENSUS OF 40 000 LEAVES OF 23 <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The periodicity, synchrony, and causes of variability in the demography of <span class="hlt">tree</span> leaves in ecosystems with relatively aseasonal climates, such as tropical rain forests, is still poorly understood. To address this issue, we surveyed the timing of birth and death of .40 000 leaves of 1445 individuals of 23 evergreen rain forest <span class="hlt">species</span> in several late primary and early secondary</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peter B. Reich; Christopher Uhl; Michael B. Walters; Laura Prugh; David S. Ellsworth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41858216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Base-cation Cycling by Individual <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Old-growth Forests of Upper Michigan, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on base-cation (Ca, Mg, K, Na) distribution and cycling was examined in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), basswood (Tilia americana L.), and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) in old-growth northern hardwood – hemlock forests on a sandy, mixed, frigid, Typic Haplorthod over two growing seasons in northwestern Michigan. Base cations in biomass, forest floor, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryo Fujinuma; James Bockheim; Nick Balster</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/biblio/fulltext/Global_Change_Biology_Bioenergy_2009_Laungani.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> and grassland <span class="hlt">species</span> on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> and grassland <span class="hlt">species</span> on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel for terrestrial carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production. For P. strobus, above- ground plant carbon harvest for biofuel would result in no net carbon sequestration as declines in soil carbon offset plant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiblen, George D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/45391773"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic and growth responses of two broad-leaf <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to irrigation with municipal landfill leachate</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was undertaken to investigate leaf photosynthesis and stem growth responses of saplings of two broad-leaf <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to irrigation with municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate in a northern temperate climate at Ontario, Canada. The objective was to quantify plant stresses or changes in plant productivity that could be attributed to this low technology option for the treatment and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. C. Shrive; R. A. McBride; A. M. Gordon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.life.uiuc.edu/delucia/DeLucia%20and%20Thomas.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abstract We compared the CO2-and light-dependence of photosynthesis of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Acer rubrum,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract We compared the CO2- and light-dependence of photosynthesis of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Acer CO2 stimulation of photosynthesis. Pho- tosynthetic rates were only 59% greater for A. rubrum stimulated light-saturated photosynthesis more than the apparent quantum yield. The maximum rate of carboxyl</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeLucia, Evan H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40913222"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age, size structure and spatial pattern of major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in an old-growth Chamaecyparis obtusa forest, Central Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The age, size structure and the spatial pattern of major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were investigated in a temperate old-growth (ca. >300 years old) Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endlicher forest in the Akasawa Forest Reserve of Central Japan. All stems ?5cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were mapped on a 4-ha plot and analyses were made of age, size structure and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D Hoshino; N Nishimura; S Yamamoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/STRI-W_KlausW_2009_Cernusak_TreePhys.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio of three tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio. Cumulative transpiration was determined by repeatedly weighing the pots with a pallet truck scale. Dry matter that leaf-level processes largely determined variation among the three tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in whole</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bermingham, Eldredge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20100203"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trap geometry in three giant montane pitcher plant <span class="hlt">species</span> from Borneo is a function of <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrew body size.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">*Three Bornean pitcher plant <span class="hlt">species</span>, Nepenthes lowii, N. rajah and N. macrophylla, produce modified pitchers that 'capture' <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrew faeces for nutritional benefit. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> shrews (Tupaia montana) feed on exudates produced by glands on the inner surfaces of the pitcher lids and defecate into the pitchers. *Here, we tested the hypothesis that pitcher geometry in these <span class="hlt">species</span> is related to <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrew body size by comparing the pitcher characteristics with those of five other 'typical' (arthropod-trapping) Nepenthes <span class="hlt">species</span>. *We found that only pitchers with large orifices and lids that are concave, elongated and oriented approximately at right angles to the orifice capture faeces. The distance from the <span class="hlt">tree</span> shrews' food source (that is, the lid nectar glands) to the front of the pitcher orifice precisely matches the head plus body length of T. montana in the faeces-trapping <span class="hlt">species</span>, and is a function of orifice size and the angle of lid reflexion. *Substantial changes to nutrient acquisition strategies in carnivorous plants may occur through simple modifications to trap geometry. This extraordinary plant-animal interaction adds to a growing body of evidence that Nepenthes represents a candidate model for adaptive radiation with regard to nitrogen sequestration strategies. PMID:20100203</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chin, Lijin; Moran, Jonathan A; Clarke, Charles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ehleringer.net/Jim/Publications/394.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elevated stream inorganic nitrogen impacts on a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Results from an experimental riparian stream system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Elevated stream inorganic nitrogen impacts on a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Results from an experimental riparian stream system K. R. Hultine,1 T. L. Jackson,1 K. G. Burtch,1 S. M. Schaeffer,2 and J. R resulted in significant alterations of the aquatic nitrogen cycle in riparian ecosystems. Nevertheless</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ehleringer, Jim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bio-nica.info/Biblioteca/Wishnie2007TreesAcrossIsthmus.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Initial performance and reforestation potential of 24 tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted across a precipitation gradient in the Republic of Panama</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Decades of deforestation and unsustainable land use have created large expanses of degraded lands across Central America. Reforestation may offer one means of mitigating these processes of degradation while sustaining resident human communities. However, a lack of information regarding <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> performance has been identified as an important limitation on the success and adoption of diversified reforestation strategies. We analyzed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. H. Wishnie; D. H. Dent; E. Mariscal; J. Deago; N. Cedeño; D. Ibarra; R. Condit; P. M. S. Ashton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40913717"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of canopy conditions on the regeneration of major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in an old-growth Chamaecyparis obtusa forest in central Japan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The regeneration mode of major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Chamaecyparisobtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl., Thujopsisdolabrata Sieb. et Zucc., Chamaecyparispisifera (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl., Quercusmongolica Fischer ex Turcz., Magnoliaobovata Thunb. and Betulagrossa Sieb. et Zucc.) in relation to four canopy conditions (closed evergreen conifer canopy, closed evergreen conifer canopy adjacent to canopy gap (gap-adjacent), canopy gap, and closed deciduous broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> (DBL) <span class="hlt">species</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D Hoshino; N Nishimura; S Yamamoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diversity of the volatile organic compounds emitted by 55 <span class="hlt">species</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>: a survey in French Guiana.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced by a broad range of organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and they represent a vast chemical diversity. In plants, one of the preeminent roles of VOCs is their repellent or cytotoxic activity, which helps the plant deter its predators. Most studies on VOCs emitted by vegetative parts have been conducted in model plant <span class="hlt">species</span>, and little is known about patterns of VOC emissions in diverse plant communities. We conducted a survey of the VOCs released immediately after mechanical damage of the bark and the leaves of 195 individual <span class="hlt">trees</span> belonging to 55 tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a lowland rainforest of French Guiana. We discovered a remarkably high chemical diversity, with 264 distinct VOCs and a mean of 37 compounds per <span class="hlt">species</span>. Two monoterpenes (alpha-pinene and limonene) and two sesquiterpenes (beta-caryophyllene and alpha-copaene), which are known to have cytotoxic and deterrent effects, were the most frequent compounds in the sampled <span class="hlt">species</span>. As has been established for floral scents, the blend of VOCs is largely <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific and could be used to discriminate among 43 of the 55 sampled <span class="hlt">species</span>. The <span class="hlt">species</span> with the most diverse blends were found in the Sapindales, Laurales, and Magnoliales, indicating that VOC diversity is not uniformly distributed among tropical <span class="hlt">species</span>. Interspecific variation in chemical diversity was caused mostly by variation in sesquiterpenes. This study emphasizes three aspects of VOC emission by tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: the <span class="hlt">species</span>-specificity of the mixtures, the importance of sesquiterpenes, and the wide-ranging complexity of the mixtures. PMID:20012675</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Courtois, Elodie A; Paine, C E Timothy; Blandinieres, Pierre-Alain; Stien, Didier; Bessiere, Jean-Marie; Houel, Emeline; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://essm.tamu.edu/people/wer/Ecology2003.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">HERBIVORY, DISEASE, RECRUITMENT LIMITATION, AND SUCCESS OF ALIEN AND NATIVE <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Enemies Hypothesis predicts that alien plants have a competitive ad- vantage over native plants because they are often introduced with few herbivores or diseases. To investigate this hypothesis, we transplanted seedlings of the invasive alien <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallow <span class="hlt">tree</span>) and an ecologically similar native <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Celtis laevigata (hackberry), into mesic forest, floodplain forest, and coastal prairie sites</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evan Siemann; William E. Rogers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262272"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: <span class="hlt">tree</span> component, management, <span class="hlt">species</span> conservation and sustainability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Aiming to characterize the <span class="hlt">tree</span> component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa <span class="hlt">trees</span> in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094833"> <span id="translatedtitle">A coupled phylogeographical and <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution modelling approach recovers the demographical history of a Neotropical seasonally dry forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated here the demographical history of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Bignoniaceae) to understand the dynamics of the disjunct geographical distribution of South American seasonally dry forests (SDFs), based on coupling an ensemble approach encompassing hindcasting <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution modelling and statistical phylogeographical analysis. We sampled 17 populations (280 individuals) in central Brazil and analysed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH, and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed no haplotype sharing among population but strong evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed historical constant populations size, negligible gene flow among populations, and an ancient time to most recent common ancestor dated from ~4.7 ± 1.1 Myr BP. Most divergences dated from the Lower Pleistocene, and no signal of important population size reduction was found in coalescent <span class="hlt">tree</span> and tests of demographical expansion. Demographical scenarios were built based on past geographical range dynamic models, using two a priori biogeographical hypotheses ('Pleistocene Arc' and 'Amazonian SDF expansion') and on two additional hypotheses suggested by the palaeodistribution modelling built with several algorithms for distribution modelling and palaeoclimatic data. The simulation of these demographical scenarios showed that the pattern of diversity found so far for T. impetiginosa is in consonance with a palaeodistribution expansion during the last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 kyr BP), strongly suggesting that the current disjunct distribution of T. impetiginosa in SDFs may represent a climatic relict of a once more wide distribution. PMID:23094833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Collevatti, Rosane G; Terribile, Levi Carina; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Nabout, João C; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Rangel, Thiago F; Rabelo, Suelen G; Diniz-Filho, Jose A F</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540694"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary history of a widespread <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Acer mono in East Asia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant <span class="hlt">species</span> could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at <span class="hlt">species</span> level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in <span class="hlt">species</span> diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267871"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary history of a widespread <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Acer mono in East Asia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant <span class="hlt">species</span> could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at <span class="hlt">species</span> level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in <span class="hlt">species</span> diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetati