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Sample records for multipurpose tree species

  1. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  2. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of leaf transcriptome for the development of functional molecular markers of the extremophile multipurpose tree species Prosopis alba

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera. PMID:24125525

  4. Species integrity in trees.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    From California sequoia, to Australian eucalyptus, to the outstanding diversity of Amazonian forests, trees are fundamental to many processes in ecology and evolution. Trees define the communities that they inhabit, are host to a multiplicity of other organisms and can determine the ecological dynamics of other plants and animals. Trees are also at the heart of major patterns of biodiversity such as the latitudinal gradient of species diversity and thus are important systems for studying the origin of new plant species. Although the role of trees in community assembly and ecological succession is partially understood, the origin of tree diversity remains largely opaque. For instance, the relative importance of differing habitats and phenologies as barriers to hybridization between closely related species is still largely uncharacterized in trees. Consequently, we know very little about the origin of trees species and their integrity. Similarly, studies on the interplay between speciation and tree community assembly are in their infancy and so are studies on how processes like forest maturation modifies the context in which reproductive isolation evolves. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. (2014) and Lagache et al. (2014) overcome some traditional difficulties in studying mating systems and sexual isolation in the iconic oaks and poplars, providing novel insights about the integrity of tree species and on how ecology leads to variation in selection on reproductive isolation over time and space. PMID:25155715

  5. Breeding status of tung tree (Vernicia sp.) in China, a multipurpose oilseed crop with industrial uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a developing country with the world’s largest population, China faces a serious challenge in satisfying its continuously increasing energy demands. Tung trees (Vernicia sp., especially V. fordii and V. montana), are multipurpose, perennial plants belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The unique ...

  6. From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Louxin

    From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep Coalescence Events Louxin Zhang Abstract--When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include

  7. Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees

    E-print Network

    Degnan, James

    Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees gene tree discordance is so common that the most likely gene tree topology to evolve along the branches

  8. Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees James H. Degnan1 , Noah A. Rosenberg way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other for which gene tree discordance is so common that the most likely gene tree topology to evolve along

  9. Coalescent Histories for Lodgepole Species Trees.

    PubMed

    Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2015-10-01

    Coalescent histories are combinatorial structures that describe for a given gene tree and species tree the possible lists of branches of the species tree on which the gene tree coalescences take place. Properties of the number of coalescent histories for gene trees and species trees affect a variety of probabilistic calculations in mathematical phylogenetics. Exact and asymptotic evaluations of the number of coalescent histories, however, are known only in a limited number of cases. Here we introduce a particular family of species trees, the lodgepole species trees (?n)n ? 0, in which tree ?n has m = 2n+1 taxa. We determine the number of coalescent histories for the lodgepole species trees, in the case that the gene tree matches the species tree, showing that this number grows with m!! in the number of taxa m. This computation demonstrates the existence of tree families in which the growth in the number of coalescent histories is faster than exponential. Further, it provides a substantial improvement on the lower bound for the ratio of the largest number of matching coalescent histories to the smallest number of matching coalescent histories for trees with m taxa, increasing a previous bound of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. We discuss the implications of our enumerative results for phylogenetic computations. PMID:25973633

  10. Gene tree correction for reconciliation and species tree inference

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reconciliation is the commonly used method for inferring the evolutionary scenario for a gene family. It consists in “embedding” inferred gene trees into a known species tree, revealing the evolution of the gene family by duplications and losses. When a species tree is not known, a natural algorithmic problem is to infer a species tree from a set of gene trees, such that the corresponding reconciliation minimizes the number of duplications and/or losses. The main drawback of reconciliation is that the inferred evolutionary scenario is strongly dependent on the considered gene trees, as few misplaced leaves may lead to a completely different history, with significantly more duplications and losses. Results In this paper, we take advantage of certain gene trees’ properties in order to preprocess them for reconciliation or species tree inference. We flag certain duplication vertices of a gene tree, the “non-apparent duplication” (NAD) vertices, as resulting from the misplacement of leaves. In the case of species tree inference, we develop a polynomial-time heuristic for removing the minimum number of species leading to a set of gene trees that exhibit no NAD vertices with respect to at least one species tree. In the case of reconciliation, we consider the optimization problem of removing the minimum number of leaves or species leading to a tree without any NAD vertex. We develop a polynomial-time algorithm that is exact for two special classes of gene trees, and show a good performance on simulated data sets in the general case. PMID:23167951

  11. Optimal tree-based release rules for real-time flood control operations on a multipurpose multireservoir system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chih-Chiang; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2009-02-01

    SummaryThis study presents a methodology to establish a set of optimal operation release rules which are tree-based rules for real-time flood control on a multipurpose multireservoir system. The derived rules can be used to determine the optimal real-time releases during flood periods. Steps of the proposed methodology involve: (1) collection of data, (2) building of flood database, (3) generation of optimal input-output patterns by running the flood control optimization model, (4) classification of training and testing data, (5) extraction of tree-based release rules for designed scenarios using the decision-tree algorithm (C5.0), (6) determination of optimal tree-based rules, (7) generation of the real-time forecast data by using the hydrological forecast model, (8) processing of reservoir real-time releases by simulating the reservoir real-time flood control operation, and (9) verification of the superior release rules through comparisons of tree-based rules, regression-based rules derived from a multiple-linear regression model and existing release rules. The developed methodology is applied to the Tanshui River Reservoir System in Taiwan to extract the decision trees for each scenario and then select the best ones with highest accuracy as the optimal tree-based rules. The derived optimal tree-based rules, regression-based rules and existing rules are compared by conducting the real-time operations in three historical typhoons, including Aere, Haima and Nock-ten in 2004. Results demonstrate that the solution using the derived tree-based rules have better performance than the regression-based rules and the existing rules in terms of reducing the peak stage at downstream control points, and meeting the target reservoir storage at the end of flood.

  12. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree species' potential for surviving future aggravated environmental conditions is rather demanding. The aim of this study was to find a tree-ring-based method suitable for identifying very drought-tolerant species, particularly potential substitute species for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Valais. In this inner-Alpine valley, Scots pine used to be the dominating species for dry forests, but today it suffers from high drought-induced mortality. We investigate the growth response of two native tree species, Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and two non-native species, black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. var. menziesii), to drought. This involved analysing how the radial increment of these species responded to increasing water shortage (abandonment of irrigation) and to increasingly frequent drought years. Black pine and Douglas fir are able to cope with drought better than Scots pine and larch, as they show relatively high radial growth even after irrigation has been stopped and a plastic growth response to drought years. European larch does not seem to be able to cope with these dry conditions as it lacks the ability to recover from drought years. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the most promising and suitable method for detecting how tolerant a tree species is towards drought. However, combining all the methods used in this study provides a complete picture of how water shortage could limit species. PMID:22363071

  13. Species Tree Inference Using a Mixture Model.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ikram; Parviainen, Pekka; Lagergren, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Species tree reconstruction has been a subject of substantial research due to its central role across biology and medicine. A species tree is often reconstructed using a set of gene trees or by directly using sequence data. In either of these cases, one of the main confounding phenomena is the discordance between a species tree and a gene tree due to evolutionary events such as duplications and losses. Probabilistic methods can resolve the discordance by coestimating gene trees and the species tree but this approach poses a scalability problem for larger data sets. We present MixTreEM-DLRS: A two-phase approach for reconstructing a species tree in the presence of gene duplications and losses. In the first phase, MixTreEM, a novel structural expectation maximization algorithm based on a mixture model is used to reconstruct a set of candidate species trees, given sequence data for monocopy gene families from the genomes under study. In the second phase, PrIME-DLRS, a method based on the DLRS model (Åkerborg O, Sennblad B, Arvestad L, Lagergren J. 2009. Simultaneous Bayesian gene tree reconstruction and reconciliation analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106(14):5714-5719), is used for selecting the best species tree. PrIME-DLRS can handle multicopy gene families since DLRS, apart from modeling sequence evolution, models gene duplication and loss using a gene evolution model (Arvestad L, Lagergren J, Sennblad B. 2009. The gene evolution model and computing its associated probabilities. J ACM. 56(2):1-44). We evaluate MixTreEM-DLRS using synthetic and biological data, and compare its performance with a recent genome-scale species tree reconstruction method PHYLDOG (Boussau B, Szöll?si GJ, Duret L, Gouy M, Tannier E, Daubin V. 2013. Genome-scale coestimation of species and gene trees. Genome Res. 23(2):323-330) as well as with a fast parsimony-based algorithm Duptree (Wehe A, Bansal MS, Burleigh JG, Eulenstein O. 2008. Duptree: a program for large-scale phylogenetic analyses using gene tree parsimony. Bioinformatics 24(13):1540-1541). Our method is competitive with PHYLDOG in terms of accuracy and runs significantly faster and our method outperforms Duptree in accuracy. The analysis constituted by MixTreEM without DLRS may also be used for selecting the target species tree, yielding a fast and yet accurate algorithm for larger data sets. MixTreEM is freely available at http://prime.scilifelab.se/mixtreem/. PMID:25963975

  14. From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem Roderic The processes of gene duplication, loss, and lineage sorting can result in incongruence between the phylog- enies of genes and those of species. This incongruence complicates the task of inferring the latter from

  15. ASTRID: Accurate Species TRees from Internode Distances

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), modelled by the multi-species coalescent (MSC), is known to create discordance between gene trees and species trees, and lead to inaccurate species tree estimations unless appropriate methods are used to estimate the species tree. While many statistically consistent methods have been developed to estimate the species tree in the presence of ILS, only ASTRAL-2 and NJst have been shown to have good accuracy on large datasets. Yet, NJst is generally slower and less accurate than ASTRAL-2, and cannot run on some datasets. Results We have redesigned NJst to enable it to run on all datasets, and we have expanded its design space so that it can be used with different distance-based tree estimation methods. The resultant method, ASTRID, is statistically consistent under the MSC model, and has accuracy that is competitive with ASTRAL-2. Furthermore, ASTRID is much faster than ASTRAL-2, completing in minutes on some datasets for which ASTRAL-2 used hours. Conclusions ASTRID is a new coalescent-based method for species tree estimation that is competitive with the best current method in terms of accuracy, while being much faster. ASTRID is available in open source form on github. PMID:26449326

  16. On the Number of Ranked Species Trees Producing Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    On the Number of Ranked Species Trees Producing Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees Filippo Disanto demonstrated the existence of anomalous ranked gene trees (ARGTs), ranked gene trees that are more probable than the ranked gene tree that accords with the ranked species tree. Here, to improve

  17. Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Paola Bonizzoni

    E-print Network

    Della Vedova, Gianluca

    Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Cost Model Paola Bonizzoni Gianluca from evolutionary trees representing the relationships between distinct gene families is of great of minimum tree that reconciles a gene tree and a species tree is correct. We answer affirmatively

  18. Pushing the pace of tree species migration.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Eli D; McGill, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663

  19. Pushing the Pace of Tree Species Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; McGill, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663

  20. Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees available for inferring species trees from gene trees, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch (2010 branch length estimates. Further, GLASS and STEAC have been shown to be consistent estimators of tree

  1. Seed dispersal and tree species diversity

    E-print Network

    Galán, Pedro

    Seed dispersal and tree species diversity In their review of seed dispersal [1], Wang and Smith echo the many voices that have recently proposed that limited seed dispersal contributes to maintaining) Closing the seed dispersal loop. Trends Ecol. Evol. 17, 379­385 2 Hubbell, S.P. (2001) A Unified Neutral

  2. Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full framework for estimating species trees and species demograph- ics from genetic markers. However, practical trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computes

  3. Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees: A Unifying Principle

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Letter Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees: A Unifying Principle Noah A@stanford.edu. Associate editor: Barbara Holland Abstract A labeled gene tree topology that disagrees with a labeled species tree topology is said to be anomalous if it is more probable under a coalescent model for gene

  4. RESOVING THE GENE TREE AND SPECIES TREE PROBLEM BY PHYLOGENETIC MINING

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    RESOVING THE GENE TREE AND SPECIES TREE PROBLEM BY PHYLOGENETIC MINING XIAOXU HAN Department of Mathematics and Bioinformatics Program, Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, MI 48197, USA The gene tree and species tree problem remains a central problem in phylogenomics. To overcome this problem, gene

  5. A tree species inventory over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the Corine Land Cover (CLC2000) or Global Land Cover (GLC2000). Possible applications of the inventory include emissions of VOCs and pollen, CO2 fluxes and dry deposition - in general calculations which are tree specie dependent.

  6. Liana competition with tropical trees varies seasonally but not with tree species identity.

    PubMed

    Leonor, Alvarez-Cansino; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Reid, Joseph P; Powers, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Lianas in tropical forests compete intensely with trees for above- and belowground resources and limit tree growth and regeneration. Liana competition with adult canopy trees may be particularly strong, and, if lianas compete more intensely with some tree species than others, they may influence tree species composition. We performed the first systematic, large-scale liana removal experiment to assess the competitive effects of lianas on multiple tropical tree species by measuring sap velocity and growth in a lowland tropical forest in Panama. Tree sap velocity increased 60% soon after liana removal compared to control trees, and tree diameter growth increased 25% after one year. Although tree species varied in their response to lianas, this variation was not significant, suggesting that lianas competed similarly with all tree species examined. The effect of lianas on tree sap velocity was particularly strong during the dry season, when soil moisture was low, suggesting that lianas compete intensely with trees for water. Under the predicted global change scenario of increased temperature and drought intensity, competition from lianas may become more prevalent in seasonal tropical forests, which, according to our data, should have a negative effect on most tropical tree species. PMID:26236888

  7. A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees James H. Degnan, Noah A. Rosenberg, and Tanja Stadler Abstract--Ranked gene trees, which consider both the gene tree topology and the sequence in which gene lineages separate, can potentially provide a new source

  8. ASTRAL: genome-scale coalescent-based species tree estimation

    PubMed Central

    Mirarab, S.; Reaz, R.; Bayzid, Md. S.; Zimmermann, T.; Swenson, M. S.; Warnow, T.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Species trees provide insight into basic biology, including the mechanisms of evolution and how it modifies biomolecular function and structure, biodiversity and co-evolution between genes and species. Yet, gene trees often differ from species trees, creating challenges to species tree estimation. One of the most frequent causes for conflicting topologies between gene trees and species trees is incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), which is modelled by the multi-species coalescent. While many methods have been developed to estimate species trees from multiple genes, some which have statistical guarantees under the multi-species coalescent model, existing methods are too computationally intensive for use with genome-scale analyses or have been shown to have poor accuracy under some realistic conditions. Results: We present ASTRAL, a fast method for estimating species trees from multiple genes. ASTRAL is statistically consistent, can run on datasets with thousands of genes and has outstanding accuracy—improving on MP-EST and the population tree from BUCKy, two statistically consistent leading coalescent-based methods. ASTRAL is often more accurate than concatenation using maximum likelihood, except when ILS levels are low or there are too few gene trees. Availability and implementation: ASTRAL is available in open source form at https://github.com/smirarab/ASTRAL/. Datasets studied in this article are available at http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/phylo/datasets/astral. Contact: warnow@illinois.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25161245

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Impacts of tree species diversity on litter decomposition

    E-print Network

    Cardinale, Bradley J.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Impacts of tree species diversity on litter decomposition in northern temperate of leaf litter from the same six dominant tree species in the litter layer of three forested ecosystems, two, four, and six species of leaf litter to decompose for 1 year, we found that increasing leaf

  10. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L; Bellingham, Peter J; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L M; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K; Chazdon, Robin L; Robin, Chazdon L; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B; Clark, Deborah A; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A O; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A; Joly, Carlos A; de Jong, Bernardus H J; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F; Lawes, Michael J; Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Letcher, Susan G; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P L; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Medjibe, Vincent P; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D; Montero, Juan C; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T F; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Sunderand, Terry; Suresh, H S; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L C H; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A; Webb, Campbell O; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C Yves; Yap, Sandra L; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M

    2015-06-16

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ? 40,000 and ? 53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ? 19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ? 4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  11. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    PubMed Central

    Slik, J. W. Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F.; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bellingham, Peter J.; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q.; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L. M.; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B.; Clark, Deborah A.; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S.; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A. O.; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T.; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos A.; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; do Amaral, Ieda Leao; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H.; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D.; Montero, Juan C.; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T. F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D.; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C.; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A.; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K.; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S.; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I.-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Suresh, H. S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W.; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L. C. H.; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A.; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C. Yves; Yap, Sandra L.; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L.; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ?40,000 and ?53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ?19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ?4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  12. STBase: One Million Species Trees for Comparative Biology

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Michelle M.; Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David; Boss, Darren; Sanderson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensively sampled phylogenetic trees provide the most compelling foundations for strong inferences in comparative evolutionary biology. Mismatches are common, however, between the taxa for which comparative data are available and the taxa sampled by published phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, many published phylogenies are gene trees, which cannot always be adapted immediately for species level comparisons because of discordance, gene duplication, and other confounding biological processes. A new database, STBase, lets comparative biologists quickly retrieve species level phylogenetic hypotheses in response to a query list of species names. The database consists of 1 million single- and multi-locus data sets, each with a confidence set of 1000 putative species trees, computed from GenBank sequence data for 413,000 eukaryotic taxa. Two bodies of theoretical work are leveraged to aid in the assembly of multi-locus concatenated data sets for species tree construction. First, multiply labeled gene trees are pruned to conflict-free singly-labeled species-level trees that can be combined between loci. Second, impacts of missing data in multi-locus data sets are ameliorated by assembling only decisive data sets. Data sets overlapping with the user’s query are ranked using a scheme that depends on user-provided weights for tree quality and for taxonomic overlap of the tree with the query. Retrieval times are independent of the size of the database, typically a few seconds. Tree quality is assessed by a real-time evaluation of bootstrap support on just the overlapping subtree. Associated sequence alignments, tree files and metadata can be downloaded for subsequent analysis. STBase provides a tool for comparative biologists interested in exploiting the most relevant sequence data available for the taxa of interest. It may also serve as a prototype for future species tree oriented databases and as a resource for assembly of larger species phylogenies from precomputed trees. PMID:25679219

  13. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  14. Are Temperate Canopy Spiders Tree-Species Specific?

    PubMed Central

    Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Bia?owie?a forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood. PMID:24586251

  15. Are temperate canopy spiders tree-species specific?

    PubMed

    Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Bia?owie?a forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood. PMID:24586251

  16. The ghosts of trees past: savanna trees create enduring legacies in plant species composition.

    PubMed

    Stahlheber, Karen A; Crispin, Kimberly L; Anton, Cassidy; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2015-09-01

    Isolated trees in savannas worldwide are known to modify their local environment and interact directly with neighboring plants. Less is known about how related tree species differ in their impacts on surrounding communities, how the effects of trees vary between years, and how composition might change following loss of the tree. To address these knowledge gaps, we explored the following questions: How do savanna trees influence the surrounding composition of herbaceous plants? Is the influence of trees consistent across different species and years? How does this change following the death of the tree? We surveyed herbaceous species composition and environmental attributes surrounding living and dead evergreen and deciduous Quercus trees in California (USA) savannas across several years that differed in their total precipitation. Oak trees of all species created distinct, homogenous understory communities dominated by exotic grasses across several sites. The composition of the low-diversity understory communities showed less interannual variation than open grassland, despite a two-fold difference in precipitation between the driest and wettest year. Vegetation composition was correlated with variation in soil properties, which were strongly affected by trees. Oaks also influenced the communities beyond the edge of the crown, but this depended on site and oak species. Low-diversity understory communities persisted up to 43 years following the death of the tree. A gradual decline in the effect of trees on the physical, environment following death did not result in vegetation becoming more similar to open grassland over time. The presence of long-lasting legacies of past tree crowns highlights the difficulty of assigning control of the current distribution of herbaceous species in grassland to their contemporary environment. PMID:26594707

  17. Evidence of Tree Species’ Range Shifts in a Complex Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Monleon, Vicente J.; Lintz, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to change the distribution of species. For long-lived, sessile species such as trees, tracking the warming climate depends on seedling colonization of newly favorable areas. We compare the distribution of seedlings and mature trees for all but the rarest tree species in California, Oregon and Washington, United States of America, a large, environmentally diverse region. Across 46 species, the mean annual temperature of the range of seedlings was 0.120°C colder than that of the range of trees (95% confidence interval from 0.096 to 0.144°C). The extremes of the seedling distributions also shifted towards colder temperature than those of mature trees, but the change was less pronounced. Although the mean elevation and mean latitude of the range of seedlings was higher than and north of those of the range of mature trees, elevational and latitudinal shifts run in opposite directions for the majority of the species, reflecting the lack of a direct biological relationship between species’ distributions and those variables. The broad scale, environmental diversity and variety of disturbance regimes and land uses of the study area, the large number and exhaustive sampling of tree species, and the direct causal relationship between the temperature response and a warming climate, provide strong evidence to attribute the observed shifts to climate change. PMID:25634090

  18. Exploring the Taxonomy of Oaks and Related Tree Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    A lab in Eastern North America conducted a study to determine the taxonomic relationship between deciduous trees and several species of oaks by calculating the similarity index of all species to be studied. The study enabled students to classify the different species of oaks according to their distinct characteristics.

  19. Indirect interactions among tropical tree species through shared rodent seed predators: a novel mechanism of tree species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Ordoñez, Alejandro; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Olff, Han; Jansen, Patrick A

    2015-08-01

    The coexistence of numerous tree species in tropical forests is commonly explained by negative dependence of recruitment on the conspecific seed and tree density due to specialist natural enemies that attack seeds and seedlings ('Janzen-Connell' effects). Less known is whether guilds of shared seed predators can induce a negative dependence of recruitment on the density of different species of the same plant functional group. We studied 54 plots in tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with contrasting mature tree densities of three coexisting large seeded tree species with shared seed predators. Levels of seed predation were far better explained by incorporating seed densities of all three focal species than by conspecific seed density alone. Both positive and negative density dependencies were observed for different species combinations. Thus, indirect interactions via shared seed predators can either promote or reduce the coexistence of different plant functional groups in tropical forest. PMID:25939379

  20. Mapping urban forest tree species using IKONOS imagery: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pu, Ruiliang

    2011-01-01

    A stepwise masking system with high-resolution IKONOS imagery was developed to identify and map urban forest tree species/groups in the City of Tampa, Florida, USA. The eight species/groups consist of sand live oak (Quercus geminata), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), live oak (Quercus virginiana), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), pine (species group), palm (species group), camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), and red maple (Acer rubrum). The system was implemented with soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) threshold, textural information after running a low-pass filter, and brightness threshold of NIR band to separate tree canopies from non-vegetated areas from other vegetation types (e.g., grass/lawn) and to separate the tree canopies into sunlit and shadow areas. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to identify and map forest type and species. After IKONOS imagery was preprocessed, a total of nine spectral features were generated, including four spectral bands, three hue-intensity-saturation indices, one SAVI, and one texture image. The identified and mapped results were examined with independent ground survey data. The experimental results indicate that when classifying all the eight tree species/ groups with the high-resolution IKONOS image data, the identifying accuracy was very low and could not satisfy a practical application level, and when merging the eight species/groups into four major species/groups, the average accuracy is still low (average accuracy = 73%, overall accuracy = 86%, and ? = 0.76 with sunlit test samples). Such a low accuracy of identifying and mapping the urban tree species/groups is attributable to low spatial resolution IKONOS image data relative to tree crown size, to complex and variable background spectrum impact on crown spectra, and to shadow/shaded impact. The preliminary results imply that to improve the tree species identification accuracy and achieve a practical application level in urban area, multi-temporal (multi-seasonal) or hyperspectral data image data should be considered for use in the future. PMID:20140503

  1. Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical trees species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, R.; Dalling, J.W.; Harms, K.E.; Yavitt, J.B.; Stallard, R.F.; Mirabello, M.; Hubbell, S.P.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Vallejo, M.; Foster, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of niche vs. neutral assembly mechanisms in structuring tropical tree communities remains an important unsettled question in community ecology [Bell G (2005) Ecology 86:1757-1770]. There is ample evidence that species distributions are determined by soils and habitat factors at landscape (0.5 million individual trees of 1,400 species and 10 essential plant nutrients, we used Monte Carlo simulations of species distributions to test plant-soil associations against null expectations based on dispersal assembly. We found that the spatial distributions of 36-51% of tree species at these sites show strong associations to soil nutrient distributions. Neutral dispersal assembly cannot account for these plant-soil associations or the observed niche breadths of these species. These results indicate that belowground resource availability plays an important role in the assembly of tropical tree communities at local scales and provide the basis for future investigations on the mechanisms of resource competition among tropical tree species. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  2. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  3. Bayesian Inference of Species Trees from Multilocus Data

    PubMed Central

    Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, it has been common practice for a phylogenetic analysis to use a single gene sequence from a single individual organism as a proxy for an entire species. With technological advances, it is now becoming more common to collect data sets containing multiple gene loci and multiple individuals per species. These data sets often reveal the need to directly model intraspecies polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting in phylogenetic estimation procedures. For a single species, coalescent theory is widely used in contemporary population genetics to model intraspecific gene trees. Here, we present a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the multispecies coalescent. Our method coestimates multiple gene trees embedded in a shared species tree along with the effective population size of both extant and ancestral species. The inference is made possible by multilocus data from multiple individuals per species. Using a multiindividual data set and a series of simulations of rapid species radiations, we demonstrate the efficacy of our new method. These simulations give some insight into the behavior of the method as a function of sampled individuals, sampled loci, and sequence length. Finally, we compare our new method to both an existing method (BEST 2.2) with similar goals and the supermatrix (concatenation) method. We demonstrate that both BEST and our method have much better estimation accuracy for species tree topology than concatenation, and our method outperforms BEST in divergence time and population size estimation. PMID:19906793

  4. Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Hampshire apple trees. The adults are striking brown-and-white-striped beetles, almost an inch longBorers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer, flatheaded apple-tree borer, dogwood borer (and the uncommon look

  5. ASTRAL-II: coalescent-based species tree estimation for hundreds of species and thousands of genes

    E-print Network

    Brendel, Volker

    ASTRAL-II: coalescent-based species tree estimation for hundreds of species and thousands of genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1 #12;List of Figures S1 Characteristics of the simulation - gene tree estimation error of genes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

  6. Early positive effects of tree species richness on herbivory in a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment influence tree growth

    PubMed Central

    Schuldt, Andreas; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; Li, Ying; Ma, Keping; von Oheimb, Goddert; Zhang, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of herbivory for the structure and functioning of species-rich forests, little is known about how herbivory is affected by tree species richness, and more specifically by random vs. non-random species loss. We assessed herbivore damage and its effects on tree growth in the early stage of a large-scale forest biodiversity experiment in subtropical China that features random and non-random extinction scenarios of tree mixtures numbering between one and 24 species. In contrast to random species loss, the non-random extinction scenarios were based on the tree species’ local rarity and specific leaf area – traits that may strongly influence the way herbivory is affected by plant species richness. Herbivory increased with tree species richness across all scenarios and was unaffected by the different species compositions in the random and non-random extinction scenarios. Whereas tree growth rates were positively related to herbivory on plots with smaller trees, growth rates significantly declined with increasing herbivory on plots with larger trees. Our results suggest that the effects of herbivory on growth rates increase from monocultures to the most species-rich plant communities and that negative effects with increasing tree species richness become more pronounced with time as trees grow larger. Synthesis. Our results indicate that key trophic interactions can be quick to become established in forest plantations (i.e. already 2.5 years after tree planting). Stronger herbivory effects on tree growth with increasing tree species richness suggest a potentially important role of herbivory in regulating ecosystem functions and the structural development of species-rich forests from the very start of secondary forest succession. The lack of significant differences between the extinction scenarios, however, contrasts with findings from natural forests of higher successional age, where rarity had negative effects on herbivory. This indicates that the effects of non-random species loss could change with forest succession.

  7. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species Christopher W. Dick1,2 , Simon Street, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT, U.K. Keywords Amazon forests, comparative phylogeography, ecological niche of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue

  8. tropiTree: An NGS-Based EST-SSR Resource for 24 Tropical Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Joanne R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Cardle, Linda; Dancey, Siobhan; Morris, Jenny; Booth, Allan; Odee, David; Mwaura, Lucy; Omondi, William; Angaine, Peter; Machua, Joseph; Muchugi, Alice; Milne, Iain; Kindt, Roeland; Jamnadass, Ramni; Dawson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic tools for non-model organisms has been hampered by cost, but advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have created new opportunities. In ecological research, this raises the prospect for developing molecular markers to simultaneously study important genetic processes such as gene flow in multiple non-model plant species within complex natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we report the use of bar-coded multiplexed paired-end Illumina NGS for the de novo development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers at low cost for a range of 24 tree species. Each chosen tree species is important in complex tropical agroforestry systems where little is currently known about many genetic processes. An average of more than 5,000 EST-SSRs was identified for each of the 24 sequenced species, whereas prior to analysis 20 of the species had fewer than 100 nucleotide sequence citations. To make results available to potential users in a suitable format, we have developed an open-access, interactive online database, tropiTree (http://bioinf.hutton.ac.uk/tropiTree), which has a range of visualisation and search facilities, and which is a model for the efficient presentation and application of NGS data. PMID:25025376

  9. The exotic legume tree species, Acacia mearnsii, alters microbial soil functionalities and the early development of a native tree species,

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    The exotic legume tree species, Acacia mearnsii, alters microbial soil functionalities May 2013 Available online 10 June 2013 Keywords: Exotic invasive plant Acacia mearnsii Soil microbial community Ectomycorrhiza a b s t r a c t Acacia mearnsii is one of the most planted Australian Acacia around

  10. Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmermann, N.E.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Meier, E.S.; Thuiller, W.; Guisan, A.; Schmatz, D.R.; Pearman, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate change requires knowledge of the determinants of the environmental niche and species range limits. Mean values of climatic variables are often used in such analyses. In contrast, the increasing frequency of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate parameters) explain and predict spatial patterns of 11 tree species in Switzerland. We find clear, although comparably small, improvement (+20% in adjusted D2, +8% and +3% in cross-validated True Skill Statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of extremes in addition to means. The primary effect of including information on climate extremes is a correction of local overprediction and underprediction. Our results demonstrate that measures of climate extremes are important for understanding the climatic limits of tree species and assessing species niche characteristics. The inclusion of climate variability likely will improve models of species range limits under future conditions, where changes in mean climate and increased variability are expected.

  11. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-28

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be valuableadvancements for the field of comparative genomics.

  12. Efficient algorithms for reconciling gene trees and species networks via duplication and loss events

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reconciliation methods explain topology differences between a species tree and a gene tree by evolutionary events other than speciations. However, not all phylogenies are trees: hybridization can occur and create new species and this results into reticulate phylogenies. Here, we consider the problem of reconciling a gene tree with a species network via duplication and loss events. Two variants are proposed and solved with effcient algorithms: the first one finds the best tree in the network with which to reconcile the gene tree, and the second one finds the best reconciliation between the gene tree and the whole network. PMID:26449687

  13. Native tree species regulate nitrous oxide fluxes in tropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Samantha R; Russell, Ann E; Townsend, Alan R

    2014-06-01

    Secondary and managed plantation forests comprise a rapidly increasing portion of the humid tropical forest biome, a region that, in turn, is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. Previous work has demonstrated reduced N2O emissions in regenerating secondary stands compared to mature forests, yet the importance of species composition in regulating N2O production in young forests remains unclear. We measured N2O fluxes beneath four native tree species planted in replicated, 21-yr-old monodominant stands in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica in comparison with nearby mature forest and abandoned pasture sites at two time points (wetter and drier seasons). We found that species differed eight-fold in their production of N2O, with slower growing, late-successional species (including one legume) promoting high N2O fluxes similar to mature forest, and faster growing, early successional species maintaining low N2O fluxes similar to abandoned pasture. Across all species, N2O flux was positively correlated with soil nitrate concentration in the wetter season and with soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) in the drier season. However, the strongest predictor of N2O fluxes was fine-root growth rate, which was negatively correlated with N2O emissions at both time points. We suggest that tree-specific variation in growth habits creates differences in both N demand and soil water conditions that may exert significant control on N2O fluxes from tropical forests. With the advent of REDD+ and related strategies for fostering climate mitigation via tropical forest regrowth and plantations, we note that species-specific traits as they relate to N2O fluxes may be an important consideration in estimating overall climate benefits. PMID:24988773

  14. Semi-supervised SVM for individual tree crown species classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalponte, Michele; Ene, Liviu Theodor; Marconcini, Mattia; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a novel semi-supervised SVM classifier is presented, specifically developed for tree species classification at individual tree crown (ITC) level. In ITC tree species classification, all the pixels belonging to an ITC should have the same label. This assumption is used in the learning of the proposed semi-supervised SVM classifier (ITC-S3VM). This method exploits the information contained in the unlabeled ITC samples in order to improve the classification accuracy of a standard SVM. The ITC-S3VM method can be easily implemented using freely available software libraries. The datasets used in this study include hyperspectral imagery and laser scanning data acquired over two boreal forest areas characterized by the presence of three information classes (Pine, Spruce, and Broadleaves). The experimental results quantify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which provides classification accuracies significantly higher (from 2% to above 27%) than those obtained by the standard supervised SVM and by a state-of-the-art semi-supervised SVM (S3VM). Particularly, by reducing the number of training samples (i.e. from 100% to 25%, and from 100% to 5% for the two datasets, respectively) the proposed method still exhibits results comparable to the ones of a supervised SVM trained with the full available training set. This property of the method makes it particularly suitable for practical forest inventory applications in which collection of in situ information can be very expensive both in terms of cost and time.

  15. Urban Tree Species Show the Same Hydraulic Response to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Varying Tree Size and Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ewers, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The functional convergence of tree transpiration has rarely been tested for tree species growing under urban conditions even though it is of significance to elucidate the relationship between functional convergence and species differences of urban trees for establishing sustainable urban forests in the context of forest water relations. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured sap flux of four urban tree species including Cedrus deodara, Zelkova schneideriana, Euonymus bungeanus and Metasequoia glyptostroboides in an urban park by using thermal dissipation probes (TDP). The concurrent microclimate conditions and soil moisture content were also measured. Our objectives were to examine 1) the influence of tree species and size on transpiration, and 2) the hydraulic control of urban trees under different environmental conditions over the transpiration in response to VPD as represented by canopy conductance. The results showed that the functional convergence between tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree canopy transpiration amount (Ec) was not reliable to predict stand transpiration and there were species differences within same DBH class. Species differed in transpiration patterns to seasonal weather progression and soil water stress as a result of varied sensitivity to water availability. Species differences were also found in their potential maximum transpiration rate and reaction to light. However, a same theoretical hydraulic relationship between Gc at VPD?=?1 kPa (Gcref) and the Gc sensitivity to VPD (?dGc/dlnVPD) across studied species as well as under contrasting soil water and Rs conditions in the urban area. Conclusions/Significance We concluded that urban trees show the same hydraulic regulation over response to VPD across varying tree size and environmental conditions and thus tree transpiration could be predicted with appropriate assessment of Gcref. PMID:23118904

  16. Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees in a Radiation of California Trapdoor Spiders (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus)

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Jordan D.; Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.; Hedin, Marshal

    2011-01-01

    Background The California Floristic Province is a biodiversity hotspot, reflecting a complex geologic history, strong selective gradients, and a heterogeneous landscape. These factors have led to high endemic diversity across many lifeforms within this region, including the richest diversity of mygalomorph spiders (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, and kin) in North America. The trapdoor spider genus Aliatypus encompasses twelve described species, eleven of which are endemic to California. Several Aliatypus species show disjunct distributional patterns in California (some are found on both sides of the vast Central Valley), and the genus as a whole occupies an impressive variety of habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected specimens from 89 populations representing all described species. DNA sequence data were collected from seven gene regions, including two newly developed for spider systematics. Bayesian inference (in individual gene tree and species tree approaches) recovered a general “3 clade” structure for the genus (A. gulosus, californicus group, erebus group), with three other phylogenetically isolated species differing slightly in position across different phylogenetic analyses. Because of extremely high intraspecific divergences in mitochondrial COI sequences, the relatively slowly evolving 28S rRNA gene was found to be more useful than mitochondrial data for identification of morphologically indistinguishable immatures. For multiple species spanning the Central Valley, explicit hypothesis testing suggests a lack of monophyly for regional populations (e.g., western Coast Range populations). Phylogenetic evidence clearly shows that syntopy is restricted to distant phylogenetic relatives, consistent with ecological niche conservatism. Conclusions/Significance This study provides fundamental insight into a radiation of trapdoor spiders found in the biodiversity hotspot of California. Species relationships are clarified and undescribed lineages are discovered, with more geographic sampling likely to lead to additional species diversity. These dispersal-limited taxa provide novel insight into the biogeography and Earth history processes of California. PMID:21966507

  17. Resource partitioning of four sympatric bark beetles depending on swarming dates and tree species

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Resource partitioning of four sympatric bark beetles depending on swarming dates and tree species Abstract The niche relationships among bark beetle species attacking pines in northern Spain were studied bark beetle species were found attacking the trees, but not all four species were present at all sites

  18. Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hantsch, Lydia; Bien, Steffen; Radatz, Stine; Braun, Uwe; Auge, Harald; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which plant pathogen infestation occurs in a host plant is expected to be strongly influenced by the level of species diversity among neighbouring host and non-host plant species. Since pathogen infestation can negatively affect host plant performance, it can mediate the effects of local biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. We tested the effects of tree diversity and the proportion of neighbouring host and non-host species with respect to the foliar fungal pathogens of Tilia cordata and Quercus petraea in the Kreinitz tree diversity experiment in Germany. We hypothesized that fungal pathogen richness increases while infestation decreases with increasing local tree diversity. In addition, we tested whether fungal pathogen richness and infestation are dependent on the proportion of host plant species present or on the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species. Leaves of the two target species were sampled across three consecutive years with visible foliar fungal pathogens on the leaf surface being identified macro- and microscopically. Effects of diversity among neighbouring trees were analysed: (i) for total fungal species richness and fungal infestation on host trees and (ii) for infestation by individual fungal species. We detected four and five fungal species on T. cordata and Q. petraea, respectively. High local tree diversity reduced (i) total fungal species richness and infestation of T. cordata and fungal infestation of Q. petraea and (ii) infestation by three host-specialized fungal pathogen species. These effects were brought about by local tree diversity and were independent of host species proportion. In general, host species proportion had almost no effect on fungal species richness and infestation. Strong effects associated with the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species on fungal species richness and infestation were, however, recorded. Synthesis. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated that for two common forestry tree species, foliar fungal pathogen richness and infestation depend on local biodiversity. Thus, local tree diversity can have positive impacts on ecosystem functioning in managed forests by decreasing the level of fungal pathogen infestation. PMID:25558092

  19. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary process...

  20. Resprouting from roots in four Brazilian tree species.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Adriana Hissae; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies pointed out that species richness and high density values within the Leguminosae in Brazilian forest fragments affected by fire could be due, at least partially, to the high incidence of root sprouting in this family. However, there are few studies of the factors that induce root sprouting in woody plants after disturbance. We investigated the bud formation on root cuttings, and considered a man-made disturbance that isolates the root from the shoot apical dominance of three Leguminosae (Bauhinia forficata Link., Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth, and Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd) and one Rutaceae (Esenbeckia febrifuga (St. Hil.) Juss. ex Mart.). All these species resprout frequently after fire. We also attempted to induce bud formation on root systems by removing the main trunk, girdling or sectioning the shallow lateral roots from forest tree species Esenbeckia febrifuga and Hymenaea courbaril L. We identified the origin of shoot primordia and their early development by fixing the samples in Karnovsky solution, dehydrating in ethyl alcohol series and embedding in plastic resin. Serial sections were cut on a rotary microtome and stained with toluidine blue O. Permanent slides were mounted in synthetic resin. We observed different modes of bud origin on root cuttings: close to the vascular cambium (C. tomentosum), from the callus (B. forficata and E. febrifuga) and from the phloematic parenchyma proliferation (I. laurina). Fragments of B. forficata root bark were also capable of forming reparative buds from healing phellogen formed in callus in the bark's inner side. In the attempt of bud induction on root systems, Hymenaea courbaril did not respond to any of the induction tests, probably because of plant age. However, Esenbeckia febrifuga roots formed suckers when the main trunk was removed or their roots were sectioned and isolated from the original plant. We experimentally demonstrated the ability of four tree species to resprout from roots after disturbance. Our results suggest that the release of apical dominance enables root resprouting in the studied species. PMID:19928472

  1. Importance of Tree Species and Precipitation for Modeling Hurricane-induced Power Outages 

    E-print Network

    Maderia, Christopher M

    2015-08-07

    benefit utility companies by allowing for better allocation of resources and potentially shortening restoration times. This research will investigate the addition of two new variables, tree species and storm-derived precipitation, to the HOPM. Tree...

  2. Tree Species Specific Soil Moisture Patterns and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbuechel, I.; Dreibrodt, J.; Guntner, A.; Blume, T.

    2014-12-01

    Land use has a major influence on the hydrologic processes that take place in soils. Soil compaction on pastures for example leads to infiltration patterns that differ considerably from the ones observable in forests. It is not clear, however, how different forest stands influence soil infiltration and soil moisture distributions. Factors that that vary amongst different stands and potentially affect soil moisture processes in forests are, amongst others, canopy density, throughfall patterns, the intensity and frequency of stem flow, litter type, root distributions and rooting depth. To investigate how different tree species influence the way soils partition, store and conduct incoming precipitation we selected 15 locations under different tree stands within the TERENO observatory in north-east Germany. The forest stands under investigation were mature oak, young pine, mature pine, young beech and mature beech. At each location we installed 30 FDR soil moisture sensors grouped into five depth profiles (monitoring soil moisture from 10 cm to 200 cm) and 5 additional near surface sensors. The profile locations within each forest stand covered most of the anticipated variability by ranging from minimum to maximum distance to the trees including locations under more and less dense canopy. Supplementary to the FDR sensors, throughfall measurements, tensiometers and groundwater data were available to observe dynamics of tree water availability, water fluxes within the soils and percolation towards the groundwater. To identify patterns in space and time we referred to the statistical methods of wavelet analysis and temporal stability analysis. Finally, we tried to link the results from these analyses to specific hydrologic processes at the different locations.

  3. Tree species identity and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, S.; Goebes, P.; Song, Z.; Bruelheide, H.; Härdtle, W.; Kühn, P.; Li, Y.; Scholten, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil erosion is seriously threatening ecosystem functioning in many parts of the world. In this context, it is assumed that tree species richness and functional diversity of tree communities can play a critical role in improving ecosystem services such as erosion control. An experiment with 170 micro-scale runoff plots was conducted to investigate the influence of tree species richness and identity as well as tree functional traits on interrill erosion in a young forest ecosystem. An interrill erosion rate of 47.5 t ha-1 a-1 was calculated. This study provided evidence that different tree species affect interrill erosion, but higher tree species richness did not mitigate soil losses in young forest stands. Thus, different tree morphologies have to be considered, when assessing erosion under forest. High crown cover and leaf area index reduced soil losses in initial forest ecosystems, whereas rising tree height increased them. Even if a leaf litter cover was not present, remaining soil surface cover by stones and biological soil crusts was the most important driver for soil erosion control. Furthermore, soil organic matter had a decreasing influence on soil loss. Long-term monitoring of soil erosion under closing tree canopies is necessary and a wide range of functional tree traits should be taken into consideration in future research.

  4. Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species

    PubMed Central

    Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C.; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D.; Mikusi?ski, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000?km2, we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

  5. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from nine tree species used in an urban tree-planting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, A. J.; Helmig, D.; Baroch, C.; Daly, R.; Davis, S.

    2014-10-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions of nine urban tree species were studied to assess the air quality impacts from planting a large quantity of these trees in the City and County of Denver, Colorado, through the Mile High Million tree-planting initiative. The deciduous tree species studied were Sugar maple, Ohio buckeye, northern hackberry, Turkish hazelnut, London planetree, American basswood, Littleleaf linden, Valley Forge elm, and Japanese zelkova. These tree species were selected using the i-Tree Species Selector (itreetools.org). BVOC emissions from the selected tree species were investigated to evaluate the Species Selector data under the Colorado climate and environmental growing conditions. Individual tree species were subjected to branch enclosure experiments in which foliar emissions of BVOC were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges. The cartridge samples were analyzed for monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), and other C10-C15 BVOC using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectroscopy (GC-FID/MS). Individual compounds and their emission rates (ER) were identified. MT were observed in all tree species, exhibiting the following total MT basal emission rates (BER; with a 1-? lower bound, upper bound uncertainty window): Sugar maple, 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) ?g g-1 h-1; London planetree, 0.15 (0.02, 0.27) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.33 (0.09, 0.57) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.42 (0.26, 0.58) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.71 (0.33, 1.09) ?g g-1 h-1; Valley Forge elm, 0.96 (0.01, 1.92) ?g g-1 h-1; Turkish hazelnut, 1.30 (0.32, 2.23) ?g g-1 h-1; American basswood, 1.50 (0.40, 2.70) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 6.61 (1.76, 11.47) ?g g-1 h-1. SQT emissions were seen in five tree species with total SQT BER of: London planetree, 0.11 (0.01, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.11 (0.05, 0.16) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.13 (0.06, 0.21) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.20 (0.11, 0.30) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 0.44 (0.06, 0.83) ?g g-1 h-1. The following trees exhibited emissions of other C10-C15 volatile organic compounds (VOC): Littleleaf linden, 0.15 (0.10, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Ohio buckeye, 0.39 (0.14, 0.65) ?g g-1 h-1; and Turkish hazelnut, 0.72 (0.49, 0.95) ?g g-1 h-1. All tree species studied in this experiment were confirmed to be low isoprene emitters. Compared to many other potential urban tree species, the selected trees can be considered low to moderate BVOC emitters under Colorado growing conditions, with total emission rates one-tenth to one-hundredth the rates of potential high-BVOC emitting trees. The emissions data were used to estimate the impact of this targeted tree planting on the urban BVOC flux and atmospheric VOC burden. Selecting the low-emitting tree species over known high BVOC emitters is equivalent to avoiding VOC emissions from nearly 500,000 cars from the inner city traffic.

  6. TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES LIST FOR PINGREE PARK REGION Abies 1asiocarpa

    E-print Network

    1-1 TREE AND SHRUB SPECIES LIST FOR PINGREE PARK REGION TREES Abies 1asiocarpa Alnus tenuifolia Ribes inerme Rosa spp. Rubus deliciosus Rubus strigosus Salix spp. Shepherdia canadensis Symphoricarpos albus Vaccinium spp. #12;1-2 #12;1-3 CHARACTERISTICS OF TREES & SHRUBS COMMON TO PINGREE PARK AREA

  7. Species identity and neighbor size surpass the impact of tree species diversity on productivity in experimental broad-leaved tree sapling assemblages under dry and moist conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lübbe, Torben; Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity may increase the productivity of tree communities through complementarity (CE) and/or selection effects (SE), but it is not well known how this relationship changes under water limitation. We tested the stress-gradient hypothesis, which predicts that resource use complementarity and facilitation are more important under water-limited conditions. We conducted a growth experiment with saplings of five temperate broad-leaved tree species that were grown in assemblages of variable diversity (1, 3, or 5 species) and species composition under ample and limited water supply to examine effects of species richness and species identity on stand- and tree-level productivity. Special attention was paid to effects of neighbor identity on the growth of target trees in mixture as compared to growth in monoculture. Stand productivity was strongly influenced by species identity while a net biodiversity effect (NE) was significant in the moist treatment (mostly assignable to CE) but of minor importance. The growth performance of some of the species in the mixtures was affected by tree neighborhood characteristics with neighbor size likely being more important than neighbor species identity. Diversity and neighbor identity effects visible in the moist treatment mostly disappeared in the dry treatment, disproving the stress-gradient hypothesis. The mixtures were similarly sensitive to drought-induced growth reduction as the monocultures, which may relate to the decreased CE on growth upon drought in the mixtures. PMID:26579136

  8. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (? 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. PMID:25588119

  9. A dynamic species modeling approach to assess climate change impacts on California tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, L. P.; Hannah, L.; Thorne, J.; Seo, C.; Davis, F.

    2007-12-01

    Global climate change during the 21st century is anticipated to have consequences on potential niche viability for woody plant species. Previous research on modeling bioclimatic envelopes has allowed us to predict where to find species assemblages under future climate scenarios and hence predict loss or gain of specific habitats. However, species may not identically respond to climate change. This could result in species disassembling and disagreement between predicted potential niches and realized niches. Therefore, it is critical to examine potential niche shifts at the species level. We used a spatially explicit demographic model to predict shifts in tree species of the northern Sierra Nevada mountains in the context of competition with neighboring plant functional types as well as disturbance (i.e. fire) under various climate change scenarios. Additionally, we incorporated a dispersal model to account for intermediary dispersal strategies. In particular, we were interested in modeling Pinus species found in the "checkerboard" region of the northern Sierra Nevada. These populations are of novel interest due to their disparate management strategies (private vs. public landownership). Our findings have important implications for the assessment of the impact of climate change on these high elevation Montane species.

  10. Species Tree Estimation for the Late Blight Pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and Close Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jaime E.; Coffey, Michael D.; Martin, Frank N.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based “supergene” approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred. PMID:22615869

  11. Remnant Trees Affect Species Composition but Not Structure of Tropical Second-Growth Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields. PMID:24454700

  12. The description of Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), a new species from Joshua Tree National Park

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Paramblynotus delaneyi (Hymenoptera: Liopteridae), is described and characters separating it from the Nearctic species P. zonatus Weld and P. virginianus Liu are discussed. A discussion of the insect biodiversity survey at Joshua Tree National Park is provided....

  13. ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE SURFACES FOR NORTH AMERICAN BOREAL TREE SPECIES AND THEIR USE IN FOREST CLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Empirical ecological response surfaces were derived for eight dominant tree species in the boreal forest region of Canada. tepwise logistic regression was used to model species dominance as a response to five climatic predictor variables. he predictor variables (annual snowfall, ...

  14. Population and species differences in treeline tree species germination in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Faist, A.; Castanha, C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability of plant species to recruit within and beyond their current geographic ranges in response to climate warming may be constrained by population differences in response. A number of studies have highlighted the degree to which genotype and environment are strongly linked in forest trees (i.e., provenances), but few studies have examined whether these local adaptations are at all predictive of population or species response to change. We report the results of lab germination experiments using high and low elevation populations of both limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), which are important treeline species in the Rocky Mountains. Seeds collected in 2008 were germinated under two different temperature regimes (ambient and +5°C) and two different moisture regimes, and followed for 17 weeks. For both species and source elevations, warmer temperatures advanced the timing of emergence by up to 20 days, whereas the effects of moisture were less consistent. At harvest, high elevation limber pine had less root and shoot biomass, and a slightly lower root:shoot ratio, under the +5°C treatment, whereas low elevation limber pine seedling mass was not sensitive to temperature. Whether these differences persist under field conditions will be tested in a field experiment now established at Niwot Ridge, CO. The ability to accurately predict tree seedling recruitment and ultimately shifts in treeline position with climate change will improve our ability to model changes in surface albedo, water cycling and carbon cycling, all of which can generate feedbacks to regional and global climate.

  15. The Relationship between Species Diversity and Genetic Structure in the Rare Picea chihuahuana Tree Species Community, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Simental-Rodríguez, Sergio Leonel; Quiñones-Pérez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; López-Sánchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as “Endangered” on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between genetic variants and species diversity may be crucial in shaping tree communities. PMID:25375134

  16. The contribution of seed dispersers to tree species diversity in tropical rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Ishida, Atsushi; Hayashi, Saki; Asami, Takahiro; Ito, Hiromu; Miller, Donald G.; Uehara, Takashi; Mori, Shigeta; Hasegawa, Eisuke; Matsuura, Kenji; Kasuya, Eiiti; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Tropical rainforests are known for their extreme biodiversity, posing a challenging problem in tropical ecology. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of tree species, yet our understanding of this phenomenon remains incomplete. Here, we consider the contribution of animal seed dispersers to the species diversity of trees. We built a multi-layer lattice model of trees whose animal seed dispersers are allowed to move only in restricted areas to disperse the tree seeds. We incorporated the effects of seed dispersers in the traditional theory of allopatric speciation on a geological time scale. We modified the lattice model to explicitly examine the coexistence of new tree species and the resulting high biodiversity. The results indicate that both the coexistence and diversified evolution of tree species can be explained by the introduction of animal seed dispersers. PMID:26587246

  17. RESEARCH ARTICLE Spatial spread of an alien tree species in a heterogeneous

    E-print Network

    Petite, Samuel

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Spatial spread of an alien tree species in a heterogeneous forest landscape the observed invasion patterns of an alien tree species, Prunus serotina Ehrh., in a heterogeneous managed the invasion process but without altering the final outcome. Our model represents the real

  18. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P. chihuahuana trees and P. chihuahuana tree community and but to specific spatial scales measured by the univariate L-function. The spatial distribution pattern of P. chihuahuana trees was found to be independent of patches of other tree species measured by the bivariate L-function. The spatial distribution was not significantly related to tree density, diameter distribution or tree species diversity. The index of Clark and Evans decreased significantly from the southern to northern plots containing all tree species. Self-thinning due to intra and inter-specific competition-induced mortality is probably the main cause of the decrease in aggregation intensity during the course of population development in this tree community. We recommend the use of larger sampling plots (> 0.25 ha) in uneven-aged and species-rich forest ecosystems to detect less obvious, but important, relationships between spatial tree pattern and functioning and diversity in these forests. PMID:26496189

  19. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P. chihuahuana trees and P. chihuahuana tree community and but to specific spatial scales measured by the univariate L-function. The spatial distribution pattern of P. chihuahuana trees was found to be independent of patches of other tree species measured by the bivariate L-function. The spatial distribution was not significantly related to tree density, diameter distribution or tree species diversity. The index of Clark and Evans decreased significantly from the southern to northern plots containing all tree species. Self-thinning due to intra and inter-specific competition-induced mortality is probably the main cause of the decrease in aggregation intensity during the course of population development in this tree community. We recommend the use of larger sampling plots (> 0.25 ha) in uneven-aged and species-rich forest ecosystems to detect less obvious, but important, relationships between spatial tree pattern and functioning and diversity in these forests. PMID:26496189

  20. [Atmospheric Particle Retaining Function of Common Deciduous Tree Species Leaves in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-yan; Niu, Xiang; Zhang, Wei-kang; Wang, Jin-song

    2015-06-01

    In order to explore the atmospheric particle-retaining function of common deciduous tree species leaves in Beijing, six typical tree species (Populus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Koelreuteria paniculata, Salix babylonica, Acer truncatum, Ginkgo biloba) were chosen to measure retaining amount of unit leaf area of air total suspended particles (TSP), coarse particles and fine particulate with aerosol generator (QRJZFSQ-I). The results showed that (1) All six tree species leaves had a certain level of retaining ability to different sizes of atmospheric particles, and different species exhibited some differences. For different sizes of atmospheric particle, retaining amounts of unit leaf area were higher in Koelreuteria paniculata and Robinia pseudoacacia than those of other four species, and the amount of Populus was the lowest among all tree species; (2) The retaining amount of unit leaf area for different tree species was not entirely increased with sampling time. The retaining amounts of TSP and coarse particles for all tree species on the eighth day after rain were significantly higher than those on the fifth day after rain, however, the retaining amount of fine particles was not significantly different under different sampling times. In order to select deciduous tree species for ecological management of air pollution in Beijing, Koelreuteria paniculata should be considered as the priority, followed by Robinia pseudoacacia, compared with Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Acer truncatum and Populus. PMID:26387301

  1. Landscape Variation in Tree Species Richness in Northern Iran Forests

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR) is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area’s unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i) three topographic variables generated directly from the area’s digital terrain model; (ii) four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii) seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content), yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ? 33% of all trees in a plot), than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species). This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently general to be applicable to the characterisation of SR in other forested regions of the world, providing plot-scale data are available for model generation. PMID:25849029

  2. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management. PMID:25655130

  3. Species-specific effects on throughfall kinetic energy below 12 subtropical tree species are related to leaf traits and tree architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebes, Philipp; Seitz, Steffen; Kühn, Peter; Kröber, Wenzel; Bruelheide, Helge; Li, Ying; von Oheimb, Goddert; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion impacts environmental systems widely, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. The comprehension about the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land is broad, but erosion processes below forests are only rarely understood. Especially throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced by forests and their structure as well as their succession in many ways. Today, many forests are monoculture tree stands due to economic reasons by providing timber, fuel and pulp wood. Therefore, this study investigates the role of different monoculture forest stands on TKE that were afforestated in 2008. The main questions are: Is TKE species-specific? What are characteristic leaf traits and tree architectural parameters that induce a species-specific effect on TKE and by what extend do they contribute to a mediation of species-specific effects on TKE? We measured TKE of 12 different species in subtropical China using sand-filled splash cups during five rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf traits and tree architectural parameters were registered to link species-specific effects on TKE to vegetation parameters. Our results show that TKE is highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus mukorossi, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. The latter species can be regarded as key species for reduced erosion occurrence. This species effect is mediated by leaf habit, leaf area, leaf pinnation, leaf margin, tree ground diameter, crown base height, tree height, number of branches and LAI as biotic factors and rainfall amount as abiotic factor. Moreover, leaf habit, tree height and LA show high effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers evoking TKE differences below vegetation.

  4. Phylogenomic species tree estimation in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Species tree estimation is challenged by gene tree heterogeneity resulting from biological processes such as duplication and loss, hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Mathematical theory about reconstructing species trees in the presence of HGT alone or ILS alone suggests that quartet-based species tree methods (known to be statistically consistent under ILS, or under bounded amounts of HGT) might be effective techniques for estimating species trees when both HGT and ILS are present. Results We evaluated several publicly available coalescent-based methods and concatenation under maximum likelihood on simulated datasets with moderate ILS and varying levels of HGT. Our study shows that two quartet-based species tree estimation methods (ASTRAL-2 and weighted Quartets MaxCut) are both highly accurate, even on datasets with high rates of HGT. In contrast, although NJst and concatenation using maximum likelihood are highly accurate under low HGT, they are less robust to high HGT rates. Conclusion Our study shows that quartet-based species-tree estimation methods can be highly accurate under the presence of both HGT and ILS. The study suggests the possibility that some quartet-based methods might be statistically consistent under phylogenomic models of gene tree heterogeneity with both HGT and ILS. PMID:26450506

  5. Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Pavlic, Draginja; Wingfield, Michael J; Barber, Paul; Slippers, Bernard; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

    2008-01-01

    In this study seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are described from baobab (Adansonia gibbosa) and surrounding endemic tree species growing in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae were predominantly endophytes isolated from apparently healthy sapwood and bark of endemic trees; others were isolated from dying branches. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and EF1-alpha sequence data revealed seven new species: Dothiorella longicollis, Fusicoccum ramosum, Lasiodiplodia margaritacea, Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae, Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae, P. ardesiacum and P. kimberleyense. PMID:19202840

  6. Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Designing Mixed Species Tree Plantations for the Tropics: Balancing Ecological Attributes of Species with Landholder Preferences in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30–40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop. PMID:24751720

  8. Water-use Comparison of the Invasive Tree Species, Melaleuca Quinquenervia, and two Native Tree Species,Taxodium Distichum and Pinus Elliottii, in Southwest Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, T. M.; Leisure, R. M.; Everham, E. M.; Bovard, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), an invasive tree species in southern Florida, is generally thought to have higher transpiration rates than the native vegetation, however little empirical data is available to support this claim. In this study, thermal dissipation probes were used to measure transpiration rates of the three species growing in a hydric ecotone in southwest Florida. Transpiration rates of melaleuca, slash pine (Pinus elliottii), and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) were compared to assess seasonal variability between the wet and dry seasons. Individually trees of both bald cypress and slash pine showed significantly higher water fluxes than melaleuca (p<0.05). However, when individual tree fluxes were scaled to the ecosystem-level, melaleuca contributed 21% of the water flux and bald cypress contributed 72% during the wet season. Melaleuca's increased contribution at the landscape-level results from higher tree densities at our study site. Following leaf senescence in the early dry season, bald cypress continues to be a significant water user at the landscape level. With higher atmospheric demands for water, bald cypress was the least conservative of the three species with respect to water use, whereas on days with low atmospheric demands for water the three species function similarly. These results do not support the hypothesis that melaleuca uses more water than the native Florida tree species, however, they suggest the density of melaleuca at the landscape-scale is important in our understanding of its role in the hydrologic cycle.

  9. CpDNA-based species identification and phylogeography: application to African tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Duminil, J; Heuertz, M; Doucet, J-L; Bourland, N; Cruaud, C; Gavory, F; Doumenge, C; Navascués, M; Hardy, O J

    2010-12-01

    Despite the importance of the African tropical rainforests as a hotspot of biodiversity, their history and the processes that have structured their biodiversity are understood poorly. With respect to past demographic processes, new insights can be gained through characterizing the distribution of genetic diversity. However, few studies of this type have been conducted in Central Africa, where the identification of species in the field can be difficult. We examine here the distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in Lower Guinea in two tree species that are difficult to distinguish, Erythrophleum ivorense and Erythrophleum suaveolens (Fabaceae). By using a blind-sampling approach and comparing molecular and morphological markers, we first identified retrospectively all sampled individuals and determined the limits of the distribution of each species. We then performed a phylogeographic study using the same genetic data set. The two species displayed essentially parapatric distributions that were correlated well with the rainfall gradient, which indicated different ecological requirements. In addition, a phylogeographic structure was found for E. suaveolens and, for both species, substantially higher levels of diversity and allelic endemism were observed in the south (Gabon) than in the north (Cameroon) of the Lower Guinea region. This finding indicated different histories of population demographics for the two species, which might reflect different responses to Quaternary climate changes. We suggest that a recent period of forest perturbation, which might have been caused by humans, favoured the spread of these two species and that their poor recruitment at present results from natural succession in their forest formations. PMID:21091558

  10. How many tree species are there in the Amazon and how many of them will go extinct?

    E-print Network

    He, Fangliang

    How many tree species are there in the Amazon and how many of them will go extinct? Stephen P size of tree species in the Amazon metacommunity and estimate likely tree-species ex- tinctions under published optimistic and nonoptimistic Amazon scenarios. We estimate that the Brazilian portion

  11. The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel-occurring tree and four grassland species influence poten- tially harvestable biofuel stocks and above harvestable biomass as another tree Quercus ellipsoidalis and 10 times that of the grassland species. P

  12. No evidence for consistent long-term growth stimulation of 13 tropical tree species: results from tree-ring analysis.

    PubMed

    Groenendijk, Peter; van der Sleen, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Bongers, Frans; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-10-01

    The important role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle makes it imperative to assess changes in their carbon dynamics for accurate projections of future climate-vegetation feedbacks. Forest monitoring studies conducted over the past decades have found evidence for both increasing and decreasing growth rates of tropical forest trees. The limited duration of these studies restrained analyses to decadal scales, and it is still unclear whether growth changes occurred over longer time scales, as would be expected if CO2 -fertilization stimulated tree growth. Furthermore, studies have so far dealt with changes in biomass gain at forest-stand level, but insights into species-specific growth changes - that ultimately determine community-level responses - are lacking. Here, we analyse species-specific growth changes on a centennial scale, using growth data from tree-ring analysis for 13 tree species (~1300 trees), from three sites distributed across the tropics. We used an established (regional curve standardization) and a new (size-class isolation) growth-trend detection method and explicitly assessed the influence of biases on the trend detection. In addition, we assessed whether aggregated trends were present within and across study sites. We found evidence for decreasing growth rates over time for 8-10 species, whereas increases were noted for two species and one showed no trend. Additionally, we found evidence for weak aggregated growth decreases at the site in Thailand and when analysing all sites simultaneously. The observed growth reductions suggest deteriorating growth conditions, perhaps due to warming. However, other causes cannot be excluded, such as recovery from large-scale disturbances or changing forest dynamics. Our findings contrast growth patterns that would be expected if elevated CO2 would stimulate tree growth. These results suggest that commonly assumed growth increases of tropical forests may not occur, which could lead to erroneous predictions of carbon dynamics of tropical forest under climate change. PMID:25917997

  13. Pythium species Associated with Forest Tree Nurseries of Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium species are one of several pathogen genera responsible for damping off of conifer seedlings in forest tree nurseries. Species identification has been traditionally based on morphology. However, DNA-based identification methods may allow more accurate identification of species associated wi...

  14. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

  15. Taxonomy and pathogenicity of Ceratocystis species on Eucalyptus trees in South China, including

    E-print Network

    Taxonomy and pathogenicity of Ceratocystis species on Eucalyptus trees in South China, including C Research Foundation 2012 Abstract Commercial plantations of Eucalyptus species have been established economy. As part of a survey of fungal diseases affecting Eucalyptus species in South China, Ceratocystis

  16. Contrasting water-uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species

    E-print Network

    Singer, Michael

    . These observations are consistent with data on floodplain rooting depths, which show that F. excelsior maintains its & Sons, Ltd. KEY WORDS tree rings; oxygen isotopes; drought; riparian forests; Mediterranean climateContrasting water-uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species

  17. Functional traits shape ontogenetic growth trajectories of rain forest tree species

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Vivien

    , tropical rain forest Introduction An important objective in plant community ecology is to understand howFunctional traits shape ontogenetic growth trajectories of rain forest tree species Bruno He´ rault-depen- dent diameter growth models using 16 years of census data from 5524 individuals of 50 rain forest tree

  18. A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae)

    E-print Network

    Schuettpelz, Eric

    A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae) ROBBIN C-mail: ejs7@duke.edu Abstract. Morphological and plastid rbcL and trnG-R sequence data suggest that the fern currently recognized as Megalastrum lasiernos (Dryopteridaceae) is in fact a tree fern (Cyatheaceae

  19. Assessing the potential of native tree species for carbon sequestration forestry in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S C; Malczewski, G; Saprunoff, M

    2007-11-01

    Although the native forests of China are exceptionally diverse, only a small number of tree species have been widely utilized in forest plantations and reforestation efforts. We used dendrochronological sampling methods to assess the potential growth and carbon sequestration of native tree species in Jilin Province, Northeast China. Trees were sampled in and near the Changbaishan Biosphere Reserve, with samples encompassing old-growth, disturbed forest, and plantations. To approximate conditions for planted trees, sampling focused on trees with exposed crowns (dominant and co-dominant individuals). A log-linear relationship was found between diameter increment and tree diameter, with a linear decrease in increment with increasing local basal area; no significant differences in these patterns between plantations and natural stands were detected for two commonly planted species (Pinus koraiensis and Larix olgensis). A growth model that incorporates observed feedbacks with individual tree size and local basal area (in conjunction with allometric models for tree biomass), was used to project stand-level biomass increment. Predicted growth trajectories were then linked to the carbon process model InTEC to provide estimates of carbon sequestration potential. Results indicate substantial differences among species, and suggest that certain native hardwoods (in particular Fraxinus mandshurica and Phellodendron amurense), have high potential for use in carbon forestry applications. Increased use of native hardwoods in carbon forestry in China is likely to have additional benefits in terms of economic diversification and enhanced provision of "ecosystem services", including biodiversity protection. PMID:17188419

  20. New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia

    E-print Network

    New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia M. Van Wyk, cacao and native trees in Colombia, based on morphology and DNA-sequences for three gene regions. Host orinocense H. Karst.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd.) Müll. Arg.) cacao

  1. SIMULATION OF OZONE EFFECTS ON EIGHT TREE SPECIES AT SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an assessment of potential effects of air pollutants on the vegetation of Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), we simulated the growth of eight important tree species using TREGRO, a mechanistic model of individual tree growth. Published TREGRO parameters for black cherry...

  2. Two new species of Gliricola (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus, in Peru.

    E-print Network

    Price, Roger D.; Timm, Robert M.

    1993-06-01

    Two new species of Gliricola, G. woodmani and G. halli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), are described and illustrated for specimens from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Peru. Resumen--Se describe ...

  3. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high-resolution remote sensing can predict a large percentage of variance in species richness and potentially provide a framework to map and predict alpha diversity among trees in diverse tropical forests. PMID:26591445

  4. Leapfrogging of tree species provenances? Interaction of microclimate and genetics on upward shifts in tree species' range limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, K.; Castanha, C.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The elevation limit of tree growth (alpine treeline) is considered to be constrained by environmental (i.e., thermal) and genetic (i.e., inability to adapt to climatic conditions) limitations to growth. Warming conditions due to climate change are predicted to cause upward shifts in the elevation of alpine treelines, through relief of cold-induced physiological limitations on seedling recruitment beyond current treeline boundaries. To determine how genetics and climate may interact to affect seedling establishment, we transplanted recently germinated seedlings from high- and low-elevation provenances (HI and LO, respectively) of Pinus flexilis in common gardens arrayed along an elevation and canopy gradient from subalpine forest into the alpine zone at Niwot Ridge, CO. We compared differences in microclimate and seedling ecophysiology among sites and between provenances. During the first summer of growth, frequently cloudy skies resulted in similar solar radiation incidence and air and soil temperatures among sites, despite nearly a 500 m-span in elevation across all sites. Preliminary findings suggest that survival of seedlings was similar between the lowest and highest elevations, with greater survival of LO (60%) compared to HI (40%) seedlings at each of these sites. Photosynthesis, carbon balance (photosynthesis/respiration), and conductance increased more than 2X with elevation for both provenances, and were 35-77% greater in LO seedlings compared to HI seedlings. There were no differences in dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) among sites or between provenances. However, in a common-garden study at low elevation, we observed no differences in carbon or water relations between two naturally-germinated mitochondrial haplotypes of P. flexilis (of narrow and wide-ranging distributions). We did observe water-related thresholds on seedling carbon balance and survival that occurred when soil volumetric water content dropped below 10% and seedling water potentials went below -4 MPa. Our preliminary results suggest that for high-elevation conifer seedlings such as P. flexilis: 1) individuals can survive and even have enhanced physiological performance at and above treeline when/where clouds or other conditions minimize factors like cold-induced photoinhibition; 2) in the field, provenances selected for aboveground growth may out-perform those selected for stress-resistance in the absence of harsh climatic conditions, even well above the species' range limits in the alpine; 3) water, and not thermal, limitations might explain treeline altitude in this particular mountain range; 4) forest genetics may be important to understanding and managing species' range adjustments due to climate change.

  5. North American tree squirrels and ground squirrels with overlapping ranges host different Cryptosporidium species and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Brianna L S; Clark, Mark E; Kvá?, Martin; Khan, Eakalak; Giddings, Catherine W; Prediger, Jitka; McEvoy, John M

    2015-12-01

    Wildlife-associated Cryptosporidium are an emerging cause of cryptosporidiosis in humans. The present study was undertaken to determine the extent to which North American tree squirrels and ground squirrels host zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Fragments of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA and actin genes were amplified and sequenced from fecal samples obtained from three tree squirrel and three ground squirrel species. In tree squirrels, Cryptosporidium was identified in 40.5% (17/42) of American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), 40.4% (55/136) of eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and 28.6% (2/7) of fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). Human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium ubiquitum and Cryptosporidium skunk genotype were the most prevalent species/genotypes in tree squirrels. Because tree squirrels live in close proximity to humans and are frequently infected with potentially zoonotic Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, they may be a significant reservoir of infection in humans. In ground squirrels, Cryptosporidium was detected in 70.2% (33/47) of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), 35.1% (27/77) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), and the only golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) that was sampled. Cryptosporidium rubeyi and ground squirrel genotypes I, II, and III were identified in isolates from these ground squirrel species. In contrast to the Cryptosporidium infecting tree squirrels, these species/genotypes appear to be specific for ground squirrels and are not associated with human disease. PMID:26437239

  6. Version 5 of Forecasts; Forecasts of Climate-Associated Shifts in Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Kumar, J.; Potter, K. M.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Version 5 of the ForeCASTS tree range shift atlas (www.geobabble.org/~hnw/global/treeranges5/climate_change/atlas.html) now predicts global shifts in the suitable ranges of 335 tree species (essentially all woody species measured in Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)) under forecasts from the Parallel Climate Model, and the Hadley Model, each under future climatic scenarios A1 and B1, each at two future dates (2050 and 2100). Version 5 includes more Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) occurrence points, uses improved heuristics for occurrence training, and recovers occurrence points that fall in water. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to quantitatively delineate 30 thousand environmentally homogeneous ecoregions across present and 8 potential future global locations at once, using global maps of 17 environmental characteristics describing temperature, precipitation, soils, topography and solar insolation. Occurrence of each tree species on FIA plots and in GBIF samples was used to identify a subset of suitable ecoregions from the full set of 30 thousand. This subset of suitable ecoregions was compared to the known current present range of the tree species. Predicted present ranges correspond well with existing ranges for all but a few of the 335 tree species. The subset of suitable ecoregions can then be tracked into the future to determine whether the suitable home range remains the same, moves, grows, shrinks, or disappears under each model/scenario combination. A quantitative niche breadth analysis allows sorting of the 17 environmental variables from the narrowest, most important, to the broadest, least restrictive environmental factors limiting each tree species. Potential tree richness maps were produced, along with a quantitative potential tree endemism map for present and future CONUS. Using a new empirical imputation method which associates sparse measurements of dependent variables with particular clustered combinations of the environmental driver variables, and then estimates values for unmeasured clusters, we interpolated FIA measurements of productivity into continuous maps showing productivity across each tree's entire present and future ranges.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Tree Species Composition in Temperate Mountains of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boknam; Park, Juhan; Cho, Sungsik; Ryu, Daun; Zaw Wynn, Khine; Park, Minji; Cho, Sunhee; Yoon, Jongguk; Park, Jongyoung; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2015-04-01

    Long term studies on vegetation dynamics are important to identify changes of ecosystem-level responses to climate change. To learn how tree species composition and stand structure change across temperate mountains, the temporal and spatial variations in tree species diversity and structure were investigated using the species composition and DBH size collected over the fourteen-year period across 134 sites in Jiri and Baekoon Mountains, South Korea. The overall temporal changes over fourteen years showed significant increase in stand density, species diversity and evenness according to the indices of Shannon-Weiner diversity, Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, and Pielou's evenness, contributing to the increase of basal area and biomass growth. The change of tree species composition could be categorized into five species communities, representing gradual increase or decrease, establishment, extinction, fluctuation of species population. However, in general, the change in species composition appeared to have consistent and directional patterns of increase in the annual rate of change in the mean species traits including species richness, pole growth rate, adult growth rate, and adult stature with five common dominant species (Quercus mongolica, Quercus variabilis, Quercus serrata, Carpinus laxiflora, and Styrax japonicus). The spatial patterns of species composition appeared to have a higher stand density and species diversity along with the low latitude and high slope ecosystem. The climate change was another main driver to vary the distribution of species abundance. Overall, both temporal and spatial changes of composition in tree species community was clear and further analysis to clarify the reasons for such fast and species-specific changes is underway especially to separate the effect of successional change and climate change. Keywords species composition; climate change; temporal and spatial variation ; forest structure; temperate forest

  8. Long range correlations in tree ring chronologies of the USA: Variation within and across species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract <span class="hlt">Tree</span> ring width data are among the best proxies for reconstructing past temperature and precipitation records. The discovery of fractal scaling and long-memory in meteorological and hydrological signals motivates us to investigate such properties in <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring chronologies. Detrended fluctuation analysis and adaptive fractal analysis are utilized to estimate the Hurst parameter values of 697 <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring chronologies from the continental United States. We find significant differences in the Hurst parameter values across the 10 <span class="hlt">species</span> studied in the work. The long-range scaling relations found here suggest that the behavior of <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring growth observed in a short calibration period may be similar to the general behavior of <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring growth in a much longer period, and therefore, the limited calibration period may be more useful than originally thought. The variations of the long-range correlations within and across <span class="hlt">species</span> may be further explored in future to better reconstruct paleoclimatic records.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPRS...61..325B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPRS...61..325B"><span id="translatedtitle">Classifying individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> under leaf-off and leaf-on conditions using airborne lidar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandtberg, Tomas</p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, a methodology for individual <span class="hlt">tree</span>-based <span class="hlt">species</span> classification using high sampling density and small footprint lidar data is clarified, corrected and improved. For this purpose, a well-defined directed graph (digraph) is introduced and it plays a fundamental role in the approach. It is argued that there exists one and only one such unique digraph that describes all four pure events and resulting disjoint sets of laser points associated with a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> in data from a two-return lidar system. However, the digraph is extendable so that it fits an n-return lidar system ( n > 2) with higher logical resolution. Furthermore, a mathematical notation for different types of groupings of the laser points is defined, and a new terminology for various types of individual <span class="hlt">tree</span>-based concepts defined by the digraph is proposed. A novel calibration technique for estimating individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> heights is evaluated. The approach replaces the unreliable maximum single laser point height of each <span class="hlt">tree</span> with a more reliable prediction based on shape characteristics of a marginal height distribution of the whole first-return point cloud of each <span class="hlt">tree</span>. The result shows a reduction of the RMSE of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> heights of about 20% (stddev = 1.1 m reduced to stddev = 0.92 m). The method improves the <span class="hlt">species</span> classification accuracy markedly, but it could also be used for reducing the sampling density at the time of data acquisition. Using the calibrated <span class="hlt">tree</span> heights, a scale-invariant rescaled space for the universal set of points for each <span class="hlt">tree</span> is defined, in which all individual <span class="hlt">tree</span>-based geometric measurements are conducted. With the corrected and improved classification methodology the total accuracy raises from 60% to 64% for classifying three leaf-off individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> ( N = 200 each) in West Virginia, USA: oaks ( Quercus spp.), red maple ( Acer rubrum), and yellow poplar ( Liriodendron tuliperifera).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25761711','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25761711"><span id="translatedtitle">Glacial refugia and modern genetic diversity of 22 western North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roberts, David R; Hamann, Andreas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, subspecies and genetic varieties have primarily evolved in a landscape of extensive continental ice and restricted temperate climate environments. Here, we reconstruct the refugial history of western North American <span class="hlt">trees</span> since the last glacial maximum using <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution models, validated against 3571 palaeoecological records. We investigate how modern subspecies structure and genetic diversity corresponds to modelled glacial refugia, based on a meta-analysis of allelic richness and expected heterozygosity for 473 populations of 22 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We find that <span class="hlt">species</span> with strong genetic differentiation into subspecies had widespread and large glacial refugia, whereas <span class="hlt">species</span> with restricted refugia show no differentiation among populations and little genetic diversity, despite being common over a wide range of environments today. In addition, a strong relationship between allelic richness and the size of modelled glacial refugia (r(2) = 0.55) suggest that population bottlenecks during glacial periods had a pronounced effect on the presence of rare alleles. PMID:25761711</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015532"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of sampling plot number on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution prediction under climate change].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Xiao-Na; Luo, Xu</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Based on the neutral landscapes under different degrees of landscape fragmentation, this paper studied the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution at landscape scale under climate change. The <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution was predicted by the coupled modeling approach which linked an ecosystem process model with a forest landscape model, and three contingent scenarios and one reference scenario of sampling plot numbers were assumed. The differences between the three scenarios and the reference scenario under different degrees of landscape fragmentation were tested. The results indicated that the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution depended on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> life history attributes. For the generalist <span class="hlt">species</span>, the prediction of their distribution at landscape scale needed more plots. Except for the extreme specialist, landscape fragmentation degree also affected the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction. With the increase of simulation period, the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution at landscape scale could be changed. For generalist <span class="hlt">species</span>, more plots are needed for the long-term simulation. PMID:24015532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21636421"><span id="translatedtitle">Light-dependent leaf trait variation in 43 tropical dry forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Our understanding of leaf acclimation in relation to irradiance of fully grown or juvenile <span class="hlt">trees</span> is mainly based on research involving tropical wet forest <span class="hlt">species</span>. We studied sun-shade plasticity of 24 leaf traits of 43 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a Bolivian dry deciduous forest. Sampling was confined to small <span class="hlt">trees</span>. For each <span class="hlt">species</span>, leaves were taken from five of the most and five of the least illuminated crowns. <span class="hlt">Trees</span> were selected based on the percentage of the hemisphere uncovered by other crowns. We examined leaf trait variation and the relation between trait plasticity and light demand, maximum adult stature, and ontogenetic changes in crown exposure of the <span class="hlt">species</span>. Leaf trait variation was mainly related to differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> and to a minor extent to differences in light availability. Traits related to the palisade layer, thickness of the outer cell wall, and N(area) and P(area) had the greatest plasticity, suggesting their importance for leaf function in different light environments. Short-lived pioneers had the highest trait plasticity. Overall plasticity was modest and rarely associated with juvenile light requirements, adult stature, or ontogenetic changes in crown exposure. Dry forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> had a lower light-related plasticity than wet forest <span class="hlt">species</span>, probably because wet forests cast deeper shade. In dry forests light availability may be less limiting, and low water availability may constrain leaf trait plasticity in response to irradiance. PMID:21636421</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26353356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26353356"><span id="translatedtitle">Hierarchical Learning of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Classifiers for Large-Scale Plant <span class="hlt">Species</span> Identification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Jianping; Zhou, Ning; Peng, Jinye; Gao, Ling</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, a hierarchical multi-task structural learning algorithm is developed to support large-scale plant <span class="hlt">species</span> identification, where a visual <span class="hlt">tree</span> is constructed for organizing large numbers of plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in a coarse-to-fine fashion and determining the inter-related learning tasks automatically. For a given parent node on the visual <span class="hlt">tree</span>, it contains a set of sibling coarse-grained categories of plant <span class="hlt">species</span> or sibling fine-grained plant <span class="hlt">species</span>, and a multi-task structural learning algorithm is developed to train their inter-related classifiers jointly for enhancing their discrimination power. The inter-level relationship constraint, e.g., a plant image must first be assigned to a parent node (high-level non-leaf node) correctly if it can further be assigned to the most relevant child node (low-level non-leaf node or leaf node) on the visual <span class="hlt">tree</span>, is formally defined and leveraged to learn more discriminative <span class="hlt">tree</span> classifiers over the visual <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Our experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our hierarchical multi-task structural learning algorithm on training more discriminative <span class="hlt">tree</span> classifiers for large-scale plant <span class="hlt">species</span> identification. PMID:26353356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015692','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1015692"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships among environmental variables and distribution of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at high elevation in the Olympic Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Woodward, Andrea</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Relationships among environmental variables and occurrence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were investigated at Hurricane Ridge in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. A transect consisting of three plots was established down one north-and one south-facing slope in stands representing the typical elevational sequence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> included subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis). Air and soil temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture were measured during three growing seasons. Snowmelt patterns, soil carbon and moisture release curves were also determined. The plots represented a wide range in soil water potential, a major determinant of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution (range of minimum values = -1.1 to -8.0 MPa for Pacific silver fir and Douglas-fir plots, respectively). Precipitation intercepted at plots depended on topographic location, storm direction and storm type. Differences in soil moisture among plots was related to soil properties, while annual differences at each plot were most often related to early season precipitation. Changes in climate due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 will likely shift <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions within, but not among aspects. Change will be buffered by innate tolerance of adult <span class="hlt">trees</span> and the inertia of soil properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPRS...64..683S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPRS...64..683S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identification in mixed coniferous forest using airborne laser scanning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suratno, Agus; Seielstad, Carl; Queen, Lloyd</p> <p></p> <p>This study tests the capacity of relatively low density (<1 return/m 2) airborne laser scanner data for discriminating between Douglas-fir, western larch, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine in a western North American montane forest and it evaluates the relative importance of intensity, height, and return type metrics for classifying <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Collectively, Exploratory Data Analysis, Pearson Correlation, ANOVA, and Linear Discriminant Analysis show that structural and intensity characteristics generated from LIDAR data are useful for classifying <span class="hlt">species</span> at dominant and individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> levels in multi-aged, mixed conifer forests. Proportions of return types and mean intensities are significantly different between <span class="hlt">species</span> ( p-value < 0.001) for plot-level dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> and individual <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Classification accuracies based on single variables range from 49%-61% at the dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> level and 37%-52% for individual <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The accuracy can be improved to 95% and 68% respectively by using multiple variables. The inclusion of proportion of return type greatly improves the classification accuracy at the dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> level, but not for individual <span class="hlt">trees</span>, while canopy height improves the accuracy at both levels. Overall differences in intensity and return type between <span class="hlt">species</span> largely reflect variations in the physical structure of <span class="hlt">trees</span> and stands. These results are consistent with the findings of others and point to airborne laser scanning as a useful source of data for <span class="hlt">species</span> classification. However, there are still many knowledge gaps that prevent accurate mapping of <span class="hlt">species</span> using ALS data alone, particularly with relatively sparse datasets like the one used in this study. Further investigations using other datasets in different forest types will likely result in improvements to <span class="hlt">species</span> identification and mapping for some time to come.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712048"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional-scale directional changes in abundance of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> along a temperature gradient in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Satoshi N; Ishihara, Masae I; Hidaka, Amane</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Climate changes are assumed to shift the ranges of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and forest biomes. Such range shifts result from changes in abundances of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> or functional types. Owing to global warming, the abundance of a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> or functional type is expected to increase near the colder edge of its range and decrease near the warmer edge. This study examined directional changes in abundance and demographic parameters of forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> along a temperature gradient, as well as a successional gradient, in Japan. Changes in the relative abundance of each of four functional types (evergreen broad-leaved, deciduous broad-leaved, evergreen temperate conifer, and evergreen boreal conifer) and the demography of each <span class="hlt">species</span> (recruitment rate, mortality, and population growth rate) were analyzed in 39 permanent forest plots across the Japanese archipelago. Directional changes in the relative abundance of functional types were detected along the temperature gradient. Relative abundance of evergreen broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> increased near their colder range boundaries, especially in secondary forests, coinciding with the decrease in deciduous broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Similarly, relative abundance of deciduous broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> increased near their colder range boundaries, coinciding with the decrease in boreal conifers. These functional-type-level changes were mainly due to higher recruitment rates and partly to the lower mortality of individual <span class="hlt">species</span> at colder sites. This is the first report to show that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> abundances in temperate forests are changing directionally along a temperature gradient, which might be due to current or past climate changes as well as recovery from past disturbances. PMID:25712048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64306&keyword=HYBRIDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43039975&CFTOKEN=22620057','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64306&keyword=HYBRIDS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43039975&CFTOKEN=22620057"><span id="translatedtitle">ISOPRENE EMISSION CAPACITY FOR U.S. <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Isoprene emission capacity measurements are presented from 18 North American oak <I>(Quercus)</I> <span class="hlt">species</span> and <span class="hlt">species</span> from six other genera previously found to emit significant quantities of isoprene. Sampling was conducted at physiographically diverse locations in North Carolina...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21477008"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydraulics and life history of tropical dry forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: coordination of <span class="hlt">species</span>' drought and shade tolerance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Paz, Horacio; Sack, Lawren</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Plant hydraulic architecture has been studied extensively, yet we know little about how hydraulic properties relate to <span class="hlt">species</span>' life history strategies, such as drought and shade tolerance. The prevailing theories seem contradictory. We measured the sapwood (K(s) ) and leaf (K(l) ) hydraulic conductivities of 40 coexisting <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a Bolivian dry forest, and examined associations with functional stem and leaf traits and indices of <span class="hlt">species</span>' drought (dry-season leaf water potential) and shade (juvenile crown exposure) tolerance. Hydraulic properties varied across <span class="hlt">species</span> and between life-history groups (pioneers vs shade-tolerant, and deciduous vs evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span>). In addition to the expected negative correlation of K(l) with drought tolerance, we found a strong, negative correlation between K(l) and <span class="hlt">species</span>' shade tolerance. Across <span class="hlt">species</span>, K(s) and K(l) were negatively correlated with wood density and positively with maximum vessel length. Consequently, drought and shade tolerance scaled similarly with hydraulic properties, wood density and leaf dry matter content. We found that deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> also had traits conferring efficient water transport relative to evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span>. Hydraulic properties varied across <span class="hlt">species</span>, corresponding to the classical trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety, which for these dry forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> resulted in coordinated drought and shade tolerance across <span class="hlt">species</span> rather than the frequently hypothesized trade-off. PMID:21477008</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6553','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6553"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological niche modeling and local knowledge predict new populations of *Gymnocladus assamicus* a critically endangered <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Menon, Shaily; Choudhury, Bahrul I.; Khan, M. Latif; Peterson, A. Townsend</p> <p>2010-04-16</p> <p>Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> endemic to northeastern India. Local inhabitants traditionally used this <span class="hlt">species</span> for a variety of purposes. However, rapid population declines led to the <span class="hlt">species</span> being considered extinct...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712601J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712601J"><span id="translatedtitle">Does deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity affect carbon storage in temperate soils?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jungkunst, Hermann; Schleuß, Per; Heitkamp, Felix</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Forest soils contribute roughly 70 % to the global terrestrial soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and thus play a vital role in the global carbon cycle. It is less clear, however, whether temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity affects SOC storage beyond the coarse differentiation between coniferous and deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The most important driver for soil SOC storage definitely is the fine mineral fraction (clay and fine silt) because of its high sorption ability. It is difficult to disentangle any additional biotic effects since clay and silt vary considerably in nature. For experimental approaches, the process of soil carbon accumulation is too slow and, therefore, sound results cannot be expected for decades. Here we will present our success to distinguish between the effects of fine particle content (abiotic) and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition (biotic) on the SOC pool in an old-growth broad-leaved forest plots along a <span class="hlt">tree</span> diversity gradient , i.e., 1- (beech), 3- (plus ash and lime <span class="hlt">tree</span>)- and 5-(plus maple and hornbeam) <span class="hlt">species</span>. The particle size fractions were separated first and then the carbon concentrations of each fraction was measured. Hence, the carbon content per unit clay was not calculated, as usually done, but directly measured. As expected, the variation in SOC content was mainly explained by the variations in clay content but not entirely. We found that the carbon concentration per unit clay and fine silt in the subsoil was by 30-35% higher in mixed than in monospecific stands indicating a significant <span class="hlt">species</span> identity or <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity effect on C stabilization. In contrast to the subsoil, no <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> effects was identified for the topsoil. Indications are given that the mineral phase was already carbon saturated and thus left no more room for a possible biotic effect. Underlying processes must remain speculative, but we will additionally present our latest microcosm results, including isotopic signatures, to underpin the proposed deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity effect on initial soil carbon accumulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23360013','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23360013"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of incoming solar radiation in major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Koc, Ayhan</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Light requirements and spatial distribution of major forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Turkey hasn't been analyzed yet. Continuous surface solar radiation data, especially at mountainous-forested areas, are needed to put forward this relationship between forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and solar radiation. To achieve this, GIS-based modeling of solar radiation is one of the methods used in rangelands to estimate continuous surface solar radiation. Therefore, mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation maps of whole Turkey were computed spatially using GRASS GIS software "r.sun" model under clear-sky (cloudless) conditions. 147498 pure forest stand point-based data were used in the study for calculating mean global solar radiation values of all the major forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of Turkey. Beech had the lowest annual mean total global solar radiation value of 1654.87 kWh m(-2), whereas juniper had the highest value of 1928.89 kWh m(-2). The rank order of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> according to the mean monthly and annual total global solar radiation values, using a confidence level of p < 0.05, was as follows: Beech < Spruce < Fir <span class="hlt">species</span> < Oak <span class="hlt">species</span> < Scotch pine < Red pine < Cedar < Juniper. The monthly and annual solar radiation values of sites and light requirements of forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> ranked similarly. PMID:23360013</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3460976','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3460976"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Distribution and Interspecific Associations of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in a Tropical Seasonal Rain Forest of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lan, Guoyu; Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Hu, Yuehua; Xie, Guishui; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Min</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Studying the spatial pattern and interspecific associations of plant <span class="hlt">species</span> may provide valuable insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence. Point pattern analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of twenty dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, their interspecific spatial associations and changes across life stages in a 20-ha permanent plot of seasonal tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, China, to test mechanisms maintaining <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence. Torus-translation tests were used to quantify positive or negative associations of the <span class="hlt">species</span> to topographic habitats. The results showed: (1) fourteen of the twenty <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were negatively (or positively) associated with one or two of the topographic variables, which evidences that the niche contributes to the spatial pattern of these <span class="hlt">species</span>. (2) Most saplings of the study <span class="hlt">species</span> showed a significantly clumped distribution at small scales (0–10 m) which was lost at larger scales (10–30 m). (3) The degree of spatial clumping deceases from saplings, to poles, to adults indicates that density-dependent mortality of the offspring is ubiquitous in <span class="hlt">species</span>. (4) It is notable that a high number of positive small-scale interactions were found among the twenty <span class="hlt">species</span>. For saplings, 42.6% of all combinations of <span class="hlt">species</span> pairs showed positive associations at neighborhood scales up to five meters, but only 38.4% were negative. For poles and adults, positive associations at these distances still made up 45.5% and 29.5%, respectively. In conclusion, there is considerable evidence for the presence of positive interactions among the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, which suggests that <span class="hlt">species</span> herd protection may occur in our plot. In addition, niche assembly and limited dispersal (likely) contribute to the spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, China. PMID:23029394</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://extension.unh.edu/resources/representation/Resource003424_Rep4893.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://extension.unh.edu/resources/representation/Resource003424_Rep4893.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Two <span class="hlt">species</span> of small rodents regularly damage orchard <span class="hlt">trees</span> and blueberries in</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>New Hampshire, University of</p> <p></p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">species</span> of small rodents regularly damage orchard <span class="hlt">trees</span> and blueberries in New Hampshire, but I could not find them. In blueberry plantings, the pattern was similar. The farthest north I found pine vole in blueberries was in Barnstead. Textbooks show that in appropriate habitat, the <span class="hlt">species</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238475','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238475"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Fumigation on Pythium <span class="hlt">Species</span> Associated with Forest <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Nurseries of Oregon and Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pythium <span class="hlt">species</span> cause damping off of conifer seedlings in forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> nurseries. Identification of the <span class="hlt">species</span> responsible for the disease has been traditionally based on morphology. However, newer DNA-based identification methods may allow more accurate identification and assessment of soil popul...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18959161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18959161"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocurrence of ectomycorrhizal, hypogeous fungi in plantations of exotic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in central Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Daniele, Graciela G; Longo, Silvana; Trappe, James M; Claridge, Andrew W</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Eleven hypogeous, ectomycorrhizal <span class="hlt">species</span> of Basidiomycota, including two new <span class="hlt">species</span>, and one of the Zygomycota were collected in exotic <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations in C6rdoba Province, Argentina. Descomyces fusisporus sp. nov., D. varians sp. nov., Hydnangium archeri (Berk.) Rodway, H. carneum Wallr., Hysterangium gardneri E. Fisch. and Setchelliogaster tenuipes (Setch.) Pouzar were associated with Eucalyptus spp. Endogone lactiflua Berk., Hymenogaster lycoperdineus Vittad., H. griseus Vittad., H. rehsteineri Bucholtz, Rhizopogon couchii A.H. Sm. and R. roseolus (Corda) Th. Fr., were associated with various northern hemisphere <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Descriptions are provided to aid identification of the hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations of Argentina. PMID:18959161</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861330','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861330"><span id="translatedtitle">Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) <span class="hlt">Species</span>, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood <span class="hlt">Trees</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D.R. Coyle; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 <span class="hlt">species</span> were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic <span class="hlt">species</span>. Five <span class="hlt">species</span> [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the Ã?Â?Ã?Â?rst time. Of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 <span class="hlt">trees</span> receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than <span class="hlt">trees</span> receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 <span class="hlt">trees</span> attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4496029','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4496029"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Mapping in a Diverse Tropical Forest with Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baldeck, Claire A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Martin, Robin E.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Knapp, David E.; Kellner, James R.; Wright, S. Joseph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Remote identification and mapping of canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can contribute valuable information towards our understanding of ecosystem biodiversity and function over large spatial scales. However, the extreme challenges posed by highly diverse, closed-canopy tropical forests have prevented automated remote <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping of non-flowering <span class="hlt">tree</span> crowns in these ecosystems. We set out to identify individuals of three focal canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> amongst a diverse background of <span class="hlt">tree</span> and liana <span class="hlt">species</span> on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using airborne imaging spectroscopy data. First, we compared two leading single-class classification methods—binary support vector machine (SVM) and biased SVM—for their performance in identifying pixels of a single focal <span class="hlt">species</span>. From this comparison we determined that biased SVM was more precise and created a multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> classification model by combining the three biased SVM models. This model was applied to the imagery to identify pixels belonging to the three focal <span class="hlt">species</span> and the prediction results were then processed to create a map of focal <span class="hlt">species</span> crown objects. Crown-level cross-validation of the training data indicated that the multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> classification model had pixel-level producer’s accuracies of 94–97% for the three focal <span class="hlt">species</span>, and field validation of the predicted crown objects indicated that these had user’s accuracies of 94–100%. Our results demonstrate the ability of high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing to accurately detect non-flowering crowns of focal <span class="hlt">species</span> within a diverse tropical forest. We attribute the success of our model to recent classification and mapping techniques adapted to <span class="hlt">species</span> detection in diverse closed-canopy forests, which can pave the way for remote <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping in a wider variety of ecosystems. PMID:26153693</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12650343"><span id="translatedtitle">Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keena, M A</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were examined. Seven conifer <span class="hlt">species</span> (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf <span class="hlt">species</span> (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host <span class="hlt">species</span> tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer <span class="hlt">species</span> (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf <span class="hlt">species</span> (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 <span class="hlt">species</span> tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> tested. Several of the deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas. PMID:12650343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26600422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26600422"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrimination of Deciduous <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> from Time Series of Unmanned Aerial System Imagery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lisein, Jonathan; Michez, Adrien; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at <span class="hlt">tree</span> level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The goal of this research is to determine when is the best time window to achieve an optimal <span class="hlt">species</span> discrimination. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between <span class="hlt">species</span>. Sunlit <span class="hlt">tree</span> crowns (5 deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). PMID:26600422</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4604832','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4604832"><span id="translatedtitle">PoMo: An Allele Frequency-Based Approach for <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Maio, Nicola; Schrempf, Dominik; Kosiol, Carolin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Incomplete lineage sorting can cause incongruencies of the overall <span class="hlt">species</span>-level phylogenetic <span class="hlt">tree</span> with the phylogenetic <span class="hlt">trees</span> for individual genes or genomic segments. If these incongruencies are not accounted for, it is possible to incur several biases in <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation. Here, we present a simple maximum likelihood approach that accounts for ancestral variation and incomplete lineage sorting. We use a POlymorphisms-aware phylogenetic MOdel (PoMo) that we have recently shown to efficiently estimate mutation rates and fixation biases from within and between-<span class="hlt">species</span> variation data. We extend this model to perform efficient estimation of <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span>. We test the performance of PoMo in several different scenarios of incomplete lineage sorting using simulations and compare it with existing methods both in accuracy and computational speed. In contrast to other approaches, our model does not use coalescent theory but is allele frequency based. We show that PoMo is well suited for genome-wide <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation and that on such data it is more accurate than previous approaches. PMID:26209413</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910838"><span id="translatedtitle">Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath <span class="hlt">trees</span>, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent <span class="hlt">trees</span> while large-bodied primate <span class="hlt">species</span> removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific <span class="hlt">trees</span> at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit <span class="hlt">species</span> at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:21910838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657984','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657984"><span id="translatedtitle">Discrimination of Deciduous <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> from Time Series of Unmanned Aerial System Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lisein, Jonathan; Michez, Adrien; Claessens, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at <span class="hlt">tree</span> level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The goal of this research is to determine when is the best time window to achieve an optimal <span class="hlt">species</span> discrimination. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between <span class="hlt">species</span>. Sunlit <span class="hlt">tree</span> crowns (5 deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). PMID:26600422</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25988872"><span id="translatedtitle">Dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are at risk from exaggerated drought under climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fensham, Roderick J; Fraser, Josie; MacDermott, Harry J; Firn, Jenifer</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Predicting the consequences of climate change on forest systems is difficult because <span class="hlt">trees</span> may display <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific responses to exaggerated droughts that may not be reflected by the climatic envelope of their geographic range. Furthermore, few studies have examined the postdrought recovery potential of drought-susceptible <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. This study develops a robust ranking of the drought susceptibility of 21 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> based on their mortality after two droughts (1990s and 2000s) in the savanna of north-eastern Australia. Drought-induced mortality was positively related to <span class="hlt">species</span> dominance, negatively related to the ratio of postdrought seedlings to adults and had no relationship to the magnitude of extreme drought within the <span class="hlt">species</span> current geographic ranges. These results suggest that predicting the consequences of exaggerated drought on <span class="hlt">species</span>' geographic ranges is difficult, but that dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> like Eucalyptus with relatively slow rates of population recovery and dispersal are the most susceptible. The implications for savanna ecosystems are lower <span class="hlt">tree</span> densities and basal area. PMID:25988872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://c-h2oecology.env.duke.edu/pdf/trees14-99.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://c-h2oecology.env.duke.edu/pdf/trees14-99.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Abstract Using constant heat sap flow sensors, xylem water fluxes in ten <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and two liana <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Oren, Ram</p> <p></p> <p>Abstract Using constant heat sap flow sensors, xylem water fluxes in ten <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and two liana or liana in the canopy. On a stand level, not accounting for the diel lag between stem sap flux and canopy lag · Transpiration · Xylem sap flux Introduction While a high degree of spatial heterogeneity of mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/153480','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/153480"><span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition on Songbird Abundance and Productivity </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Long, Ashley Marie</p> <p>2014-08-08</p> <p>and productivity appeared higher in oak-juniper woodland dominated by Texas oaks than in oak-juniper woodland dominated by post oaks (Marshall et al. 2013, M. L. Morrison unpublished data). Similar to studies conducted on other songbird <span class="hlt">species</span> (e.g., Petit... and Petit 1996), variation in food abundance across different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may be driving the disparity in warbler habitat selection and productivity (Marshall et al. 2013). The dominant oak <span class="hlt">species</span> within oak-juniper woodland stands occupied by warblers...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uncg.edu/~eplacey/Moore&Lacey.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.uncg.edu/~eplacey/Moore&Lacey.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of Germination and Early Growth of Four Early Successional <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> of the Southeastern United States in</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lacey, Elizabeth P.</p> <p></p> <p>A Comparison of Germination and Early Growth of Four Early Successional <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> experiment comparing the germination and early seedling growth of four early successional <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> found for the experiment. Liquidambar and Platanus, the native <span class="hlt">species</span>, germinated significantly more quickly and were more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6398...93D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011LNCS.6398...93D"><span id="translatedtitle">An Efficient Algorithm for Gene/<span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Trees</span> Parsimonious Reconciliation with Losses, Duplications and Transfers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doyon, Jean-Philippe; Scornavacca, Celine; Gorbunov, K. Yu.; Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Tree</span> reconciliation methods aim at estimating the evolutionary events that cause discrepancy between gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> and <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span>. We provide a discrete computational model that considers duplications, transfers and losses of genes. The model yields a fast and exact algorithm to infer time consistent and most parsimonious reconciliations. Then we study the conditions under which parsimony is able to accurately infer such events. Overall, it performs well even under realistic rates, transfers being in general less accurately recovered than duplications. An implementation is freely available at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/MPR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461003','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461003"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of colonization processes on genetic diversity: differences between annual plants and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Austerlitz, F; Mariette, S; Machon, N; Gouyon, P H; Godelle, B</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are striking for their high within-population diversity and low among-population differentiation for nuclear genes. In contrast, annual plants show much more differentiation for nuclear genes but much less diversity than <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The usual explanation for this difference is that pollen flow, and therefore gene flow, is much higher for <span class="hlt">trees</span>. This explanation is problematic because it relies on equilibrium hypotheses. Because <span class="hlt">trees</span> have very recently recolonized temperate areas, they have experienced many foundation events, which usually reduce within-population diversity and increase differentiation. Only extremely high levels of gene flow could counterbalance these successive founder effects. We develop a model to study the impact of life cycle of forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>, in particular of the length of their juvenile phase, on genetic diversity and differentiation during the glacial period and the following colonization period. We show that both a reasonably high level of pollen flow and the life-cycle characteristics of <span class="hlt">trees</span> are needed to explain the observed structure of genetic diversity. We also show that gene flow and life cycle both have an impact on maternally inherited cytoplasmic genes, which are characterized both in <span class="hlt">trees</span> and annual <span class="hlt">species</span> by much less diversity and much more differentiation than nuclear genes. PMID:10757772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4021425','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4021425"><span id="translatedtitle">An empirical evaluation of two-stage <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> inference strategies using a multilocus dataset from North American pines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background As it becomes increasingly possible to obtain DNA sequences of orthologous genes from diverse sets of taxa, <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> are frequently being inferred from multilocus data. However, the behavior of many methods for performing this inference has remained largely unexplored. Some methods have been proven to be consistent given certain evolutionary models, whereas others rely on criteria that, although appropriate for many parameter values, have peculiar zones of the parameter space in which they fail to converge on the correct estimate as data sets increase in size. Results Here, using North American pines, we empirically evaluate the behavior of 24 strategies for <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> inference using three alternative outgroups (72 strategies total). The data consist of 120 individuals sampled in eight ingroup <span class="hlt">species</span> from subsection Strobus and three outgroup <span class="hlt">species</span> from subsection Gerardianae, spanning ?47 kilobases of sequence at 121 loci. Each “strategy” for inferring <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> consists of three features: a <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> construction method, a gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> inference method, and a choice of outgroup. We use multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering to identify <span class="hlt">tree</span> characteristics that are robustly observed across strategies, as well as to identify groups of strategies that produce <span class="hlt">trees</span> with similar features. We find that strategies that construct <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> using only topological information cluster together and that strategies that use additional non-topological information (e.g., branch lengths) also cluster together. Strategies that utilize more than one individual within a <span class="hlt">species</span> to infer gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> tend to produce estimates of <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> that contain clades present in <span class="hlt">trees</span> estimated by other strategies. Strategies that use the minimize-deep-coalescences criterion to construct <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> tend to produce <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimates that contain clades that are not present in <span class="hlt">trees</span> estimated by the Concatenation, RTC, SMRT, STAR, and STEAC methods, and that in general are more balanced than those inferred by these other strategies. Conclusions When constructing a <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> from a multilocus set of sequences, our observations provide a basis for interpreting differences in <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimates obtained via different approaches that have a two-stage structure in common, one step for gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation and a second step for <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation. The methods explored here employ a number of distinct features of the data, and our analysis suggests that recovery of the same results from multiple methods that tend to differ in their patterns of inference can be a valuable tool for obtaining reliable estimates. PMID:24678701</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4602346','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4602346"><span id="translatedtitle">A comparative study of SVDquartets and other coalescent-based <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation is challenging in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), which can make gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> different from the <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Because ILS is expected to occur and the standard concatenation approach can return incorrect <span class="hlt">trees</span> with high support in the presence of ILS, "coalescent-based" summary methods (which first estimate gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> and then combine gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> into a <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>) have been developed that have theoretical guarantees of robustness to arbitrarily high amounts of ILS. Some studies have suggested that summary methods should only be used on "c-genes" (i.e., recombination-free loci) that can be extremely short (sometimes fewer than 100 sites). However, gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> estimated on short alignments can have high estimation error, and summary methods tend to have high error on short c-genes. To address this problem, Chifman and Kubatko introduced SVDquartets, a new coalescent-based method. SVDquartets takes multi-locus unlinked single-site data, infers the quartet <span class="hlt">trees</span> for all subsets of four <span class="hlt">species</span>, and then combines the set of quartet <span class="hlt">trees</span> into a <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> using a quartet amalgamation heuristic. Yet, the relative accuracy of SVDquartets to leading coalescent-based methods has not been assessed. Results We compared SVDquartets to two leading coalescent-based methods (ASTRAL-2 and NJst), and to concatenation using maximum likelihood. We used a collection of simulated datasets, varying ILS levels, numbers of taxa, and number of sites per locus. Although SVDquartets was sometimes more accurate than ASTRAL-2 and NJst, most often the best results were obtained using ASTRAL-2, even on the shortest gene sequence alignments we explored (with only 10 sites per locus). Finally, concatenation was the most accurate of all methods under low ILS conditions. Conclusions ASTRAL-2 generally had the best accuracy under higher ILS conditions, and concatenation had the best accuracy under the lowest ILS conditions. However, SVDquartets was competitive with the best methods under conditions with low ILS and small numbers of sites per locus. The good performance under many conditions of ASTRAL-2 in comparison to SVDquartets is surprising given the known vulnerability of ASTRAL-2 and similar methods to short gene sequences. PMID:26449249</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22..175M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAnII22..175M"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and Mapping of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Urban Areas Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mustafa, Y. T.; Habeeb, H. N.; Stein, A.; Sulaiman, F. Y.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Monitoring and mapping of urban <span class="hlt">trees</span> are essential to provide urban forestry authorities with timely and consistent information. Modern techniques increasingly facilitate these tasks, but require the development of semi-automatic <span class="hlt">tree</span> detection and classification methods. In this article, we propose an approach to delineate and map the crown of 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the city of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq using WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. A <span class="hlt">tree</span> crown object is identified first and is subsequently delineated as an image object (IO) using vegetation indices and texture measurements. Next, three classification methods: Maximum Likelihood, Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine were used to classify IOs using selected IO features. The best results are obtained with Support Vector Machine classification that gives the best map of urban <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Duhok. The overall accuracy was between 60.93% to 88.92% and ?-coefficient was between 0.57 to 0.75. We conclude that fifteen <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were identified and mapped at a satisfactory accuracy in urban areas of this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140016963','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140016963"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Cargo Transfer Bag</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004212','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004212"><span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-4 Branch Bag Data From Boreal <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Berry, Joseph A.; Fu, Wei; Fredeen, Art; Gamon, John</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The BOREAS TE-4 team collected continuous records of gas exchange under ambient conditions from intact boreal forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the BOREAS NSA from 23-Jul-1996 until 14-Aug-1996. These measurements can be used to test models of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration, such as SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model (Collatz et al., 1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041741','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70041741"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality in a mixed <span class="hlt">species</span> woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Widespread <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies during and shortly after <span class="hlt">tree</span> damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting <span class="hlt">trees</span> in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed <span class="hlt">species</span> woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead <span class="hlt">trees</span> had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-<span class="hlt">tree</span> image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead <span class="hlt">tree</span> classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality across areas with differences in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition. We found that 38% of <span class="hlt">tree</span> crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas experiencing wildfire and management activity. -Our results demonstrate that unsupervised clustering of bi-temporal NDVI and RGI differences can be used to detect <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality resulting from numerous causes and in several forest cover types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620581"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity and utilization of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Meitei homegardens of Barak Valley, Assam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Devi, N Linthoingambi; Das, Ashesh Kumar</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>An inventory of <span class="hlt">tree</span> diversity in traditional homegardens of Meitei community was conducted in a Bontarapur village in Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Meitei homegarden locally called Ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. Seventy one <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. Among the families encountered, Rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 <span class="hlt">species</span>) followed by Meliaceae (5 genus and 5 <span class="hlt">species</span>), Arecaceae (4 genus and 4 <span class="hlt">species</span>) and Moraceae (3 genus and 5 <span class="hlt">species</span>). Total 7946 <span class="hlt">tree</span> individuals were recorded, with the density of 831 No ha(-1) of and total basal area of 9.54 m2 ha(-1). Areco catechu was the dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> with the maximum number of individuals. Other dominant <span class="hlt">trees</span> include Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Citrus grandis, Parkia timoriana, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Being a cash crop, the intensification of betel nut has been preferred in many homegardens. Homegardens form an important component of land use of Meitei community which fulfills the socio-cultural and economic needs of the family and helps in conserving plant diversity through utilization. PMID:24620581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4110017','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4110017"><span id="translatedtitle">Negative Density Dependence Regulates Two <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> at Later Life Stage in a Temperate Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have demonstrated that <span class="hlt">tree</span> survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for <span class="hlt">trees</span> with dbh (diameter at breast height) ?2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) <span class="hlt">species</span>. We found NDD existed for both <span class="hlt">species</span> at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in <span class="hlt">species</span>' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588709"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpreting <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific variation in <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring oxygen isotope ratios among three temperate forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Xin; Clark, Kenneth S; Helliker, Brent R</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Although considerable variation has been documented in <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring cellulose oxygen isotope ratios (?(18)O(cell)) among co-occurring <span class="hlt">species</span>, the underlying causes are unknown. Here, we used a combination of field measurements and modelling to investigate the mechanisms behind variations in late-wood ?(18) O(cell) (?(18)O(lc)) among three co-occurring <span class="hlt">species</span> (chestnut oak, black oak and pitch pine) in a temperate forest. For two growing seasons, we quantified among-<span class="hlt">species</span> variation in ?(18)O(lc), as well as several variables that could potentially cause the ?(18)O(lc) variation. Data analysis based on the ?(18) O(cell) model rules out leaf water enrichment (?(18)O(lw)) and <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring formation period (?t), but highlights source water ?(18) O (?(18) O(sw)) as an important driver for the measured difference in ?(18)O(lc) between black and chestnut oak. However, the enriched ?(18)O(lc) in pitch pine relative to the oaks could not be sufficiently explained by consideration of the above three variables only, but rather, we show that differences in the proportion of oxygen exchange during cellulose synthesis (p(ex)) is most likely a key mechanism. Our demonstration of the relevance of some <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific features (or lack thereof) to ?(18)O(cell) has important implications for isotope based ecophysiological/paleoclimate studies. PMID:24588709</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.springerlink.com/content/g4295k8x56wj20g0/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.springerlink.com/content/g4295k8x56wj20g0/"><span id="translatedtitle">Complementary models of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-soil relationships in old-growth temperate forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Ecosystem level studies identify plant soil feed backs as important controls on soil nutrient availability,particularly for nitrogen and phosphorus. Although site and <span class="hlt">species</span> specific studies of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> soil relationships are relatively common,comparatively fewer studies consider multiple coexisting speciesin old-growth forests across a range of sites that vary underlying soil fertility. We characterized patterns in forest floor and mineral soil nutrients associated with four common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> across eight undisturbed old-growth forests in Oregon, USA, and used two complementary conceptual models to assess <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> soil relationships. Plant soil feedbacks that could reinforce sitelevel differences in nutrient availability were assessed using the context dependent relationships model, where by relative <span class="hlt">species</span> based differences in each soil nutrient divergedorconvergedas nutrient status changed across sites. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> soil relationships that did not reflect strong feedbacks were evaluated using a site independent relationships model, where by forest floor and surface mineral soil nutrient tools differed consistently by <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> across sites,without variation in deeper mineral soils. We found that theorganically cycled elements carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus exhibited context-dependent differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in both forest floor and mineral soil, and most of ten followed adivergence model,where by <span class="hlt">species</span> differences were greatest at high-nutrient sites. These patterns are consistent with the oryemphasizing biotic control of these elements through plant soil feedback mechanisms. Site independent <span class="hlt">species</span> differences were strongest for pool so if the weather able cations calcium, magnesium, potassium,as well as phosphorus, in mineral soils. Site independent <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in forest floor nutrients we reattributable too nespecies that displayed significant greater forest floor mass accumulation. Our finding confirmed that site-independent and context-dependent <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-soil relationships occur simultaneouslyinold-grow the temperate forests, with context-dependent relationships strongest for organically cycled elements, and site-independent relationships strongest for weather able elements with in organic cycling phases. These models provide complementary explanations for patterns of nutrient accumulation and cycling in mixed <span class="hlt">species</span> old-growth temperate forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25813032','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25813032"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of texture in trunk images for biometric identification of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bressane, Adriano; Roveda, José A F; Martins, Antônio C G</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The identification of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> is a key step for sustainable management plans of forest resources, as well as for several other applications that are based on such surveys. However, the present available techniques are dependent on the presence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> structures, such as flowers, fruits, and leaves, limiting the identification process to certain periods of the year. Therefore, this article introduces a study on the application of statistical parameters for texture classification of <span class="hlt">tree</span> trunk images. For that, 540 samples from five Brazilian native deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> were acquired and measures of entropy, uniformity, smoothness, asymmetry (third moment), mean, and standard deviation were obtained from the presented textures. Using a decision <span class="hlt">tree</span>, a biometric <span class="hlt">species</span> identification system was constructed and resulted to a 0.84 average precision rate for <span class="hlt">species</span> classification with 0.83accuracy and 0.79 agreement. Thus, it can be considered that the use of texture presented in trunk images can represent an important advance in <span class="hlt">tree</span> identification, since the limitations of the current techniques can be overcome. PMID:25813032</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497203','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20497203"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> hyperabundance on forest fragments in northeastern Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tabarelli, Marcelo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Girão, Luciana C; Peres, Carlos A; Lopes, Ariadna V</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Despite many studies on fragmentation of tropical forests, the extent to which plant and animal communities are altered in small, isolated forest fragments remains obscure if not controversial. We examined the hypothesis that fragmentation alters the relative abundance of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with different vegetative and reproductive traits. In a fragmented landscape (670 km(2) ) of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, we categorized 4056 <span class="hlt">trees</span> of 182 <span class="hlt">species</span> by leafing pattern, reproductive phenology, and morphology of seeds and fruit. We calculated relative abundance of traits in 50 1-ha plots in three types of forest configurations: forest edges, small forest fragments (3.4-83.6 ha), and interior of the largest forest fragment (3500 ha, old growth). Although evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span> were the most abundant across all configurations, forest edges and small fragments had more deciduous and semideciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> than interior forest. Edges lacked supra-annual flowering and fruiting <span class="hlt">species</span> and had more <span class="hlt">species</span> and stems with drupes and small seeds than small forest fragments and forest interior areas. In an ordination of <span class="hlt">species</span> similarity and life-history traits, the three types of configurations formed clearly segregated clusters. Furthermore, the differences in the taxonomic and functional (i.e., trait-based) composition of <span class="hlt">tree</span> assemblages we documented were driven primarily by the higher abundance of pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span> in the forest edge and small forest fragments. Our work provides strong evidence that long-term transitions in phenology and seed and fruit morphology of <span class="hlt">tree</span> functional groups are occurring in fragmented tropical forests. Our results also suggest that edge-induced shifts in <span class="hlt">tree</span> assemblages of tropical forests can be larger than previously documented. PMID:20497203</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028562','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028562"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of sample survey design on the accuracy of classification <span class="hlt">tree</span> models in <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Cutler, D.R.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Geiser, L.; Moisen, G.G.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification <span class="hlt">tree</span> models for predicting the presence of four lichen <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by resubstitution rates were similar for each lichen <span class="hlt">species</span> irrespective of the underlying sample survey form. Cross-validation estimates of prediction accuracies were lower than resubstitution accuracies for all <span class="hlt">species</span> and both design types, and in all cases were closer to the true prediction accuracies based on the EVALUATION data set. We argue that greater emphasis should be placed on calculating and reporting cross-validation accuracy rates rather than simple resubstitution accuracy rates. Evaluation of the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE <span class="hlt">tree</span> models on the EVALUATION data set shows significantly lower prediction accuracy for the PURPOSIVE <span class="hlt">tree</span> models relative to the DESIGN models, indicating that non-probabilistic sample surveys may generate models with limited predictive capability. These differences were consistent across all four lichen <span class="hlt">species</span>, with 11 of the 12 possible <span class="hlt">species</span> and sample survey type comparisons having significantly lower accuracy rates. Some differences in accuracy were as large as 50%. The classification <span class="hlt">tree</span> structures also differed considerably both among and within the modelled <span class="hlt">species</span>, depending on the sample survey form. Overlap in the predictor variables selected by the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE <span class="hlt">tree</span> models ranged from only 20% to 38%, indicating the classification <span class="hlt">trees</span> fit the two evaluated survey forms on different sets of predictor variables. The magnitude of these differences in predictor variables throws doubt on ecological interpretation derived from prediction models based on non-probabilistic sample surveys. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..53..783S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EnMan..53..783S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Right <span class="hlt">Tree</span> for the Job? Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Species</span> Suitability for the Provision of Ecosystem Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smaill, Simeon J.; Bayne, Karen M.; Coker, Graham W. R.; Paul, Thomas S. H.; Clinton, Peter W.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Stakeholders in plantation forestry are increasingly aware of the importance of the ecosystem services and non-market values associated with forests. In New Zealand, there is significant interest in establishing <span class="hlt">species</span> other than Pinus radiata D. Don (the dominant plantation <span class="hlt">species</span>) in the belief that alternative <span class="hlt">species</span> are better suited to deliver these services. Significant risk is associated with this position as there is little objective data to support these views. To identify which <span class="hlt">species</span> were likely to be planted to deliver ecosystem services, a survey was distributed to examine stakeholder perceptions. Stakeholders were asked which of 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> attributes contributed to the provision of five ecosystem services (amenity value, bioenergy production, carbon capture, the diversity of native habitat, and erosion control/water quality) and to identify which of 22 candidate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> possessed those attributes. These data were combined to identify the <span class="hlt">species</span> perceived most suitable for the delivery of each ecosystem service. Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. closely matched the stakeholder derived ideotypes associated with all five ecosystem services. Comparisons to data from growth, physiological and ecological studies demonstrated that many of the opinions held by stakeholders were inaccurate, leading to erroneous assumptions regarding the suitability of most candidate <span class="hlt">species</span>. Stakeholder perceptions substantially influence <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> selection, and plantations established on the basis of inaccurate opinions are unlikely to deliver the desired outcomes. Attitudinal surveys associated with engagement campaigns are essential to improve stakeholder knowledge, advancing the development of fit-for-purpose forest management that provides the required ecosystem services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25292455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25292455"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem CO2 efflux in six co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: underlying factors and ecological implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Calcerrada, Jesús; López, Rosana; Salomón, Roberto; Gordaliza, Guillermo G; Valbuena-Carabaña, María; Oleksyn, Jacek; Gil, Luis</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Stem respiration plays a role in <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence and forest dynamics. Here we examined the intra- and inter-specific variability of stem CO2 efflux (E) in dominant and suppressed <span class="hlt">trees</span> of six deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> in a mixed forest stand: Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl, Quercus pyrenaica?Willd., Prunus avium?L., Sorbus aucuparia?L. and Crataegus monogyna?Jacq. We conducted measurements in late autumn. Within <span class="hlt">species</span>, dominants had higher E per unit stem surface area (Es ) mainly because sapwood depth was higher than in suppressed <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Across <span class="hlt">species</span>, however, differences in Es corresponded with differences in the proportion of living parenchyma in sapwood and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). Across <span class="hlt">species</span>, Es was strongly and NSC marginally positively related with an index of drought tolerance, suggesting that slow growth of drought-tolerant <span class="hlt">trees</span> is related to higher NSC concentration and Es . We conclude that, during the leafless period, E is indicative of maintenance respiration and is related with some ecological characteristics of the <span class="hlt">species</span>, such as drought resistance; that sapwood depth is the main factor explaining variability in Es within <span class="hlt">species</span>; and that the proportion of NSC in the sapwood is the main factor behind variability in Es among <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:25292455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538783','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538783"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> cover at fine and coarse spatial grains interacts with shade tolerance to shape plant <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions across the Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nieto-Lugilde, Diego; Lenoir, Jonathan; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Aeschimann, David; Dullinger, Stefan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Pauli, Harald; Renaud, Julien; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Thuiller, Wilfried; Van Es, Jérémie; Vittoz, Pascal; Willner, Wolfgang; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Svenning, Jens-Christian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The role of competition for light among plants has long been recognised at local scales, but its importance for plant <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions at larger spatial scales has generally been ignored. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> cover modifies the local abiotic conditions below the canopy, notably by reducing light availability, and thus, also the performance of <span class="hlt">species</span> that are not adapted to low-light conditions. However, this local effect may propagate to coarser spatial grains, by affecting colonisation probabilities and local extinction risks of herbs and shrubs. To assess the effect of <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover at both the plot- and landscape-grain sizes (approximately 10-m and 1-km), we fit Generalised Linear Models (GLMs) for the plot-level distributions of 960 <span class="hlt">species</span> of herbs and shrubs using 6,935 vegetation plots across the European Alps. We ran four models with different combinations of variables (climate, soil and <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover) at both spatial grains for each <span class="hlt">species</span>. We used partial regressions to evaluate the independent effects of plot- and landscape-grain <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover on plot-level plant communities. Finally, the effects on <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific elevational range limits were assessed by simulating a removal experiment comparing the <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions under high and low <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover. Accounting for <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover improved the model performance, with the probability of the presence of shade-tolerant <span class="hlt">species</span> increasing with increasing <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover, whereas shade-intolerant <span class="hlt">species</span> showed the opposite pattern. The <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover effect occurred consistently at both the plot and landscape spatial grains, albeit most strongly at the former. Importantly, <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover at the two grain sizes had partially independent effects on plot-level plant communities. With high <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover, shade-intolerant <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibited narrower elevational ranges than with low <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover whereas shade-tolerant <span class="hlt">species</span> showed wider elevational ranges at both limits. These findings suggest that forecasts of climate-related range shifts for herb and shrub <span class="hlt">species</span> may be modified by <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover dynamics. PMID:26290621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3081567','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3081567"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic variation in a tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zytynska, Sharon E.; Fay, Michael F.; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Genetic differences among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, their hybrids and within <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-<span class="hlt">species</span> genetic variation in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of <span class="hlt">trees</span> and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the <span class="hlt">tree</span>, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the <span class="hlt">tree</span>, and the invertebrates found on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> trunk. This means that the more genetically similar <span class="hlt">trees</span> are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25083408"><span id="translatedtitle">New Phaeoacremonium <span class="hlt">species</span> isolated from sandalwood <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Western Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gramaje, David; León, Maela; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Burgess, Treena; Armengol, Josep</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Thirty-eight Phaeoacremonium isolates collected from pruning wounds of tropical sandalwood in Western Australia were studied with morphological and cultural characteristics as well as phylogenetic analyses of combined DNA sequences of the actin and ?-tubulin genes. Three known Phaeoacremonium <span class="hlt">species</span> were found, namely P. alvesii, P. parasiticum, and P. venezuelense. Phaeoacremonium venezuelense represents a new record for Australia. Two new <span class="hlt">species</span> are described: P. luteum sp. nov. can be identified by the ability to produce yellow pigment on MEA, PDA, and OA, the predominance of subcylindrical to subulate type II phialides, and the mycelium showing prominent exudate droplets observed as warts; and P. santali sp. nov. which can be separated from other <span class="hlt">species</span> producing pink colonies on MEA by the predominance of type I and II phialides, the distinct brownish olive colonies in OA, and slow growth. PMID:25083408</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376521"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest floor leachate fluxes under six different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on a metal contaminated site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Nevel, Lotte; Mertens, Jan; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; De Neve, Stefaan; Tack, Filip M G; Meers, Erik; Verheyen, Kris</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Trees</span> play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals, although the influence of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on the mobilization of metals is not yet clear. This study examined effects of six <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on fluxes of Cd, Zn, DOC, H(+) and base cations in forest floor leachates on a metal polluted site in Belgium. Forest floor leachates were sampled with zero-tension lysimeters in a 12-year-old post-agricultural forest on a sandy soil. The <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> included were silver birch (Betula pendula), oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), aspen (Populus tremula), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). We show that total Cd fluxes in forest floor leachate under aspen were slightly higher than those in the other <span class="hlt">species</span>' leachates, yet the relative differences between the <span class="hlt">species</span> were considerably smaller when looking at dissolved Cd fluxes. The latter was probably caused by extremely low H(+) amounts leaching from aspen's forest floor. No <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> effect was found for Zn leachate fluxes. We expected higher metal leachate fluxes under aspen as its leaf litter was significantly contaminated with Cd and Zn. We propose that the low amounts of Cd and Zn leaching under aspen's forest floor were possibly caused by high activity of soil biota, for example burrowing earthworms. Furthermore, our results reveal that Scots pine and oak were characterized by high H(+) and DOC fluxes as well as low base cation fluxes in their forest floor leachates, implying that those <span class="hlt">species</span> might enhance metal mobilization in the soil profile and thus bear a potential risk for belowground metal dispersion. PMID:23376521</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~bss024/pdfs/2001/Giannasi%20MPE%202001.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://pages.bangor.ac.uk/~bss024/pdfs/2001/Giannasi%20MPE%202001.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear and mtDNA Phylogenies of the Trimeresurus Complex: Implications for the Gene versus <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Debate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thorpe, Roger Stephen</p> <p></p> <p>; revised October 19, 2000 Phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may represent gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> that may organisms. © 2001 Academic Press Key Words: gene <span class="hlt">tree</span>; <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span>; mitochondrial DNA; nuclear DNA biology. The vast majority of these studies have been based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) because</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.unm.edu/~pockman/pubs/storage.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.unm.edu/~pockman/pubs/storage.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem-succulent <span class="hlt">species</span> with low-</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pockman, William T.</p> <p></p> <p>Summary <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem, stem-succulent <span class="hlt">trees</span>, stem water storage, tropical dry forest. Introduction <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of tropical semi-deciduous) throughout the year, to "drought-tolerant" deciduous hardwood <span class="hlt">species</span>(wood density > 0.75 g cm­3 ), which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25127455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25127455"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within <span class="hlt">species</span>, between <span class="hlt">species</span>, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 <span class="hlt">species</span> of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 <span class="hlt">species</span> of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The objectives of this study were to model how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are generally higher in cold, humid temperate climates than in dry, hot climates. PMID:25127455</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21691855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21691855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity and interactions with neighbors determine nutrient leaching in model tropical forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ewel, John J; Bigelow, Seth W</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>An ecosystem containing a mixture of <span class="hlt">species</span> that differ in phenology, morphology, and physiology might be expected to resist leaching of soil nutrients to a greater extent than one composed of a single <span class="hlt">species</span>. We tested the effects of <span class="hlt">species</span> identity and plant-life-form richness on nutrient leaching at a lowland tropical site where deep infiltration averages >2 m year(-1). Three indigenous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with contrasting leafing phenologies (evergreen, dry-season deciduous, and wet-season deciduous) were grown in monoculture and together with two other life-forms with which they commonly occur in tropical forests: a palm and a giant, perennial herb. To calculate nutrient leaching over an 11-year period, concentrations of nutrients in soil water were multiplied by drainage rates estimated from a water balance. The effect of plant-life-form richness on retention differed according to <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> identity and nutrient. Nitrate retention was greater in polycultures of the dry-season deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (mean of 7.4 kg ha(-1) year(-1) of NO(3)-N lost compared to 12.7 in monoculture), and calcium and magnesium retention were greater in polycultures of the evergreen and wet-season deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Complementary use of light led to intensification of soil exploitation by roots, the main agent responsible for enhanced nutrient retention in some polycultures. Other mechanisms included differences in nutrient demand among <span class="hlt">species</span>, and avoidance of catastrophic failure due to episodic weather events or pest outbreaks. Even unrealistically simple multi-life-form mimics of tropical forest can safeguard a site's nutrient capital if careful attention is paid to <span class="hlt">species</span>' characteristics and temporal changes in interspecific interactions. PMID:21691855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134238','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4134238"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Diversity in Relation to Climatic Factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within <span class="hlt">species</span>, between <span class="hlt">species</span>, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 <span class="hlt">species</span> of Quercus (ca. 9–14%), 7 <span class="hlt">species</span> of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The objectives of this study were to model how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are generally higher in cold, humid temperate climates than in dry, hot climates. PMID:25127455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.blogs.uni-mainz.de/fb09climatology/files/2012/03/Friedrichs_2009_Trees.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="https://www.blogs.uni-mainz.de/fb09climatology/files/2012/03/Friedrichs_2009_Trees.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ORIGINAL PAPER <span class="hlt">Species</span>-specific climate sensitivity of <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Esper, Jan</p> <p></p> <p>. Friedrichs Æ Valerie Trouet Æ Ulf Bu¨ntgen Æ David C. Frank Æ Jan Esper Æ Burkhard Neuwirth Æ Jo¨rg Lo <span class="hlt">species</span> have resulted in considerable differences in response to past climatic variability (e.g., Cook et. Bu¨ntgen Á D. C. Frank Á J. Esper Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_rp169/psw_rp169.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_rp169/psw_rp169.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth of 11 Introduced <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> on Selected</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>eucalyptus (ElIca1.l'PIU.1 microcorys) plantation grows in the Kalopa section of the Hamakua Forest Reserve Silk-oak 3 Norfolk-Island-Pine 4 Redwood 6 Loblolly Pine and Slash Pine 6 Eucalyptus <span class="hlt">Species</span> 8!.), slash pine (Pinus elliO/lii Engelm.), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda 1..), tallowwood eucalyptus (Eucalyptus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892915','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892915"><span id="translatedtitle">Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Qian; Yan, Hui; Xu, Xinwu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody <span class="hlt">species</span> to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> were markedly higher than those for the evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span>. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE) or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody <span class="hlt">species</span> in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> was much higher than that of evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span>, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span>. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) of deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody <span class="hlt">species</span> in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody <span class="hlt">species</span> in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called “temporary drought stress” may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China. PMID:24555059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2803392','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2803392"><span id="translatedtitle">Neither Host-specific nor Random: Vascular Epiphytes on Three <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in a Panamanian Lowland Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LAUBE, STEFAN; ZOTZ, GERHARD</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>• Background and Aims A possible role of host <span class="hlt">tree</span> identity in the structuring of vascular epiphyte communities has attracted scientific attention for decades. Specifically, it has been suggested that each host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> has a specific subset of the local <span class="hlt">species</span> pool according to its own set of properties, e.g. physicochemical characteristics of the bark, <span class="hlt">tree</span> architecture, or leaf phenology patterns. • Methods A novel, quantitative approach to this question is presented, taking advantage of a complete census of the vascular epiphyte community in 0·4 ha of undisturbed lowland forest in Panama. For three locally common host-<span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Socratea exorrhiza, Marila laxiflora, Perebea xanthochyma) null models were created of the expected epiphyte assemblages assuming that epiphyte colonization reflected random distribution of epiphytes in the forest. • Key Results In all three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, abundances of the majority of epiphyte <span class="hlt">species</span> (69–81?%) were indistinguishable from random, while the remaining <span class="hlt">species</span> were about equally over- or under-represented compared with their occurrence in the entire forest plot. Permutations based on the number of colonized <span class="hlt">trees</span> (reflecting observed spatial patchiness) yielded similar results. Finally, a third analysis (canonical correspondence analysis) also confirmed host-specific differences in epiphyte assemblages. In spite of pronounced preferences of some epiphytes for particular host <span class="hlt">trees</span>, no epiphyte <span class="hlt">species</span> was restricted to a single host. • Conclusions The epiphytes on a given <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are not simply a random sample of the local <span class="hlt">species</span> pool, but there are no indications of host specificity either. PMID:16574691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031880','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031880"><span id="translatedtitle">Influences of calcium availability and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on Ca isotope fractionation in soil and vegetation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Page, B.D.; Bullen, T.D.; Mitchell, M.J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The calcium (Ca) isotope system is potentially of great use for understanding biogeochemical processes at multiple scales in forest ecosystems, yet remains largely unexplored for this purpose. In order to further our understanding of Ca behavior in forests, we examined two nearly adjacent hardwood-dominated catchments with differing soil Ca concentrations, developed from crystalline bedrock, to determine the variability of 44Ca/ 40Ca ratios (expressed as ??44Ca) within soil and vegetation pools. For both sugar maple and American beech, the Ca isotope compositions of the measured roots and calculated bulk <span class="hlt">trees</span> were considerably lighter than those of soil pools at these sites, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">trees</span> were able to preferentially take up light Ca at the root-soil interface. The Ca isotope compositions of three of four root samples were among the lightest values yet reported for terrestrial materials (??44Ca ???-3.95???). Our results further indicate that Ca isotopes were fractionated along the transpiration streams of both <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with roots having the least ??44Ca values and leaf litter the greatest. An approximately 2??? difference in ??44Ca values between roots and leaf litter of both <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> suggests a persistent fractionation mechanism along the transpiration stream, likely related to Ca binding in wood tissue coupled with internal ion exchange. Finally, our data indicate that differing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> demand for Ca and soil Ca concentrations together may influence Ca isotope distribution within the <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Inter-catchment differences in Ca isotope distributions in soils and <span class="hlt">trees</span> were minor, indicating that the results of our study may have broad transferability to studies of forest ecosystems in catchments developed on crystalline substrates elsewhere. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712942H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712942H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> specific soil moisture patterns and dynamics through the seasons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heidbüchel, Ingo; Dreibrodt, Janek; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Soil moisture patterns in the landscape are largely controlled by soil types (pore size distributions) and landscape position. But how strong is the influence of vegetation on patterns within a single soil type? While we would envision a clear difference in soil moisture patterns and responses between for example bare soil, a pasture and a forest, our conceptual images start to become less clear when we move on to different forest stands. Do different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> cause different moisture patterns to emerge? Could it be possible to identify the dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of a site by classifying its soil moisture pattern? To investigate this question we analyzed data from 15 sensor clusters in the lowlands of north-eastern Germany (within the TERENO observatory) which were instrumented with soil moisture sensors (5 profiles per site), tensiometers, sap flow sensors, throughfall and stemflow gages. Data has been collected at these sites since May 2014. While the summer data has already been analyzed, the analysis of the winter data and thus the possible seasonal shifts in patterns will be carried out in the coming months. Throughout the last summer we found different dynamics of soil moisture patterns under pine <span class="hlt">trees</span> compared to beech <span class="hlt">trees</span>. While the soils under beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> were more often relatively wet and more often relatively dry, the soils under pine <span class="hlt">trees</span> showed less variability and more often average soil moisture. These differences are most likely due to differences in both throughfall patterns as well as root water uptake. Further analysis includes the use of throughfall and stemflow data as well as stable water isotope samples that were taken at different depths in the soil, in the groundwater and from the sapwood. The manifestation of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in soil moisture patterns and dynamics is likely to have implications for groundwater recharge, transit times and hydrologic partitioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3586649','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3586649"><span id="translatedtitle">Epigenetic regulation of adaptive responses of forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to the environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bräutigam, Katharina; Vining, Kelly J; Lafon-Placette, Clément; Fossdal, Carl G; Mirouze, Marie; Marcos, José Gutiérrez; Fluch, Silvia; Fraga, Mario Fernández; Guevara, M Ángeles; Abarca, Dolores; Johnsen, Øystein; Maury, Stéphane; Strauss, Steven H; Campbell, Malcolm M; Rohde, Antje; Díaz-Sala, Carmen; Cervera, María-Teresa</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Epigenetic variation is likely to contribute to the phenotypic plasticity and adaptative capacity of plant <span class="hlt">species</span>, and may be especially important for long-lived organisms with complex life cycles, including forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Diverse environmental stresses and hybridization/polyploidization events can create reversible heritable epigenetic marks that can be transmitted to subsequent generations as a form of molecular “memory”. Epigenetic changes might also contribute to the ability of plants to colonize or persist in variable environments. In this review, we provide an overview of recent data on epigenetic mechanisms involved in developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plant, with a focus on forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We consider the possible role of forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> epigenetics as a new source of adaptive traits in plant breeding, biotechnology, and ecosystem conservation under rapid climate change. PMID:23467802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045618','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045618"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on belowground biogeochemistry in a lowland wet tropical forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Keller, Adrienne B.; Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Tropical rain forests are known for their high biological diversity, but the effects of plant diversity on important ecosystem processes in this biome remain unclear. Interspecies differences in both the demand for nutrients and in foliar and litter nutrient concentrations could drive variations in both the pool sizes and fluxes of important belowground resources, yet our understanding of the effects and importance of aboveground heterogeneity on belowground biogeochemistry is poor, especially in the <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich forests of the wet tropics. To investigate the effects of individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on belowground biogeochemical processes, we used both field and laboratory studies to examine how carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycles vary under nine different canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> – including three legume and six non-legume <span class="hlt">species</span> – that vary in foliar nutrient concentrations in a wet tropical forest in southwestern Costa Rica. We found significant differences in belowground C, N and P cycling under different canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: total C, N and P pools in standing litter varied by <span class="hlt">species</span>, as did total soil and microbial C and N pools. Rates of soil extracellular acid phosphatase activity also varied significantly among <span class="hlt">species</span> and functional groups, with higher rates of phosphatase activity under legumes. In addition, across all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, phosphatase activity was significantly positively correlated with litter N/P ratios, suggesting a tight coupling between relative N and P inputs and resource allocation to P acquisition. Overall, our results suggest the importance of aboveground plant community composition in promoting belowground biogeochemical heterogeneity at relatively small spatial scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930020554','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930020554"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> satellite bus (MPS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322961"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Compact Spectrometric Unit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan</p> <p>2009-11-09</p> <p>A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910009823','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910009823"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> hardened spacecraft insulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Steimer, Carlos H.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18608895','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18608895"><span id="translatedtitle">The expanding host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Randhawa, H S; Kowshik, T; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Preeti Sinha, K; Khan, Z U; Sun, Sheng; Xu, Jianping</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>This study reports the widespread prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of 14 <span class="hlt">species</span> representing 12 families of <span class="hlt">trees</span> and from soil near the base of various host <span class="hlt">trees</span> from Delhi and several places in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh Union Territory. Of the 311 <span class="hlt">trees</span> from which samples were obtained, 64 (20.5%) were found to contain strains of the C. neoformans <span class="hlt">species</span> complex. The number of <span class="hlt">trees</span> positive for C. neoformans var grubii (serotypeA) was 51 (16.3%), for C. gattii (serotype B) 24 (7.7%) and for both C. neoformans and C. gattii 11 (3.5%). The overall prevalence of C. neoformans <span class="hlt">species</span> complex in decayed wood samples was 19.9% (111/556). There was no obvious correlation between the prevalence of these two yeast <span class="hlt">species</span> and the <span class="hlt">species</span> of host <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The data on prevalence of C. gattii (24%) and C. neoformans (26%) in soil around the base of some host <span class="hlt">trees</span> indicated that soil is another important ecologic niche for these two Cryptococcus <span class="hlt">species</span> in India. Among our sampled <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, eight and six were recorded for the first time as hosts for C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii, respectively. A longitudinal surveillance of 8 host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> over 0.7 to 2.5 years indicated long term colonization of Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi and Manilkara hexandra <span class="hlt">trees</span> by C. gattii and/or C. neoformans. The mating type was determined for 153 of the isolates, including 98 strains of serotype A and 55 of serotype B and all proved to be mating type alpha (MAT alpha). Our observations document the rapidly expanding spectrum of host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for C. gattii and C. neoformans and indicate that decayed woods of many <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are potentially suitable ecological niches for both pathogens. PMID:18608895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.yadvindermalhi.org/uploads/1/8/7/6/18767612/chilsholm_et_al_scale_dependence_j_ecol_2013.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.yadvindermalhi.org/uploads/1/8/7/6/18767612/chilsholm_et_al_scale_dependence_j_ecol_2013.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-dependent relationships between <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and ecosystem function in forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Malhi, Yadvinder</p> <p></p> <p>Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Xuefu RoadScale-dependent relationships between <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and ecosystem function in forests Ryan-03092, Balboa, Ancón, Republic of Panamá; 2 Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong 52109, Selangor Darul</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25065257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25065257"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to heat waves and extreme heat events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teskey, Robert; Wertin, Timothy; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Steppe, Kathy</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The number and intensity of heat waves has increased, and this trend is likely to continue throughout the 21st century. Often, heat waves are accompanied by drought conditions. It is projected that the global land area experiencing heat waves will double by 2020, and quadruple by 2040. Extreme heat events can impact a wide variety of <span class="hlt">tree</span> functions. At the leaf level, photosynthesis is reduced, photooxidative stress increases, leaves abscise and the growth rate of remaining leaves decreases. In some <span class="hlt">species</span>, stomatal conductance increases at high temperatures, which may be a mechanism for leaf cooling. At the whole plant level, heat stress can decrease growth and shift biomass allocation. When drought stress accompanies heat waves, the negative effects of heat stress are exacerbated and can lead to <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality. However, some <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibit remarkable tolerance to thermal stress. Responses include changes that minimize stress on photosynthesis and reductions in dark respiration. Although there have been few studies to date, there is evidence of within-<span class="hlt">species</span> genetic variation in thermal tolerance, which could be important to exploit in production forestry systems. Understanding the mechanisms of differing <span class="hlt">tree</span> responses to extreme temperature events may be critically important for understanding how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> will be affected by climate change. PMID:25065257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/fine/Site/Gabriel_files/geiger%20et%20al%202011.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/fine/Site/Gabriel_files/geiger%20et%20al%202011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Distinct roles of savanna and forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in regeneration under fire suppression in a</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Fine, Paul V.A.</p> <p></p> <p>Distinct roles of savanna and forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in regeneration under fire suppression in a Brazilian savanna Erika L. Geiger, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gabriel Damasco, M. Haridasan, Augusto C. Franco & William A. Hoffmann Keywords Cerrado; fire; forest expansion; forest­savanna boundary; tropical savanna</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/landscape/files/2014/03/Scheller_Mladenoff2005_GCB.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://labs.russell.wisc.edu/landscape/files/2014/03/Scheller_Mladenoff2005_GCB.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A spatially interactive simulation of climate change, harvesting, wind, and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> migration and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mladenoff, David</p> <p></p> <p>A spatially interactive simulation of climate change, harvesting, wind, and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> migration to climate change. Our objective was to estimate the combined effects of climate change, common disturbances circulation models, the Hadley Climate Centre (version 2) and the Canadian Climate Center (version 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331429','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3331429"><span id="translatedtitle">TECHNO – ECONOMIC DATA ON <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span> OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS FROM KARNATAKA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yoganarasimhan, S. N.; Nair, K. Vasudevan; Holla, B. V.; Keshavamurthy, K.R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Techno – economic data on 44 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> used as crude drugs in various ayurvedic preparations are provided. To maintain quality and reasonable trice, it is suggested that the procurement and sale of crude / raw drugs should be carried out by government agency. PMID:22557576</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22263471','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22263471"><span id="translatedtitle">[Compatible biomass models for main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with measurement error in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Jia, Wei-wei; Liu, Fu-xiang; Wang, He-zhi</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Based on the biomass data of 516 sampling <span class="hlt">trees</span>, and by using non-linear error-in-variable modeling approach, the compatible models for the total biomass and the biomass of six components including aboveground part, underground part, stem, crown, branch, and foliage of 15 major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (or groups) in Heilongjiang Province were established, and the best models for the total biomass and components biomass were selected. The compatible models based on total biomass were developed by adopting the method of joint control different level ratio function. The heteroscedasticity of the models for total biomass was eliminated with log transformation, and the weighted regression was applied to the models for each individual component. Among the compatible biomass models established for the 15 major <span class="hlt">species</span> (or groups) , the model for total biomass had the highest prediction precision (90% or more), followed by the models for aboveground part and stem biomass, with a precision of 87.5% or more. The prediction precision of the biomass models for other components was relatively low, but it was still greater than 80% for most test <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The modeling efficiency (EF) values of the total, aboveground part, and stem biomass models for all the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (or groups) were over 0.9, and the EF values of the underground part, crown, branch, and foliage biomass models were over 0.8. PMID:22263471</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://sandyliebhold.com/pubs/cjfr99.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://sandyliebhold.com/pubs/cjfr99.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in radial increment of host and nonhost <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with gypsy moth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Liebhold, Andrew</p> <p></p> <p>Changes in radial increment of host and nonhost <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with gypsy moth defoliation R Jersey were measured to determine the influence of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation on both-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough)) defoli- ation and abundance in the western United States</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fabinet.up.ac.za/publication/pdfs/375-2011_chen_et_al_mycologia.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fabinet.up.ac.za/publication/pdfs/375-2011_chen_et_al_mycologia.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">species</span> of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium <span class="hlt">trees</span> in China and Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Novel <span class="hlt">species</span> of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium <span class="hlt">trees</span> in China and Indonesia ShuaiFei Chen cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://chave.ups-tlse.fr/chave/courtois-phytochem12.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://chave.ups-tlse.fr/chave/courtois-phytochem12.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in volatile terpene composition between the bark and leaves of tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chave, Jérôme</p> <p></p> <p>Differences in volatile terpene composition between the bark and leaves of tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Guiana Herbivory Optimal defense theory Secondary metabolites Wood a b s t r a c t Volatile terpenes and indirect defense against herbivores. In terpenes, both the quantity and the diver- sity of compounds appear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164201"><span id="translatedtitle">New flux based dose-response relationships for ozone for European forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Büker, P; Feng, Z; Uddling, J; Briolat, A; Alonso, R; Braun, S; Elvira, S; Gerosa, G; Karlsson, P E; Le Thiec, D; Marzuoli, R; Mills, G; Oksanen, E; Wieser, G; Wilkinson, M; Emberson, L D</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>To derive O3 dose-response relationships (DRR) for five European forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and broadleaf deciduous and needleleaf <span class="hlt">tree</span> plant functional types (PFTs), phytotoxic O3 doses (PODy) were related to biomass reductions. PODy was calculated using a stomatal flux model with a range of cut-off thresholds (y) indicative of varying detoxification capacities. Linear regression analysis showed that DRR for PFT and individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> differed in their robustness. A simplified parameterisation of the flux model was tested and showed that for most non-Mediterranean <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, this simplified model led to similarly robust DRR as compared to a <span class="hlt">species</span>- and climate region-specific parameterisation. Experimentally induced soil water stress was not found to substantially reduce PODy, mainly due to the short duration of soil water stress periods. This study validates the stomatal O3 flux concept and represents a step forward in predicting O3 damage to forests in a spatially and temporally varying climate. PMID:26164201</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4406680','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4406680"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping and Characterizing Selected Canopy <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> at the Angkor World Heritage Site in Cambodia Using Aerial Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia’s <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., <span class="hlt">tree</span> height and crown width) of selected <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and <span class="hlt">tree</span> height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> (Spearman’s rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas <span class="hlt">tree</span> crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured <span class="hlt">tree</span> crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The latter was found to be more suitable for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> classification. Individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved <span class="hlt">species</span> identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3626689','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3626689"><span id="translatedtitle">Winning and Losing <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> of Reassembly in Minnesota’s Mixed and Broadleaf Forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hanberry, Brice B.; Palik, Brian J.; He, Hong S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We examined reassembly of winning and losing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, <span class="hlt">species</span> traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing <span class="hlt">species</span> by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota’s mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span> on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant <span class="hlt">species</span> increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant <span class="hlt">species</span>, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing <span class="hlt">species</span> and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of <span class="hlt">species</span> identity. PMID:23613911</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2714761','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2714761"><span id="translatedtitle">Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity in eastern Asia and North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhiheng; Brown, James H.; Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The increase of biodiversity from poles to equator is one of the most pervasive features of nature. For 2 centuries since von Humboldt, Wallace, and Darwin, biogeographers and ecologists have investigated the environmental and historical factors that determine the latitudinal gradient of <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recently proposed metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) aims to explain ecological patterns and processes, including geographical patterns of <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, in terms of the effects of temperature and body size on the metabolism of organisms. Here we use 2 comparable databases of <span class="hlt">tree</span> distributions in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and spatial scale in shaping geographical patterns of <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity. We find that number of <span class="hlt">species</span> increases exponentially with environmental temperature as predicted by the MTE, and so does the rate of spatial turnover in <span class="hlt">species</span> composition (slope of the <span class="hlt">species</span>-area relationship). The magnitude of temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">species</span> richness increases with spatial scale. Moreover, the relationship between <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes there are more <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in North America, but the reverse is true in warmer climates at lower latitudes. These patterns provide evidence that the kinetics of ecological and evolutionary processes play a major role in the latitudinal pattern of biodiversity. PMID:19628692</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fabinet.up.ac.za/groups/cthb/information_nuggets/4150545743c5523dff69524236accf61.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fabinet.up.ac.za/groups/cthb/information_nuggets/4150545743c5523dff69524236accf61.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of three new fungal <span class="hlt">species</span> from dying Baobab <span class="hlt">trees</span> in South Africa and Madagascar Prepared by Elsie Cruywagen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>of Capricorn in southern Africa. This <span class="hlt">species</span> has also been introduced into Madagascar and other parts on and infect wounds on these <span class="hlt">trees</span>, as very little is known regarding the fungal associates of baobabs in <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Health Biotechnology (CTHB) at FABI, University of Pretoria. Many <span class="hlt">species</span> of fungi have been found</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/PlantSoil%20279,%20173-185,%202006%20Soethe.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/lehmann/publ/PlantSoil%20279,%20173-185,%202006%20Soethe.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Root morphology and anchorage of six native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a tropical montane forest and an elfin forest in Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lehmann, Johannes</p> <p></p> <p>Root morphology and anchorage of six native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a tropical montane forest in revised form 12 July 2005 Key words: aspect ratio, buttress, root architecture, root asymmetry, slope, stilt root Abstract Root architecture of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was investigated at two different altitudes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8463B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....8463B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of temperate climate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on gross ammonification, gross nitrification and N2O formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The <span class="hlt">trees</span> (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a <span class="hlt">species</span> trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of nitrification were significantly higher in the organic layer than in the mineral layer for all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and for both sampling dates, when expressed on a dry weight basis. In the organic layer of all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> the gross rates of ammonification and nitrification were higher in summer than in spring. The highest gross ammonification rates were found in the organic layer under spruce, being significantly higher than in beech and larch, which in turn were higher than in oak and pine. Gross rates of nitrification were clearly higher in beech and spruce compared to oak, pine and larch. A linear relationship between gross ammonification and gross nitrification could be found in all samples. N2O formation was significantly different in the respective <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: soil under beech showed the highest N2O formation rates of all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> investigated, being significantly higher than in spruce and pine, which in turn were significantly higher than in oak and larch, which showed the lowest N2O formation rates. The results obtained underline the importance of considering the effect of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on soil nitrogen cycling and the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of N trace gases, especially with respect to forest management practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16995629','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16995629"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Ogdahl, Megan; Zytkowiak, Roma; Hale, Cynthia; Karolewski, Piotr</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>We studied the effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on decomposition via leaf litter chemistry vs. effects on the decomposition environment. Decomposition rates of litter in its plot of origin were negatively correlated with litter lignin and positively correlated with mean annual soil temperature (MAT(soil)) across <span class="hlt">species</span>. Likewise, decomposition of a common litter type across all plots was positively associated with MAT(soil), and decomposition of litter from all plots in a common plot was negatively related to litter lignin but positively related to litter Ca. Taken together, these results indicate that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> influenced microbial decomposition primarily via differences in litter lignin (and secondarily, via differences in litter Ca), with high-lignin (and low-Ca) <span class="hlt">species</span> decomposing most slowly, and by affecting MAT(soil), with warmer plots exhibiting more rapid decomposition. In addition to litter bag experiments, we examined forest floor dynamics in each plot by mass balance, since earthworms were a known component of these forest stands and their access to litter in litter bags was limited. Forest floor removal rates estimated from mass balance were positively related to leaf litter Ca (and unrelated to decay rates obtained using litter bags). Litter Ca, in turn, was positively related to the abundance of earthworms, particularly Lumbricus terrestris. Thus, while <span class="hlt">species</span> influence microbially mediated decomposition primarily through differences in litter lignin, differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in litter Ca are most important in determining <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on forest floor leaf litter dynamics among these 14 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, apparently because of the influence of litter Ca on earthworm activity. The overall influence of these <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on leaf litter decomposition via effects on both microbial and faunal processing will only become clear when we can quantify the decay dynamics of litter that is translocated belowground by earthworms. PMID:16995629</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004211','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010004211"><span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-4 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Collatz, G. James; Berry, Joseph A.; Gamon, John; Fredeen, Art; Fu, Wei</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The BOREAS TE-4 team collected steady-state gas exchange and reflectance data from several <span class="hlt">species</span> in the BOREAS SSA during 1994 and in the NSA during 1996. Measurements of light, CO2, temperature, and humidity response curves were made by the BOREAS TE-4 team during the summers of 1994 and 1996 using intact attached leaves of boreal forest <span class="hlt">species</span> located in the BOREAS SSA and NSA. These measurements were conducted to calibrate models used to predict photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration. The 1994 and 1996 data can be used to construct plots of response functions or for parameterizing models. Parameter values are suitable for application in SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model of Collatz et al. (1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025565','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025565"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of the Brown <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Snake: Patterns of Decline and <span class="hlt">Species</span> Persistence in Guam's Avifauna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wiles, G.J.; Bart, J.; Beck, R.E., Jr.; Aguon, C.F.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Predation by brown <span class="hlt">tree</span> snakes (Boiga irregularis) devastated the avifauna of Guam in the Mariana Islands during the last half of the twentieth century, causing the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird <span class="hlt">species</span>. Past studies have provided qualitative descriptions of the decline of native forest birds but have not considered all <span class="hlt">species</span> or presented quantitative analyses. We analyzed two sets of survey data gathered in northern Guam between 1976 and 1998 and reviewed unpublished sources to provide a comprehensive account of the impact of brown <span class="hlt">tree</span> snakes on the island's birds. Our results indicate that 22 <span class="hlt">species</span>, including 17 of 18 native <span class="hlt">species</span>, were severely affected by snakes. Twelve <span class="hlt">species</span> were likely extirpated as breeding residents on the main island, 8 others experienced declines of ???90% throughout the island or at least in the north, and 2 were kept at reduced population levels during all or much of the study. Declines of ???90% occurred rapidly, averaging just 8.9 years along three roadside survey routes combined and 1.6 years at a 100-ha forested study site. Declines in northern Guam were also relatively synchronous and occurred from about 1976 to 1986 for most <span class="hlt">species</span>. The most important factor predisposing a <span class="hlt">species</span> to coexistence with brown <span class="hlt">tree</span> snakes was its ability to nest and roost at locations where snakes were uncommon. Large clutch size and large body size were also related to longer persistence times, although large body size appeared to delay, but not prevent, extirpation. Our results draw attention to the enormous detrimental impact that brown <span class="hlt">tree</span> snakes are likely to have upon invading new areas. Increased containment efforts on Guam are needed to prevent further colonizations, but a variety of additional management efforts would also benefit the island's remaining bird populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/283030','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/283030"><span id="translatedtitle">Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> choice in dendrochemistry studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Recently, element concentrations in <span class="hlt">tree</span> rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of <span class="hlt">species</span> which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of <span class="hlt">species</span> with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American <span class="hlt">species</span> include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, <span class="hlt">species</span> such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2677233','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2677233"><span id="translatedtitle">The demography of range boundaries versus range cores in eastern US <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Purves, Drew W.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Regional <span class="hlt">species</span>–climate correlations are well documented, but little is known about the ecological processes responsible for generating these patterns. Using the data from over 690?000 individual <span class="hlt">trees</span> I estimated five demographic rates—canopy growth, understorey growth, canopy lifespan, understorey lifespan and per capita reproduction—for 19 common eastern US <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, within the core and the northern and southern boundaries, of the <span class="hlt">species</span> range. Most <span class="hlt">species</span> showed statistically significant boundary versus core differences in most rates at both boundary types. Differences in canopy and understorey growth were relatively small in magnitude but consistent among <span class="hlt">species</span>, being lower at the northern (average ?17%) and higher at the southern (average +12%) boundaries. Differences in lifespan were larger in magnitude but highly variable among <span class="hlt">species</span>, except for a marked trend for reduced canopy lifespan at the northern boundary (average ?49%). Differences in per capita reproduction were large and statistically significant for some <span class="hlt">species</span>, but highly variable among <span class="hlt">species</span>. The rate estimates were combined to calculate two performance indices: R0 (a measure of lifetime fitness in the absence of competition) was consistently lower at the northern boundary (average ?86%) whereas Z* (a measure of competitive ability in closed forest) showed no sign of a consistent boundary–core difference at either boundary. PMID:19324819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...133..298B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...133..298B"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopes in <span class="hlt">tree</span> rings show good coherence between <span class="hlt">species</span> and sites in Bolivia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Jessica C. A.; Hunt, Sarah F. P.; Clerici, Santiago J.; Newton, Robert J.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Leng, Melanie J.; Heaton, Timothy H. E.; Helle, Gerhard; Argollo, Jaime; Gloor, Manuel; Brienen, Roel J. W.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring oxygen isotope (?18OTR) chronology developed from one <span class="hlt">species</span> (Cedrela odorata) growing in a single site has been shown to be a sensitive proxy for rainfall over the Amazon Basin, thus allowing reconstructions of precipitation in a region where meteorological records are short and scarce. Although these results suggest that there should be large-scale (> 100 km) spatial coherence of ?18OTR records in the Amazon, this has not been tested. Furthermore, it is of interest to investigate whether other, possibly longer-lived, <span class="hlt">species</span> similarly record interannual variation of Amazon precipitation, and can be used to develop climate sensitive isotope chronologies. In this study, we measured ?18O in <span class="hlt">tree</span> rings from seven lowland and one highland <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from Bolivia. We found that cross-dating with ?18OTR gave more accurate <span class="hlt">tree</span> ring dates than using ring width. Our "isotope cross-dating approach" is confirmed with radiocarbon "bomb-peak" dates, and has the potential to greatly facilitate development of ?18OTR records in the tropics, identify dating errors, and check annual ring formation in tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Six of the seven lowland <span class="hlt">species</span> correlated significantly with C. odorata, showing that variation in ?18OTR has a coherent imprint across very different <span class="hlt">species</span>, most likely arising from a dominant influence of source water ?18O on ?18OTR. In addition we show that ?18OTR series cohere over large distances, within and between <span class="hlt">species</span>. Comparison of two C. odorata ?18OTR chronologies from sites several hundreds of kilometres apart showed a very strong correlation (r = 0.80, p < 0.001, 1901-2001), and a significant (but weaker) relationship was found between lowland C. odorata <span class="hlt">trees</span> and a Polylepis tarapacana <span class="hlt">tree</span> growing in the distant Altiplano (r = 0.39, p < 0.01, 1931-2001). This large-scale coherence of ?18OTR records is probably triggered by a strong spatial coherence in precipitation ?18O due to large-scale controls. These results highlight the strength of ?18OTR as a precipitation proxy, and open the way for temporal and spatial expansion of precipitation reconstructions in South America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.0N16Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.0N16Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Large difference of inhibitive effect of nitrogen deposition on soil methane oxidation between plantations with N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and non-N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiaomin; Liu, Lei; Fu, Shenglei; Chen, Hao; Huang, Juan; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Mo, Jiangming</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The responses of soil methane (CH4) net fluxes to nitrogen (N) addition in a N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Acacia auriculiformis (AA)) and a non-N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Eucalyptus citriodora (EU)) plantation were studied in southern China. Treatments were conducted at each plantation with three N levels (0, 50, and 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for control, medium-N, and high-N treatment, respectively, abbreviated as C, MN, and HN). From August 2010 to July 2011, CH4 flux was measured biweekly using a static chamber and gas chromatography technique. The soils of both sites acted as sink of atmospheric CH4. The CH4 uptake rate in control of the AA site (36.3 ± 3.2 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) was greater than that of the EU plantation (29.9 ± 0.9 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1). In the AA plantation, the averaged rates of CH4 uptake for the MN (28.6 ± 2.3 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) and HN treatment (23.8 ± 2.8 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) were decreased by 21% and 35%, respectively, compared to the control. However, there was no change of soil CH4 uptake between N-treated plots and the controls in the EU site. Our results indicated that there might be large difference of inhibitive effect of N deposition on soil CH4 oxidation between the AA and EU plantations. The projected increase of N deposition would weaken the capability of N-fixing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> plantations for atmospheric CH4 sink in tropical and subtropical regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419709','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419709"><span id="translatedtitle">Avian <span class="hlt">Species</span> Richness in Relation to Intensive Forest Management Practices in Early Seral <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Plantations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Jay E.; Kroll, Andrew J.; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D.; Ellis, Tana M.; Betts, Matthew G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual <span class="hlt">species</span> and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in plantations. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and individual <span class="hlt">species</span> occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and <span class="hlt">species</span> richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of <span class="hlt">species</span> richness were 35–80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and <span class="hlt">species</span> richness. Conclusion and Significance Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with stand management strategies that retain or increase hardwood vegetation while simultaneously regenerating the conifer cover in commercial <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations. PMID:22905249</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009601','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140009601"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> Density and <span class="hlt">Species</span> Decline in the African Sahel Attributable to Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Patrick; Tucker, Compton J.; Sy, H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Increased aridity and human population have reduced <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover in parts of the African Sahel and degraded resources for local people. Yet, <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover trends and the relative importance of climate and population remain unresolved. From field measurements, aerial photos, and Ikonos satellite images, we detected significant 1954-2002 <span class="hlt">tree</span> density declines in the western Sahel of 18 +/- 14% (P = 0.014, n = 204) and 17 +/- 13% (P = 0.0009, n = 187). From field observations, we detected a significant 1960-2000 <span class="hlt">species</span> richness decline of 21 +/- 11% (P = 0.0028, n = 14) across the Sahel and a southward shift of the Sahel, Sudan, and Guinea zones. Multivariate analyses of climate, soil, and population showed that temperature most significantly (P < 0.001) explained <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover changes. Multivariate and bivariate tests and field observations indicated the dominance of temperature and precipitation, supporting attribution of <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover changes to climate variability. Climate change forcing of Sahel climate variability, particularly the significant (P < 0.05) 1901-2002 temperature increases and precipitation decreases in the research areas, connects Sahel <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover changes to global climate change. This suggests roles for global action and local adaptation to address ecological change in the Sahel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4681336','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4681336"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P.; Castilho, Carolina V.; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E.; Phillips, Oliver L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N.; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L.; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G. W.; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Mogollón, Hugo F.; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C., Gerardo A.; Comiskey, James A.; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W.; Jimenez, Eliana M.; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R.; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R.; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R.; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R.; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I. A.; Vos, Vincent A.; Zent, Eglée L.; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N.; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H.; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal <span class="hlt">species</span> are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant <span class="hlt">species</span> on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to <span class="hlt">trees</span> throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world’s >40,000 tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened <span class="hlt">species</span> if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. 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return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26702442"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ter Steege, Hans; Pitman, Nigel C A; Killeen, Timothy J; Laurance, William F; Peres, Carlos A; Guevara, Juan Ernesto; Salomão, Rafael P; Castilho, Carolina V; Amaral, Iêda Leão; de Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia; de Souza Coelho, Luiz; Magnusson, William E; Phillips, Oliver L; de Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes; de Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo; Irume, Mariana Victória; Martins, Maria Pires; Molino, Jean-François; Sabatier, Daniel; Wittmann, Florian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; da Silva Guimarães, José Renan; Mendoza, Abel Monteagudo; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa; Terborgh, John; Casula, Katia Regina; Montero, Juan Carlos; Feldpausch, Ted R; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque; Zartman, Charles Eugene; Mostacedo, Bonifacio; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Assis, Rafael L; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni; Andrade, Ana; Camargo, José Luís; Laurance, Susan G W; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon, Ben-Hur; Costa, Flávia; Targhetta, Natalia; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Brienen, Roel; Castellanos, Hernán; Duivenvoorden, Joost F; Mogollón, Hugo F; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Aymard C, Gerardo A; Comiskey, James A; Damasco, Gabriel; Dávila, Nállarett; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Diaz, Pablo Roberto Stevenson; Vincentini, Alberto; Emilio, Thaise; Levis, Carolina; Schietti, Juliana; Souza, Priscila; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Neill, David; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arroyo, Luzmila; Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Souza, Fernanda Coelho; do Amaral, Dário Dantas; Gribel, Rogerio; Luize, Bruno Garcia; Pansonato, Marcelo Petrati; Venticinque, Eduardo; Fine, Paul; Toledo, Marisol; Baraloto, Chris; Cerón, Carlos; Engel, Julien; Henkel, Terry W; Jimenez, Eliana M; Maas, Paul; Mora, Maria Cristina Peñuela; Petronelli, Pascal; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas; Silveira, Marcos; Stropp, Juliana; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; Baker, Tim R; Daly, Doug; Paredes, Marcos Ríos; da Silva, Naara Ferreira; Fuentes, Alfredo; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Schöngart, Jochen; Silman, Miles R; Arboleda, Nicolás Castaño; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Phillips, Juan Fernando; van Andel, Tinde R; von Hildebrand, Patricio; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques; de Matos Bonates, Luiz Carlos; de Castro, Deborah; de Sousa Farias, Emanuelle; Gonzales, Therany; Guillaumet, Jean-Louis; Hoffman, Bruce; Malhi, Yadvinder; de Andrade Miranda, Ires Paula; Prieto, Adriana; Rudas, Agustín; Ruschell, Ademir R; Silva, Natalino; Vela, César I A; Vos, Vincent A; Zent, Eglée L; Zent, Stanford; Cano, Angela; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Oliveira, Alexandre A; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Ramos, José Ferreira; Sierra, Rodrigo; Tirado, Milton; Medina, Maria Natalia Umaña; van der Heijden, Geertje; Torre, Emilio Vilanova; Vriesendorp, Corine; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R; Baider, Claudia; Balslev, Henrik; de Castro, Natalia; Farfan-Rios, William; Ferreira, Cid; Mendoza, Casimiro; Mesones, Italo; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Giraldo, Ligia Estela Urrego; Villarroel, Daniel; Zagt, Roderick; Alexiades, Miguel N; Garcia-Cabrera, Karina; Hernandez, Lionel; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau; Milliken, William; Cuenca, Walter Palacios; Pansini, Susamar; Pauletto, Daniela; Arevalo, Freddy Ramirez; Sampaio, Adeilza Felipe; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis H; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Estimates of extinction risk for Amazonian plant and animal <span class="hlt">species</span> are rare and not often incorporated into land-use policy and conservation planning. We overlay spatial distribution models with historical and projected deforestation to show that at least 36% and up to 57% of all Amazonian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are likely to qualify as globally threatened under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List criteria. If confirmed, these results would increase the number of threatened plant <span class="hlt">species</span> on Earth by 22%. We show that the trends observed in Amazonia apply to <span class="hlt">trees</span> throughout the tropics, and we predict that most of the world's >40,000 tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> now qualify as globally threatened. A gap analysis suggests that existing Amazonian protected areas and indigenous territories will protect viable populations of most threatened <span class="hlt">species</span> if these areas suffer no further degradation, highlighting the key roles that protected areas, indigenous peoples, and improved governance can play in preventing large-scale extinctions in the tropics in this century. PMID:26702442</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcO....34..370B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AcO....34..370B"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydraulic redistribution study in two native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ?s) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from <span class="hlt">trees</span> and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ?s values. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in <span class="hlt">tree</span> transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ?s (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ?s in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per <span class="hlt">tree</span> per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two <span class="hlt">species</span>, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these <span class="hlt">species</span> to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for <span class="hlt">trees</span> and associated crops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/927777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/927777"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Commercial <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gary D. Kronrad</p> <p>2006-09-19</p> <p>A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each <span class="hlt">species</span>, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690000403','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690000403"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> timer for laboratories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2533C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2533C"><span id="translatedtitle">Different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> affect soil respiration spatial distribution in a subtropical forest of southern Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in <span class="hlt">tree</span> and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. <span class="hlt">tree</span> height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live <span class="hlt">tree</span> C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall temporal variation. Soil respiration was related with season variation in research site. Soil temperature and soil respiration showed highly spatial variation in 16 plots. Soil temperature showed significantly exponential related with soil respiration in research site (p<0.001).However, soil respiration showed significantly negative relationship with total amount of litterfall (p<0.001), suggesting that the <span class="hlt">tree</span> was still young and did not reach crown closure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24486469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24486469"><span id="translatedtitle">Converting probabilistic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> range shift projections into meaningful classes for management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanewinkel, Marc; Cullmann, Dominik A; Michiels, Hans-Gerd; Kändler, Gerald</p> <p>2014-02-15</p> <p>The paper deals with the management problem how to decide on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> suitability under changing environmental conditions. It presents an algorithm that classifies the output of a range shift model for major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Europe into multiple classes that can be linked to qualities characterizing the ecological niche of the <span class="hlt">species</span>. The classes: i) Core distribution area, ii) Extended distribution area, iii) Occasional occurrence area, and iv) No occurrence area are first theoretically developed and then statistically described. The classes are interpreted from an ecological point of view using criteria like population structure, competitive strength, site spectrum and vulnerability to biotic hazards. The functioning of the algorithm is demonstrated using the example of a generalized linear model that was fitted to a pan-European dataset of presence/absence of major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with downscaled climate data from a General Circulation Model (GCM). Applications of the algorithm to <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> suitability classification on a European and regional level are shown. The thresholds that are used by the algorithm are precision-based and include Cohen's Kappa. A validation of the algorithm using an independent dataset of the German National Forest Inventory shows good accordance of the statistically derived classes with ecological traits for Norway spruce, while the differentiation especially between core and extended distribution for European beech that is in the centre of its natural range in this area is less accurate. We hypothesize that for <span class="hlt">species</span> in the core of their range regional factors like forest history superimpose climatic factors. Problems of uncertainty issued from potentially applying a multitude of modelling approaches and/or climate realizations within the range shift model are discussed and a way to deal with the uncertainty by revealing the underlying attitude towards risk of the decision maker is proposed. PMID:24486469</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.1649L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.1649L"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on Taihang Mountain, North China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> acted as sinks for atmospheric N2O. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> had a significant effect on CO2 and N2O releases but not on CH4 uptake. The lower net global warming potential in natural regenerated vegetation suggested that natural regenerated vegetation were more desirable plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in reducing global warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19495788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19495788"><span id="translatedtitle">Independence of stem and leaf hydraulic traits in six Euphorbiaceae <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with contrasting leaf phenology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Kun-Fang</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Hydraulic traits and hydraulic-related structural properties were examined in three deciduous (Hevea brasiliensis, Macaranga denticulate, and Bischofia javanica) and three evergreen (Drypetes indica, Aleurites moluccana, and Codiaeum variegatum) Euphorbiaceae <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a seasonally tropical forest in south-western China. Xylem water potential at 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivity (P50(stem)) was more negative in the evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span>, but leaf water potential at 50% loss of leaf hydraulic conductivity (P50(leaf)) did not function as P50(stem) did. Furthermore, P50(stem) was more negative than P50(leaf) in the evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span>; contrarily, this pattern was not observed in the deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Leaf hydraulic conductivity overlapped considerably, but stem hydraulic conductivity diverged between the evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Correspondingly, structural properties of leaves overlapped substantially; however, structural properties of stem diverged markedly. Consequently, leaf and stem hydraulic traits were closely correlated with leaf and stem structural properties, respectively. Additionally, stem hydraulic efficiency was significantly correlated with stem hydraulic resistance to embolism; nevertheless, such a hydraulic pattern was not found in leaf hydraulics. Thus, these results suggest: (1) that the evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> mainly diverge in stem hydraulics, but not in leaf hydraulics, (2) that regardless of leaf or stem, their hydraulic traits result primarily from structural properties, and not from leaf phenology, (3) that leaves are more vulnerable to drought-induced embolism than stem in the evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span>, but not always in the deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> and (4) that there exists a trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety for stem hydraulics, but not for leaf hydraulics. PMID:19495788</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53F..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53F..04M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live <span class="hlt">tree</span> biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24488084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24488084"><span id="translatedtitle">The right <span class="hlt">tree</span> for the job? perceptions of <span class="hlt">species</span> suitability for the provision of ecosystem services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smaill, Simeon J; Bayne, Karen M; Coker, Graham W R; Paul, Thomas S H; Clinton, Peter W</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Stakeholders in plantation forestry are increasingly aware of the importance of the ecosystem services and non-market values associated with forests. In New Zealand, there is significant interest in establishing <span class="hlt">species</span> other than Pinus radiata D. Don (the dominant plantation <span class="hlt">species</span>) in the belief that alternative <span class="hlt">species</span> are better suited to deliver these services. Significant risk is associated with this position as there is little objective data to support these views. To identify which <span class="hlt">species</span> were likely to be planted to deliver ecosystem services, a survey was distributed to examine stakeholder perceptions. Stakeholders were asked which of 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> attributes contributed to the provision of five ecosystem services (amenity value, bioenergy production, carbon capture, the diversity of native habitat, and erosion control/water quality) and to identify which of 22 candidate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> possessed those attributes. These data were combined to identify the <span class="hlt">species</span> perceived most suitable for the delivery of each ecosystem service. Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. closely matched the stakeholder derived ideotypes associated with all five ecosystem services. Comparisons to data from growth, physiological and ecological studies demonstrated that many of the opinions held by stakeholders were inaccurate, leading to erroneous assumptions regarding the suitability of most candidate <span class="hlt">species</span>. Stakeholder perceptions substantially influence <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> selection, and plantations established on the basis of inaccurate opinions are unlikely to deliver the desired outcomes. Attitudinal surveys associated with engagement campaigns are essential to improve stakeholder knowledge, advancing the development of fit-for-purpose forest management that provides the required ecosystem services. PMID:24488084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/~matzlx/papers/Poster_ZHANGLX.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/~matzlx/papers/Poster_ZHANGLX.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">192 No. 95 Zhang Inferring a <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Tree</span> from Gene <span class="hlt">Trees</span> under the</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Zhang, Louxin</p> <p></p> <p>of s and s is defined to be the smallest node s S such that s , s s, which is denoted by lca(s , s ). For any node g G, we define M(g) as M(g) = g, g L(G) lca(M(a(g)), M(b(g))), g L(G). This correspondence M will be called the lca mapping from G to S. Under the lca mapping M from G to S, if a <span class="hlt">species</span> branch e</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197495"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal and seasonal carbon balance of four tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> differing in successional status.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Souza, G M; Ribeiro, R V; Sato, A M; Oliveira, M S</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae) and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) as light-demanding pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span>, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) as late successional <span class="hlt">species</span>, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi) of late successional <span class="hlt">species</span> were similar to pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span>. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional <span class="hlt">species</span> in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all <span class="hlt">species</span> in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi) was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of <span class="hlt">species</span>. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season) under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional <span class="hlt">species</span> in November (wet season), showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality. PMID:19197495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9950I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9950I"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf and whole-<span class="hlt">tree</span> water use relations of Australian rainforest <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishida, Yoko; Laurance, Susan; Liddell, Michael; Lloyd, Jonathan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Climate change induces drought events and may therefore cause significant impact on tropical rainforests, where most plants are reliant on high water availability - potentially affecting the distribution, composition and abundance of plant <span class="hlt">species</span>. Using an experimental approach, we are studying the effects of a simulated drought on lowland rainforest plants at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO), in tropical northern Australia. Before to build up the rainout infrastructure, we installed sap flow meters (HRM) on 62 rainforest <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Eight <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were selected with diverse ecological strategies including wood density values ranging from 0.34 to 0.88 g/cm3 and could be replicated within a 1ha plot: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Argyrondendron peralatum (Malvaceae), Elaeocarpus angustifolius (Elaeocarpaceae), Endiandra microneura (Lauraceae), Myristica globosa (Myristicaceae), Syzygium graveolens (Myrtaceae), Normanbya normanbyi (Arecaceae), and Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae). Our preliminary results from sap flow data obtained from October 2013 to December of 2014 showed differences in the amount of water used by our <span class="hlt">trees</span> varied in response to <span class="hlt">species</span>, size and climate. For example Syzygium graveolens has used a maximum of 60 litres/day while Argyrondendrum peralatum used 13 litres/day. Other potential causes for differential water-use between <span class="hlt">species</span> and the implications of our research will be discussed. We will continue to monitor sap flow during the rainfall exclusion (2014 to 2016) to determine the effects of plant physiological traits on water use strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..228R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatGe...8..228R"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Brendan M.; Soja, Amber J.; Goulden, Michael L.; Randerson, James T.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and their key drivers. Eurasian fires were less intense, destroyed less live vegetation, killed fewer <span class="hlt">trees</span> and generated a smaller negative shortwave forcing. As fire weather conditions were similar across continents, we suggest that different fire dynamics between the two continents resulted from their dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. In particular, <span class="hlt">species</span> that have evolved to spread and be consumed by crown fires as part of their life cycle dominate North American boreal forests. In contrast, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that have evolved to resist and suppress crown fires dominate Eurasian boreal forests. We conclude that <span class="hlt">species</span>-level traits must be considered in global evaluations of the effects of fire on emissions and climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/318771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/318771"><span id="translatedtitle">How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bassow, S.L.; Bazzaz, F.A.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Species</span> composition of temperate forests vary with successional age and seems likely to change in response to significant global climate change. Because photosynthesis rates in co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can differ in their sensitivity to environmental conditions, these changes in <span class="hlt">species</span> composition are likely to alter the carbon dynamics of temperate forests. To help improve their understanding of such atmosphere-biosphere interactions, the authors explored changes in leaf-level photosynthesis in a 60--70 yr old temperate mixed-deciduous forest in Petersham, Massachusetts (USA). Diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions differentially influenced in situ leaf-level photosynthesis rates in the canopies of four mature temperate deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The authors measured in situ photosynthesis at two heights within the canopies through a diurnal time course on 7 d over two growing seasons. They simultaneously measured a suite of environmental conditions surrounding the leaf at the time of each measurement. The authors used path analysis to examine the influence of environmental factors on in situ photosynthesis in the <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324066','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4324066"><span id="translatedtitle">Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>While most temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few <span class="hlt">species</span> have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal differences between EM and AM <span class="hlt">trees</span>. We further assessed the evidence of convergence or divergence in root traits among the six co-occurring <span class="hlt">species</span>. Eight fine root morphological and chemical traits were investigated in root segments of the first to fourth root order in three different soil depths and the relative importance of the factors root order, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and soil depth for root morphology was determined. Root order was more influential than <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> while soil depth had only a small effect on root morphology All six <span class="hlt">species</span> showed similar decreases in specific root length and specific root area from the 1st to the 4th root order, while the <span class="hlt">species</span> patterns differed considerably in root tissue density, root N concentration, and particularly with respect to root tip abundance. Most root morphological traits were not significantly different between EM and AM <span class="hlt">species</span> (except for specific root area that was larger in AM <span class="hlt">species</span>), indicating that mycorrhiza type is not a key factor influencing fine root morphology in these <span class="hlt">species</span>. The order-based root analysis detected <span class="hlt">species</span> differences more clearly than the simple analysis of bulked fine root mass. Despite convergence in important root traits among AM and EM <span class="hlt">species</span>, even congeneric <span class="hlt">species</span> may differ in certain fine root morphological traits. This suggests that, in general, <span class="hlt">species</span> identity has a larger influence on fine root morphology than mycorrhiza type. PMID:25717334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23649755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23649755"><span id="translatedtitle">Xylem cavitation vulnerability influences <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>' habitat preferences in miombo woodlands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Fisher, Joshua B; Brown, Nick; Brodribb, Timothy J; Aragao, Luiz E</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Although precipitation plays a central role in structuring Africa's miombo woodlands, remarkably little is known about plant-water relations in this seasonally dry tropical forest. Therefore, in this study, we investigated xylem vulnerability to cavitation for nine principal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of miombo woodlands, which differ in habitat preference and leaf phenology. We measured cavitation vulnerability (?(50)), stem-area specific hydraulic conductivity (K S), leaf specific conductivity (K L), seasonal variation in predawn water potential (?(PD)) and xylem anatomical properties [mean vessel diameter, mean hydraulic diameter, mean hydraulic diameter accounting for 95 % flow, and maximum vessel length (V L)]. Results show that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with a narrow habitat range (mesic specialists) were more vulnerable to cavitation than <span class="hlt">species</span> with a wide habitat range (generalists). ?(50) for mesic specialists ranged between -1.5 and -2.2 MPa and that for generalists between -2.5 and -3.6 MPa. While mesic specialists exhibited the lowest seasonal variation in ?(PD), generalists displayed significant seasonal variations in ?(PD) suggesting that the two miombo habitat groups differ in their rooting depth. We observed a strong trade-off between K S and ?(50) suggesting that <span class="hlt">tree</span> hydraulic architecture is one of the decisive factors setting ecological boundaries for principal miombo <span class="hlt">species</span>. While vessel diameters correlated weakly (P > 0.05) with ?(50), V L was positively and significantly correlated with ?(50). ?(PD) was significantly correlated with ?(50) further reinforcing the conclusion that <span class="hlt">tree</span> hydraulic architecture plays a significant role in <span class="hlt">species</span>' habitat preference in miombo woodlands. PMID:23649755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53K..02D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B53K..02D"><span id="translatedtitle">Within-stand variability of leaf phenology in deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: characterization and ecological implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delpierre, N.; Cecchini, S.; Dufrêne, E.; Guillemot, J.; Nicolas, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The vast majority of phenological studies address questions relative to the spatial or temporal variability of phenological timings integrated at the forest stand (i.e. <span class="hlt">tree</span> population) scale. Within a forest stand, the inter-individual variability of phenological timings is expected to affect a range of <span class="hlt">tree</span> functions among which the access to light, the use of carbon and nitrogen reserves, the absorption of minerals and the sensitivity to pathogens. Hence the individual's phenological traits are likely to be strongly selected, resulting in an adaptation of the population to local conditions, as evidenced by latitudinal and altitudinal clines observed in common garden experiments. Studies dedicated to the within-stand variability of the timing of phenophases have to date been mostly designed for contrasting the behaviours of understory versus overstory <span class="hlt">species</span> or seedlings compared to their adult conspecifics. The few published papers studying the phenological timings among adult conspecifics revealed unclear patterns. We aimed at clarifying the understanding of the within-stand variability of <span class="hlt">tree</span> phenology of three of the main European deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> (Quercus petraea, Quercus robur and Fagus sylvatica) through the analysis of a unique phenological database collected over 44 (28 Oak sites, 16 Beech stands) forest stands at the <span class="hlt">tree</span> level for 4 years over France. We show that within a forest stand, individual <span class="hlt">trees</span> have a distinct "phenological identity" resulting in a year to year conservation of (a) the individuals' spring and autumn phenological rankings and (b) the individuals' critical temperature sums required for budburst and senescence. The individual's spring "phenological identity" affects its functioning and, ultimately, its competitive ability: big <span class="hlt">trees</span> burst earlier. Acknowledging that Angiosperms show low genetic diversity between populations, we show that the between-site variability of critical temperature sums needed for budburst or senescence is low. We show that this between-site variability is linked to climate and geographical gradients, which suggest local adaptations of the populations' phenological traits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..473F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ISPAr.XL3..473F"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Use of Shortwave Infrared for <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Discrimination in Tropical Semideciduous Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferreira, M. P.; Zortea, M.; Zanotta, D. C.; Féret, J. B.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Souza Filho, C. R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping in tropical forests provides valuable insights for forest managers. Keystone <span class="hlt">species</span> can be located for collection of seeds for forest restoration, reducing fieldwork costs. However, mapping of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in tropical forests using remote sensing data is a challenge due to high floristic and spectral diversity. Little is known about the use of different spectral regions as most of studies performed so far used visible/near-infrared (390-1000 nm) features. In this paper we show the contribution of shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1045-2395 nm) for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> discrimination in a tropical semideciduous forest. Using high-resolution hyperspectral data we also simulated WorldView-3 (WV-3) multispectral bands for classification purposes. Three machine learning methods were tested to discriminate <span class="hlt">species</span> at the pixel-level: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machines with Linear (L-SVM) and Radial Basis Function (RBF-SVM) kernels, and Random Forest (RF). Experiments were performed using all and selected features from the VNIR individually and combined with SWIR. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the effects of dimensionality reduction and identify potential wavelengths that may optimize <span class="hlt">species</span> discrimination. Using VNIR hyperspectral bands, RBF-SVM achieved the highest average accuracy (77.4%). Inclusion of the SWIR increased accuracy to 85% with LDA. The same pattern was also observed when WV-3 simulated channels were used to classify the <span class="hlt">species</span>. The VNIR bands provided and accuracy of 64.2% for LDA, which was increased to 79.8 % using the new SWIR bands that are operationally available in this platform. Results show that incorporating SWIR bands increased significantly average accuracy for both the hyperspectral data and WorldView-3 simulated bands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255775','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255775"><span id="translatedtitle">Multispecies Coalescent Analysis of the Early Diversification of Neotropical Primates: Phylogenetic Inference under Strong Gene <span class="hlt">Trees/Species</span> <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Conflict</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schrago, Carlos G.; Menezes, Albert N.; Furtado, Carolina; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Seuanez, Hector N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Neotropical primates (NP) are presently distributed in the New World from Mexico to northern Argentina, comprising three large families, Cebidae, Atelidae, and Pitheciidae, consequently to their diversification following their separation from Old World anthropoids near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, some 40 Ma. The evolution of NP has been intensively investigated in the last decade by studies focusing on their phylogeny and timescale. However, despite major efforts, the phylogenetic relationship between these three major clades and the age of their last common ancestor are still controversial because these inferences were based on limited numbers of loci and dating analyses that did not consider the evolutionary variation associated with the distribution of gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> within the proposed phylogenies. We show, by multispecies coalescent analyses of selected genome segments, spanning along 92,496,904 bp that the early diversification of extant NP was marked by a 2-fold increase of their effective population size and that Atelids and Cebids are more closely related respective to Pitheciids. The molecular phylogeny of NP has been difficult to solve because of population-level phenomena at the early evolution of the lineage. The association of evolutionary variation with the distribution of gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> within proposed phylogenies is crucial for distinguishing the mean genetic divergence between <span class="hlt">species</span> (the mean coalescent time between loci) from speciation time. This approach, based on extensive genomic data provided by new generation DNA sequencing, provides more accurate reconstructions of phylogenies and timescales for all organisms. PMID:25377940</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12743794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12743794"><span id="translatedtitle">Does flood tolerance explain <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution in tropical seasonally flooded habitats?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lopez, Omar R; Kursar, Thomas A</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>In the tropics, seasonally flooded forests (SFF) harbor fewer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> than terra firme (i.e. non-flooded) forests. The low <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity of tropical flooded forests has been ascribed to the paucity of <span class="hlt">species</span> with adaptations to tolerate flooding. To test the hypothesis that flooding is the only factor restricting most <span class="hlt">species</span> from SFF, we compared plant morphological and physiological responses to flooding in 2-month old seedlings of 6 <span class="hlt">species</span> common to SFF and 12 <span class="hlt">species</span> common to terra firme forests. Although flooding impaired growth, total biomass, maximum root length and stomatal conductance in most <span class="hlt">species</span>, responses varied greatly and were <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific. For example, after 90 days, flooding reduced leaf area growth by 10-50% in all <span class="hlt">species</span>, except in Tabebuia, a common <span class="hlt">species</span> from non-flooded habitats. Similarly, flooding had a 5-45% negative effect on total biomass for all <span class="hlt">species</span>, except in 1 SFF and 1 terra firme <span class="hlt">species</span> both of which had more biomass under flooding. A principal component analysis, using the above responses to flooding, provided no evidence that SFF and terra firme <span class="hlt">species</span> differed in their responses to flooding. Flooding also caused reductions in root growth for most <span class="hlt">species</span>. Rooting depth and root: shoot ratios were significantly less affected by flooding in SFF than in terra firme <span class="hlt">species</span>. Although flood tolerance is critical for survival in flooded habitats, we hypothesize that responses to post-flooding events such as drought might be equally important in seasonal habitats. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to grow roots under anoxia might be critical in predicting success in inundated habitats that also experience a strong dry season. PMID:12743794</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118849','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4118849"><span id="translatedtitle">Epigenetic Variability in the Genetically Uniform Forest <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Pinus pinea L</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sáez-Laguna, Enrique; Guevara, María-Ángeles; Díaz, Luis-Manuel; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Collada, Carmen; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>There is an increasing interest in understanding the role of epigenetic variability in forest <span class="hlt">species</span> and how it may contribute to their rapid adaptation to changing environments. In this study we have conducted a genome-wide analysis of cytosine methylation pattern in Pinus pinea, a <span class="hlt">species</span> characterized by very low levels of genetic variation and a remarkable degree of phenotypic plasticity. DNA methylation profiles of different vegetatively propagated <span class="hlt">trees</span> from representative natural Spanish populations of P. pinea were analyzed with the Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. A high degree of cytosine methylation was detected (64.36% of all scored DNA fragments). Furthermore, high levels of epigenetic variation were observed among the studied individuals. This high epigenetic variation found in P. pinea contrasted with the lack of genetic variation based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. In this manner, variable epigenetic markers clearly discriminate individuals and differentiates two well represented populations while the lack of genetic variation revealed with the AFLP markers fail to differentiate at both, individual or population levels. In addition, the use of different replicated <span class="hlt">trees</span> allowed identifying common polymorphic methylation sensitive MSAP markers among replicates of a given propagated <span class="hlt">tree</span>. This set of MSAPs allowed discrimination of the 70% of the analyzed <span class="hlt">trees</span>. PMID:25084460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25811074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25811074"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental evidence of large changes in terrestrial chlorine cycling following altered <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montelius, Malin; Thiry, Yves; Marang, Laura; Ranger, Jacques; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>Organochlorine molecules (Clorg) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl(-)) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Clorg and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Clorg, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl(-) and Clorg after 30 years were highly dependent on which <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl(-) and Clorg content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous <span class="hlt">trees</span> than in those with deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl(-) and Clorg over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl(-) and Clorg storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl(-) and Clorg in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:25811074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25424149"><span id="translatedtitle">Heterogeneity in soil water and light environments and dispersal limitation: what facilitates <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence in a temperate forest?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masaki, T; Hata, S; Ide, Y</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In the present study, we analysed the habitat association of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in an old-growth temperate forest across all life stages to test theories on the coexistence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in forest communities. An inventory for <span class="hlt">trees</span> was implemented at a 6-ha plot in Ogawa Forest Reserve for adults, juveniles, saplings and seedlings. Volumetric soil water content (SMC) and light levels were measured in 10-m grids. Relationships between the actual number of stems and environmental variables were determined for 35 major <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and the spatial correlations within and among <span class="hlt">species</span> were analysed. The light level had no statistically significant effect on distribution of saplings and seedlings of any <span class="hlt">species</span>. In contrast, most <span class="hlt">species</span> had specific optimal values along the SMC gradient. The optimal values were almost identical in earlier life stages, but were more variable in later life stages among <span class="hlt">species</span>. However, no effective niche partitioning among the <span class="hlt">species</span> was apparent even at the adult stage. Furthermore, results of spatial analyses suggest that dispersal limitation was not sufficient to mitigate competition between <span class="hlt">species</span>. This might result from well-scattered seed distribution via wind and bird dispersal, as well as conspecific density-dependent mortality of seeds and seedlings. Thus, both niche partitioning and dispersal limitation appeared less important for facilitating coexistence of <span class="hlt">species</span> within this forest than expected in tropical forests. The <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assembly in this temperate forest might be controlled through a neutral process at the spatial scale tested in this study. PMID:25424149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23416882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23416882"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing lead absorption by the sycamore <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the industrial park of Rasht, Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hashemi, Seyed Armin; FallahChay, Mir Mozaffar; Tarighi, Fattaneh</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>In this study, the subject of heavy metal concentration in soil, rock, sediment, surface water and groundwater, which can be caused by natural or man-posed pollution, was analyzed in the industrial park of Rasht. These concentrations were compared with the standard range of environmental data. Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants that can cause health hazards to humans, plants and microorganisms by entering food chain. This study aimed to investigate the absorption of lead by the leaves of sycamore <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the industrial park of Rasht. For this purpose, a sample of 32 sycamore <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were randomly selected at a specified time, and the concentration of lead were measured using an atomic absorption device. Results showed that the amount of lead absorption by sycamore leaves is remarkable. The highest amount of lead absorption by sycamore leaves was detected at station 1 (Khazar Steel) and the lowest amount at station 2 (control station). PMID:23416882</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15092455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15092455"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of chlorine pollution on three fruit <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at Ranoli near Baroda, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vijayan, R; Bedi, S J</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the effect of chlorine pollution from an alkalies and chemical plant at Ranoli, near Baroda, on three tropical fruit <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-Mangifera indica L. (mango) Manilkara hexandra Dubard. (rayan) and Syzygium cumini Skeels (Jamun). As compared to controls growing in a less polluted area, <span class="hlt">trees</span> growing close to the plant showed reduced mean leaf area, a higher percentage of leaf area damaged, a reduction in fruit yield, chlorophyll pigments, protein and carbohydrate content, and higher accumulation of chloride in the foliar tissues. The accumulation of pollutaant, chloride, in the foliar tissues was very high in mango and jamun. Based on the degree of damage to the plants, the <span class="hlt">species</span> studied were arranged in decreasing order of their sensitivity to chlorine pollution-mango, jamun and rayan. PMID:15092455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21971584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21971584"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host <span class="hlt">trees</span> and performance of two outbreak insect <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Lindroth, Richard L</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on the foliar quality of two deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and the performance of two outbreak herbivore <span class="hlt">species</span>. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE research site in northern Wisconsin, USA, under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO(2) and O(3). We measured the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on aspen and birch phytochemistry and on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) performance. Elevated CO(2) nominally affected foliar quality for both <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Elevated O(3) negatively affected aspen foliar quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO(2) slightly improved herbivore performance, while elevated O(3) decreased herbivore performance, and both responses were stronger on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO(2) largely offset decreased herbivore performance under elevated O(3). Nitrogen, lignin, and C:N were identified as having strong influences on herbivore performance when larvae were fed aspen, but no significant relationships were observed for insects fed birch. Our results support the notion that herbivore performance can be affected by atmospheric change through altered foliar quality, but how herbivores will respond will depend on interactions among CO(2), O(3), and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. An emergent finding from this study is that <span class="hlt">tree</span> age and longevity of exposure to pollutants may influence the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant-herbivore interactions, highlighting the need to continue long-term atmospheric change research. PMID:21971584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383566','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4383566"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Drought and Shade on the Performance, Morphology and Physiology of Ghanaian <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Amissah, Lucy; Mohren, Godefridus M. J.; Kyereh, Boateng; Poorter, Lourens</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In tropical forests light and water availability are the most important factors for seedling growth and survival but an increasing frequency of drought may affect <span class="hlt">tree</span> regeneration. One central question is whether drought and shade have interactive effects on seedling growth and survival. Here, we present results of a greenhouse experiment, in which seedlings of 10 Ghanaian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were exposed to combinations of strong seasonal drought (continuous watering versus withholding water for nine weeks) and shade (5% irradiance versus 20% irradiance). We evaluated the effects of drought and shade on seedling survival and growth and plasticity of 11 underlying traits related to biomass allocation, morphology and physiology. Seedling survival under dry conditions was higher in shade than in high light, thus providing support for the “facilitation hypothesis” that shade enhances plant performance through improved microclimatic conditions, and rejecting the trade-off hypothesis that drought should have stronger impact in shade because of reduced root investment. Shaded plants had low biomass fraction in roots, in line with the trade-off hypothesis, but they compensated for this with a higher specific root length (i.e., root length per unit root mass), resulting in a similar root length per plant mass and, hence, similar water uptake capacity as high-light plants. The majority (60%) of traits studied responded independently to drought and shade, indicating that within <span class="hlt">species</span> shade- and drought tolerances are not in trade-off, but largely uncoupled. When individual <span class="hlt">species</span> responses were analysed, then for most of the traits only one to three <span class="hlt">species</span> showed significant interactive effects between drought and shade. The uncoupled response of most <span class="hlt">species</span> to drought and shade should provide ample opportunity for niche differentiation and <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence under a range of water and light conditions. Overall our greenhouse results suggest that, in the absence of root competition shaded tropical forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> seedlings may be able to survive prolonged drought. PMID:25836337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16137941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16137941"><span id="translatedtitle">Interspecific variation in xylem vulnerability to cavitation among tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> and shrub <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lopez, Omar R; Kursar, Thomas A; Cochard, Hervé; Tyree, Melvin T</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>In tropical moist forests, seasonal drought limits plant survival, productivity and diversity. Drought-tolerance mechanisms of tropical <span class="hlt">species</span> should reflect the maximum seasonal water deficits experienced in a particular habitat. We investigated stem xylem vulnerability to cavitation in nine tropical <span class="hlt">species</span> with different life histories and habitat associations. Stem xylem vulnerability was scored as the xylem water potential causing 50 and 75% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P50 and P75, respectively). Four shade-tolerant shrubs ranged from moderately resistant (P50=-1.9 MPa for Ouratea lucens Kunth. Engl.) to highly resistant to cavitation (P50=-4.1 MPa for Psychotria horizontalis Sw.), with shallow-rooted <span class="hlt">species</span> being the most resistant. Among the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, those characteristic of waterlogged soils, Carapa guianensis Aubl., Prioria copaifera Griseb. and Ficus citrifolia Mill., were the most vulnerable to cavitation (P50=-0.8 to -1.6 MPa). The wet-season, deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.) Oken., had resistant xylem (P50=-3.2 MPa), whereas the dry-season, deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. was among the most vulnerable to cavitation (P50=-0.8 MPa) of the <span class="hlt">species</span> studied. For eight out of the nine study <span class="hlt">species</span>, previously reported minimum seasonal leaf water potentials measured in the field during periods of drought correlated with our P50 and P75 values. Rooting depth, deciduousness, soil type and growth habit might also contribute to desiccation tolerance. Our results support the functional dependence of drought tolerance on xylem resistance to cavitation. PMID:16137941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836337"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of drought and shade on the performance, morphology and physiology of Ghanaian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amissah, Lucy; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Kyereh, Boateng; Poorter, Lourens</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In tropical forests light and water availability are the most important factors for seedling growth and survival but an increasing frequency of drought may affect <span class="hlt">tree</span> regeneration. One central question is whether drought and shade have interactive effects on seedling growth and survival. Here, we present results of a greenhouse experiment, in which seedlings of 10 Ghanaian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were exposed to combinations of strong seasonal drought (continuous watering versus withholding water for nine weeks) and shade (5% irradiance versus 20% irradiance). We evaluated the effects of drought and shade on seedling survival and growth and plasticity of 11 underlying traits related to biomass allocation, morphology and physiology. Seedling survival under dry conditions was higher in shade than in high light, thus providing support for the "facilitation hypothesis" that shade enhances plant performance through improved microclimatic conditions, and rejecting the trade-off hypothesis that drought should have stronger impact in shade because of reduced root investment. Shaded plants had low biomass fraction in roots, in line with the trade-off hypothesis, but they compensated for this with a higher specific root length (i.e., root length per unit root mass), resulting in a similar root length per plant mass and, hence, similar water uptake capacity as high-light plants. The majority (60%) of traits studied responded independently to drought and shade, indicating that within <span class="hlt">species</span> shade- and drought tolerances are not in trade-off, but largely uncoupled. When individual <span class="hlt">species</span> responses were analysed, then for most of the traits only one to three <span class="hlt">species</span> showed significant interactive effects between drought and shade. The uncoupled response of most <span class="hlt">species</span> to drought and shade should provide ample opportunity for niche differentiation and <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence under a range of water and light conditions. Overall our greenhouse results suggest that, in the absence of root competition shaded tropical forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> seedlings may be able to survive prolonged drought. PMID:25836337</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19882174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19882174"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine root decomposition rates do not mirror those of leaf litter among temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Eissenstat, David M; Reich, Peter B</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Elucidating the function of and patterns among plant traits above ground has been a major research focus, while the patterns and functioning of belowground traits remain less well understood. Even less well known is whether <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in leaf traits and their associated biogeochemical effects are mirrored by differences in root traits and their effects. We studied fine root decomposition and N dynamics in a common garden study of 11 temperate European and North American <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra and Tilia cordata) to determine whether leaf litter and fine root decomposition rates are correlated across <span class="hlt">species</span> as well as which <span class="hlt">species</span> traits influence microbial decomposition above versus below ground. Decomposition and N immobilization rates of fine roots were unrelated to those of leaf litter across <span class="hlt">species</span>. The lack of correspondence of above- and belowground processes arose partly because the tissue traits that influenced decomposition and detritus N dynamics different for roots versus leaves, and partly because influential traits were unrelated between roots and leaves across <span class="hlt">species</span>. For example, while high hemicellulose concentrations and thinner roots were associated with more rapid decomposition below ground, low lignin and high Ca concentrations were associated with rapid aboveground leaf decomposition. Our study suggests that among these temperate <span class="hlt">trees</span>, <span class="hlt">species</span> effects on C and N dynamics in decomposing fine roots and leaf litter may not reinforce each other. Thus, <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in rates of microbially mediated decomposition may not be as large as they would be if above- and belowground processes were working in similar directions (i.e., if faster decomposition above ground corresponded to faster decomposition below ground). Our results imply that studies that focus solely on aboveground traits may obscure some of the important mechanisms by which plant <span class="hlt">species</span> influence ecosystem processes. PMID:19882174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3612601','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3612601"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span> distributions in response to individual soil nutrients and seasonal drought across a community of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Condit, Richard; Engelbrecht, Bettina M. J.; Pino, Delicia; Pérez, Rolando; Turner, Benjamin L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Tropical forest vegetation is shaped by climate and by soil, but understanding how the distributions of individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> respond to specific resources has been hindered by high diversity and consequent rarity. To study <span class="hlt">species</span> over an entire community, we surveyed <span class="hlt">trees</span> and measured soil chemistry across climatic and geological gradients in central Panama and then used a unique hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">species</span> occurrence as a function of rainfall and soil chemistry to circumvent analytical difficulties posed by rare <span class="hlt">species</span>. The results are a quantitative assessment of the responses of 550 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to eight environmental factors, providing a measure of the importance of each factor across the entire <span class="hlt">tree</span> community. Dry-season intensity and soil phosphorus were the strongest predictors, each affecting the distribution of more than half of the <span class="hlt">species</span>. Although we anticipated clear-cut responses to dry-season intensity, the finding that many <span class="hlt">species</span> have pronounced associations with either high or low phosphorus reveals a previously unquantified role for this nutrient in limiting tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> distributions. The results provide the data necessary for understanding distributional limits of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and predicting future changes in forest composition. PMID:23440213</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410046C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410046C"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the <span class="hlt">species</span> is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1011037L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1011037L"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on Taihang Mountain, North China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variance in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 through April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil CO2 and N2O fluxes were significantly correlated with soil organic carbon, total N, and soil bulk density, while soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter resulted in significant decreases in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes, but had no significant influence on N2O fluxes. Soils in six <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, Soils in all sites acted as sinks for atmospheric N2O. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> had a significant effect on CO2 and N2O fluxes but not on CH4 uptake. The lower net global warming potential in natural regenerated vegetation suggested that natural regenerated vegetation were more desirable plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in reducing global warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3308K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3308K"><span id="translatedtitle">On the functional role of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in two forest ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kutsch, Werner Leo; Herbst, Mathias; Liu, Chunjiang</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Ecosystems can be characterized in different ways depending on the point of view or the scientific background. Summarizing these views, one can describe ecosystems by their structure and metabolism. The <span class="hlt">species</span> composition is part of the ecosystem structure. Moreover, ecosystem structures are detailed by biomass or soil and canopy architecture. Ecosystem metabolism represents the functional side. It can be described by primary production, nutrient retention, or control and use of water resources. Structure and function are connected. The biomass that is produced by the ecosystem metabolism is used to construct the ecosystem structure, which vice versa the structure controls the efficiency of the ecosystem metabolism. One hypothesis is that ecosystems with many <span class="hlt">species</span> provide a more efficient metabolism than ecosystems with fewer <span class="hlt">species</span>. We tested this hypothesis by using two ecosystems functional parameters in several deciduous forest ecosystems. The first example are possible relations between canopy carbon uptake capacity (FP,max) as measured with the eddy covariance technique (ecosystem metabolism) and LAI as well as spatial and temporal variability of leaf traits (ecosystem structure). We investigated leaf traits of four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a mixed deciduous forest in northern Germany in search for an explanation for the differences in canopy photosynthetic capacity between different forest sectors consisting of different <span class="hlt">species</span> and <span class="hlt">species</span> numbers (Quercus robur + Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior + Alnus glutinosa, pure Fagus sylvatica). We identified leaf traits that were adjusted to the canopy light profile in <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific ways, and for these traits the plasticity indices were calculated. Canopy photosynthetic capacity did neither correlate with leaf area index (LAI) alone nor with canopy plasticity indices which were almost similar between the three sectors although it differed at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level. It is suggested that the spatial variability of FP,max in deciduous forests can be explained by a combined effect of LAI and some <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific reference leaf traits, rather than by the plasticity index or by pure LAI. In a second study we compared a mixed canopy of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior to a pure Fagus sylvatica stand during a drought period in summer 2006. Leaf gas exchange measurements suggested that beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> responded faster and stronger to soil drought and changed stomatal sensitivity to leaf to air water vapour pressure deficit, while ash <span class="hlt">trees</span> remained more progressive. Scaling these results in a modelling approach resulted in an lower impact of drought in a two-<span class="hlt">species</span> canopy than in a beech monoculture and an increase of the Fraxinus contribution to total ecosystem carbon uptake. Both results support the hypothesis that multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> canopies may buffer unfavourable environmental constraints and increase efficiency in the use of resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300786"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and chemical characterization of hardwood from <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with applications as bioenergy feedstocks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Holmes, Bradley M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Eucalypt <span class="hlt">species</span> are a group of flowering <span class="hlt">trees</span> widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for use as biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:23300786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3532498','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3532498"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and Chemical Characterization of Hardwood from <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> with Applications as Bioenergy Feedstocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Çetinkol, Özgül Persil; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Cheng, Gang; Lao, Jeemeng; George, Anthe; Hong, Kunlun; Henry, Robert; Simmons, Blake A.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Holmes, Bradley M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Eucalypt <span class="hlt">species</span> are a group of flowering <span class="hlt">trees</span> widely used in pulp production for paper manufacture. For several decades, the wood pulp industry has focused research and development efforts on improving yields, growth rates and pulp quality through breeding and the genetic improvement of key <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Recently, this focus has shifted from the production of high quality pulps to the investigation of the use of eucalypts as feedstocks for biofuel production. Here the structure and chemical composition of the heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus dunnii, E. globulus, E. pillularis, E. urophylla, an E. urophylla-E. grandis cross, Corymbia citriodora ssp. variegata, and Acacia mangium were compared using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and biochemical composition analysis. Some trends relating to these compositions were also identified by Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. These results will serve as a foundation for a more comprehensive database of wood properties that will help develop criteria for the selection of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for use as biorefinery feedstocks. PMID:23300786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19997929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19997929"><span id="translatedtitle">Altered resource availability and the population dynamics of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Amazonian secondary forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fortini, Lucas Berio; Bruna, Emilio M; Zarin, Daniel J; Vasconcelos, Steel S; Miranda, Izildinha S</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Despite research demonstrating that water and nutrient availability exert strong effects on multiple ecosystem processes in tropical forests, little is known about the effect of these factors on the demography and population dynamics of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Over the course of 5 years, we monitored two common Amazonian secondary forest <span class="hlt">species</span>-Lacistema pubescens and Myrcia sylvatica-in dry-season irrigation, litter-removal and control plots. We then evaluated the effects of altered water and nutrient availability on population demography and dynamics using matrix models and life table response experiments. Our results show that despite prolonged experimental manipulation of water and nutrient availability, there were nearly no consistent and unidirectional treatment effects on the demography of either <span class="hlt">species</span>. The patterns and significance of observed treatment effects were largely dependent on cross-year variability not related to rainfall patterns, and disappeared once we pooled data across years. Furthermore, most of these transient treatment effects had little effect on population growth rates. Our results suggest that despite major experimental manipulations of water and nutrient availability-factors considered critical to the ecology of tropical pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>-autogenic light limitation appears to be the primary regulator of <span class="hlt">tree</span> demography at early/mid successional stages. Indeed, the effects of light availability may completely override those of other factors thought to influence the successional development of Amazonian secondary forests. PMID:19997929</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21774305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21774305"><span id="translatedtitle">[Dynamic changes of dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in broad-leaved Korean pine forest at different succession stages in Changbai Mountains].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Li-ping; Ji, Lan-zhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Zhi-xuan</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Taking the broad-leaved Korean pine forest stands at four different succession stages after clear-cutting in Changbai Mountains as test objects, this paper studied the change characteristics of community composition and dominant <span class="hlt">species</span>. The <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, Shannon diversity index, and Simpson dominance index at different succession stages had less change, but the evenness and abundance changed greatly. As succession progressed, the community composition changed constantly, i.e., <span class="hlt">species</span> number decreased, while the basal area sum and the maximum importance value of dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> increased, suggesting that the dominance of dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> was continuously improved with succession. In the succession process of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains, Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Phellodendron amurense, Ulmus japonica, and other intolerant or semi-intolerant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> decreased, while Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Acer mono, and other shade-tolerant <span class="hlt">species</span> increased. PMID:21774305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632594','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632594"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of soil-borne pathogens depends on the abundance of host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Fang, Suqin; Chesson, Peter; He, Fangliang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The overarching issue for understanding biodiversity maintenance is how fitness advantages accrue to a <span class="hlt">species</span> as it becomes rare, as this is the defining feature of stable coexistence mechanisms. Without these fitness advantages, average fitness differences between <span class="hlt">species</span> will lead to exclusion. However, empirical evidence is lacking, especially for forests, due to the difficulty of manipulating density on a large-enough scale. Here we took advantage of naturally occurring contrasts in abundance between sites of a subtropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Ormosia glaberrima, to demonstrate how low-density fitness advantages accrue by the Janzen-Connell mechanism. The results showed that soil pathogens suppressed seedling recruitment of O. glaberrima when it is abundant but had little effect on the seedlings when it is at low density due to the lack of pathogens. The difference in seedling survival between abundant and low-density sites demonstrates strong dependence of pathogenic effect on the abundance of host <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:26632594</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686666','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4686666"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of soil-borne pathogens depends on the abundance of host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Yu; Fang, Suqin; Chesson, Peter; He, Fangliang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The overarching issue for understanding biodiversity maintenance is how fitness advantages accrue to a <span class="hlt">species</span> as it becomes rare, as this is the defining feature of stable coexistence mechanisms. Without these fitness advantages, average fitness differences between <span class="hlt">species</span> will lead to exclusion. However, empirical evidence is lacking, especially for forests, due to the difficulty of manipulating density on a large-enough scale. Here we took advantage of naturally occurring contrasts in abundance between sites of a subtropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Ormosia glaberrima, to demonstrate how low-density fitness advantages accrue by the Janzen–Connell mechanism. The results showed that soil pathogens suppressed seedling recruitment of O. glaberrima when it is abundant but had little effect on the seedlings when it is at low density due to the lack of pathogens. The difference in seedling survival between abundant and low-density sites demonstrates strong dependence of pathogenic effect on the abundance of host <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:26632594</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://joelvelasco.net/Papers/The%20Internodal%20Species%20Concept.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://joelvelasco.net/Papers/The%20Internodal%20Species%20Concept.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The internodal <span class="hlt">species</span> concept: a response to `The <span class="hlt">tree</span>, the network, and the <span class="hlt">species</span>'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Velasco, Joel D.</p> <p></p> <p>event).'. Kornet (1993) gives a formalization that intuitively matches well with the internodal concept for classification, <span class="hlt">species</span> membership must be completely fixed by the giant, or global genealogical network (GGN</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23306421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23306421"><span id="translatedtitle">Fruit production in three masting <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> does not rely on stored carbon reserves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoch, Günter; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Keel, Sonja G; Körner, Christian; Han, Qingmin</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Fruiting is typically considered to massively burden the seasonal carbon budget of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The cost of reproduction has therefore been suggested as a proximate factor explaining observed mast-fruiting patterns. Here, we used a large-scale, continuous (13)C labeling of mature, deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span> in a temperate Swiss forest to investigate to what extent fruit formation in three <span class="hlt">species</span> with masting reproduction behavior (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea) relies on the import of stored carbon reserves. Using a free-air CO2 enrichment system, we exposed <span class="hlt">trees</span> to (13)C-depleted CO2 during 8 consecutive years. By the end of this experiment, carbon reserve pools had significantly lower ?(13)C values compared to control <span class="hlt">trees</span>. ?(13)C analysis of new biomass during the first season after termination of the CO2 enrichment allowed us to distinguish the sources of built-in carbon (old carbon reserves vs. current assimilates). Flowers and expanding leaves carried a significant (13)C label from old carbon stores. In contrast, fruits and vegetative infructescence tissues were exclusively produced from current, unlabeled photoassimilates in all three <span class="hlt">species</span>, including F. sylvatica, which had a strong masting season. Analyses of ?(13)C in purified starch from xylem of fruit-bearing shoots revealed a complete turn-over of starch during the season, likely due to its usage for bud break. This study is the first to directly demonstrate that fruiting is independent from old carbon reserves in masting <span class="hlt">trees</span>, with significant implications for mechanistic models that explain mast seeding. PMID:23306421</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4070915','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4070915"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf Phenological Characters of Main <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Urban Forest of Shenyang</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Sheng; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei; He, Xingyuan; Huang, Yanqing; Wen, Hua</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Plant leaves, as the main photosynthetic organs and the high energy converters among primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems, have attracted significant research attention. Leaf lifespan is an adaptive characteristic formed by plants to obtain the maximum carbon in the long-term adaption process. It determines important functional and structural characteristics exhibited in the environmental adaptation of plants. However, the leaf lifespan and leaf characteristics of urban forests were not studied up to now. Methods By using statistic, linear regression methods and correlation analysis, leaf phenological characters of main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in urban forest of Shenyang were observed for five years to obtain the leafing phenology (including leafing start time, end time, and duration), defoliating phenology (including defoliation start time, end time, and duration), and the leaf lifespan of the main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Moreover, the relationships between temperature and leafing phenology, defoliating phenology, and leaf lifespan were analyzed. Findings The timing of leafing differed greatly among <span class="hlt">species</span>. The early leafing <span class="hlt">species</span> would have relatively early end of leafing; the longer it took to the end of leafing would have a later time of completed leafing. The timing of defoliation among different <span class="hlt">species</span> varied significantly, the early defoliation <span class="hlt">species</span> would have relatively longer duration of defoliation. If the mean temperature rise for 1°C in spring, the time of leafing would experience 5 days earlier in spring. If the mean temperature decline for 1°C, the time of defoliation would experience 3 days delay in autumn. Interpretation There is significant correlation between leaf longevity and the time of leafing and defoliation. According to correlation analysis and regression analysis, there is significant correlation between temperature and leafing and defoliation phenology. Early leafing <span class="hlt">species</span> would have a longer life span and consequently have advantage on carbon accumulation compared with later defoliation <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24963625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.biology.utah.edu/coley/Kursar%20Publications/25-flood_tol.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.biology.utah.edu/coley/Kursar%20Publications/25-flood_tol.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Summary Many seasonally flooded habitats in the tropics are dominated by one or a few <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We tested the</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Coley, Phyllis</p> <p></p> <p>root depth by 29% in Prioria, but by 61% or more in the <span class="hlt">species</span> from flood-free habitats. Keywords forests patches of low <span class="hlt">tree-species</span> diversity. Frequently, low diversity forests occur in seasonally <span class="hlt">species</span>, including growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, root:shoot ra- tio, maximum root depth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://faculty.umb.edu/liam.revell/pdfs/Reynolds_etal_2014.MPE.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://faculty.umb.edu/liam.revell/pdfs/Reynolds_etal_2014.MPE.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward a <span class="hlt">Tree</span>-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus <span class="hlt">species</span>-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Revell, Liam</p> <p></p> <p>Toward a <span class="hlt">Tree</span>-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus <span class="hlt">species</span>-level phylogeny of boas and pythons are familiar, taxonomy and evolutionary relationships within these families remain published study has produced a <span class="hlt">species</span>-level molecular phylogeny for more than 61% of boa <span class="hlt">species</span> or 65</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561634','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4561634"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental correlates for <span class="hlt">tree</span> occurrences, <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution and richness on a high-elevation tropical island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Birnbaum, Philippe; Ibanez, Thomas; Pouteau, Robin; Vandrot, Hervé; Hequet, Vanessa; Blanchard, Elodie; Jaffré, Tanguy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High-elevation tropical islands are ideally suited for examining the factors that determine <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution, given the complex topographies and climatic gradients that create a wide variety of habitats within relatively small areas. New Caledonia, a megadiverse Pacific archipelago, has long focussed the attention of botanists working on the spatial and environmental ranges of specific groups, but few studies have embraced the entire <span class="hlt">tree</span> flora of the archipelago. In this study we analyse the distribution of 702 native <span class="hlt">species</span> of rainforest <span class="hlt">trees</span> of New Caledonia, belonging to 195 genera and 80 families, along elevation and rainfall gradients on ultramafic (UM) and non-ultramafic (non-UM) substrates. We compiled four complementary data sources: (i) herbarium specimens, (ii) plots, (iii) photographs and (iv) observations, totalling 38 936 unique occurrences distributed across the main island. Compiled into a regular 1-min grid (1.852 × 1.852 km), this dataset covered ?22 % of the island. The studied rainforest <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibited high environmental tolerance; 56 % of them were not affiliated to a substrate type and they exhibited wide elevation (average 891 ± 332 m) and rainfall (average 2.2 ± 0.8 m year?1) ranges. Conversely their spatial distribution was highly aggregated, which suggests dispersal limitation. The observed <span class="hlt">species</span> richness was driven mainly by the density of occurrences. However, at the highest elevations or rainfalls, and particularly on UM, the observed richness tends to be lower, independently of the sampling effort. The study highlights the imbalance of the dataset in favour of higher values of rainfall and of elevation. Projected onto a map, under-represented areas are a guide as to where future sampling efforts are most required to complete our understanding of rainforest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution. PMID:26162898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033546','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033546"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of flooding and sedimentation on seed germination of two bottomland hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pierce, A.R.; King, S.L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by <span class="hlt">species</span>. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by <span class="hlt">species</span>. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162898','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26162898"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental correlates for <span class="hlt">tree</span> occurrences, <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution and richness on a high-elevation tropical island.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Birnbaum, Philippe; Ibanez, Thomas; Pouteau, Robin; Vandrot, Hervé; Hequet, Vanessa; Blanchard, Elodie; Jaffré, Tanguy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>High-elevation tropical islands are ideally suited for examining the factors that determine <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution, given the complex topographies and climatic gradients that create a wide variety of habitats within relatively small areas. New Caledonia, a megadiverse Pacific archipelago, has long focussed the attention of botanists working on the spatial and environmental ranges of specific groups, but few studies have embraced the entire <span class="hlt">tree</span> flora of the archipelago. In this study we analyse the distribution of 702 native <span class="hlt">species</span> of rainforest <span class="hlt">trees</span> of New Caledonia, belonging to 195 genera and 80 families, along elevation and rainfall gradients on ultramafic (UM) and non-ultramafic (non-UM) substrates. We compiled four complementary data sources: (i) herbarium specimens, (ii) plots, (iii) photographs and (iv) observations, totalling 38 936 unique occurrences distributed across the main island. Compiled into a regular 1-min grid (1.852 × 1.852 km), this dataset covered ?22 % of the island. The studied rainforest <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibited high environmental tolerance; 56 % of them were not affiliated to a substrate type and they exhibited wide elevation (average 891 ± 332 m) and rainfall (average 2.2 ± 0.8 m year(-1)) ranges. Conversely their spatial distribution was highly aggregated, which suggests dispersal limitation. The observed <span class="hlt">species</span> richness was driven mainly by the density of occurrences. However, at the highest elevations or rainfalls, and particularly on UM, the observed richness tends to be lower, independently of the sampling effort. The study highlights the imbalance of the dataset in favour of higher values of rainfall and of elevation. Projected onto a map, under-represented areas are a guide as to where future sampling efforts are most required to complete our understanding of rainforest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution. PMID:26162898</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geog.psu.edu/vegdyn/Tayloretal_2006.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geog.psu.edu/vegdyn/Tayloretal_2006.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Regeneration patterns and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence in old-growth AbiesPicea forests in southwestern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Taylor, Alan</p> <p></p> <p>Regeneration patterns and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence in old-growth Abies­Picea forests regeneration in canopy gaps. Frequent peaks in radial growth releases in the canopy <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the plots suggest plot indicating a pattern of intermittent regeneration in each stand for at least 500 years</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24713858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24713858"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Basler, David; Körner, Christian</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Spring phenology of temperate forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span> Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in <span class="hlt">trees</span> that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of <span class="hlt">tree</span> phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here. PMID:24713858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AcO....21...37K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000AcO....21...37K"><span id="translatedtitle">Some autecological characteristics of early to late successional <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Venezuela</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kammesheidt, Ludwig</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The breadth of the continuum concept of strategy with respect to succession was tested on 21 <span class="hlt">tree</span> and shrub <span class="hlt">species</span> common in either unlogged or logged stands, respectively, in the Forest Reserve of Caparo, Venezuela, by examining morphological, physiological and population characteristics. Based on a preliminary abundance analysis, `early', `mid' and `late' successional <span class="hlt">species</span> as well as `generalists' were distinguished. Early successional <span class="hlt">species</span>, i.e. Ochroma lagopus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia peltata were similar in many autecological aspects, e.g. monolayered leaf arrangement, orthotropic architectural models, no adaptive reiteration, clumped distribution, but differed in gap association and distribution along a drainage gradient. Mid-successional <span class="hlt">species</span> established themselves both in large and small gaps (> 300 m[sup2 ]; 80-300 m[sup2 ]) and showed a clumped to regular distribution pattern in logged areas; they exhibited more diverse crown and leaf characteristics than early successional <span class="hlt">species</span>. Late successional <span class="hlt">species</span> established themselves only in small gaps and understorey, and showed a regular spatial pattern in undisturbed areas. All late successional <span class="hlt">species</span> displayed architectural models with plagiotropic lateral axes and showed a multilayered leaf arrangement. Adaptive reiteration was a common feature of late successional <span class="hlt">species</span> which could be further subdivided into large, medium-sized and small <span class="hlt">trees</span>, indicating different light requirements at maturity. Generalists were common treelet and shrub <span class="hlt">species</span> in both disturbed and undisturbed sites where they are also capable of completing their life cycle. The light compensation point (LCP) of an individual plant was strongly influenced by its crown illuminance. Large late successional <span class="hlt">species</span> showed the widest range of LCP values, reflecting the increasing light availability with increasing height in mature forest. On the basis of many autecological characteristics, it was found (i) that there is in fact a continuum of <span class="hlt">species</span> strategies with respect to succession even among early and mid-successional <span class="hlt">species</span> and (ii) that the latter group of <span class="hlt">species</span> showed the widest breadth of autecological traits, reflecting the heterogeneous environment in which they establish and mature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85h3903R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85h3903R"><span id="translatedtitle">High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> machine to study paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> on well defined single crystal surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Seiler, A.; Bondarchuk, O.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Risse, T.; Freund, H.-J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, which are typically minority <span class="hlt">species</span> in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> with a density of approximately 5 × 1011 spins/cm2, which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25173280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25173280"><span id="translatedtitle">High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions--a <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> machine to study paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> on well defined single crystal surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocker, J; Cornu, D; Kieseritzky, E; Seiler, A; Bondarchuk, O; Hänsel-Ziegler, W; Risse, T; Freund, H-J</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, which are typically minority <span class="hlt">species</span> in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> with a density of approximately 5 × 10(11) spins/cm(2), which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology. PMID:25173280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22320362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22320362"><span id="translatedtitle">High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> machine to study paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> on well defined single crystal surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Freund, H.-J.; Seiler, A.; Bondarchuk, O.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, which are typically minority <span class="hlt">species</span> in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span> with a density of approximately 5 × 10{sup 11} spins/cm{sup 2}, which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic <span class="hlt">species</span>, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol15-sec3201-57.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol15-sec3201-57.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 3201.57 - <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> lubricants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol15-sec3201-57.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol15-sec3201-57.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 3201.57 - <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> lubricants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol15-sec3201-57.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol15-sec3201-57.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 3201.57 - <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> lubricants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec2902-57.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec2902-57.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 2902.57 - <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> lubricants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... be afforded the preference in purchasing. Note to paragraph (d): Biobased <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products within this designated item can compete with similar <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> lubricant products with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=246108','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=246108"><span id="translatedtitle">Exotic <span class="hlt">tree</span> leaf litter accumulation and mass loss dynamics compared with two sympatric native <span class="hlt">species</span> in South Florida, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The invasive <span class="hlt">tree</span> Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) forms dense forests in ecologically sensitive habitats, including portions of the Florida Everglades. Within these stands, forest understories are characterized by low <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity and a dense layer of accumulated melaleuca litter. However...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204074"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and wood particle size on the properties of cement-bonded particleboard manufacturing from <span class="hlt">tree</span> prunings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nasser, Ramadan A; Al-Mefarrej, H A; Abdel-Aal, M A; Alshahrani, T S</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>This study investigated the possibility of using the prunings of six locally grown <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Saudi Arabia for cement-bonded particleboard (CBP) production. Panels were made using four different wood particle sizes and a constant wood/cement ratio (1/3 by weight) and target density (1200 kg/m3). The mechanical properties and dimensional stability of the produced panels were determined. The interfacial area and distribution of the wood particles in cement matrix were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that the panels produced from these pruning materials at a target density of 1200 kg m(-3) meet the strength and dimensional stability requirements of the commercial CBP panels. The mean moduli of rupture and elasticity (MOR and MOE) ranged from 9.68 to 11.78 N mm2 and from 3952 to 5667 N mm2, respectively. The mean percent water absorption for twenty four hours (WA24) ranged from 12.93% to 23.39%. Thickness swelling values ranged from 0.62% to 1.53%. For CBP panels with high mechanical properties and good dimensional stability, mixed-size or coarse particles should be used. Using the <span class="hlt">tree</span> prunings for CBPs production may help to solve the problem of getting rid of these residues by reducing their negative effects on environment, which are caused by poor disposal of such materials through direct combustion process and appearance of black cloud and then the impact on human health or the random accumulation and its indirect effects on the environment. PMID:25204074</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14972896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14972896"><span id="translatedtitle">Sodium and chloride distribution in salt-stressed Prunus salicina, a deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ziska, L H; DeJong, T M; Hoffman, G F; Mead, R M</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Measurements were made over four growing seasons of the Na(+) and Cl(-) content of leaves and woody tissues (twigs, branches, trunk and roots) of mature, fruit-bearing Prunus salicina Lindl. (on Marianna 2624 rootstock) <span class="hlt">trees</span> irrigated during the growing season with water containing 3, 14 or 28 mM salt (2/1 molar ratio of NaCl and CaCl(2)). At the beginning of the study, the <span class="hlt">trees</span> were 19 years old. Woody tissues of <span class="hlt">trees</span> irrigated with water containing 14 or 28 mM salt accumulated Na(+) and Cl(-). Leaves of <span class="hlt">trees</span> irrigated with water containing 14 or 28 mM salt accumulated Cl(-), but not Na(+), unless they had visible symptoms of salt injury. X-Ray microanalysis of leaf mesophyll cells indicated some ability of the cells to sequester Cl(-) in the vacuole. The data demonstrate a capacity for ion compartmentation among tissues and cell organelles in mature Prunus salicina, which may explain the ability of the <span class="hlt">species</span> to survive low levels of salinity for several years in the field. PMID:14972896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177404','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177404"><span id="translatedtitle">Size-Class Effect Contributes to <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Assembly through Influencing Dispersal in Tropical Forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hu, Yue-Hua; Kitching, Roger L.; Lan, Guo-Yu; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Specifically our work examined (1) whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2) which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining <span class="hlt">species</span>-area relationships (SARs) and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the <span class="hlt">species</span> and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape <span class="hlt">species</span>’ distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to <span class="hlt">species</span> assembly and enhances our understanding of <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence. PMID:25251538</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418704','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4418704"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and <span class="hlt">species</span> pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech <span class="hlt">trees</span>, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> differed between regions and that – despite the regional differences - density of <span class="hlt">tree</span>-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> increased with increasing dominance of beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> – suggesting the action of associational resistance processes – and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> and arthropod herbivores. PMID:25938417</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4356318','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4356318"><span id="translatedtitle">A genotyping protocol for multiple tissue types from the polyploid <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Sequoia sempervirens (Cupressaceae)1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Narayan, Lakshmi; Dodd, Richard S.; O’Hara, Kevin L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Premise of the study: Identifying clonal lineages in asexually reproducing plants using microsatellite markers is complicated by the possibility of nonidentical genotypes from the same clonal lineage due to somatic mutations, null alleles, and scoring errors. We developed and tested a clonal identification protocol that is robust to these issues for the asexually reproducing hexaploid <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Methods: Microsatellite data from four previously published and two newly developed primers were scored using a modified protocol, and clones were identified using Bruvo genetic distances. The effectiveness of this clonal identification protocol was assessed using simulations and by genotyping a test set of paired samples of different tissue types from the same <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Results: Data from simulations showed that our protocol allowed us to accurately identify clonal lineages. Multiple test samples from the same <span class="hlt">trees</span> were identified correctly, although certain tissue type pairs had larger genetic distances on average. Discussion: The methods described in this paper will allow for the accurate identification of coast redwood clones, facilitating future studies of the reproductive ecology of this <span class="hlt">species</span>. The techniques used in this paper can be applied to studies of other clonal organisms as well. PMID:25798341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15334971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15334971"><span id="translatedtitle">[Characters of greening <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in heavy metal pollution protection in Shanghai].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Xuejun; Tang, Dongqin; Xu, Dongxin; Wang, Xinhua; Pan, Gaohong</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, the stream banks nearby Qibao town and the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company were selected as the typical areas contaminated by heavy metals. The polluted status was investigated by measuring the heavy metal concentrations of the sampled soils. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the soils of stream banks were a little higher than the control, but obviously higher in the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company. The growth status of the greening <span class="hlt">trees</span> was recorded, and their heavy metal concentrations were measured by ICP. According to the research results and historic data, the excellent greening <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mainly applied in polluted factory area were Viburnum awabuki, Lagerstroemia indica, Hibiscus mutabilis, Ligustrum lucidum and Sabina chinensis, which could grow well on contaminated soil, and accumulate high concentrations of heavy metal elements. The other <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> such as Distylium racemosum, Nerium indicum, and Photinia serrulata might be also available in greening for heavy metal pollution protection. PMID:15334971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H33B1306L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H33B1306L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span> differences in evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span> transpiration at daily, seasonal, and interannual timescales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Link, P.; Simonin, K. A.; Oshun, J.; Dietrich, W.; Dawson, T. E.; Fung, I.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Mediterranean climates have rainy winter and dry summer seasons, so the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand (summer). In this study, we investigate the seasonality of <span class="hlt">tree</span> transpiration in a Mediterranean climate, using observations from a small (8000 m2), forested, steep (~35 degree) hillslope at the UC Angelo Reserve, in the northern California Coast Range. The site is instrumented with over 850 sensors transmitting hydrologic and meteorological data at less than 30-minute intervals. Here, we analyze four years of high-frequency measurements from 45 sap flow sensors in 30 <span class="hlt">trees</span>, six depth profiles of soil moisture measured by TDR, and spatially distributed measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and other meteorological variables. The sap flow measurements show a difference in transpiration seasonality between common California Coast Range evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii) maintain significant transpiration through the winter rainy season and transpire maximally in the spring, but Douglas fir transpiration declines sharply in the summer dry season. Madrones (Arbutus menziesii), in contrast, transpire maximally in the summer dry season. The seasonal patterns are quantified using principal component analysis. Nonlinear regressions against environmental variables show that the difference in transpiration seasonality arises from different sensitivities to atmospheric demand (VPD) and root-zone moisture. The different sensitivities to VPD and root-zone moisture cause <span class="hlt">species</span> differences not just in seasonal patterns, but also in high temporal frequency (daily to weekly) variability of transpiration. We also contrast the interannual variability of dry season transpiration among the different <span class="hlt">species</span>, and show that precipitation above a threshold triggers a Douglas fir response. Finally, we use a simple 1-D model of the atmospheric boundary layer to estimate the effects of <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in transpiration on atmospheric boundary layer temperature and humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..148R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..148R"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographic range predicts photosynthetic and growth response to warming in co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reich, Peter B.; Sendall, Kerrie M.; Rice, Karen; Rich, Roy L.; Stefanski, Artur; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Rebecca A.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Populations near the warm edge of <span class="hlt">species</span> ranges may be particularly sensitive to climate change, but lack of empirical data on responses to warming represents a key gap in understanding future range dynamics. Herein we document the impacts of experimental warming on the performance of 11 boreal and temperate forest <span class="hlt">species</span> that co-occur at the ecotone between these biomes in North America. We measured in situ net photosynthetic carbon gain and growth of >4,100 juvenile <span class="hlt">trees</span> from local seed sources exposed to a chamberless warming experiment that used infrared heat lamps and soil heating cables to elevate temperatures by +3.4 °C above- and belowground for three growing seasons across 48 plots at two sites. In these ecologically realistic field settings, <span class="hlt">species</span> growing nearest their warm range limit exhibited reductions in net photosynthesis and growth, whereas <span class="hlt">species</span> near their cold range limit responded positively to warming. Differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in their three-year growth responses to warming parallel their photosynthetic responses to warming, suggesting that leaf-level responses may scale to whole-plant performance. These responses are consistent with the hypothesis, from observational data and models, that warming will reduce the competitive ability of currently dominant southern boreal <span class="hlt">species</span> compared with locally rarer co-occurring <span class="hlt">species</span> that dominate warmer neighbouring regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433737','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3433737"><span id="translatedtitle">Clade Age and <span class="hlt">Species</span> Richness Are Decoupled Across the Eukaryotic <span class="hlt">Tree</span> of Life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Explaining the dramatic variation in <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across the <span class="hlt">tree</span> of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">species</span> richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that <span class="hlt">species</span> richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described <span class="hlt">species</span>. We find no evidence that clade age predicts <span class="hlt">species</span> richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of <span class="hlt">species</span> richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms. PMID:22969411</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..55..687K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..55..687K"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and Local Differences in Leaf Litter Flammability of Six Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kauf, Zorica; Fangmeier, Andreas; Rosavec, Roman; Španjol, Željko</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>One of the suggested management options for reducing fire danger is the selection of less flammable plant <span class="hlt">species</span>. Nevertheless, vegetation flammability is both complex and dynamic, making identification of such <span class="hlt">species</span> challenging. While large efforts have been made to connect plant traits to fire behavior, seasonal changes and within <span class="hlt">species</span> variability of traits are often neglected. Currently, even the most sophisticated fire danger systems presume that intrinsic characteristics of leaf litter stay unchanged, and plant <span class="hlt">species</span> flammability lists are often transferred from one area to another. In order to assess if these practices can be improved, we performed a study examining the relationship between morphological characteristics and flammability parameters of leaf litter, thereby taking into account seasonal and local variability. Litter from six Mediterranean <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was sampled throughout the fire season from three different locations along a climate gradient. Samples were subjected to flammability testing involving an epiradiator operated at 400 °C surface temperature with 3 g sample weight. Specific leaf area, fuel moisture content, average area, and average mass of a single particle had significant influences on flammability parameters. Effects of sampling time and location were significant as well. Due to the standardized testing conditions, these effects could be attributed to changes in intrinsic characteristics of the material. As the aforementioned effects were inconsistent and <span class="hlt">species</span> specific, these results may potentially limit the generalization of <span class="hlt">species</span> flammability rankings. Further research is necessary in order to evaluate the importance of our findings for fire danger modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250422"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem cubic-foot volume tables for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the piedmont. Forest Service research paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 16 <span class="hlt">species</span> and 8 <span class="hlt">species</span> groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Piedmont. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,753 <span class="hlt">trees</span> sampled in the Piedmont and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each <span class="hlt">species</span> based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4103444','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4103444"><span id="translatedtitle">Microsatellite primers in the foundation <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Pinus edulis and P. monophylla (Pinaceae)1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krohn, Andrew L.; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gehring, Catherine A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the foundational <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Pinus edulis to investigate population differentiation of P. edulis and hybridization among closely related <span class="hlt">species</span>. • Methods and Results: Using a hybridization protocol, primer sets for 11 microsatellite loci were developed using megagametophyte tissue from P. edulis and scored for polymorphism in three populations of P. edulis and a single P. monophylla population. The primers amplified simple and compound di-, tri-, and pentanucleotide repeats with two to 18 alleles per locus. • Conclusions: These results demonstrate the utility of the described primers for studies of population differentiation within and among P. edulis populations as well as across putative hybrid zones where P. edulis may coexist with sister <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:25202571</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4433356','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4433356"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Overstorey Canopy of Subtropical Forest Using QuickBird Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Chinsu; Popescu, Sorin C.; Thomson, Gavin; Tsogt, Khongor; Chang, Chein-I</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a supervised classification scheme to identify 40 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (2 coniferous, 38 broadleaf) belonging to 22 families and 36 genera in high spatial resolution QuickBird multispectral images (HMS). Overall kappa coefficient (OKC) and <span class="hlt">species</span> conditional kappa coefficients (SCKC) were used to evaluate classification performance in training samples and estimate accuracy and uncertainty in test samples. Baseline classification performance using HMS images and vegetation index (VI) images were evaluated with an OKC value of 0.58 and 0.48 respectively, but performance improved significantly (up to 0.99) when used in combination with an HMS spectral-spatial texture image (SpecTex). One of the 40 <span class="hlt">species</span> had very high conditional kappa coefficient performance (SCKC ? 0.95) using 4-band HMS and 5-band VIs images, but, only five <span class="hlt">species</span> had lower performance (0.68 ? SCKC ? 0.94) using the SpecTex images. When SpecTex images were combined with a Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI), there was a significant improvement in performance in the training samples. The same level of improvement could not be replicated in the test samples indicating that a high degree of uncertainty exists in <span class="hlt">species</span> classification accuracy which may be due to individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> crown density, leaf greenness (inter-canopy gaps), and noise in the background environment (intra-canopy gaps). These factors increase uncertainty in the spectral texture features and therefore represent potential problems when using pixel-based classification techniques for multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> classification. PMID:25978466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26241962"><span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this <span class="hlt">species</span>. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and <span class="hlt">species</span> polycultures of four <span class="hlt">species</span> and -within each of these two plot types- mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant <span class="hlt">species</span> (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity. PMID:26241962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25978466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25978466"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Overstorey Canopy of Subtropical Forest Using QuickBird Images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Chinsu; Popescu, Sorin C; Thomson, Gavin; Tsogt, Khongor; Chang, Chein-I</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This paper proposes a supervised classification scheme to identify 40 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (2 coniferous, 38 broadleaf) belonging to 22 families and 36 genera in high spatial resolution QuickBird multispectral images (HMS). Overall kappa coefficient (OKC) and <span class="hlt">species</span> conditional kappa coefficients (SCKC) were used to evaluate classification performance in training samples and estimate accuracy and uncertainty in test samples. Baseline classification performance using HMS images and vegetation index (VI) images were evaluated with an OKC value of 0.58 and 0.48 respectively, but performance improved significantly (up to 0.99) when used in combination with an HMS spectral-spatial texture image (SpecTex). One of the 40 <span class="hlt">species</span> had very high conditional kappa coefficient performance (SCKC ? 0.95) using 4-band HMS and 5-band VIs images, but, only five <span class="hlt">species</span> had lower performance (0.68 ? SCKC ? 0.94) using the SpecTex images. When SpecTex images were combined with a Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI), there was a significant improvement in performance in the training samples. The same level of improvement could not be replicated in the test samples indicating that a high degree of uncertainty exists in <span class="hlt">species</span> classification accuracy which may be due to individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> crown density, leaf greenness (inter-canopy gaps), and noise in the background environment (intra-canopy gaps). These factors increase uncertainty in the spectral texture features and therefore represent potential problems when using pixel-based classification techniques for multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> classification. PMID:25978466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524695','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524695"><span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Diversity and Genotypic Diversity Effects on Insect Herbivores Mediated by Ants?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Campos-Navarrete, María José; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Parra-Tabla, Víctor</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant diversity can influence predators and omnivores and such effects may in turn influence herbivores and plants. However, evidence for these ecological feedbacks is rare. We evaluated if the effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (SD) and genotypic diversity (GD) on the abundance of different guilds of insect herbivores associated with big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) were contingent upon the protective effects of ants tending extra-floral nectaries of this <span class="hlt">species</span>. This study was conducted within a larger experiment consisting of mahogany monocultures and <span class="hlt">species</span> polycultures of four <span class="hlt">species</span> and –within each of these two plot types– mahogany was represented by either one or four maternal families. We selected 24 plots spanning these treatment combinations, 10 mahogany plants/plot, and within each plot experimentally reduced ant abundance on half of the selected plants, and surveyed ant and herbivore abundance. There were positive effects of SD on generalist leaf-chewers and sap-feeders, but for the latter group this effect depended on the ant reduction treatment: SD positively influenced sap-feeders under ambient ant abundance but had no effect when ant abundance was reduced; at the same time, ants had negative effects on sap feeders in monoculture but no effect in polyculture. In contrast, SD did not influence specialist stem-borers or leaf-miners and this effect was not contingent upon ant reduction. Finally, GD did not influence any of the herbivore guilds studied, and such effects did not depend on the ant treatment. Overall, we show that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity influenced interactions between a focal plant <span class="hlt">species</span> (mahogany) and ants, and that such effects in turn mediated plant diversity effects on some (sap-feeders) but not all the herbivores guilds studied. Our results suggest that the observed patterns are dependent on the combined effects of herbivore identity, diet breadth, and the source of plant diversity. PMID:26241962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4469422','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4469422"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span>-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Architecture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; von Oheimb, Goddert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the <span class="hlt">tree’s</span> leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of <span class="hlt">species</span> identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and <span class="hlt">tree</span> architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA), leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD), crown base height (CBH), <span class="hlt">tree</span> height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI) as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, <span class="hlt">tree</span> height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, <span class="hlt">tree</span> height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved <span class="hlt">species</span>. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:26079260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16388939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16388939"><span id="translatedtitle">Ceratocystis omanensis, a new <span class="hlt">species</span> from diseased mango <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Oman.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Subhi, Ali M; Al-Adawi, Ali O; Van Wyk, Marelize; Deadman, Michael L; Wingfield, Michael J</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Mango (Mangifera indica) sudden decline is an important disease in Oman, which is closely associated with infections by Ceratocystis fimbriata and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Another Ceratocystis <span class="hlt">species</span> has also been found associated with symptoms on diseased <span class="hlt">trees</span>. In this study, we identify that Ceratocystis based on morphology and DNA sequences. Morphological comparisons showed that the fungus from dying mango <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Oman is similar to C. moniliformis. Both fungi have distinct hat-shaped ascospores, disc-shaped plates at the bases of the ascomatal necks and spines on the ascomatal bases. However, comparison of DNA sequences for ITS1-2, the 5.8S RNA gene, the beta-tubulin gene, and Transcription Elongation Factor (EF1-alpha) gene, confirmed that the fungus from Oman is distinct from C. moniliformis and other related <span class="hlt">species</span>. Phylogenetically, this fungus formed one of four strongly supported sub-clades. The other sub-clades included isolates of C. bhutanensis, C. moniliformis and C. moniliformopsis, respectively. Based on morphological characteristics and differences in DNA sequences for three gene regions, we conclude that the Ceratocystis sp. from wounds on mango in Oman is a new <span class="hlt">species</span>, for which we provide the name Ceratocystis omanensis sp. nov. PMID:16388939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26618024"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Different <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> of Different Sizes on Spatial Distribution of Herbaceous Plants in the Nigerian Guinea Savannah Ecological Zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buba, Toma</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed at finding the impacts of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and individual <span class="hlt">trees</span> of different sizes on <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, diversity, and composition of the herbaceous layer. All the three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> have greatly increased <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity both within and outside their crown zones compared with the open grassland. Both <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity were found to be higher under all the three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> than outside their crowns, which was in turn higher than the open field. Daniella oliveri has the highest <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity both within and outside its crown zone followed by Vitellaria paradoxa and then Parkia biglobosa. The result also revealed that the same <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with different sizes leads to different herbaceous <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, diversity, and composition under and around the <span class="hlt">trees</span>' crowns. P. biglobosa and V. paradoxa <span class="hlt">trees</span> with smaller sizes showed higher <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity under their crowns than the bigger ones. The dissimilarity of <span class="hlt">species</span> composition differs between the inside and outside crown zones of the individuals of the same <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and among the different <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and the open field. PMID:26618024</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651791','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651791"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of Different <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> of Different Sizes on Spatial Distribution of Herbaceous Plants in the Nigerian Guinea Savannah Ecological Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buba, Toma</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed at finding the impacts of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and individual <span class="hlt">trees</span> of different sizes on <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, diversity, and composition of the herbaceous layer. All the three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> have greatly increased <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity both within and outside their crown zones compared with the open grassland. Both <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity were found to be higher under all the three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> than outside their crowns, which was in turn higher than the open field. Daniella oliveri has the highest <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity both within and outside its crown zone followed by Vitellaria paradoxa and then Parkia biglobosa. The result also revealed that the same <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with different sizes leads to different herbaceous <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, diversity, and composition under and around the <span class="hlt">trees</span>' crowns. P. biglobosa and V. paradoxa <span class="hlt">trees</span> with smaller sizes showed higher <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and diversity under their crowns than the bigger ones. The dissimilarity of <span class="hlt">species</span> composition differs between the inside and outside crown zones of the individuals of the same <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and among the different <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and the open field. PMID:26618024</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4139366','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4139366"><span id="translatedtitle">Positive Effects of Plant Genotypic and <span class="hlt">Species</span> Diversity on Anti-Herbivore Defenses in a Tropical <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Mooney, Kailen A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among <span class="hlt">species</span> than among genotypes within a given <span class="hlt">species</span>, so plant <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on plant chemical defenses. PMID:25141305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4347443','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4347443"><span id="translatedtitle">Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harrington, Constance A.; Gould, Peter J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many temperate and boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each <span class="hlt">species</span> in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2–5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other <span class="hlt">species</span> all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant <span class="hlt">species</span>; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier. PMID:25784922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24335493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24335493"><span id="translatedtitle">On the biogeography of Centipeda: a <span class="hlt">species-tree</span> diffusion approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nylinder, Stephan; Lemey, Philippe; De Bruyn, Mark; Suchard, Marc A; Pfeil, Bernard E; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the biogeographic history of groups present in continuous arid landscapes is challenging due to the difficulties in defining discrete areas for analyses, and even more so when <span class="hlt">species</span> largely overlap both in terms of geography and habitat preference. In this study, we use a novel approach to estimate ancestral areas for the small plant genus Centipeda. We apply continuous diffusion of geography by a relaxed random walk where each <span class="hlt">species</span> is sampled from its extant distribution on an empirical distribution of time-calibrated <span class="hlt">species-trees</span>. Using a distribution of previously published substitution rates of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for Asteraceae, we show how the evolution of Centipeda correlates with the temporal increase of aridity in the arid zone since the Pliocene. Geographic estimates of ancestral <span class="hlt">species</span> show a consistent pattern of speciation of early lineages in the Lake Eyre region, with a division in more northerly and southerly groups since ?840 ka. Summarizing the geographic slices of <span class="hlt">species-trees</span> at the time of the latest speciation event (?20 ka), indicates no presence of the genus in Australia west of the combined desert belt of the Nullabor Plain, the Great Victoria Desert, the Gibson Desert, and the Great Sandy Desert, or beyond the main continental shelf of Australia. The result indicates all western occurrences of the genus to be a result of recent dispersal rather than ancient vicariance. This study contributes to our understanding of the spatiotemporal processes shaping the flora of the arid zone, and offers a significant improvement in inference of ancestral areas for any organismal group distributed where it remains difficult to describe geography in terms of discrete areas. PMID:24335493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926304','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926304"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Biogeography of Centipeda: A <span class="hlt">Species-Tree</span> Diffusion Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nylinder, Stephan; Lemey, Philippe; De Bruyn, Mark; Suchard, Marc A.; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the biogeographic history of groups present in continuous arid landscapes is challenging due to the difficulties in defining discrete areas for analyses, and even more so when <span class="hlt">species</span> largely overlap both in terms of geography and habitat preference. In this study, we use a novel approach to estimate ancestral areas for the small plant genus Centipeda. We apply continuous diffusion of geography by a relaxed random walk where each <span class="hlt">species</span> is sampled from its extant distribution on an empirical distribution of time-calibrated <span class="hlt">species-trees</span>. Using a distribution of previously published substitution rates of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for Asteraceae, we show how the evolution of Centipeda correlates with the temporal increase of aridity in the arid zone since the Pliocene. Geographic estimates of ancestral <span class="hlt">species</span> show a consistent pattern of speciation of early lineages in the Lake Eyre region, with a division in more northerly and southerly groups since ?840 ka. Summarizing the geographic slices of <span class="hlt">species-trees</span> at the time of the latest speciation event (?20 ka), indicates no presence of the genus in Australia west of the combined desert belt of the Nullabor Plain, the Great Victoria Desert, the Gibson Desert, and the Great Sandy Desert, or beyond the main continental shelf of Australia. The result indicates all western occurrences of the genus to be a result of recent dispersal rather than ancient vicariance. This study contributes to our understanding of the spatiotemporal processes shaping the flora of the arid zone, and offers a significant improvement in inference of ancestral areas for any organismal group distributed where it remains difficult to describe geography in terms of discrete areas. PMID:24335493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367367"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dust load on the leaf attributes of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> growing along the roadside.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chaturvedi, R K; Prasad, Shikha; Rana, Savita; Obaidullah, S M; Pandey, Vijay; Singh, Hema</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dust is considered as one of the most widespread air pollutants. The objective of the study was to analyse the effect of dust load (DL) on the leaf attributes of the four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted along the roadside at a low pollution Banaras Hindu University (BHU) campus and a highly polluted industrial area (Chunar, Mirzapur) of India. The studied leaf attributes were: leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), relative water content (RWC), leaf nitrogen content (LNC), leaf phosphorus content (LPC), chlorophyll content (Chl), maximum stomatal conductance (Gs(max)), maximum photosynthetic rate (A (max)) and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi). Results showed significant effect of sites and <span class="hlt">species</span> for DL and the leaf attributes. Average DL across the four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was greater at Chunar, whereas, the average values of leaf attributes were greater at the BHU campus. Maximum DL was observed for Tectona grandis at Chunar site and minimum for Syzygium cumini at BHU campus. Across the two sites, maximum value of SLA, Chl and Gs(max) were exhibited by S. cumini, whereas, the greatest value of RWC, LNC, LPC, A (max) and WUEi were observed in Anthocephalus cadamba. A. cadamba and S. cumini exhibited 28 and 27 times more dust accumulation, respectively, at the most polluted Chunar site as compared to the BHU campus. They also exhibited less reduction in A (max) due to dust deposition as compared to the other two <span class="hlt">species</span>. Therefore, both these <span class="hlt">species</span> may be promoted for plantation along the roadside of the sites having greater dust deposition. PMID:22367367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC53C0547M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC53C0547M"><span id="translatedtitle">Selection bias in <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution models: An econometric approach on forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> based on structural modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ay, J. S.; Guillemot, J.; Doyen, L.; Leadley, P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Species</span> distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global changes on <span class="hlt">species</span>. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given <span class="hlt">species</span> is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and <span class="hlt">species</span> responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of <span class="hlt">species</span> response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of applications on forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8km). We also compared the outputs of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM (i.e. Biomod ensemble modelling) in terms of bioclimatic response curves and potential distributions under current climate and climate change scenarios. The shapes of the bioclimatic response curves and the modelled <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution maps differed markedly between SSDM and classical SDMs, with contrasted patterns according to <span class="hlt">species</span> and spatial resolutions. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents a crucial step to account for economic constraints on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distributions that will help to assess the trade-offs and opportunities arising from global changes and refine adaptive management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...41...13B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...41...13B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of seasonal rainfall on radial growth in two tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bullock, Stephen H.</p> <p></p> <p>Seasonal drought may limit primary productivity in most of the tropics, but the determinants of <span class="hlt">tree</span> growth are not well known. A 10-year study of the deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span> Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng. (Cochlospermaceae) and Cnidoscolus spinosus Lundell (Euphorbiaceae) in southwestern México showed radial growth to be highly correlated (both r>0.85) only with precipitation during an interval of <2 months in the mid-wet season. Growth was not affected by total annual precipitation or by an early starting or late ending of the wet season, or by heavy rainfall in the dry season. Annual mean girth increments ranged from 0.03 to 3.31 cm and -0.1 to 2.01 cm, respectively. The best model for growth (r2>0.85) was a linear combination of mid-summer precipitation (positive coefficient) and total precipitation over the previous 2 years (negative coefficient). Comparison with other <span class="hlt">species</span> showed heterogeneous responses of wood production to climate variation, and suggests that the range of functional types of dry forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> is still unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17269315','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17269315"><span id="translatedtitle">[Morphological-ecological characters and growth patterns of main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> leaves in urban forest of Shenyang].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Wenduo; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Wen, Hua</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>The study with statistic and multivariate analyses showed that the main meteorological factors affecting the growth and development rhythms of main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> leaves in urban forest of Shenyang were > or = 5 degrees C accumulated temperature, accumulated sunshine hours, and mean temperature in the middle ten days of each phenological period. The meteorological factors needed by the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> varied with their phenological period. Necessary low temperature and CI were required in germination period, and suitable WI and HI were needed in the growth period. The major quantitative morphological characters of 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Shenyang urban forest were displayed in their leaf morphology and size, which decreased in the sequence of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya > Syringa oblata > Sophora japonica > Populus alba > Cornus alba > Lonicera maackii > Ligustrum obtusifolium > Fraxinus mandshurica > Prunus padus > Phellodondron amurense. As for the leaf area, it was decreased in the order of S. oblata > P. alba > P. amurense > P. padus > F. mandshurica > C. alba > L. cyrtobotrya > L. maackii > S. japonica > L. obtusifolium. The relationships of leaf length with leaf width, perimeter and area accorded with the model of y = ax(k), and the growth trend belonged to allometic type. The k value between leaf length and width of all test <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> except P. alba was lower than 1, and that between leaf length and perimeter was > 1 for P. amuresne, approximately 1 for P. alba, and < 1 for other <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. As for the k value between leaf length and area, it was > 1 for all the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, with that of P. alba being 2. 1028. The increasing rate of leaf area was about 2 times higher than that of leaf length. An optimum regression assessment model of the 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> leaf area was built and tested. PMID:17269315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989313','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3989313"><span id="translatedtitle">Chimpanzees Preferentially Select Sleeping Platform Construction <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> with Biomechanical Properties that Yield Stable, Firm, but Compliant Nests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Samson, David R.; Hunt, Kevin D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The daily construction of a sleeping platform or “nest” is a universal behavior among large-bodied hominoids. Among chimpanzees, most populations consistently select particular <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> for nesting, yet the principles that guide <span class="hlt">species</span> preferences are poorly understood. At Semliki, Cynometra alexandri constitutes only 9.6% of all <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the gallery forest in which the study populations ranges, but it was selected for 73.6% of the 1,844 chimpanzee night beds we sampled. To determine whether physical properties influence nesting site selection, we measured the physical characteristics of seven common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. We determined stiffness and bending strength for a sample of 326 branches from the seven most commonly used <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We selected test-branches with diameters typically used for nest construction. We measured internode distance, calculated mean leaf surface area (cm2) and assigned a <span class="hlt">tree</span> architecture category to each of the seven <span class="hlt">species</span>. C. alexandri fell at the extreme of the sample for all four variables and shared a <span class="hlt">tree</span> architecture with only one other of the most commonly selected <span class="hlt">species</span>. C. alexandri was the stiffest and had the greatest bending strength; it had the smallest internode distance and the smallest leaf surface area. C. alexandri and the second most commonly selected <span class="hlt">species</span>, Cola gigantea, share a ‘Model of Koriba’ <span class="hlt">tree</span> architecture. We conclude that chimpanzees are aware of the structural properties of C. alexandri branches and choose it because its properties afford chimpanzees sleeping platforms that are firm, stable and resilient. PMID:24740283</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26079260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26079260"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span>-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Architecture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goebes, Philipp; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Kröber, Wenzel; Kühn, Peter; Li, Ying; Seitz, Steffen; von Oheimb, Goddert; Scholten, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the <span class="hlt">tree</span>'s leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of <span class="hlt">species</span> identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and <span class="hlt">tree</span> architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA), leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD), crown base height (CBH), <span class="hlt">tree</span> height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI) as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, <span class="hlt">tree</span> height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, <span class="hlt">tree</span> height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved <span class="hlt">species</span>. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:26079260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..153F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..153F"><span id="translatedtitle">Bayesian calibration of the Unified budburst model in six temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fu, Yongshuo H.; Campioli, Matteo; Demarée, Gaston; Deckmyn, Alex; Hamdi, Rafiq; Janssens, Ivan A.; Deckmyn, Gaby</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Numerous phenology models developed to predict the budburst date of <span class="hlt">trees</span> have been merged into one Unified model (Chuine, 2000, J. Theor. Biol. 207, 337-347). In this study, we tested a simplified version of the Unified model (Unichill model) on six woody <span class="hlt">species</span>. Budburst and temperature data were available for five sites across Belgium from 1957 to 1995. We calibrated the Unichill model using a Bayesian calibration procedure, which reduced the uncertainty of the parameter coefficients and quantified the prediction uncertainty. The model performance differed among <span class="hlt">species</span>. For two <span class="hlt">species</span> (chestnut and black locust), the model showed good performance when tested against independent data not used for calibration. For the four other <span class="hlt">species</span> (beech, oak, birch, ash), the model performed poorly. Model performance improved substantially for most <span class="hlt">species</span> when using site-specific parameter coefficients instead of across-site parameter coefficients. This suggested that budburst is influenced by local environment and/or genetic differences among populations. Chestnut, black locust and birch were found to be temperature-driven <span class="hlt">species</span>, and we therefore analyzed the sensitivity of budburst date to forcing temperature in those three <span class="hlt">species</span>. Model results showed that budburst advanced with increasing temperature for 1-3 days °C-1, which agreed with the observed trends. In synthesis, our results suggest that the Unichill model can be successfully applied to chestnut and black locust (with both across-site and site-specific calibration) and to birch (with site-specific calibration). For other <span class="hlt">species</span>, temperature is not the only determinant of budburst and additional influencing factors will need to be included in the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651535','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4651535"><span id="translatedtitle">Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ledo, Alicia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of <span class="hlt">species</span>. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between <span class="hlt">species</span> were examined. Second, different sizes of <span class="hlt">trees</span> were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between <span class="hlt">species</span> are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the <span class="hlt">species</span>-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among <span class="hlt">species</span> exist, and these vary among life stages and <span class="hlt">species</span>. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among <span class="hlt">species</span>. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among <span class="hlt">species</span>, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25797923"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> phylogeny and biogeography of the Neotropical genus Pradosia (Sapotaceae, Chrysophylloideae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terra-Araujo, Mário H; de Faria, Aparecida D; Vicentini, Alberto; Nylinder, Stephan; Swenson, Ulf</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Recent phylogenetic studies in Sapotaceae have demonstrated that many genera need to be redefined to better correspond to natural groups. The Neotropical genus Pradosia is believed to be monophyletic and includes 26 recognized <span class="hlt">species</span>. Here we reconstruct the generic phylogeny by a <span class="hlt">species-tree</span> approach using (?)BEAST, 21 recognized <span class="hlt">species</span> (36 accessions), sequence data from three nuclear markers (ITS, ETS, and RPB2), a relaxed lognormal clock model, and a fossil calibration. We explore the evolution of five selected morphological characters, reconstruct the evolution of habitat (white-sand vs. clayish soils) preference, as well as space and time by using a recently developed continuous diffusion model in biogeography. We find Pradosia to be monophyletic in its current circumscription and to have originated in the Amazon basin at ?47.5Ma. Selected morphological characters are useful to readily distinguish three clades. Preferences to white-sand and/or clay are somewhat important for the majority of <span class="hlt">species</span>, but speciation has not been powered by habitat shifts. Pradosia brevipes is a relative young <span class="hlt">species</span> (?1.3Ma) that has evolved a unique geoxylic life strategy within Pradosia and is restricted to savannahs. Molecular dating and phylogenetic pattern indicate that Pradosia reached the Brazilian Atlantic coast at least three times: at 34.4Ma (P. longipedicellata), at 11.7Ma (P. kuhlmannii), and at 3.9Ma (weakly supported node within the red-flowered clade). PMID:25797923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25694041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25694041"><span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic capacity of tropical montane <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in relation to leaf nutrients, successional strategy and growth temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Niyonzima, Felix; Adolfsson, Lisa; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic capacity of <span class="hlt">tree</span> leaves is typically positively related to nutrient content and little affected by changes in growth temperature. These relationships are, however, often poorly supported for tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>, for which interspecific differences may be more strongly controlled by within-leaf nutrient allocation than by absolute leaf nutrient content, and little is known regarding photosynthetic acclimation to temperature. To explore the influence of leaf nutrient status, successional strategy and growth temperature on the photosynthetic capacity of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>, we collected data on photosynthetic, chemical and morphological leaf traits of ten <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Rwanda. Seven <span class="hlt">species</span> were studied in a forest plantation at mid-altitude (~1,700 m), whereas six <span class="hlt">species</span> were studied in a cooler montane rainforest at higher altitude (~2,500 m). Three <span class="hlt">species</span> were common to both sites, and, in the montane rainforest, three pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span> and three climax <span class="hlt">species</span> were investigated. Across <span class="hlt">species</span>, interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity was not related to leaf nutrient content. Instead, this variation was related to differences in within-leaf nitrogen allocation, with a tradeoff between investments into compounds related to photosynthetic capacity (higher in pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span>) versus light-harvesting compounds (higher in climax <span class="hlt">species</span>). Photosynthetic capacity was significantly lower at the warmer site at 1,700 m altitude. We conclude that (1) within-leaf nutrient allocation is more important than leaf nutrient content per se in controlling interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in tropical Rwanda, and that (2) tropical montane rainforest <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibit decreased photosynthetic capacity when grown in a warmer environment. PMID:25694041</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000298','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000298"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping regional distribution of a single <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Landenburger, L.; Lawrence, R.L.; Podruzny, S.; Schwartz, C.C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span>, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification <span class="hlt">trees</span>) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17169902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17169902"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual consistency in canopy stomatal conductance control of leaf water potential across seven <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ewers, B E; Mackay, D S; Samanta, S</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We investigated interannual variability of canopy transpiration per unit ground area (E (C)) and per unit leaf area (E (L)) across seven <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in northern Wisconsin over two years. These <span class="hlt">species</span> have previously been shown to be sufficient to upscale stand-level transpiration to the landscape level during one growing season. Our objective was to test whether a simple plant hydraulic model could capture interannual variation in transpiration. Three <span class="hlt">species</span>, wetland balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill), basswood (Tilia Americana L.) and speckled alder (Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Spreng), had no change in E (C) or E (L) between 2000 and 2001. Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) had a 57 and 19% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) had an 83 and 41% increase in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) had a 50 and 21% decrease in E (C) and E (L), respectively, from 2000 to 2001 in response to complete defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malascoma distria Hüber) and subsequent lower total leaf area index of the reflushed foliage. White cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) had a 20% decrease in both E (C) and E (L) caused by lowered surface water in wetlands in 2001 because of lower precipitation and wetland flow management. Upland A. balsamea increased E (L) and E (C) by 55 and 53%, respectively, as a result of release from light competition of the defoliated, overstory P. tremuloides. We hypothesized that regardless of different drivers of interannual variability in E (C) and E (L), minimum leaf water potential would be regulated at the same value. Minimum midday water potentials were consistent over the two years within each of the seven <span class="hlt">species</span> despite large changes in transpiration between years. This regulation was independently verified by the exponential saturation between daily E (C) and vapor pressure deficit (D) and the tradeoff between a reference canopy stomatal conductance (G (S)) and the sensitivity of G (S) to D, indicating that <span class="hlt">trees</span> with high G (S) must decrease G (S) in response to atmospheric drought faster than <span class="hlt">trees</span> with low G (S). Our results show that models of forest canopy transpiration can be simplified by incorporating G (S) regulation of minimum leaf water potential for isohydric <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:17169902</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3502455','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3502455"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical Human Footprint on Modern <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition in the Purus-Madeira Interfluve, Central Amazonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Levis, Carolina; de Souza, Priscila Figueira; Schietti, Juliana; Emilio, Thaise; Pinto, José Luiz Purri da Veiga; Clement, Charles R.; Costa, Flavia R. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Native Amazonian populations managed forest resources in numerous ways, often creating oligarchic forests dominated by useful <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The scale and spatial distribution of forest modification beyond pre-Columbian settlements is still unknown, although recent studies propose that human impact away from rivers was minimal. We tested the hypothesis that past human management of the useful <span class="hlt">tree</span> community decreases with distance from rivers. Methodology/Principal Findings In six sites, we inventoried <span class="hlt">trees</span> and palms with DBH?10 cm and collected soil for charcoal analysis; we also mapped archaeological evidence around the sites. To quantify forest manipulation, we measured the relative abundance, richness and basal area of useful <span class="hlt">trees</span> and palms. We found a strong negative exponential relationship between forest manipulation and distance to large rivers. Plots located from 10 to 20 km from a main river had 20–40% useful arboreal <span class="hlt">species</span>, plots between 20 and 40 km had 12–23%, plots more than 40 km had less than 15%. Soil charcoal abundance was high in the two sites closest to secondary rivers, suggesting past agricultural practices. The shortest distance between archaeological evidence and plots was found in sites near rivers. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly suggest that past forest manipulation was not limited to the pre-Columbian settlements along major rivers, but extended over interfluvial areas considered to be primary forest today. The sustainable use of Amazonian forests will be most effective if it considers the degree of past landscape domestication, as human-modified landscapes concentrate useful plants for human sustainable use and management today. PMID:23185264</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43D0322A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B43D0322A"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of leaf phenology on canopy exchange processes in temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adriaenssens, S.; Staelens, J.; Wuyts, K.; Samson, R.; Boeckx, P. F.; Verheyen, K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Many forest ecosystems worldwide are exposed to enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S), which may have adverse effects on forest structure and functioning. Canopy exchange processes, i.e. ion exchange between the water layer covering plant tissues and the underlying apoplast, as well as stomatal or cuticular uptake of gases, can play an important role in determining the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems and in studying internal nutrient cycling. However, leaf phenology exhibits a large influence on these processes, in particular for deciduous <span class="hlt">trees</span> where leaf longevity is restricted to one growing season. In a first experiment, 15N-labelled sources were used to investigate the uptake of dissolved (NH4+, NO3-) and gaseous N (NH3) by leaves and twigs at four phenological stages, i.e. the period of leaf development, the fully leafed period, the period of leaf senescence and the leafless period. For this purpose, potted saplings of <span class="hlt">tree</span> deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span>, i.e. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and common birch (Betula pendula L.), and one coniferous <span class="hlt">species</span>, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were used. Along with the uptake of dissolved N, leaf water storage capacity, leaf wettability and canopy leaching of ions in throughfall water were assessed. In general, dissolved N uptake was highest during leaf senescence, while for gaseous N this was during the fully leafed period. Dissolved NH4+ uptake was significantly correlated with the leaching of base cations (K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+), but only during the growing season. Furthermore, dissolved N uptake was related to leaf wettability and not to leaf water storage capacity. A second experiment assessed the temporal variation of throughfall water along a vertical gradient within the canopy of an adult European beech <span class="hlt">tree</span>. To analyse temporal trends a generalized additive model was used, which showed that throughfall deposition at all canopy levels followed the same pattern over time. Furthermore, canopy exchange processes were significantly higher during the growing season than during the dormant season, with higher between-season variation for base cations than for N compounds. This research showed that leaf phenology has a significant impact on canopy exchange processes in temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and that it is recommended to consider each phenological period separately when assessing the response of a forest ecosystem to air pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25826446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25826446"><span id="translatedtitle">Stand competition determines how different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> will cope with a warming climate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernández-de-Uña, Laura; Cañellas, Isabel; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant-plant interactions influence how forests cope with climate and contribute to modulate <span class="hlt">species</span> response to future climate scenarios. We analysed the functional relationships between growth, climate and competition for Pinus sylvestris, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus faginea to investigate how stand competition modifies forest sensitivity to climate and simulated how annual growth rates of these <span class="hlt">species</span> with different drought tolerance would change throughout the 21st century. Dendroecological data from stands subjected to thinning were modelled using a novel multiplicative nonlinear approach to overcome biases related to the general assumption of a linear relationship between covariates and to better mimic the biological relationships involved. Growth always decreased exponentially with increasing competition, which explained more growth variability than climate in Q. faginea and P. sylvestris. The effect of precipitation was asymptotic in all cases, while the relationship between growth and temperature reached an optimum after which growth declined with warmer temperatures. Our growth projections indicate that the less drought-tolerant P. sylvestris would be more negatively affected by climate change than the studied sub-Mediterranean oaks. Q. faginea and P. sylvestris mean growth would decrease under all the climate change scenarios assessed. However, P. sylvestris growth would decline regardless of the competition level, whereas this decrease would be offset by reduced competition in Q. faginea. Conversely, Q. pyrenaica growth would remain similar to current rates, except for the warmest scenario. Our models shed light on the nature of the <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific interaction between climate and competition and yield important implications for management. Assuming that individual growth is directly related to <span class="hlt">tree</span> performance, <span class="hlt">trees</span> under low competition would better withstand the warmer conditions predicted under climate change scenarios but in a variable manner depending on the <span class="hlt">species</span>. Thinning following an exponential rule may be desirable to ensure long-term conservation of high-density Mediterranean woodlands, particularly in drought-limited sites. PMID:25826446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4380403','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4380403"><span id="translatedtitle">Stand Competition Determines How Different <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Will Cope with a Warming Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fernández-de-Uña, Laura; Cañellas, Isabel; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant-plant interactions influence how forests cope with climate and contribute to modulate <span class="hlt">species</span> response to future climate scenarios. We analysed the functional relationships between growth, climate and competition for Pinus sylvestris, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus faginea to investigate how stand competition modifies forest sensitivity to climate and simulated how annual growth rates of these <span class="hlt">species</span> with different drought tolerance would change throughout the 21st century. Dendroecological data from stands subjected to thinning were modelled using a novel multiplicative nonlinear approach to overcome biases related to the general assumption of a linear relationship between covariates and to better mimic the biological relationships involved. Growth always decreased exponentially with increasing competition, which explained more growth variability than climate in Q. faginea and P. sylvestris. The effect of precipitation was asymptotic in all cases, while the relationship between growth and temperature reached an optimum after which growth declined with warmer temperatures. Our growth projections indicate that the less drought-tolerant P. sylvestris would be more negatively affected by climate change than the studied sub-Mediterranean oaks. Q. faginea and P. sylvestris mean growth would decrease under all the climate change scenarios assessed. However, P. sylvestris growth would decline regardless of the competition level, whereas this decrease would be offset by reduced competition in Q. faginea. Conversely, Q. pyrenaica growth would remain similar to current rates, except for the warmest scenario. Our models shed light on the nature of the <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific interaction between climate and competition and yield important implications for management. Assuming that individual growth is directly related to <span class="hlt">tree</span> performance, <span class="hlt">trees</span> under low competition would better withstand the warmer conditions predicted under climate change scenarios but in a variable manner depending on the <span class="hlt">species</span>. Thinning following an exponential rule may be desirable to ensure long-term conservation of high-density Mediterranean woodlands, particularly in drought-limited sites. PMID:25826446</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892354','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892354"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (Amass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five <span class="hlt">species</span> on sedimentary soils and five <span class="hlt">species</span> on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. Amass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Mean Amass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4012946','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4012946"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Rapidly Evolving Intron Markers to Estimate Multilocus <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Trees</span> of Rodents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Prieto, Ana; Igea, Javier; Castresana, Jose</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related <span class="hlt">species</span>, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> approaches. Rodent <span class="hlt">species</span> represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent <span class="hlt">species</span> belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of <span class="hlt">species</span> and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister <span class="hlt">species</span> the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different <span class="hlt">species</span> of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability. PMID:24804779</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12844251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12844251"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the central cascades of Oregon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pruyn, Michele L; Harmon, Mark E; Gartner, B L</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Mature and old growth <span class="hlt">trees</span> of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten <span class="hlt">species</span>. These predictions of sapwood volume were used to scale respiratory potential to the main-bole level (excluding all branches). On the core level, <span class="hlt">species</span> that maintained narrow sapwood (8-16% of bole radius) such as Pseudotusga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata, had sapwood respiratory potentials in the lower bole that were 50% higher (P<0.05) than <span class="hlt">species</span> with wide sapwood (>16% of bole radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed for inner bark respiratory potential, or for sapwood respiratory potential within the crown. On the main-bole level, respiratory potential per unit volume was inversely correlated to the live bole volumetric fraction (inner bark plus sapwood divided by whole bole volume) (Adj. R(2)=0.6). Specifically, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with 18-20% of the main bole alive potentially respired 1.3-3 times more per unit live bole volume than <span class="hlt">species</span> with over 40%, suggesting that the live bole was less metabolically active in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that maintained large volumes of sapwood. PMID:12844251</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11903969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11903969"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in salt sensitivity of four deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to soil or airborne salt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paludan-Müller, Georg; Saxe, Henrik; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Randrup, Thomas Barfoed</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>Seedlings of four deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and lime (Tilia cordata) were exposed to de-icing salt (NaCl) either through the soil or applied to the above ground plant parts. A soil solution of 1.65 g l-1 NaCl was maintained from the start of the experiment in January 1999 until termination in June 1999. The main effects caused by salt treatment through the soil were a reduction in photosynthesis of up to 50% and the development of leaf chlorosis or necrosis covering up to 50% of the total leaf area for the most sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span> (lime and beech); maple and horse chestnut were relatively tolerant. There was no significant correlation between Cl or Na concentration in leaves and the relative sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">species</span>. Saturated salt solution was applied to bark, buds or leaf scars on two occasions three weeks apart during the winter season. This affected the timing of bud break with delays of up to eight days compared with the controls. In the most sensitive <span class="hlt">species</span> the above ground salt treatments partly prevented bud break (beech) or reduced photosynthesis (lime). Uptake through the bark was most important for the development of stress effects, compared with uptake through the other above ground plant parts. PMID:11903969</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21990024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21990024"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf respiratory acclimation to climate: comparisons among boreal and temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> along a latitudinal transect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In common gardens along an ?900 km latitudinal transect through Wisconsin and Illinois, U.S.A., <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> typical of boreal and temperate forests were compared with respect to the nature and magnitude of leaf respiratory acclimation to contrasting climates. The boreal representatives were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), while the temperate <span class="hlt">species</span> were eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr ex. Marsh var. deltoides) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). Assessments were conducted on seedlings grown from seed sources collected near southern and northern range boundaries, respectively. Nighttime rates of leaf dark respiration (R(d)) at common temperatures, as well as R(d)'s short-term temperature sensitivity (energy of activation, E(o)), were assessed for all <span class="hlt">species</span> and gardens twice during a growing season. Little evidence of R(d) thermal acclimation was observed, despite a 12 °C range in average air temperature across gardens. Instead, R(d) variation at warm temperatures was linked most closely with prior leaf photosynthetic performance, while R(d) variation at cooler temperatures was most strongly related to leaf nitrogen concentration. Moreover, E(o) differences across <span class="hlt">species</span> and gardens appeared to stem from the somewhat independent limitations on warm versus cool R(d). Based on this construct, an empirical model relying on R(d) estimates from leaf photosynthesis and nitrogen concentration explained 55% of the observed E(o) variation. PMID:21990024</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552639','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552639"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition and Community Structure on Carbon Density in a Subtropical Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hu, Yanqiu; Su, Zhiyao; Li, Wenbin; Li, Jingpeng; Ke, Xiandong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We assessed the impact of <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and stand structure on the spatial variation of forest carbon density using data collected from a 4-ha plot in a subtropical forest in southern China. We found that 1) forest biomass carbon density significantly differed among communities, reflecting a significant effect of community structure and <span class="hlt">species</span> composition on carbon accumulation; 2) soil organic carbon density increased whereas stand biomass carbon density decreased across communities, indicating that different mechanisms might account for the accumulation of stand biomass carbon and soil organic carbon in the subtropical forest; and 3) a small number of <span class="hlt">tree</span> individuals of the medium- and large-diameter class contributed predominantly to biomass carbon accumulation in the community, whereas a large number of seedlings and saplings were responsible for a small proportion of the total forest carbon stock. These findings demonstrate that both biomass carbon and soil carbon density in the subtropical forest are sensitive to <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and community structure, and that heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">species</span> composition and stand structure should be taken into account to ensure accurate forest carbon accounting. PMID:26317523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4689444','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4689444"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Staton, Margaret; Best, Teodora; Khodwekar, Sudhir; Owusu, Sandra; Xu, Tao; Xu, Yi; Jennings, Tara; Cronn, Richard; Arumuganathan, A. Kathiravetpilla; Coggeshall, Mark; Gailing, Oliver; Liang, Haiying; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Schlarbaum, Scott; Carlson, John E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six <span class="hlt">species</span>, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each <span class="hlt">species</span>. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten <span class="hlt">species</span>, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence. PMID:26698853</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/biblio/fulltext/t1943.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/biblio/fulltext/t1943.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">-Dynamic <span class="hlt">tree</span> aggregation patterns in a <span class="hlt">species</span>-poor temperate woodland disturbed by fire -167 Journal of Vegetation Science 16: 167-174, 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas, David D.</p> <p></p> <p>- Dynamic <span class="hlt">tree</span> aggregation patterns in a <span class="hlt">species</span>-poor temperate woodland disturbed by fire - 167 fire affect the aggregation patterns of <span class="hlt">trees</span> in a <span class="hlt">species</span>-poor oak woodland? Location: East monitored in a 16-ha grid on an annual basis from 1995- 2001 in a <span class="hlt">species</span>-poor temperate woodland. Different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3268544','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3268544"><span id="translatedtitle">Unrestricted quality of seeds in European broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> growing at the cold boundary of their distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kollas, C.; Vitasse, Y.; Randin, C. F.; Hoch, G.; Körner, C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims The low-temperature range limit of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> may be determined by their ability to produce and disperse viable seeds. Biological processes such as flowering, pollen transfer, pollen tube growth, fertilization, embryogenesis and seed maturation are expected to be affected by cold temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of seeds of nine broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> close to their elevational limit. Methods We studied nine, mostly widely distributed, European broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the genera Acer, Fagus, Fraxinus, Ilex, Laburnum, Quercus, Sorbus and Tilia. For each <span class="hlt">species</span>, seeds were collected from stands close to optimal growth conditions (low elevation) and from marginal stands (highest elevation), replicated in two regions in the Swiss Alps. Measurements included seed weight, seed size, storage tissue quality, seed viability and germination success. Key Results All <span class="hlt">species</span> examined produced a lot of viable seeds at their current high-elevation range limit during a summer ranked ‘normal’ by long-term temperature records. Low- and high-elevation seed sources showed hardly any trait differences. The concentration of non-structural carbohydrates tended to be higher at high elevation. Additionally, in one <span class="hlt">species</span>, Sorbus aucuparia, all measured traits showed significantly higher seed quality in high-elevation seed sources. Conclusions For the broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> taxa studied, the results are not in agreement with the hypothesis of reduced quality of seeds in <span class="hlt">trees</span> at their high-elevation range limits. Under the current climatic conditions, seed quality does not constitute a serious constraint in the reproduction of these broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at their high-elevation limit. PMID:22156401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26057363','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26057363"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf reflectance variation along a vertical crown gradient of two deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a Belgian industrial habitat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khavaninzadeh, Ali Reza; Veroustraete, Frank; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Verrelst, Jochem; Samson, Roeland</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The reflectometry of leaf asymmetry is a novel approach in the bio-monitoring of <span class="hlt">tree</span> health in urban or industrial habitats. Leaf asymmetry responds to the degree of environmental pollution and reflects structural changes in a leaf due to environmental pollution. This paper describes the boundary conditions to scale up from leaf to canopy level reflectance, by describing the variability of adaxial and abaxial leaf reflectance, hence leaf asymmetry, along the crown height gradients of two <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Our findings open a research pathway towards bio-monitoring based on the airborne remote sensing of <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies and their leaf asymmetric properties. PMID:26057363</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4571104','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4571104"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf economics of evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> along an elevational gradient in a subtropical mountain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bai, Kundong; He, Chengxin; Wan, Xianchong; Jiang, Debing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying the pattern of bimodal elevational distribution of evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> remain incompletely understood. Here we used leaf economics spectrum (LES) theory to explain such patterns. We measured leaf economic traits and constructed an LES for the co-existing 19 evergreen and 15 deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> growing in evergreen broad-leaved forest at low elevation, beech-mixed forest at middle elevation and hemlock-mixed forest at high elevation in Mao'er Mountain, Guangxi, Southern China (25°50?N, 110°49?E). Leaf economic traits presented low but significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting trait similarity between closely related <span class="hlt">species</span>. After considering the effects of phylogenetic history, deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> in general showed a more acquisitive leaf strategy with a higher ratio of leaf water to dry mass, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorous contents, higher photosynthetic and respiratory rates and greater photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency. In contrast, evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibited a more conservative leaf strategy with higher leaf mass per area, greater construction costs and longer leaf life span. With the elevation-induced decreases of temperature and soil fertility, both evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> showed greater resource conservation, suggesting the increasing importance of environmental filtering to community assembly with increasing elevation. We found close inter-specific correlations between leaf economic traits, suggesting that there are strong genetic constraints limiting the independent evolution of LES traits. Phylogenetic signal increased with decreasing evolutionary rate across leaf economic traits, suggesting that genetic constraints are important for the process of trait evolution. We found a significantly positive relationship between primary axis <span class="hlt">species</span> score (PASS) distance and phylogenetic distance across <span class="hlt">species</span> pairs and an increasing average PASS distance between evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> with increasing elevation, implying that the frequency of distantly related evergreen and deciduous pairs with wide spreading of leaf economic values increases with increasing elevation. Our findings thus suggest that elevation acts as an environmental filter to both select the locally adapted evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> with sufficient phylogenetic variation and regulate their distribution along the elevational gradient based on their coordinated spreading of phylogenetic divergence and leaf economic variation. PMID:26056133</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26056133"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf economics of evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> along an elevational gradient in a subtropical mountain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Kundong; He, Chengxin; Wan, Xianchong; Jiang, Debing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying the pattern of bimodal elevational distribution of evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> remain incompletely understood. Here we used leaf economics spectrum (LES) theory to explain such patterns. We measured leaf economic traits and constructed an LES for the co-existing 19 evergreen and 15 deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> growing in evergreen broad-leaved forest at low elevation, beech-mixed forest at middle elevation and hemlock-mixed forest at high elevation in Mao'er Mountain, Guangxi, Southern China (25°50'N, 110°49'E). Leaf economic traits presented low but significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting trait similarity between closely related <span class="hlt">species</span>. After considering the effects of phylogenetic history, deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> in general showed a more acquisitive leaf strategy with a higher ratio of leaf water to dry mass, higher leaf nitrogen and phosphorous contents, higher photosynthetic and respiratory rates and greater photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency. In contrast, evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibited a more conservative leaf strategy with higher leaf mass per area, greater construction costs and longer leaf life span. With the elevation-induced decreases of temperature and soil fertility, both evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> showed greater resource conservation, suggesting the increasing importance of environmental filtering to community assembly with increasing elevation. We found close inter-specific correlations between leaf economic traits, suggesting that there are strong genetic constraints limiting the independent evolution of LES traits. Phylogenetic signal increased with decreasing evolutionary rate across leaf economic traits, suggesting that genetic constraints are important for the process of trait evolution. We found a significantly positive relationship between primary axis <span class="hlt">species</span> score (PASS) distance and phylogenetic distance across <span class="hlt">species</span> pairs and an increasing average PASS distance between evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> with increasing elevation, implying that the frequency of distantly related evergreen and deciduous pairs with wide spreading of leaf economic values increases with increasing elevation. Our findings thus suggest that elevation acts as an environmental filter to both select the locally adapted evergreen and deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> with sufficient phylogenetic variation and regulate their distribution along the elevational gradient based on their coordinated spreading of phylogenetic divergence and leaf economic variation. PMID:26056133</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4591120','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4591120"><span id="translatedtitle">De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Firmiana danxiaensis, a <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Endemic to the Danxia Landform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Su-Fang; Li, Ming-Wan; Jing, Hui-Juan; Zhou, Ren-Chao; Yang, Gui-Li; Wu, Wei; Fan, Qiang; Liao, Wen-Bo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span> are locally endemic, providing an interesting system for studying adaptation and speciation. Among these <span class="hlt">species</span>, F. danxiaensis is a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> endemic to Mount Danxia in Guangdong, China, which is an area known for presenting the Danxia landform. How F. danxiaensis could have adapted to the stressful environment of rocky cliffs covered with barren soils in the Danxia landform is still unknown. In this study, we performed de novo assembly of the transcriptome of F. danxiaensis, obtaining 47,221 unigenes with an N50 value of 987 bp. Homology analysis showed that 32,318 of the unigenes presented hits in the NCBI non-redundant database, and 31,857 exhibited significant matches with the protein database of Theobroma cacao. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that hundreds of unigenes participated in responses to various stresses or nutritional starvation, which may help us to understand the adaptation of F. danxiaensis to Danxia landform. Additionally, we found 263 genes related to responses to Cd, partially explaining the high accumulation of Cd observed in Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span>. The EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations revealed many genes playing roles in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and environmental adaptation, which may also contribute to the survivor and success of Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span> in extreme environments. Based on the obtained transcriptome, we further identified a Firmiana-specific whole-genome duplication event that occurred approximately 20 Mya, which may have provided raw materials for the diversification of Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:26427005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26427005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26427005"><span id="translatedtitle">De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Firmiana danxiaensis, a <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Endemic to the Danxia Landform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Su-Fang; Li, Ming-Wan; Jing, Hui-Juan; Zhou, Ren-Chao; Yang, Gui-Li; Wu, Wei; Fan, Qiang; Liao, Wen-Bo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Many Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span> are locally endemic, providing an interesting system for studying adaptation and speciation. Among these <span class="hlt">species</span>, F. danxiaensis is a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> endemic to Mount Danxia in Guangdong, China, which is an area known for presenting the Danxia landform. How F. danxiaensis could have adapted to the stressful environment of rocky cliffs covered with barren soils in the Danxia landform is still unknown. In this study, we performed de novo assembly of the transcriptome of F. danxiaensis, obtaining 47,221 unigenes with an N50 value of 987 bp. Homology analysis showed that 32,318 of the unigenes presented hits in the NCBI non-redundant database, and 31,857 exhibited significant matches with the protein database of Theobroma cacao. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that hundreds of unigenes participated in responses to various stresses or nutritional starvation, which may help us to understand the adaptation of F. danxiaensis to Danxia landform. Additionally, we found 263 genes related to responses to Cd, partially explaining the high accumulation of Cd observed in Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span>. The EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations revealed many genes playing roles in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and environmental adaptation, which may also contribute to the survivor and success of Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span> in extreme environments. Based on the obtained transcriptome, we further identified a Firmiana-specific whole-genome duplication event that occurred approximately 20 Mya, which may have provided raw materials for the diversification of Firmiana <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:26427005</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586421','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586421"><span id="translatedtitle">Photoinhibition of photosystem I under high light in the shade-established tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Psychotria rubra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Bao; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Hu, Hong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The photosynthetic sensitivity to high light differs among understory plants of shade- and sun- established <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Shade-established <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are sensitive to high light but the underlying photosynthetic mechanism has not been fully resolved. In the present study, we examined the responses of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) to high light in shade leaves of a shade-established <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Psychotria rubra and a sun-established <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Pometia tomentosa. After exposure to 2000 ?mol photons m–2 s–1 for 2 h, the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) decreased by 40 and 9% in P. rubra and P. tomentosa, respectively. These results indicate that the shade-established <span class="hlt">species</span> P. rubra is incapable of protecting PSI under high light. Strong photoinhibition of PSII under high light led to large depression of electron transfer from PSII to PSI and then prevented further photodamage to PSI. During the high light treatment of 2000 ?mol photons m–2 s–1, PSI photoinhibition in P. rubra was accompanied with high levels of cyclic electron flow (CEF) and P700 oxidation ratio. Therefore, we propose that PSI photoinhibition under high light in P. rubra is dependent on electron transfer from PSII to PSI, and CEF is unlikely to play a major role in photoprotection for PSI in P. rubra. These findings suggest that photoinhibition of PSI is another important mechanism underlying why shade-established <span class="hlt">species</span> cannot survive under high light. PMID:26483816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714835V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714835V"><span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic temperature responses of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M.; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Hasper, Thomas B.; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate <span class="hlt">species</span>, the responses of tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> to exotic warm-adapted plantation <span class="hlt">species</span>, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to CO2 at different temperatures (20 - 40 C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted <span class="hlt">species</span>. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax <span class="hlt">species</span>. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax <span class="hlt">species</span> to future global warming. (Reference: New Phytologist, in press)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25772799"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-locus <span class="hlt">tree</span> and <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> approaches toward resolving a complex clade of downy mildews (Straminipila, Oomycota), including pathogens of beet and spinach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choi, Young-Joon; Klosterman, Steven J; Kummer, Volker; Voglmayr, Hermann; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Thines, Marco</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Accurate <span class="hlt">species</span> determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperms, including a large number of cultivated plants. In the largest downy mildew genus Peronospora, a phylogenetically complex clade includes the economically important downy mildew pathogens of spinach and beet, as well as the type <span class="hlt">species</span> of the genus Peronospora. To resolve this complex clade at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level and to infer evolutionary relationships among them, we used multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation. Both approaches discriminated all nine currently accepted <span class="hlt">species</span> and revealed four previously unrecognized lineages, which are specific to a host genus or <span class="hlt">species</span>. This is in line with a narrow <span class="hlt">species</span> concept, i.e. that a downy mildew <span class="hlt">species</span> is associated with only a particular host plant genus or <span class="hlt">species</span>. Instead of applying the dubious name Peronospora farinosa, which has been proposed for formal rejection, our results provide strong evidence that Peronospora schachtii is an independent <span class="hlt">species</span> from lineages on Atriplex and apparently occurs exclusively on Beta vulgaris. The members of the clade investigated, the Peronospora rumicis clade, associate with three different host plant families, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Polygonaceae, suggesting that they may have speciated following at least two recent inter-family host shifts, rather than contemporary cospeciation with the host plants. PMID:25772799</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24433210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24433210"><span id="translatedtitle">Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Croton floribundus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the <span class="hlt">species</span> and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the <span class="hlt">species</span> as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24433210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..139...40G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..139...40G"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing variation in bacterial composition between the rhizospheres of two mangrove <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gomes, Newton C. M.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Pires, Ana C. C.; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>This study aimed to determine to what extent roots from the common mangrove <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa are able to impose a selective force on the composition of sediment bacterial communities in mangrove intertidal sediments using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4 hyper-variable region). The novel results showed that root systems of A. schaueriana and L. racemosa are associated with increased bacterial dominance, lower richness and compositional shifts of sediment bacterial communities. The proportion of OTUs (operational taxonomc units) belonging to the orders Rhizobiales and Vibrionales were enriched in rhizosphere samples from both plant <span class="hlt">species</span> and sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the order Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were enriched in the rhizosphere of A. schaueriana. In addition, Clostridium and Vibrio populations were more abundant in different mangrove rhizospheres. A. schaueriana and L. racemosa roots appear to be able to impose a selective force on the composition of mangrove sediment bacterial communities and this phenomenon appears to be plant <span class="hlt">species</span> specific. Our findings provide new insights into the potential ecological roles of bacterial guilds in plant-microbe interactions and may aid rhizoengineering approaches for replanting impacted mangrove areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568837','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568837"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple evolutionary processes drive the patterns of genetic differentiation in a forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Lavery, Martyn; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> frequently form <span class="hlt">species</span> complexes, complicating taxonomic classification and gene pool management. This is certainly the case in Eucalyptus, and well exemplified by the Eucalyptus globulus complex. This ecologically and economically significant complex comprises four taxa (sspp. bicostata, globulus, maidenii, pseudoglobulus) that are geographically and morphologically distinct, but linked by extensive “intergrade” populations. To resolve their genetic affinities, nine microsatellites were used to genotype 1200 <span class="hlt">trees</span> from throughout the natural range of the complex in Australia, representing 33 morphological core and intergrade populations. There was significant spatial genetic structure (FST = 0.10), but variation was continuous. High genetic diversity in southern ssp. maidenii indicates that this region is the center of origin. Genetic diversity decreases and population differentiation increases with distance from this area, suggesting that drift is a major evolutionary process. Many of the intergrade populations, along with other populations morphologically classified as ssp. pseudoglobulus or ssp. globulus, belong to a “cryptic genetic entity” that is genetically and geographically intermediate between core ssp. bicostata, ssp. maidenii, and ssp. globulus. Geography, rather than morphology, therefore, is the best predictor of overall genetic affinities within the complex and should be used to classify germplasm into management units for conservation and breeding purposes. PMID:23403692</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352037"><span id="translatedtitle">HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING <span class="hlt">TREE</span> <span class="hlt">SPECIES</span> ASSEMBLAGES ACROSS LARGE DOMAINS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Finley, Andrew O; Banerjee, Sudipto; McRoberts, Ronald E</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Spatially explicit data layers of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> assemblages, referred to as forest types or forest type groups, are a key component in large-scale assessments of forest sustainability, biodiversity, timber biomass, carbon sinks and forest health monitoring. This paper explores the utility of coupling georeferenced national forest inventory (NFI) data with readily available and spatially complete environmental predictor variables through spatially-varying multinomial logistic regression models to predict forest type groups across large forested landscapes. These models exploit underlying spatial associations within the NFI plot array and the spatially-varying impact of predictor variables to improve the accuracy of forest type group predictions. The richness of these models incurs onerous computational burdens and we discuss dimension reducing spatial processes that retain the richness in modeling. We illustrate using NFI data from Michigan, USA, where we provide a comprehensive analysis of this large study area and demonstrate improved prediction with associated measures of uncertainty. PMID:20352037</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12358465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12358465"><span id="translatedtitle">Extractives content in cooperage oak wood during natural seasoning and toasting; influence of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, geographic location, and single-<span class="hlt">tree</span> effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doussot, Franck; De Jéso, Bernard; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The chemical composition of cooperage oak wood is highly variable, depending upon the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Quercus robur L. versus Quercus petraea Liebl.), its geographic location, and the single-<span class="hlt">tree</span> effect. In the process of cask-making, natural seasoning and toasting contribute strongly to the modification of the oak wood chemical composition and therefore influence wine cooperaging. HPLC and GC quantification of ellagitannins and volatile compounds such as whiskey-lactones, eugenol, and vanillin over a sample set of 61 pedunculate oaks and 72 sessile oaks originating from six different forests showed that natural drying leads to a decrease of the ellagitannins and total extractives content level and a quasi constant level of the volatile compounds. Toasting (medium type) drastically enhanced the loss of ellagitannins and the gain in volatile compounds. Statistical treatment showed that the <span class="hlt">species</span> effect remained significant throughout the process of drying and toasting, but not the provenance. The poor correlation with ring width of extractives levels measured on fresh timber remained unchanged as did the single-<span class="hlt">tree</span> effect, with high variability found for all chemical parameters. These results provide further evidence that cooperage oak selection should not be based solely on the wood grain or the provenance but rather on a <span class="hlt">species</span>-provenance combination. PMID:12358465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19537979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19537979"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishment success of sooty beech scale insects, Ultracoelostoma sp., on different host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in New Zealand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wardhaugh, Carl W; Didham, Raphael K</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The sooty beech scale insect (Ultracoelostoma sp.) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) exhibits a highly patchy distribution at local and regional scales. A major factor driving this common distributional phenomenon in other phloem-feeding insects is aggregation and local adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine if Ultracoelostoma was locally adapted to its natal host <span class="hlt">trees</span>, by contrasting the establishment rates of first instar "crawlers" in reciprocal transfers to natal versus novel hosts. Although there are two closely-related <span class="hlt">species</span> of sooty beech scale insect, the morphological characters of crawlers in this study were intermediate between those of U. assimile and U. brittini. However, all of the voucher specimens examined had consistent morphology, indicating that they belong to one <span class="hlt">species</span> which we refer to as Ultracoelostoma sp. Reciprocal transfers of crawlers were carried out between individual red beech (Nothofagus fusca), as well as between mountain beech (N. solandri) and red beech <span class="hlt">trees</span>, to ascertain if insects had become locally adapted to their individual host <span class="hlt">tree</span> or to host <span class="hlt">species</span>. In total, 480 crawlers were placed in enclosures on their natal and novel host <span class="hlt">trees</span>, of which only 32 (6.7 %) became established. No evidence for local adaptation, either to individual host <span class="hlt">trees</span> or to host <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, was found. There was also no difference in crawler establishment between natal and novel hosts. However, crawlers originating from mountain beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> had significantly higher establishment rates on both natal mountain beech and novel red beech hosts, than did crawlers originating from red beech <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The superior ability of mountain beech crawlers to become established, even on novel red beech <span class="hlt">trees</span>, suggests that scale insects on mountain beech <span class="hlt">trees</span> have higher individual fitness (possibly due to maternal effects mediated by differences in host nutritional quality, defensive compounds or growth rate). This increased fitness may result in crawlers being better provisioned to search for appropriate establishment sites. The results of this study indicate that beech scale insects perform better on mountain beech at this site, although crawlers did not preferentially establish on mountain beech. PMID:19537979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20730335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20730335"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of soil water table regime on <span class="hlt">tree</span> community <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, A C; Higuchi, P; van den Berg, E</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and botanical identity off all <span class="hlt">trees</span> with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and high <span class="hlt">tree</span> density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes. PMID:20730335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9239E..0GM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9239E..0GM"><span id="translatedtitle">Object based technique for delineating and mapping 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> using VHR WorldView-2 imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mustafa, Yaseen T.; Habeeb, Hindav N.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Monitoring and analyzing forests and <span class="hlt">trees</span> are required task to manage and establish a good plan for the forest sustainability. To achieve such a task, information and data collection of the <span class="hlt">trees</span> are requested. The fastest way and relatively low cost technique is by using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we proposed an approach to identify and map 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Mangish sub-district, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Image-objects (IOs) were used as the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> mapping unit. This is achieved using the shadow index, normalized difference vegetation index and texture measurements. Four classification methods (Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance, Neural Network, and Spectral Angel Mapper) were used to classify IOs using selected IO features derived from WorldView-2 imagery. Results showed that overall accuracy was increased 5-8% using the Neural Network method compared with other methods with a Kappa coefficient of 69%. This technique gives reasonable results of various <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> classifications by means of applying the Neural Network method with IOs techniques on WorldView-2 imagery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23999137"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem water storage in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: significance, temporal dynamics and dependence on <span class="hlt">tree</span> functional traits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The functional role of internal water storage is increasingly well understood in tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> and conifers, while temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> have only rarely been studied. We examined the magnitude and dynamics of the use of stem water reserves for transpiration in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> with largely different morphology and physiology (genera Fagus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Carpinus and Acer). We expected that differences in water storage patterns would mostly reflect <span class="hlt">species</span> differences in wood anatomy (ring vs. diffuse-porous) and wood density. Sap flux density was recorded synchronously at five positions along the root-to-branch flow path of mature <span class="hlt">trees</span> (roots, three stem positions and branches) with high temporal resolution (2 min) and related to stem radius changes recorded with electronic point dendrometers. The daily amount of stored stem water withdrawn for transpiration was estimated by comparing the integrated flow at stem base and stem top. The temporal coincidence of flows at different positions and apparent time lags were examined by cross-correlation analysis. Our results confirm that internal water stores play an important role in the four diffuse-porous <span class="hlt">species</span> with estimated 5-12 kg day(-1) being withdrawn on average in 25-28 m tall <span class="hlt">trees</span> representing 10-22% of daily transpiration; in contrast, only 0.5-2.0 kg day(-1) was withdrawn in ring-porous Fraxinus. Wood density had a large influence on storage; sapwood area (diffuse- vs. ring-porous) may be another influential factor but its effect was not significant. Across the five <span class="hlt">species</span>, the length of the time lag in flow at stem top and stem base was positively related to the size of stem storage. The stem stores were mostly exhausted when the soil matrix potential dropped below -0.1 MPa and daily mean vapor pressure deficit exceeded 3-5 hPa. We conclude that stem storage is an important factor improving the water balance of diffuse-porous temperate broad-leaved <span class="hlt">trees</span> in moist periods, while it may be of low relevance in dry periods and in ring-porous <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:23999137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25634098"><span id="translatedtitle">Multilocus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> show the recent adaptive radiation of the mimetic heliconius butterflies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kozak, Krzysztof M; Wahlberg, Niklas; Neild, Andrew F E; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Müllerian mimicry among Neotropical Heliconiini butterflies is an excellent example of natural selection, associated with the diversification of a large continental-scale radiation. Some of the processes driving the evolution of mimicry rings are likely to generate incongruent phylogenetic signals across the assemblage, and thus pose a challenge for systematics. We use a data set of 22 mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 92% of <span class="hlt">species</span> in the tribe, obtained by Sanger sequencing and de novo assembly of short read data, to re-examine the phylogeny of Heliconiini with both supermatrix and multispecies coalescent approaches, characterize the patterns of conflicting signal, and compare the performance of various methodological approaches to reflect the heterogeneity across the data. Despite the large extent of reticulate signal and strong conflict between markers, nearly identical topologies are consistently recovered by most of the analyses, although the supermatrix approach failed to reflect the underlying variation in the history of individual loci. However, the supermatrix represents a useful approximation where multiple rare <span class="hlt">species</span> represented by short sequences can be incorporated easily. The first comprehensive, time-calibrated phylogeny of this group is used to test the hypotheses of a diversification rate increase driven by the dramatic environmental changes in the Neotropics over the past 23 myr, or changes caused by diversity-dependent effects on the rate of diversification. We find that the rate of diversification has increased on the branch leading to the presently most <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich genus Heliconius, but the change occurred gradually and cannot be unequivocally attributed to a specific environmental driver. Our study provides comprehensive comparison of philosophically distinct <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> reconstruction methods and provides insights into the diversification of an important insect radiation in the most biodiverse region of the planet. PMID:25634098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395847','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395847"><span id="translatedtitle">Multilocus <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Trees</span> Show the Recent Adaptive Radiation of the Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kozak, Krzysztof M.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Neild, Andrew F. E.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Müllerian mimicry among Neotropical Heliconiini butterflies is an excellent example of natural selection, associated with the diversification of a large continental-scale radiation. Some of the processes driving the evolution of mimicry rings are likely to generate incongruent phylogenetic signals across the assemblage, and thus pose a challenge for systematics. We use a data set of 22 mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 92% of <span class="hlt">species</span> in the tribe, obtained by Sanger sequencing and de novo assembly of short read data, to re-examine the phylogeny of Heliconiini with both supermatrix and multispecies coalescent approaches, characterize the patterns of conflicting signal, and compare the performance of various methodological approaches to reflect the heterogeneity across the data. Despite the large extent of reticulate signal and strong conflict between markers, nearly identical topologies are consistently recovered by most of the analyses, although the supermatrix approach failed to reflect the underlying variation in the history of individual loci. However, the supermatrix represents a useful approximation where multiple rare <span class="hlt">species</span> represented by short sequences can be incorporated easily. The first comprehensive, time-calibrated phylogeny of this group is used to test the hypotheses of a diversification rate increase driven by the dramatic environmental changes in the Neotropics over the past 23 myr, or changes caused by diversity-dependent effects on the rate of diversification. We find that the rate of diversification has increased on the branch leading to the presently most <span class="hlt">species</span>-rich genus Heliconius, but the change occurred gradually and cannot be unequivocally attributed to a specific environmental driver. Our study provides comprehensive comparison of philosophically distinct <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> reconstruction methods and provides insights into the diversification of an important insect radiation in the most biodiverse region of the planet. PMID:25634098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4503679','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4503679"><span id="translatedtitle">The Relative Impact of Climate Change on the Extinction Risk of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in the Montane Tropical Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tejedor Garavito, Natalia; Newton, Adrian C.; Golicher, Duncan; Oldfield, Sara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There are widespread concerns that anthropogenic climate change will become a major cause of global biodiversity loss. However, the potential impact of climate change on the extinction risk of <span class="hlt">species</span> remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to other current threats. The objective of this research was to examine the relative impact of climate change on extinction risk of upper montane <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the tropical Andes, an area of high biodiversity value that is particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. The extinction risk of 129 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> endemic to the region was evaluated according to the IUCN Red List criteria, both with and without the potential impacts of climate change. Evaluations were supported by development of <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution models, using three methods (generalized additive models, recursive partitioning, and support vector machines), all of which produced similarly high AUC values when averaged across all <span class="hlt">species</span> evaluated (0.82, 0.86, and 0.88, respectively). Inclusion of climate change increased the risk of extinction of 18–20% of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> evaluated, depending on the climate scenario. The relative impact of climate change was further illustrated by calculating the Red List Index, an indicator that shows changes in the overall extinction risk of sets of <span class="hlt">species</span> over time. A 15% decline in the Red List Index was obtained when climate change was included in this evaluation. While these results suggest that climate change represents a significant threat to <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the tropical Andes, they contradict previous suggestions that climate change will become the most important cause of biodiversity loss in coming decades. Conservation strategies should therefore focus on addressing the multiple threatening processes currently affecting biodiversity, rather than focusing primarily on potential climate change impacts. PMID:26177097</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26032606"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem and leaf hydraulic properties are finely coordinated in three tropical rain forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nolf, Markus; Creek, Danielle; Duursma, Remko; Holtum, Joseph; Mayr, Stefan; Choat, Brendan</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic traits allows terrestrial plants to maintain safe water status under limited water supply. Tropical rain forests, one of the world's most productive biomes, are vulnerable to drought and potentially threatened by increased aridity due to global climate change. However, the relationship of stem and leaf traits within the plant hydraulic continuum remains understudied, particularly in tropical <span class="hlt">species</span>. We studied within-plant hydraulic coordination between stems and leaves in three tropical lowland rain forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> by analyses of hydraulic vulnerability [hydraulic methods and ultrasonic emission (UE) analysis], pressure-volume relations and in situ pre-dawn and midday water potentials (?). We found finely coordinated stem and leaf hydraulic features, with a strategy of sacrificing leaves in favour of stems. Fifty percent of hydraulic conductivity (P50 ) was lost at -2.1 to -3.1?MPa in stems and at -1.7 to -2.2?MPa in leaves. UE analysis corresponded to hydraulic measurements. Safety margins (leaf P50 - stem P50 ) were very narrow at -0.4 to -1.4?MPa. Pressure-volume analysis and in situ ? indicated safe water status in stems but risk of hydraulic failure in leaves. Our study shows that stem and leaf hydraulics were finely tuned to avoid embolism formation in the xylem. PMID:26032606</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26105009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26105009"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteome profile of salt gland-rich epidermis extracted from a salt-tolerant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Wee-Kee; Ang, Yiqian; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Preparation of proteins from salt-gland-rich tissues of mangrove plant is necessary for a systematic study of proteins involved in the plant's unique desalination mechanism. Extraction of high-quality proteins from the leaves of mangrove <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, however, is difficult due to the presence of high levels of endogenous phenolic compounds. In our study, preparation of proteins from only a part of the leaf tissues (i.e. salt gland-rich epidermal layers) was required, rendering extraction even more challenging. By comparing several extraction methods, we developed a reliable procedure for obtaining proteins from salt gland-rich tissues of the mangrove <span class="hlt">species</span> Avicennia officinalis. Protein extraction was markedly improved using a phenol-based extraction method. Greater resolution 1D protein gel profiles could be obtained. More promising proteome profiles could be obtained through 1D-LC-MS/MS. The number of proteins detected was twice as much as compared to TUTS extraction method. Focusing on proteins that were solely present in each extraction method, phenol-based extracts contained nearly ten times more proteins than those in the extracts without using phenol. The approach could thus be applied for downstream high-throughput proteomic analyses involving LC-MS/MS or equivalent. The proteomics data presented herein are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001691. PMID:26105009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4508094','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4508094"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Avicennia officinalis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove <span class="hlt">species</span> Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A23C1468O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A23C1468O"><span id="translatedtitle">Herbivory As A Driver For Biogenic Methanol Flux From North American Temperate <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oikawa, P.; Lerdau, M.; Mak, J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Ecological relationships of plants and herbivores have implications for biosphere-atmosphere interactions. For instance, plant monoterpene emission response to herbivory can significantly impact air quality /(Litvak et al. /(1999/) Ecol. Appl. 9/(4/):1147-1159/). Studies on biogenic methanol emission response to herbivory have observed significant methanol emissions directly following herbivore attack and even larger emissions 24hrs later /(Penuelas et al. /(2005/) New Phytol. 167:851-857/). We investigated gypsy moth defoliation impacts on methanol emissions in the abundant North American temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> big tooth aspen Populus grandidentata. Specifically, we measured methanol emission response to herbivory on both short and long time scales at a field site in northern Michigan. Our results suggest herbivory can significantly increase methanol emissions on both short and long time scales. Unlike previous investigations, we did not observe methanol emissions 24hrs post-attack to be significantly higher than emissions detected directly following attack. When compared to mechanical wounding, herbivory did not elicit a quantitatively different methanol emission response in this <span class="hlt">species</span>. These results suggest that herbivory in temperate forests may be an important driver for biogenic methanol flux and may therefore be helpful in improving models of methanol dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ehleringer.net/uploads/3/1/8/3/31835701/379.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ehleringer.net/uploads/3/1/8/3/31835701/379.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Box elder (Acer negundo)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Ehleringer, Jim</p> <p></p> <p>Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Box elder transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation away from streamsides (estimated from scaled sap flux contributed 31 and 46% respectively of the estimated 8.0 mm dÀ1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177918"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytoremediation potential of chromium-containing tannery effluent-contaminated soil by native Indian timber-yielding <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mahalingam, Kanimozhi; Vimala, A; Chun, Sechul</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Twenty-six native Indian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that are used for the enhanced <span class="hlt">tree</span> cover program of the forest department (Government of Tamilnadu, India) were screened for phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil containing high chromium content. Out of 26 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> tested, 10 timber-yielding <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were selected for further phytoremediation monitoring. After a series of treatments with tannery effluent sludge, the chromium content was measured in the plant parts. The saplings of Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Albizzia lebbeck, Dalbergia sisso, and Thespesia populnea were identified as efficient bioaccumulators of chromium from Cr-contaminated soil. Acacia auriculiformis accumulates higher amounts of Cr in both the root and stem. Dalbergia sisso and T. populnea were found to accumulate higher quantity of Cr in the roots, whereas A. indica, A. richardiana, and A. lebbeck accumulate Cr in their stem. The stress response of the plant <span class="hlt">species</span> was assessed by quantifying the antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and DHAR. Activity of all the enzymes was observed to gradually increase following treatment with tannery effluent sludge. PMID:26177918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=281955','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=281955"><span id="translatedtitle">Population structure and genetic diversity of three <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pythium isolated from forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> nursery soils in Oregon and Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The genus Pythium includes some of the most important soilborne pathogens that cause damping–off and root rot of conifers, resulting in high seedling mortality in forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> nurseries. The aim of this study was to analyze the diversity and population structure of three <span class="hlt">species</span> of Pythium (P. irregu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.biology.duke.edu/jackson/aob2014.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.biology.duke.edu/jackson/aob2014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a semi-arid habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Jackson, Robert B.</p> <p></p> <p>Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from of tomography for vessel network analysis and the important role of 3-D xylem organization in plant hydraulic Root water uptake and hydraulic transport through xylem are critical for plant functioning and survival</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5120N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5120N"><span id="translatedtitle">OH reactivity measurements from Boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a plant chamber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nölscher, Anke; Custer, Thomas; Sinha, Vinayak; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Kleist, Einhard; Tillmann, Ralf; Wildt, Jürgen; Williams, Jonathan</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Boreal forest covers a large area (ca. 15 million km2) comparable in size to the Tropical rain forest (ca. 17 million km2). The vegetation in Boreal regions is typically conifer forest which is known to emit significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS), such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, methanol and acetone. Many of these organic chemicals react rapidly with hydroxyl (OH) radicals to produce aerosols or secondary pollutants such as ozone. The total effect of the emitted <span class="hlt">species</span> on the OH radical can be determined by measuring the total OH reactivity directly. Therefore a new measurement method was recently devised (Sinha et al., 2008). The Jülich plant atmosphere chamber (JPAC) at the Forschungszentrum-Jülich was used to investigate the overall reactivity of emissions from several Boreal <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> under controlled conditions in October 2009. Vegetation, temperature and light intensities typical of the Hyytiälä measurement station in Finland were used in these experiments and the levels of CO2, humidity and NOx were controlled. In addition to the reactivity measurement, a gas chromatograph (GC), a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTRMS) and a time-of-flight PTRMS (TOF-PTRMS) were used to quantify individual organic chemicals emitted by the plants for comparison with the overall reactivity. Experiments were performed under three different conditions. 1) Lower temperatures (T=20° C) resulted in low plant emissions with no diurnal variation. The total measured OH reactivity ranged from below detection limit (3 sec-1) to 7 sec-1 during the day and overnight rose to 8-13 sec-1. 2) Higher temperatures (T=35° C) produced higher emissions of volatile organic compounds and a clear diurnal trend. Reactivity data matched well with these results rising to 30-50 sec-1 by day and during the night sinking again to 8-13 sec-1. 3) Finally a control experiment was performed without <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the plant chamber. In this experiment, reactivity showed no nocturnal or diurnal variation and measured values remained below detection limit. Significant fractions of the diurnal reactivity could be explained by the individual VOC measurements; however, for all measured organic <span class="hlt">species</span> we found higher emissions during periods of illumination than during periods of darkness. Also subsequent laboratory tests have eliminated interferences and influences of CO2 and water vapor concentrations as a possible explanation. The elevated nighttime values can be attributed to the presence of the plants and not to a chamber related artefact. The cause of the high nocturnal reactivity remains unexplained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec2902-50.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol15-sec2902-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 2902.50 - <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> cleaners.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.50 <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol15-sec2902-50.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol15/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol15-sec2902-50.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 2902.50 - <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> cleaners.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> cleaners. 2902.50 Section 2902.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES... Items § 2902.50 <span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24329812"><span id="translatedtitle">Wood specific gravity and anatomy of branches and roots in 113 Amazonian rainforest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> across environmental gradients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fortunel, Claire; Ruelle, Julien; Beauchêne, Jacques; Fine, Paul V A; Baraloto, Christopher</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Wood specific gravity (WSG) is a strong predictor of <span class="hlt">tree</span> performance across environmental gradients. Yet it remains unclear how anatomical elements linked to different wood functions contribute to variation in WSG in branches and roots across tropical forests. We examined WSG and wood anatomy in white sand, clay terra firme and seasonally flooded forests in French Guiana, spanning broad environmental gradients found throughout Amazonia. We measured 15 traits relating to branches and small woody roots in 113 <span class="hlt">species</span> representing the 15 most abundant <span class="hlt">species</span> in each habitat and representative <span class="hlt">species</span> from seven monophyletic lineages occurring in all habitats. Fiber traits appear to be major determinants of WSG, independent of vessel traits, in branches and roots. Fiber traits and branch and root WSG increased from seasonally flooded <span class="hlt">species</span> to clay terra firme <span class="hlt">species</span> and lastly to white sand <span class="hlt">species</span>. Branch and root wood traits were strongly phylogenetically constrained. Lineages differed in wood design, but exhibited similar variation in wood structure across habitats. We conclude that tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> can invest differently in support and transport to respond to environmental conditions. Wind disturbance and drought stress represent significant filters driving <span class="hlt">tree</span> distribution of Amazonian forests; hence we suggest that biophysical explanations should receive more attention. PMID:24329812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22406409','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22406409"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span>-level phylogeny of 'Satan's perches' based on discordant gene <span class="hlt">trees</span> (Teleostei: Cichlidae: Satanoperca Günther 1862).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willis, Stuart C; López-Fernández, Hernán; Montaña, Carmen G; Farias, Izeni P; Ortí, Guillermo</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Neotropical rivers are home to the largest assemblage of freshwater fishes, but little is known about the phylogeny of these fishes at the <span class="hlt">species</span> level using multi-locus molecular markers. Here, we present a phylogeny for all known <span class="hlt">species</span> of the genus Satanoperca, a widespread group of Neotropical cichlid fishes, based on analysis of six unlinked genetic loci. To test nominal and proposed <span class="hlt">species</span> limits for this group, we surveyed mtDNA sequence variation among 320 individuals representing all know <span class="hlt">species</span>. Most nominal <span class="hlt">species</span> were supported by this approach but we determined that populations in the Xingu, Tapajós, and Araguaia+Paraná Rivers are likely undescribed <span class="hlt">species</span>, while S. jurupari and S. mapiritensis did not show clear genetic distinction. To infer a phylogeny of these putative <span class="hlt">species</span>, we conducted maximum likelihood and Bayesian non-clock and relaxed clock analyses of concatenated data from three genes (one mitochondrial, two nuclear). We also used a multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> coalescent model to estimate a <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> from six unlinked loci (one mitochondrial, five nuclear). The topologies obtained were congruent with other results, but showed only minimal to moderate support for some nodes, suggesting that more loci will be needed to satisfactorily estimate the distribution of coalescent histories within Satanoperca. We determined that this variation results from topological discordance among separate gene <span class="hlt">trees</span>, likely due to differential sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. PMID:22406409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.390a2011G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPhCS.390a2011G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Vacuum Induction Processing System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A <span class="hlt">multipurpose</span> vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4640573','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4640573"><span id="translatedtitle">Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: The Simple Choice of the Outer Wood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bastin, Jean-François; Fayolle, Adeline; Tarelkin, Yegor; Van den Bulcke, Jan; de Haulleville, Thales; Mortier, Frederic; Beeckman, Hans; Van Acker, Joris; Serckx, Adeline; Bogaert, Jan; De Cannière, Charles</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Context Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of <span class="hlt">tree</span> biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within <span class="hlt">species</span> and also within individual <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of <span class="hlt">trees</span>, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted <span class="hlt">species</span> prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant <span class="hlt">species</span>, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Methods Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Results Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding <span class="hlt">species</span>, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing <span class="hlt">species</span>, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was explained by <span class="hlt">species</span> only (45%) followed by a redundant part between <span class="hlt">species</span> and regeneration guilds (36%). Despite substantial variation in wood specific gravity profiles among <span class="hlt">species</span> and regeneration guilds, we found that values from the outer wood were strongly correlated to values from the whole profile, without any significant bias. In addition, we found that wood specific gravity from the DRYAD global repository may strongly differ depending on the <span class="hlt">species</span> (up to 40% for Dialium pachyphyllum). Main Conclusion Therefore, when estimating forest biomass in specific sites, we recommend the systematic collection of outer wood samples on dominant <span class="hlt">species</span>. This should prevent the main errors in biomass estimations resulting from wood specific gravity and allow for the collection of new information to explore the intraspecific variation of mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. PMID:26555144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540694','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540694"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary history of a widespread <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Acer mono in East Asia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant <span class="hlt">species</span> could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at <span class="hlt">species</span> level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in <span class="hlt">species</span> diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcO....61...65A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcO....61...65A"><span id="translatedtitle">Priming effects on seed germination in Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and Cordia megalantha (Boraginaceae), two tropical deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural <span class="hlt">species</span>. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical <span class="hlt">species</span> we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both <span class="hlt">trees</span> are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer <span class="hlt">tree</span> that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied <span class="hlt">species</span>. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262272','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=262272"><span id="translatedtitle">Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: <span class="hlt">tree</span> component, management, <span class="hlt">species</span> conservation and sustainability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Aiming to characterize the <span class="hlt">tree</span> component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa <span class="hlt">trees</span> in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7407V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7407V"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of windthrows and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on forest soil plant biomass and carbon stocks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veselinovic, B.; Hager, H.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The role of forests has generally been recognized in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and policies (e.g. Kyoto Protocol within articles 3.3 and 3.4, RES-E Directive of EU, Country Biomass Action Plans etc.). Application of mitigation actions, to decrease of CO2-emissions and, as the increase of carbon(C)-stocks and appropriate GHG-accounting has been hampered due to a lack of reliable data and good statistical models for the factors influencing C-sequestration in and its release from these systems (e.g. natural and human induced disturbances). Highest uncertainties are still present for estimation of soil C-stocks, which is at the same time the second biggest C-reservoir on earth. Spruce monocultures have been a widely used management practice in central Europe during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes (e.g. submontane to lower montane elevation zone) and on heavy soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially on blowdown. As the windthrow-areas act as CO2-source, we hypothesize that conversion to natural beech and oak forests will provide sustainable wood supply and higher stability of stands against blowdown, which simultaneously provides the long-term belowground C-sequestration. This work focuses on influence of Norway spruce, Common beech and Oak stands on belowground C-dynamics (mineral soil, humus and belowground biomass) taking into consideration the increased impact of windthrows on spruce monocultures as a result of climate change. For this purpose the 300-700m altitude and pseudogley (planosols/temporally logged) soils were chosen in order to evaluate long-term impacts of the observed <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on belowground C-dynamics and human induced disturbances on secondary spruce stands. Using the false chronosequence approach, the C-pools have been estimated for different compartments and age classes. The sampling of forest floor and surface vegetation was done using 30x30 (homogenous plots) and 50x50cm (inhomogeneous plots) frame. It was distinguished between following fractions: fine/coarse roots (</> than 2mm), woody debris (dead wood, branches and seeds), living vegetation (ground vegetation and its roots), litter (leaves fresh and decomposed until the stage where the basic form can still be recognized) and humus layer (more than 30% organic matter in the fine fraction). Mineral soil was sampled down to 1m depth. The C stocks for 60 and 100cm depth were evaluated. The data enable a good overview of allocation of organic C within the belowground compartments, and its dynamics over the stand development stages for the relevant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of the Northern Alpine Foothills. In addition, these data enable the simulation of the long-term development of the belowground biomass and C-stocks for the three different stand types (pure spruce stands, mixed beech-spruce stands and oak stands). These results enable improvement of the statistical models in relation to site factors or stocking <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and serve herewith further, as a valuable decision support for the innovative forest management practices and ensure the accomplishment of ecological, social and economical services of forest ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036857','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036857"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing <span class="hlt">species</span> lulo and <span class="hlt">tree</span> tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the <span class="hlt">tree</span> tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit <span class="hlt">species</span> with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and <span class="hlt">tree</span> tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) <span class="hlt">species</span>. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and <span class="hlt">tree</span> tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in <span class="hlt">tree</span> tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:21637482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23947057','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23947057"><span id="translatedtitle">[Leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals in seven <span class="hlt">trees</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Ling; Fang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Shun-Chang; Xie, Ying; Yang, Dan-Dan</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between <span class="hlt">tree</span> leaf micro-morphology and features in adsorbing air suspended particulate matter and accumulating heavy metals. Seven <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, including Ginkgo biloba, at heavy traffic density site in Huainan were selected to analyze the frequency of air particulate matter retained by leaves, the particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related micro-morphology structure, and the relationship between particle amount of different sizes per unit leaf area retained by leaves and its related accumulation of heavy metals. We found that the <span class="hlt">species</span> characterized by small leaf area, special epidemis with abundant fax, and highly uneven cell wall, as well as big and dense stomata and without trichomes mainly absorbed fine particulate matter; while those <span class="hlt">species</span> with many trichomes mainly retained coarse particulate matter. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaves of the seven <span class="hlt">species</span> was significantly different except for Ph. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with high capacities in heavy metal accumulation were Ginkgo biloba, Ligustrum lucidum, and Cinnamomum camphora. Accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and total heavy metal concentration for seven <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> was positively related to the amount of particulate matter absorbed. Correlation coefficients of d10 vs d2.5, d10 vs d1.0, d2.5 vs d1.0 were 0.987, 0.971, 0.996, respective, and the correlate level was significant. The ratios of d2.5/d10, d1.0/d10, d1.0/d2.5 were 0.844, 0.763, 0.822, indicating that the particulate matter from traffic was mainly fine particulates. PMID:23947057</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4527596','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4527596"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two <span class="hlt">species</span> of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two <span class="hlt">species</span> of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three <span class="hlt">species</span> underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine <span class="hlt">species</span>. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining <span class="hlt">species</span> had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0.06) with seed size. Removal rates were significantly lower for soft seeds (p = 0.002), whereas predation rates were significantly higher on soft seeds (p = 0.01). Our results show that murid rodents play a very important role in affecting the seed fates of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the Eastern Himalayas. We also found that the different rodent groups differed in their seed handling behavior and responses to changes in seed characteristics. PMID:26247616</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B43C0514F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B43C0514F"><span id="translatedtitle">Large <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness is associated with topography, forest structure and spectral heterogeneity in a neotropical rainforest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J. A.; Gillespie, T.; Meyer, V.; Hubbell, S. P.; Santo, F. E.; Saatchi, S. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Large tropical canopy <span class="hlt">trees</span> contain the majority of forest biomass in addition to being the primary producers in the forest ecosystem in terms of both food and structural habitat. The spatial distributions of large tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water and nutrients. These environmental gradients are a result of the biophysical processes related to topography and three-dimensional forest structure. In this study we examine large (>10 cm) diameter <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across Barro Colorado Nature Monument in a tropical moist forest in Panama using active and passive remote sensing. Airborne light detection and ranging and high-resolution satellite imagery were used to quantify spectral heterogeneity, sub-canopy topography and vertical canopy structure across existing vegetation plots to model the extent to which remote sensing variables can be used to explain variation in large <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness. Plant <span class="hlt">species</span> richness data was calculated from the stem mapped 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island in addition to 8 large <span class="hlt">tree</span> plots across the Barro Colorado Nature Monument at 1.0 ha and 0.25 ha spatial scales. We investigated four statistical models to predict large <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness including spectral, topographic, vertical canopy structure and a combined ';global' model which includes all remote sensing derived variables. The models demonstrate that remote sensing derived variables can capture a significant fraction (R2= 0.54 and 0.36) of observed variation in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> richness across the 1.0 and 0.25 ha spatial scales respectively. A selection of remote sensing derived predictor variables. A) World View-2 satellite imagery in RGB/true color. B) False color image of the principal component analysis. C) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). D) Simple Ratio Index. E) Quickbird satellite imagery in RGB/true color. F) False color image of the principal component analysis. G) NDVI. H) Resampled NDVI to 30 m (right). I) Digital elevation model with 1 m topographic contours. J) Terrain slope (red =high, green = low). K) The Topographic Wetness Index (darker blue = higher index values). L) Maximum canopy height model. M) Max canopy height model colored by the 0.25 ha value for the standard deviation of max canopy height (Red = high SD, Green = low SD). N) Lidar intensity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231039','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4231039"><span id="translatedtitle">Radial Growth of Two Dominant Montane Conifer <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Response to Climate Change in North-Central China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Mingchang; Kang, Muyi; Dong, Manyu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>North-Central China is a region in which the air temperature has clearly increased for several decades. Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii are the most dominant co-occurring <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> within the cold coniferous forest belt ranging vertically from 1800 m to 2800 m a.s.l. in this region. Based on a <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring analysis of 292 increment cores sampled from 146 <span class="hlt">trees</span> at different elevations, this study aimed to examine if the radial growth of the two <span class="hlt">species</span> in response to climate is similar, whether the responses are consistent along altitudinal gradients and which <span class="hlt">species</span> might be favored in the future driven by the changing climate. The results indicated the following: (1) The two <span class="hlt">species</span> grew in different rhythms at low and high elevation respectively; (2) Both <span class="hlt">species</span> displayed inconsistent relationships between radial growth and climate data along altitudinal gradients. The correlation between radial growth and the monthly mean temperature in the spring or summer changed from negative at low elevation into positive at high elevation, whereas those between the radial growth and the total monthly precipitation displayed a change from positive into negative along the elevation gradient. These indicate the different influences of the horizontal climate and vertical mountainous climate on the radial growth of the two <span class="hlt">species</span>; (3) The <span class="hlt">species</span>-dependent different response to climate in radial growth appeared mainly in autumn of the previous year. The radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii displayed negative responses both to temperature and to precipitation in the previous September, October or November, which was not observed in the radial growth of P. meyeri. (4) The radial growth of both <span class="hlt">species</span> will tend to be increased at high elevation and limited at low elevation, and L. principis-rupprechtii might be more favored in the future, if the temperature keeps rising. PMID:25393738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26505454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26505454"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular characterization of twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers in the polyploid fruit <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> Syzygium samarangense (Myrtaceae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lai, J M; Tsai, C C; Yen, C R; Ko, Y Z; Chen, S R; Weng, I S; Lin, Y S; Chiang, Y C</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry (wax apple) is an important commercial fruit <span class="hlt">tree</span> in Southeast Asia. Here, microsatellite markers were developed to evaluate genetic diversity and distinguish cultivars in this <span class="hlt">species</span>. In total, 161 microsatellite loci with sufficient flanking sequences to design primer sets were isolated from wax apple using a magnetic bead-enrichment method. Fifty-eight primer sets were designed based on the flanking sequences of each single sequence repeat (SSR) locus and were tested using 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. Twenty SSR loci were found to be polymorphic and transferable across the 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. The number of alleles and effective number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4 to 12 and from 1.697 to 9.800, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.150 to 0.595 (mean = 0.414). Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.502 to 0.866 (mean = 0.763). These new microsatellite loci will be of value for characterization of genetic diversity in wax apples and for the identification of cultivars. PMID:26505454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031530','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031530"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zimmermann, N.E.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Moisen, G.G.; Frescino, T.S.; Blackard, J.A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>1. Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive <span class="hlt">species</span> modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">species</span> remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or <span class="hlt">species</span> traits. 2. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and <span class="hlt">species</span> characteristics. 3. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare <span class="hlt">species</span>. 4. Models of early successional and broadleaf <span class="hlt">species</span> benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf <span class="hlt">species</span>. The core-satellite <span class="hlt">species</span> types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban <span class="hlt">species</span>, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core <span class="hlt">species</span>. 5. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare <span class="hlt">species</span>. The ability to improve model accuracy for <span class="hlt">species</span> having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. ?? 2007 The Authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38..280K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJAEO..38..280K"><span id="translatedtitle">Integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> level carbon stock mapping in Kayar Khola watershed, Nepal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karna, Yogendra K.; Hussin, Yousif Ali; Gilani, Hammad; Bronsveld, M. C.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Qamer, Faisal Mueen; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Bhattarai, Thakur; Aigong, Xu; Baniya, Chitra Bahadur</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Integration of WorldView-2 satellite image with small footprint airborne LiDAR data for estimation of <span class="hlt">tree</span> carbon at <span class="hlt">species</span> level has been investigated in tropical forests of Nepal. This research aims to quantify and map carbon stock for dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Chitwan district of central Nepal. Object based image analysis and supervised nearest neighbor classification methods were deployed for <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopy retrieval and <span class="hlt">species</span> level classification respectively. Initially, six dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Terminalia tomentosa, Mallotus philippinensis and Semecarpus anacardium) were able to be identified and mapped through image classification. The result showed a 76% accuracy of segmentation and 1970.99 as best average separability. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> canopy height model (CHM) was extracted based on LiDAR's first and last return from an entire study area. On average, a significant correlation coefficient (r) between canopy projection area (CPA) and carbon; height and carbon; and CPA and height were obtained as 0.73, 0.76 and 0.63, respectively for correctly detected <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Carbon stock model validation results showed regression models being able to explain up to 94%, 78%, 76%, 84% and 78% of variations in carbon estimation for the following <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: S. robusta, L. parviflora, T. tomentosa, S. wallichii and others (combination of rest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24799708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24799708"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in leaf flushing date influences autumnal senescence and next year's flushing date in two temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Yongshuo S H; Campioli, Matteo; Vitasse, Yann; De Boeck, Hans J; Van den Berge, Joke; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Piao, Shilong; Deckmyn, Gaby; Janssens, Ivan A</p> <p>2014-05-20</p> <p>Recent temperature increases have elicited strong phenological shifts in temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, with subsequent effects on photosynthesis. Here, we assess the impact of advanced leaf flushing in a winter warming experiment on the current year's senescence and next year's leaf flushing dates in two common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L. Results suggest that earlier leaf flushing translated into earlier senescence, thereby partially offsetting the lengthening of the growing season. Moreover, saplings that were warmed in winter-spring 2009-2010 still exhibited earlier leaf flushing in 2011, even though the saplings had been exposed to similar ambient conditions for almost 1 y. Interestingly, for both <span class="hlt">species</span> similar trends were found in mature <span class="hlt">trees</span> using a long-term series of phenological records gathered from various locations in Europe. We hypothesize that this long-term legacy effect is related to an advancement of the endormancy phase (chilling phase) in response to the earlier autumnal senescence. Given the importance of phenology in plant and ecosystem functioning, and the prediction of more frequent extremely warm winters, our observations and postulated underlying mechanisms should be tested in other <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24799708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4034254','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4034254"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in leaf flushing date influences autumnal senescence and next year’s flushing date in two temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fu, Yongshuo S. H.; Campioli, Matteo; Vitasse, Yann; De Boeck, Hans J.; Van den Berge, Joke; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Piao, Shilong; Deckmyn, Gaby; Janssens, Ivan A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Recent temperature increases have elicited strong phenological shifts in temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, with subsequent effects on photosynthesis. Here, we assess the impact of advanced leaf flushing in a winter warming experiment on the current year’s senescence and next year’s leaf flushing dates in two common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L. Results suggest that earlier leaf flushing translated into earlier senescence, thereby partially offsetting the lengthening of the growing season. Moreover, saplings that were warmed in winter–spring 2009–2010 still exhibited earlier leaf flushing in 2011, even though the saplings had been exposed to similar ambient conditions for almost 1 y. Interestingly, for both <span class="hlt">species</span> similar trends were found in mature <span class="hlt">trees</span> using a long-term series of phenological records gathered from various locations in Europe. We hypothesize that this long-term legacy effect is related to an advancement of the endormancy phase (chilling phase) in response to the earlier autumnal senescence. Given the importance of phenology in plant and ecosystem functioning, and the prediction of more frequent extremely warm winters, our observations and postulated underlying mechanisms should be tested in other <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24799708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1034013','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1034013"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span>-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wagner, Rebekah J.; Kaye, Margot W.; Abrams, Marc D.; Hanson, Paul J; Martin, Madhavi Z</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak <span class="hlt">species</span> in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant <span class="hlt">species</span>, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring width and climate were compared for both <span class="hlt">species</span> to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of <span class="hlt">trees</span> growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak <span class="hlt">species</span> and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428825"><span id="translatedtitle">Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Sapwood capacitances of 10 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that <span class="hlt">tree</span> trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large <span class="hlt">trees</span> depending on the <span class="hlt">species</span>. The contribution of stored water in stems of <span class="hlt">trees</span> to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span>, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across <span class="hlt">species</span> was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density <span class="hlt">species</span> (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density <span class="hlt">species</span> (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> facilitating rapid canopy access as these <span class="hlt">species</span> are less shade tolerant than evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:25428825</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2990331','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2990331"><span id="translatedtitle">Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: <span class="hlt">Species</span> Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within <span class="hlt">Trees</span>, and <span class="hlt">Species</span> on Vines and Ground Cover Plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six <span class="hlt">species</span> of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips <span class="hlt">species</span> included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding <span class="hlt">species</span> [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding <span class="hlt">species</span> [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest <span class="hlt">species</span> to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips <span class="hlt">species</span> collected within citrus <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips <span class="hlt">species</span> were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight <span class="hlt">species</span> of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 <span class="hlt">species</span> of thrips. PMID:20233100</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4111583','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4111583"><span id="translatedtitle">Documenting Biogeographical Patterns of African Timber <span class="hlt">Species</span> Using Herbarium Records: A Conservation Perspective Based on Native <span class="hlt">Trees</span> from Angola</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueira, Rui; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Beja, Pedro; Darbyshire, Iain</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In many tropical regions the development of informed conservation strategies is hindered by a dearth of biodiversity information. Biological collections can help to overcome this problem, by providing baseline information to guide research and conservation efforts. This study focuses on the timber <span class="hlt">trees</span> of Angola, combining herbarium (2670 records) and bibliographic data to identify the main timber <span class="hlt">species</span>, document biogeographic patterns and identify conservation priorities. The study recognized 18 key <span class="hlt">species</span>, most of which are threatened or near-threatened globally, or lack formal conservation assessments. Biogeographical analysis reveals three groups of <span class="hlt">species</span> associated with the enclave of Cabinda and northwest Angola, which occur primarily in Guineo-Congolian rainforests, and evergreen forests and woodlands. The fourth group is widespread across the country, and is mostly associated with dry forests. There is little correspondence between the spatial pattern of <span class="hlt">species</span> groups and the ecoregions adopted by WWF, suggesting that these may not provide an adequate basis for conservation planning for Angolan timber <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Eight of the <span class="hlt">species</span> evaluated should be given high conservation priority since they are of global conservation concern, they have very restricted distributions in Angola, their historical collection localities are largely outside protected areas and they may be under increasing logging pressure. High conservation priority was also attributed to another three <span class="hlt">species</span> that have a large proportion of their global range concentrated in Angola and that occur in dry forests where deforestation rates are high. Our results suggest that timber <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Angola may be under increasing risk, thus calling for efforts to promote their conservation and sustainable exploitation. The study also highlights the importance of studying historic herbarium collections in poorly explored regions of the tropics, though new field surveys remain a priority to update historical information. PMID:25061858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25061858"><span id="translatedtitle">Documenting biogeographical patterns of African timber <span class="hlt">species</span> using herbarium records: a conservation perspective based on native <span class="hlt">trees</span> from Angola.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Romeiras, Maria M; Figueira, Rui; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Beja, Pedro; Darbyshire, Iain</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In many tropical regions the development of informed conservation strategies is hindered by a dearth of biodiversity information. Biological collections can help to overcome this problem, by providing baseline information to guide research and conservation efforts. This study focuses on the timber <span class="hlt">trees</span> of Angola, combining herbarium (2670 records) and bibliographic data to identify the main timber <span class="hlt">species</span>, document biogeographic patterns and identify conservation priorities. The study recognized 18 key <span class="hlt">species</span>, most of which are threatened or near-threatened globally, or lack formal conservation assessments. Biogeographical analysis reveals three groups of <span class="hlt">species</span> associated with the enclave of Cabinda and northwest Angola, which occur primarily in Guineo-Congolian rainforests, and evergreen forests and woodlands. The fourth group is widespread across the country, and is mostly associated with dry forests. There is little correspondence between the spatial pattern of <span class="hlt">species</span> groups and the ecoregions adopted by WWF, suggesting that these may not provide an adequate basis for conservation planning for Angolan timber <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Eight of the <span class="hlt">species</span> evaluated should be given high conservation priority since they are of global conservation concern, they have very restricted distributions in Angola, their historical collection localities are largely outside protected areas and they may be under increasing logging pressure. High conservation priority was also attributed to another three <span class="hlt">species</span> that have a large proportion of their global range concentrated in Angola and that occur in dry forests where deforestation rates are high. Our results suggest that timber <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Angola may be under increasing risk, thus calling for efforts to promote their conservation and sustainable exploitation. The study also highlights the importance of studying historic herbarium collections in poorly explored regions of the tropics, though new field surveys remain a priority to update historical information. PMID:25061858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24669729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24669729"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking size-dependent growth and mortality with architectural traits across 145 co-occurring tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iida, Yoshiko; Poorter, Lourens; Sterck, Frank; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Potts, Matthew D; Kubo, Takuya; Kohyama, Takashi S</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tree</span> architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing <span class="hlt">tree</span> size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across <span class="hlt">species</span> and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> covering a wide range of <span class="hlt">tree</span> sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three <span class="hlt">tree</span> architectural variables: <span class="hlt">tree</span> height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across <span class="hlt">species</span>. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall <span class="hlt">trees</span> with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature, wood density, and capacity for horizontal crown expansion. The enhancement of a demographic trade-off due to interspecific variation in functional traits in the understory helps to explain <span class="hlt">species</span> coexistence in diverse rain forests. PMID:24669729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21A0005R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B21A0005R"><span id="translatedtitle">Drivers of <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Effects on Phosphorus and Cation Cycling in Plantations at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, A. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Fast-growing <span class="hlt">trees</span> in secondary forests and plantations in the humid tropics play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance owing to their high rates of carbon sequestration. Because plants require nutrients to sustain high CO2 uptake, differences among <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in traits related to nutrient uptake, retention and recycling could influence ecosystem-scale carbon cycling. A better understanding of the relationships among plant traits, nutrient and carbon cycling will thus improve ecosystem- to global scale modeling of effects of vegetation change on carbon cycling. In an experimental setting in which state factors were similar among four <span class="hlt">species</span> of tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> situated on an Oxisol in replicated, 25-yr-old, mono-dominant plantations, I evaluated various drivers of aboveground storage of phosphorus (P) and cations, measuring nutrient fluxes in litterfall and fine-root growth and storage in biomass and soil to 1-m depth. Because fine roots increase the capacity to scavenge nutrients already on exchange sites within the soil environment, I hypothesized that P and cation uptake would be correlated directly with fine-root growth. The four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in this experiment, Hieronyma alchorneoides, Pentaclethra macroloba, Virola koschnyi, and Vochysia guatemalensis differed significantly in net cation uptake over the first 25 years of growth (P = 0.013, Ca; P >0.0001, Mg, Mn, K, Al, Fe, and Sr). For all cations, aboveground <span class="hlt">tree</span> biomass was highly correlated with fine-root ingrowth length, with P values >0.0001 for all cations except Ca (P = 0.013). In contrast for P, differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> were only marginally significant (P = 0.062). Similarly, P in aboveground <span class="hlt">tree</span> biomass was marginally correlated with fine-root ingrowth (P = 0.068). Neither cation nor P uptake was correlated with measures of available P and cations, organic or total P in surface soil. For P, the less significant correlation with fine-root growth suggests that some other mechanism, such as symbioses with AMF, also play a role in P nutrition in this tropical Oxisol. Together, these results indicate that allocation to fine-root growth resulted in increased scavenging capacity and thereby served as the major mechanism whereby cation uptake, and to a lesser extent P uptake, kept pace with carbon cycling in fast-growing <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20958305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20958305"><span id="translatedtitle">Can we predict carbon stocks in tropical ecosystems from <span class="hlt">tree</span> diversity? Comparing <span class="hlt">species</span> and functional diversity in a plantation and a natural forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Jaen, Maria C; Potvin, Catherine</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>• Linking <span class="hlt">tree</span> diversity to carbon storage can provide further motivation to conserve tropical forests and to design carbon-enriched plantations. Here, we examine the role of <span class="hlt">tree</span> diversity and functional traits in determining carbon storage in a mixed-<span class="hlt">species</span> plantation and in a natural tropical forest in Panama. • We used <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, functional trait diversity, <span class="hlt">species</span> dominance and functional trait dominance to predict <span class="hlt">tree</span> carbon storage across these two forests. Then we compared the <span class="hlt">species</span> ranking based on wood density, maximum diameter, maximum height, and leaf mass per area (LMA) between sites to reveal how these values changed between different forests. • Increased <span class="hlt">species</span> richness, a higher proportion of nitrogen fixers and <span class="hlt">species</span> with low LMA increased carbon storage in the mixed-<span class="hlt">species</span> plantation, while a higher proportion of large <span class="hlt">trees</span> and <span class="hlt">species</span> with high LMA increased <span class="hlt">tree</span> carbon storage in the natural forest. Furthermore, we found that <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> varied greatly in their absolute and relative values between study sites. • Different results in different forests mean that we cannot easily predict carbon storage capacity in natural forests using data from experimental plantations. Managers should be cautious when applying functional traits measured in natural populations in the design of carbon-enriched plantations. PMID:20958305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..56.1148P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..56.1148P"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of Removal of a Non-native <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. on the Regenerating Plant Communities in a Tropical Semideciduous Forest Under Restoration in Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Podadera, Diego S.; Engel, Vera L.; Parrotta, John A.; Machado, Deivid L.; Sato, Luciane M.; Durigan, Giselda</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Exotic <span class="hlt">species</span> are used to trigger facilitation in restoration plantings, but this positive effect may not be permanent and these <span class="hlt">species</span> may have negative effects later on. Since such <span class="hlt">species</span> can provide a marketable product (firewood), their harvest may represent an advantageous strategy to achieve both ecological and economic benefits. In this study, we looked at the effect of removal of a non-native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> ( Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) on the understory of a semideciduous forest undergoing restoration. We assessed two 14-year-old plantation systems (modified "taungya" agroforestry system; and mixed plantation using commercial timber and firewood <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>) established at two sites with contrasting soil properties in São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental design included randomized blocks with split plots. The natural regeneration of woody <span class="hlt">species</span> (height ?0.2 m) was compared between managed (all M. caesalpiniifolia <span class="hlt">trees</span> removed) and unmanaged plots during the first year after the intervention. The removal of M. caesalpiniifolia increased <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity but decreased stand basal area. Nevertheless, the basal area loss was recovered after 1 year. The management treatment affected <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> regeneration differently between <span class="hlt">species</span> groups. The results of this study suggest that removal of M. caesalpiniifolia benefited the understory and possibly accelerated the succession process. Further monitoring studies are needed to evaluate the longer term effects on stand structure and composition. The lack of negative effects of <span class="hlt">tree</span> removal on the natural regeneration indicates that such interventions can be recommended, especially considering the expectations of economic revenues from <span class="hlt">tree</span> harvesting in restoration plantings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24649658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24649658"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondary foundation <span class="hlt">species</span> as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a <span class="hlt">tree</span>-epiphyte system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angelini, Christine; Silliman, Brian R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Facilitation cascades arise where primary foundation <span class="hlt">species</span> facilitate secondary (dependent) foundation <span class="hlt">species</span>, and collectively, they increase habitat complexity and quality to enhance biodiversity. Whether such phenomena occur in nonmarine systems and if secondary foundation <span class="hlt">species</span> enhance food web structure (e.g., support novel feeding guilds) and ecosystem function (e.g., provide nursery for juveniles) remain unclear. Here we report on field experiments designed to test whether <span class="hlt">trees</span> improve epiphyte survival and epiphytes secondarily increase the number and diversity of adult and juvenile invertebrates in a potential live oak-Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) facilitation cascade. Our results reveal that <span class="hlt">trees</span> reduce physical stress to facilitate Tillandsia, which, in turn, reduces desiccation and predation stress to facilitate invertebrates. In experimental removals, invertebrate total density, juvenile density, <span class="hlt">species</span> richness and H' diversity were 16, 60, 1.7, and 1.5 times higher, and feeding guild richness and H' were 5 and 11 times greater in Tillandsia-colonized relative to Tillandsia-removal limb plots. Tillandsia enhanced communities similarly in a survey across the southeastern United States. These findings reveal that a facilitation cascade organizes this widespread terrestrial assemblage and expand the role of secondary foundation <span class="hlt">species</span> as drivers of trophic structure and ecosystem function. We conceptualize the relationship between foundation <span class="hlt">species</span>' structural attributes and associated <span class="hlt">species</span> abundance and composition in a Foundation <span class="hlt">Species</span>-Biodiversity (FSB) model. Importantly, the FSB predicts that, where secondary foundation <span class="hlt">species</span> form expansive and functionally distinct structures that increase habitat availability and complexity within primary foundation <span class="hlt">species</span>, they generate and maintain hot spots of biodiversity and trophic interactions. PMID:24649658</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23406961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23406961"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing lead concentration in the sycamore <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in high- and low-traffic areas of Rasht, Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Alinejad, Farzaneh; FallahChay, Mozaffar</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Important heavy metals such as lead and cadmium are part of the pollutants produced by cars and are spread in the urban environment by traffic flow. In order to study the amount of contamination in the <span class="hlt">trees</span> along the streets and to determine the traffic parameters that affect the lead content in sycamore leaves in Rasht, four stations on the margins of the city streets were selected for this case study in terms of traffic volume (low or high). Traffic parameters including three high-traffic stations considering daily and monthly traffic volumes and one low-traffic station were selected. First, 32 sycamore bases were randomly chosen at the intervals of 10-15 m from the whole range of <span class="hlt">tree</span> canopy in order to determine the absorption of lead; and then, 20 g of each sample were tested to determine the amount of lead absorption. The results of this study, on the amount of lead absorption by the sycamore <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at three high-traffic and one control station, showed that Takhti station had the highest amount of lead absorption (37.19 ppm) compared with other three stations. Therefore, the sycamore <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can be an appropriate one for the margins of urban streets. PMID:23406961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5177952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5177952"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and Clostridium <span class="hlt">species</span> in living <span class="hlt">trees</span>. [Eastern Cottonwood; Block Poplar; American Elm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schink, B.; Ward, J.C.; Zeikus, J.G.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>Wetwood samples from standing <span class="hlt">trees</span> of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to the power of 4 to 10 to the power of 6 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (is less than or equal to 0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the <span class="hlt">trees</span> were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these <span class="hlt">trees</span>. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the <span class="hlt">tree</span> samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium <span class="hlt">species</span>, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living <span class="hlt">trees</span>. (Refs. 38).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24973715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24973715"><span id="translatedtitle">A hybrid phylogenetic-phylogenomic approach for <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> estimation in African Agama lizards with applications to biogeography, character evolution, and diversification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leaché, Adam D; Wagner, Philipp; Linkem, Charles W; Böhme, Wolfgang; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Chong, Rebecca A; Lavin, Brian R; Bauer, Aaron M; Nielsen, Stuart V; Greenbaum, Eli; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Schmitz, Andreas; LeBreton, Matthew; Ineich, Ivan; Chirio, Laurent; Ofori-Boateng, Caleb; Eniang, Edem A; Baha El Din, Sherif; Lemmon, Alan R; Burbrink, Frank T</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Africa is renowned for its biodiversity and endemicity, yet little is known about the factors shaping them across the continent. African Agama lizards (45 <span class="hlt">species</span>) have a pan-continental distribution, making them an ideal model for investigating biogeography. Many <span class="hlt">species</span> have evolved conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits, including extravagant breeding coloration in adult males, large adult male body sizes, and variability in social systems among colorful versus drab <span class="hlt">species</span>. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> for Agama, and their close relatives, using a hybrid phylogenetic-phylogenomic approach that combines traditional Sanger sequence data from five loci for 57 <span class="hlt">species</span> (146 samples) with anchored phylogenomic data from 215 nuclear genes for 23 <span class="hlt">species</span>. The Sanger data are analyzed using coalescent-based <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> inference using (*)BEAST, and the resulting posterior distribution of <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">trees</span> is attenuated using the phylogenomic <span class="hlt">tree</span> as a backbone constraint. The result is a time-calibrated <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> for Agama that includes 95% of all <span class="hlt">species</span>, multiple samples for most <span class="hlt">species</span>, strong support for the major clades, and strong support for most of the initial divergence events. Diversification within Agama began approximately 23 million years ago (Ma), and separate radiations in Southern, East, West, and Northern Africa have been diversifying for >10Myr. A suite of traits (morphological, coloration, and sociality) are tightly correlated and show a strong signal of high morphological disparity within clades, whereby the subsequent evolution of convergent phenotypes has accompanied diversification into new biogeographic areas. PMID:24973715</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1441L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1441L"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf litter decomposition of four different deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> - resource stoichiometry, nutrient release and microbial community composition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leitner, S.; Keiblinger, K. M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of microbial communities for ecosystem processes like litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. For example, fungi are thought to be key players during litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems because they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds like lignin and also dominate the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas bacteria seem to play an important role for lignin decomposition especially under anaerobic conditions. However, our knowledge about the contribution of bacteria and fungi to decomposition is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the microbial decomposer community is affected by resource stoichiometry and how changes in community composition affect litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. To this end, we collected leaf litter of four deciduous <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (beech (Fagus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and ash <span class="hlt">tree</span> (Fraxinus)) at four different seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in an Austrian forest (Schottenwald, 48°14'N16°15'E; MAT=9°C; soil type: dystric cambiosol; soil C:N=16) in 2010. We determined litter nutrient content (micro- and macronutrients) and extractable nutrients and assessed the microbial community by PFLA analysis to test the following hypotheses: (i) <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> affects microbial community composition, (ii) microbial community composition changes over the course of the year, and (iii) narrow litter C:nutrient ratios favour nutrient release. Our data show that litter of different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> varied in their stoichiometry, with C:N ratios between 16 (alder) and 46 (beech) and C:P ratios between 309 (ash) and 1234 (alder). <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> had a significant impact on microbial community composition: highest amounts of actinomycetes and protozoa were observed for alder, while arbuscular mycorrhizae were lowest for oak. Bacteria were favoured by litter with narrow C:N shortly after litterfall. During litter decomposition, microbial communities changed. An increase in fungi and actinomycetes was observed during decomposition in almost all <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> as well as a decline in gram negative bacteria. Generally our results revealed an enhancement in fungal to bacterial ratios, supporting the increasing importance of fungi towards later decomposition stages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24916992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24916992"><span id="translatedtitle">Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars; Smolander, Aino; Prescott, Cindy; Ranger, Jacques</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and deciduous angiosperm (DA) <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> on the water balance, physical-chemical soil properties and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used scientific publications based on experimental designs where all <span class="hlt">species</span> grew on the same parent material and initial soil, and were similar in stage of stand development, former land use and current management. We present the current state of the art, define knowledge gaps, and briefly discuss how selection of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> can be used to mitigate pollution or enhance accumulation of stable organic carbon in the soil. The presence of EGs generally induces a lower rate of precipitation input into the soil than DAs, resulting in drier soil conditions and lower water discharge. Soil temperature is generally not different, or slightly lower, under an EG canopy compared to a DA canopy. Chemical properties, such as soil pH, can also be significantly modified by taxonomic groups of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Biomass production is usually similar or lower in DA stands than in stands of EGs. Aboveground production of dead organic matter appears to be of the same order of magnitude between <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> groups growing on the same site. Some DAs induce more rapid decomposition of litter than EGs because of the chemical properties of their tissues, higher soil moisture and favourable conditions for earthworms. Forest floors consequently tend to be thicker in EG forests compared to DA forests. Many factors, such as litter lignin content, influence litter decomposition and it is difficult to identify specific litter-quality parameters that distinguish litter decomposition rates of EGs from DAs. Although it has been suggested that DAs can result in higher accumulation of soil carbon stocks, evidence from field studies does not show any obvious trend. Further research is required to clarify if accumulation of carbon in soils (i.e. forest floor + mineral soil) is different between the two types of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Production of belowground dead organic matter appears to be of similar magnitude in DA and EG forests, and root decomposition rate lower under EGs than DAs. However there are some discrepancies and still are insufficient data about belowground pools and processes that require further research. Relatively larger amounts of nutrients enter the soil-plant biogeochemical cycle under the influence of EGs than DAs, but recycling of nutrients appears to be slightly enhanced by DAs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying forest ecosystem functioning is essential to predicting the consequences of the expected <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> migration under global change. This knowledge can also be used as a mitigation tool regarding carbon sequestration or management of surface waters because the type of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> affects forest growth, carbon, water and nutrient cycling. PMID:24916992</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17542063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17542063"><span id="translatedtitle">First record of Bursaphelenchus rainulfi on pine <span class="hlt">trees</span> from eastern China and its phylogenetic relationship with intro-genus <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Li-qin; Li, Xu-qing; Zheng, Jing-wu</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Bursaphelenchus rainulfi isolated from dead pine <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Zhejiang, China, is described and illustrated. It also provided some molecular characters of the Chinese population, including the PCR-RFLP and sequences of ITS region and D2-D3 expansion region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Both the morphological characters and ITS-RFLP patterns match with the original description. The phylogenetic <span class="hlt">trees</span> based on the 13 sequences of D2-D3 expansion region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of Bursaphelenchus <span class="hlt">species</span> were constructed, respectively, with the results showing the similar clades. The phylogenetic relationship based on the molecular data is similar to that with morphological characters. This is the first report of the <span class="hlt">species</span> on pine wood in eastern China. PMID:17542063</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714823H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714823H"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform climate sensitivity in <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring stable isotopes across <span class="hlt">species</span> and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Zang, Christian; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Rothe, Andreas; Göttlein, Axel; Dirnböck, Thomas; Treydte, Kerstin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tree</span>-ring stable isotopes, providing insight into drought-induced eco-physiological mechanisms, are frequently used to reconstruct past changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. Their climatic response is, however, still not fully understood, particularly for data originating from non-extreme, mid-latitude environments with differing ecological conditions. Here, we assess the response of ?13C, ?18O and <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring width (TRW) from a temperate mountain forest in the Austrian pre-Alps to climate and specific drought events. Variations in stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce, common beech and European larch from dry, medium and moist sites are compared with records of sunshine, temperature, moisture, precipitation and cloud cover. Results indicate uniform year-to-year variations in ?13C and ?18O across sites and <span class="hlt">species</span>, but distinct differences in TRW according to habitat and <span class="hlt">species</span>. While the climate sensitivity of TRW is overall weak, the ?13C and ?18O chronologies contain significant signals with a maximum sensitivity to cloud cover changes (r = -0.72 for ?18O). The coherent inter-annual isotopic variations are accompanied by substantial differences in the isotopic signatures with offsets up to ˜3‰ for ?13C, indicating <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific physiological strategies and varying water-use efficiencies. During severe summer drought, beech and larch benefit from access to deeper and moist soils, allowing them to keep their stomata open. This strategy is accompanied by an increased water loss through transpiration, but simultaneously enables enhanced photosynthesis. Our findings indicate the potential of <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring stable isotopes from temperate forests to reconstruct changes in cloud cover, and to improve knowledge on basic physiological mechanisms of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> growing in different habitats to cope with soil moisture deficits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23939135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23939135"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-locus <span class="hlt">species</span> <span class="hlt">tree</span> for the Amazonian peacock basses (Cichlidae: Cichla): emergent phylogenetic signal despite limited nuclear variation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willis, Stuart C; Farias, Izeni P; Ortí, Guillermo</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The inference of phylogenies of closely related <span class="hlt">species</span> is obstructed by phenomena such as porous <span class="hlt">species</span> boundaries and deep coalescence, and is often exacerbated by low levels of nucleotide variation among most loci surveyed in phylogenetic studies. We investigated the utility of twenty-one nuclear loci that had a range of 5-40 (median of 14) variable sites per locus to estimate the phylogeny of the genus Cichla, a group of 15 Neotropical cichlid fishes that began to diverge in the early to mid Miocene. We found that under a concatenated approach, the least variable loci, while contributing less to the overall phylogenetic signal (posterior node support), nevertheless provided information that increased support for the final <span class="hlt">tree</span>. Moreover, this was not a result of misdirection by mutational noise, as the inference from all data was far superior to those from reduced datasets (those with more variable loci) in terms of the relative precision of posterior <span class="hlt">tree</span> space. Phylogenetic methods that allowed each locus to have a separate genealogy, including Bayesian concordance analysis and a multispecies coalescent model, provided phylogenies that were also compatible with the concatenated <span class="hlt">tree</span> in terms of the eight recently delimited <span class="hlt">species</span> of Cichla, albeit with somewhat diminished support for some branches. In contrast, described <span class="hlt">species</span> that still regularly exchange genes showed unstable relationships among analyses: not a surprising result from analyses that assume that gene <span class="hlt">tree</span> heterogeneity results from incomplete lineage sorting and not gene flow. Importantly, we also observed that the confidence intervals for node ages in the coalescent analyses were quite wide, and likely susceptible to influence of the prior on node density (e.g. birth-death). PMID:23939135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466725"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform climate sensitivity in <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring stable isotopes across <span class="hlt">species</span> and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Zang, Christian; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Rothe, Andreas; Göttlein, Axel; Dirnböck, Thomas; Treydte, Kerstin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tree</span>-ring stable isotopes, providing insight into drought-induced eco-physiological mechanisms, are frequently used to reconstruct past changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. Their climatic response is, however, still not fully understood, particularly for data originating from non-extreme, mid-latitude environments with differing ecological conditions. Here, we assess the response of ?(13)C, ?(18)O and <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring width (TRW) from a temperate mountain forest in the Austrian pre-Alps to climate and specific drought events. Variations in stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce, common beech and European larch from dry, medium and moist sites are compared with records of sunshine, temperature, moisture, precipitation and cloud cover. Results indicate uniform year-to-year variations in ?(13)C and ?(18)O across sites and <span class="hlt">species</span>, but distinct differences in TRW according to habitat and <span class="hlt">species</span>. While the climate sensitivity of TRW is overall weak, the ?(13)C and ?(18)O chronologies contain significant signals with a maximum sensitivity to cloud cover changes (r?=?-0.72 for ?(18)O). The coherent inter-annual isotopic variations are accompanied by substantial differences in the isotopic signatures with offsets up to ?3‰ for ?(13)C, indicating <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific physiological strategies and varying water-use efficiencies. During severe summer drought, beech and larch benefit from access to deeper and moist soils, allowing them to keep their stomata open. This strategy is accompanied by an increased water loss through transpiration, but simultaneously enables enhanced photosynthesis. Our findings indicate the potential of <span class="hlt">tree</span>-ring stable isotopes from temperate forests to reconstruct changes in cloud cover, and to improve knowledge on basic physiological mechanisms of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> growing in different habitats to cope with soil moisture deficits. PMID:25466725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1002351','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1002351"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of Pest <span class="hlt">Species</span>: <span class="hlt">Tree</span> shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that <span class="hlt">tree</span> shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/155080','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/155080"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-transplant Establishment and Economic Value of Three <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> from Five Container Sizes </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Garcia, Lauren</p> <p>2015-05-05</p> <p>observed in A. rubrum and V. agnus-castus indicted growth increased exponentially in #3 and #7 container-grown <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Taxodium distichum recovered at much slower rates, with less rapid although still vigorous growth in #3 and #7 container-grown <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Data...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899251','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3899251"><span id="translatedtitle">Seabird Nutrient Subsidies Benefit Non-Nitrogen Fixing <span class="hlt">Trees</span> and Alter <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition in South American Coastal Dry Forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change <span class="hlt">species</span> composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing <span class="hlt">species</span>, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing <span class="hlt">species</span> close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on <span class="hlt">tree</span> recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing <span class="hlt">species</span>, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not. PMID:24466065</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466065"><span id="translatedtitle">Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing <span class="hlt">trees</span> and alter <span class="hlt">species</span> composition in South American coastal dry forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change <span class="hlt">species</span> composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing <span class="hlt">species</span>, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing <span class="hlt">species</span> close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on <span class="hlt">tree</span> recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing <span class="hlt">species</span>, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not. PMID:24466065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513836V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513836V"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N-pools were estimated for different compartments over the available age classes. The sampling of humus and surface vegetation was done using 30x30 and 50x50 cm frame. It was distinguished between following fractions: fine/coarse roots (</> than 2 mm), woody debris (dead wood, branches, cones and acorns), living vegetation (ground vegetation and its roots), litter (leaves fresh and decomposed coarse organic layer) and humus (more than 30% of fine organic matter). C and N stocks in mineral soil were assessed for the 10, 30 and 60 cm depth. Furthermore, the influence of solar radiation on humus and mineral soil C and N was evaluated using the GSF (global site factor) estimated with hemispherical photography. The photographs were taken on each sampling point using the 180_ viewing angle looking upward into the canopy. As expected, the solar energy strongly influences the occurrence of herbaceous layer in spruce and oak stands. Furthermore, beech and oak chronosequences display positive (although not strong) correlation between the light factor and C & N accumulation in the humus fractions. In the beech chronosequence, good correlation with light conditions in stands is only found in the sum of all forest floor compartments (litter, woody debris and humus). On the contrary, with exception of spruce (r = 0.391** for the 10 cm depth) no significant correlation was found with the mineral soil C for the three observed depths. depths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26465729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26465729"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of the Brazilian tropical dry forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Pms; Silva, J O; Eisenlohr, P V; Schaefer, Cegr</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological niche models (ENMs) for three specialist <span class="hlt">trees</span> (Anadenantheracolubrina, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva) in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) in Brazil, considering present and future pessimist scenarios (2080) of climate change. These three <span class="hlt">species</span> exhibit typical deciduousness and are widely distributed by SDTF in South America, being important in studies of the historical and evolutionary processes experienced by this ecosystem. The modeling of the potential geographic distribution of <span class="hlt">species</span> was done by the method of maximum entropy (Maxent).We verified a general expansion of suitable areas for occurrence of the three <span class="hlt">species</span> in future (c.a., 18%), although there was reduction of areas with high environmental suitability in Caatinga region. Precipitation of wettest quarter and temperature seasonality were the predictor variables that most contributed to our models. Climatic changes can provide more severe and longer dry season with increasing temperature and <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality in tropics. On this scenario, areas currently occupied by rainforest and savannas could become more suitable for occurrence of the SDTF specialist <span class="hlt">trees</span>, whereas regions occupied by Caatinga could not support the future level of unsustainable (e.g., aridity). Long-term multidisciplinary studies are necessary to make reliable predictions of the plant's adaptation strategies and responses to climate changes in dry forest at community level. Based on the high deforestation rate, endemism and threat, public policies to minimize the effects of climate change on the biodiversity found within SDTFs must be undertaken rapidly. PMID:26465729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2906476','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2906476"><span id="translatedtitle">Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Tropical <span class="hlt">trees</span> undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these <span class="hlt">species</span> to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these <span class="hlt">species</span>. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions. PMID:20587054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4625949','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4625949"><span id="translatedtitle">New Gall Wasp <span class="hlt">Species</span> Attacking Chestnut <span class="hlt">Trees</span>: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from Southeastern China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new gall wasp <span class="hlt">species</span>, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new <span class="hlt">species</span> induces galls on <span class="hlt">trees</span> of Henry’s chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic <span class="hlt">species</span>. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new <span class="hlt">species</span> based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new <span class="hlt">species</span> is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two <span class="hlt">species</span> can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new <span class="hlt">species</span> to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this <span class="hlt">species</span> into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new <span class="hlt">species</span> in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516167"><span id="translatedtitle">New gall wasp <span class="hlt">species</span> attacking chestnut <span class="hlt">trees</span>: Dryocosmus zhuili n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Castanea henryi from southeastern China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Dao-Hong; Liu, Zhiwei; Lu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Su, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Peter</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new gall wasp <span class="hlt">species</span>, Dryocosmus zhuili Liu et Zhu, is herein described from the southeastern Fujian province of China. The new <span class="hlt">species</span> induces galls on <span class="hlt">trees</span> of Henry's chestnut, Castanea henryi, which is also a native host for the notorious Oriental chestnut gall wasp (OCGW, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu). D. zhuili overlaps with OCGW in emergence time and induces galls morphologically similar to that of OCGW on similar plant parts. In a previous study, we reported considerable divergence between mtDNA CO1 (mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequences of these wasps and the true OCGW wasps and suggested the existence of a cryptic <span class="hlt">species</span>. Herein, we confirm the identity of the new <span class="hlt">species</span> based on morphological and biological differences and provide a formal description. Although the new <span class="hlt">species</span> is relatively easily separated from OCGW on basis of morphology, field identification involving the two <span class="hlt">species</span> can still be problematic because of their small body size, highly similar gall morphology, and other life history traits. We further discussed the potential of the new <span class="hlt">species</span> to be a pest for the chestnut industry and the consequences of accidental introduction of this <span class="hlt">species</span> into nonnative areas, especially with regard to the bisexual reproduction mode of the new <span class="hlt">species</span> in contrast to the parthenogenetic reproduction mode of OCGW. PMID:26516167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22645486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22645486"><span id="translatedtitle">Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy <span class="hlt">species</span> in forestry and fruit <span class="hlt">tree</span> orchards in Jordan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qasem, Jamal R</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A field survey was carried out to record plant <span class="hlt">species</span> climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty <span class="hlt">species</span> of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest <span class="hlt">trees</span> belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host <span class="hlt">species</span> prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant <span class="hlt">species</span>, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit <span class="hlt">trees</span> included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry <span class="hlt">species</span> that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684350"><span id="translatedtitle">A flexible multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> genome-wide 60K SNP chip developed from pooled resequencing of 240 Eucalyptus <span class="hlt">tree</span> genomes across 12 <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Faria, Danielle A; Grattapaglia, Dario</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We used whole genome resequencing of pooled individuals to develop a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for Eucalyptus. Genomes of 240 <span class="hlt">trees</span> of 12 <span class="hlt">species</span> were sequenced at 3.5× each, and 46 997 586 raw SNP variants were subject to multivariable filtering metrics toward a multispecies, genome-wide distributed chip content. Of the 60 904 SNPs on the chip, 59 222 were genotyped and 51 204 were polymorphic across 14 Eucalyptus <span class="hlt">species</span>, providing a 96% genome-wide coverage with 1 SNP/12-20 kb, and 47 069 SNPs at ? 10 kb from 30 444 of the 33 917 genes in the Eucalyptus genome. Given the EUChip60K multi-<span class="hlt">species</span> genotyping flexibility, we show that both the sample size and taxonomic composition of cluster files impact heterozygous call specificity and sensitivity by benchmarking against 'gold standard' genotypes derived from deeply sequenced individual <span class="hlt">tree</span> genomes. Thousands of SNPs were shared across <span class="hlt">species</span>, likely representing ancient variants arisen before the split of these taxa, hinting to a recent eucalypt radiation. We show that the variable SNP filtering constraints allowed coverage of the entire site frequency spectrum, mitigating SNP ascertainment bias. The EUChip60K represents an outstanding tool with which to address population genomics questions in Eucalyptus and to empower genomic selection, GWAS and the broader study of complex trait variation in eucalypts. PMID:25684350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030015862&hterms=thermal+insulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermal%2Binsulation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030015862&hterms=thermal+insulation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dthermal%2Binsulation"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Multipurpose</span> Thermal Insulation Test Apparatus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">multi-purpose</span> thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials, or other components. The test apparatus is a fluid boil-off calorimeter system for calibrated measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) of a specimen material at a fixed vacuum level. The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a fluid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the inner vessel and thermal guards, is suspended from the top of the vacuum chamber. Handling tools attach to the cold mass assembly for convenient manipulation of the assembly and for the installation or wrapping of insulation test materials. Liquid nitrogen is typically supplied to the inner vessel using a fill tube with funnel. A single port through the top of the vacuum chamber facilitates both filling and venting. Aerogel composite stacks with reflective films are fastened to the top and the bottom of the inner vessel as thermal guards. The comparative k-value of the insulation material is determined by measuring the boil-off flow rate of gas, the temperature differential across the insulation thickness, and the dimensions (length and diameters) of the test specimen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=281599','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=281599"><span id="translatedtitle">A review of the jumping <span class="hlt">tree</span> bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) of Argentina and nearby areas of Brazil and Paraguay, with descriptions of nine new <span class="hlt">species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Nine new <span class="hlt">species</span> of jumping <span class="hlt">tree</span> bugs, or Isometopinae, from Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil are described. The genus Aristotelesia is revised and the two new <span class="hlt">species</span> A. fuscata (Brazil) and A. medialis (Argentina) are described, and the Argentine and Paraguayan <span class="hlt">species</span> of Myiomma are revie...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3356126','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3356126"><span id="translatedtitle">Ghrelin Receptor in Two <span class="hlt">Species</span> of Anuran Amphibian, Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and Japanese <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Frog (Hyla japonica)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Yasushi; Konno, Norifumi; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Uchiyama, Minoru; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We have identified cDNA encoding a functional growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a, ghrelin receptor) in two <span class="hlt">species</span> of anuran amphibian, the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and the Japanese <span class="hlt">tree</span> frog (Hyla japonica). Deduced receptor protein for bullfrog and Japanese <span class="hlt">tree</span> frog (<span class="hlt">tree</span> frog) was comprised of 374- and 371-amino acids, respectively. The two receptors shared 86% identity, and are grouped to the clade of the tetrapod homologs by phylogenetic analysis. In functional analyses, ghrelin and GHS-R1a agonists increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in GHS-R1a-transfected-HEK293 cell, but ligand selectivity of ghrelin with Ser3 and Thr3 was not observed between the two receptors. Bullfrog GHS-R1a mRNA was mainly expressed in the brain, stomach, and testis. In the brain, the gene expression was detected in the diencephalon and mesencephalon, but not in the pituitary. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> frog GHS-R1a mRNA was predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and ovary, but not detected in the pituitary. In bullfrog stomach but not the brain, GHS-R1a mRNA expression increased after 10 days of fasting. For <span class="hlt">tree</span> frog, GHS-R1a mRNA expression was increased in the brain, stomach and ventral skin by 10 days of fasting, and in the stomach and ventral skin by a dehydration treatment. Intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin in dehydrated <span class="hlt">tree</span> frog did not affect water absorption from the ventral skin. These results suggest that ghrelin is involved in energy homeostasis and possibly in osmoregulation in frogs. PMID:22654801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912366"><span id="translatedtitle">[Distribution patterns of canopy and understory <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The effect of environmental variation on the structure of <span class="hlt">tree</span> communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant <span class="hlt">species</span> is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 <span class="hlt">species</span> and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> at a local scale on Tierra Firme forests of Amacayacu National Park, and suggest reserve's size as a key element to ensure the conservation of plant diversity at both regional and local levels. PMID:24912366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4471144','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4471144"><span id="translatedtitle">Are ecologically important <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> the most useful? A case study from indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Researchers have argued that indigenous peoples preferably use the most apparent plant <span class="hlt">species</span>, particularly for medicinal uses. However, the association between the ecological importance of a <span class="hlt">species</span> and its usefulness remains unclear. In this paper we quantify such association for six use categories (firewood, construction, materials, food, medicines and other uses). We collected data on the uses of 58 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, as reported by 93 informants in 22 villages in the Tsimane’ territory (Bolivian Amazon). We calculated the ecological importance of the same <span class="hlt">species</span> by deriving their importance value index (IVI) in 48 0.1-ha old-growth forest plots. Matching both data sets, we found a positive relation between the IVI of a <span class="hlt">species</span> and its overall use value (UV) as well as with its UV for construction and materials. We found a negative relation between IVI and UV for <span class="hlt">species</span> that were reportedly used for medicine and food uses, and no clear pattern for the other categories. We hypothesize that <span class="hlt">species</span> used for construction or crafting purposes because of their physical properties are more easily substitutable than <span class="hlt">species</span> used for medicinal or edible purposes because of their chemical properties. PMID:26097243</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53L..05K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H53L..05K"><span id="translatedtitle">Palms versus <span class="hlt">trees</span>: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Central Amazon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing <span class="hlt">species</span> might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm <span class="hlt">species</span> (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant <span class="hlt">species</span>. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each <span class="hlt">species</span>, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between <span class="hlt">species</span>. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among <span class="hlt">species</span> in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to <span class="hlt">trees</span> with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from <span class="hlt">species</span> with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was largely explained by higher conductivity of the xylem cross section area. Palms transpired a mean of 1.67 mm m-2 of water per unit crown projection area per day, whereas <span class="hlt">trees</span> transpired only 0.30 mm m-2 per day, resulting in a 5.6 times lower transpiration rate. We conclude that changes in the water table due to land use change are predictable and highly depending on the <span class="hlt">species</span> planted in the area with altered land use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.biologie.uni-freiburg.de/data/bio1/schaefer/pdf/fazedly-new-phytol-09.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.biologie.uni-freiburg.de/data/bio1/schaefer/pdf/fazedly-new-phytol-09.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ontogenetic colour changes in an insular <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: signalling to extinct browsing birds?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Schaefer, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>crassifolius Araliaceae, a heteroblastic <span class="hlt">tree</span> that is endemic to New Zealand. To the human eye, P. crassifolius). Seedlings (human eye ontogenetic changes in leaf colour of lancewood (Pseudo- panax crassifolius) may have been part of a defensive</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343981"><span id="translatedtitle">Paisang (Quercus griffithii): a keystone <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in sustainable agroecosystem management and livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Singh, Ranjay K; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T; Zander, Kerstin K; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> paisang (Quercus griffithii, a <span class="hlt">species</span> of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang <span class="hlt">trees</span> are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop <span class="hlt">species</span> within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone <span class="hlt">species</span> in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods. PMID:25343981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..55..187S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..55..187S"><span id="translatedtitle">Paisang ( Quercus griffithii): A Keystone <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span> in Sustainable Agroecosystem Management and Livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Ranjay K.; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T.; Zander, Kerstin K.; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> paisang ( Quercus griffithii, a <span class="hlt">species</span> of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang <span class="hlt">trees</span> are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop <span class="hlt">species</span> within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone <span class="hlt">species</span> in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3848R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3848R"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and vertical changes in leaf angle distribution for selected deciduous broadleaf <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> common to Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raabe, Kairi; Pisek, Jan; Sonnentag, Oliver; Annuk, Kalju</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Leaf inclination angle distribution is a key parameter in determining the transmission and reflection of radiation by vegetation canopies. It has been previously observed that leaf inclination angle might change gradually from more vertical in the upper canopy and in high light habitats to more horizontal in the lower canopy and in low light habitats [1]. Despite its importance, relatively few measurements on actual leaf angle distributions have been reported for different <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>. Even smaller number of studies have dealt with the possible seasonal changes in leaf angle distribution [2]. In this study the variation of leaf inclination angle distributions was examined both temporally throughout the growing season and vertically at different heights of <span class="hlt">trees</span>. We report on leaf inclination angle distributions for five deciduous broadleaf <span class="hlt">species</span> found commonly in several parts of Europe: grey alder (Alnus incana), Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), chestnut (Castanea), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), and aspen (Populus tremula). The angles were measured using the leveled camera method [3], with the data collected at several separate heights and four times during the period of May-September 2013. The results generally indicate the greatest change in leaf inclination angles for spring, with the changes usually being the most pronounced at the top of the canopy. It should also be noted, however, that whereas the temporal variation proved to be rather consistent for different <span class="hlt">species</span>, the vertical variation differed more between <span class="hlt">species</span>. The leveled camera method was additionally tested in terms of sensitivity to different users. Ten people were asked to measure the leaf angles for four different <span class="hlt">species</span>. The results indicate the method is quite robust in providing coinciding distributions irrespective of the user and level of previous experience with the method. However, certain caution must be exercised when measuring long narrow leaves. References [1] G.G. McMillen, and J.H. McClendon, "Leaf angle: an adaptive feature of sun and shade leaves," Botanical Gazette, vol. 140, pp. 437-442, 1979. [2] J. Pisek, O. Sonnentag, A.D. Richardson, and M. Mõttus, "Is the spherical leaf inclination angle distribution a valid assumption for temperate and boreal broadleaf <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>?" Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 169, pp. 186-194, 2013. [3] Y. Ryu, O. Sonnentag, T. Nilson, R. Vargas, H. Kobayashi, R. Wenk, and D. Baldocchi, "How to quantify <span class="hlt">tree</span> leaf area index in a heterogenous savanna ecosystem: a multi-instrument and multimodel approach," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 150, pp. 63-76, 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029985','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029985"><span id="translatedtitle">Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive <span class="hlt">species</span>. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Brown <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several <span class="hlt">species</span> of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 <span class="hlt">species</span> eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203969"><span id="translatedtitle">Fog reduces transpiration in <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> of the Canarian relict heath-laurel cloud forest (Garajonay National Park, Spain).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ritter, Axel; Regalado, Carlos M; Aschan, Guido</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The ecophysiologic role of fog in the evergreen heath-laurel 'laurisilva' cloud forests of the Canary Islands has not been unequivocally demonstrated, although it is generally assumed that fog water is important for the survival and the distribution of this relict paleoecosystem of the North Atlantic Macaronesian archipelagos. To determine the role of fog in this ecosystem, we combined direct transpiration measurements of heath-laurel <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, obtained with Granier's heat dissipation probes, with micrometeorological and artificial fog collection measurements carried out in a 43.7-ha watershed located in the Garajonay National Park (La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain) over a 10-month period. Median ambient temperature spanned from 7 to 15 degrees C under foggy conditions whereas higher values, ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C, were registered during fog-free periods. Additionally, during the periods when fog water was collected, global solar radiation values were linearly related (r2=0.831) to those under fog-free conditions, such that there was a 75+/-1% reduction in median radiation in response to fog. Fog events greatly reduced median diurnal <span class="hlt">tree</span> transpiration, with rates about 30 times lower than that during fog-free conditions and approximating the nighttime rates in both <span class="hlt">species</span> studied (the needle-like leaf Erica arborea L. and the broadleaf Myrica faya Ait.). This large decrease in transpiration in response to fog was independent of the time of the day, <span class="hlt">tree</span> size and <span class="hlt">species</span> and micrometeorological status, both when expressed on a median basis and in cumulative terms for the entire 10-month measuring period. We conclude that, in contrast to the turbulent deposition of fog water droplets on the heath-laurel <span class="hlt">species</span>, which may be regarded as a localized hydrological phenomenon that is important for high-altitude wind-exposed E. arborea <span class="hlt">trees</span>, the cooler, wetter and shaded microenvironment provided by the cloud immersion belt represents a large-scale effect that is crucial for reducing the transpirational water loss of <span class="hlt">trees</span> that have profligate water use, such as those of the 'laurisilva'. PMID:19203969</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524599','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4524599"><span id="translatedtitle">Selection of Orthologous Genes for Construction of a Highly Resolved Phylogenetic <span class="hlt">Tree</span> and Clarification of the Phylogeny of Trichosporonales <span class="hlt">Species</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Takashima, Masako; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Iwasaki, Wataru; Ohyama, Akira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Sugita, Takashi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The order Trichosporonales (Tremellomycotina, Basidiomycota) includes various <span class="hlt">species</span> that have clinical, agricultural and biotechnological value. Thus, understanding why and how evolutionary diversification occurred within this order is extremely important. This study clarified the phylogenetic relationships among Tricosporonales <span class="hlt">species</span>. To select genes suitable for phylogenetic analysis, we determined the draft genomes of 17 Trichosporonales <span class="hlt">species</span> and extracted 30 protein-coding DNA sequences (CDSs) from genomic data. The CDS regions of Trichosporon asahii and T. faecale were identified by referring to mRNA sequence data since the intron positions of the respective genes differed from those of Cryptococcus neoformans (outgroup) and are not conserved within this order. A multiple alignment of the respective gene was first constructed using the CDSs of T. asahii, T. faecale and C. neoformans, and those of other <span class="hlt">species</span> were added and aligned based on codons. The phylogenetic <span class="hlt">trees</span> were constructed based on each gene and a concatenated alignment. Resolution of the maximum-likelihood <span class="hlt">trees</span> estimated from the concatenated dataset based on both nucleotide (72,531) and amino acid (24,173) sequences were greater than in previous reports. In addition, we found that several genes, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase TOR1 and glutamate synthase (NADH), had good resolution in this group (even when used alone). Our study proposes a set of genes suitable for constructing a phylogenetic <span class="hlt">tree</span> with high resolution to examine evolutionary diversification in Trichosporonales. These can also be used for epidemiological and biogeographical studies, and may also serve as the basis for a comprehensive reclassification of pleomorphic fungi. PMID:26241762</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24655106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24655106"><span id="translatedtitle">Congruent phylogeographical patterns of eight <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in Atlantic Central Africa provide insights into the past dynamics of forest cover.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dauby, G; Duminil, J; Heuertz, M; Koffi, G K; Stévart, T; Hardy, O J</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Cycles of Quaternary climatic change are assumed to be major drivers of African rainforest dynamics and evolution. However, most hypotheses on past vegetation dynamics relied on palaeobotanical records, an approach lacking spatial resolution, and on current patterns of <span class="hlt">species</span> diversity and endemism, an approach confounding history and environmental determinism. In this context, a comparative phylogeographical study of rainforest <span class="hlt">species</span> represents a complementary approach because Pleistocene climatic fluctuations may have left interpretable signatures in the patterns of genetic diversity within <span class="hlt">species</span>. Using 1274 plastid DNA sequences from eight <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Afrostyrax kamerunensis, A. lepidophyllus, Erythrophleum suaveolens, Greenwayodendron suaveolens, Milicia excelsa, Santiria trimera, Scorodophloeus zenkeri and Symphonia globulifera) sampled in 50 populations of Atlantic Central Africa (ACA), we averaged divergence across <span class="hlt">species</span> to produce the first map of the region synthesizing genetic distinctiveness and standardized divergence within and among localities. Significant congruence in divergence was detected mostly among five of the eight <span class="hlt">species</span> and was stronger in the northern ACA. This pattern is compatible with a scenario of past forest fragmentation and recolonization whereby forests from eastern Cameroon and northeastern Gabon would have been more affected by past climatic change than those of western Cameroon (where one or more refugia would have occurred). By contrast, southern ACA (Gabon) displayed low congruence among <span class="hlt">species</span> that may reflect less drastic past forest fragmentation or a more complex history of vegetation changes. Finally, we also highlight the potential impact of current environmental barriers on spatial genetic structures. PMID:24655106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21247001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21247001"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of climate and soil conditions on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> turnover in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in Costa Rica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Häger, Achim</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>On a global level, Tropical Montane Cloud Forests constitute important centers of vascular plant diversity. <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> turnover along environmental gradients plays an important role in larger scale diversity patterns in tropical mountains. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of beta diversity across the Tilardn mountain range in North-Western Costa Rica, and to elucidate the impact of climate and soil conditions on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> turnover at a local scale. Seven climate stations measuring rainfall, horizontal precipitation (clouds and wind-driven rain) and temperatures were installed along a 2.5km transect ranging from 1200 m.a.s.l. on the Atlantic to 1200 m.a.s.l. on the Pacific slope. The ridge top climate station was located at 1500 m.a.s.l. Climate data were recorded from March through December 2003. Additionally, seven 0.05 ha plots were established. On all plots soil moisture was monitored for one year, furthermore soil type and soil chemistry were assessed. Woody plants with a diameter at breast height (dbh) > or = 5 cm were identified to <span class="hlt">species</span>. <span class="hlt">Species</span>' distributions were explored by feeding pairwise Serensen measures between plots into a Principal Component Analysis. Relationships between floristic similarity and environmental variables were analyzed using Mantel tests. Pronounced gradients in horizontal precipitation, temperatures and soil conditions were found across the transect. In total, 483 woody plants were identified, belonging to 132 <span class="hlt">species</span>. Environmental gradients were paralleled by <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> turnover; the plots could be divided in three distinctive floristic units which reflected different topographic positions on the transect (lower slopes, mid slopes and ridge). Most notably there was a complete <span class="hlt">species</span> turnover between the ridge and the lower Pacific slope. Floristic similarity was negatively correlated with differences in elevation, horizontal precipitation, temperatures and soil conditions between plots. It is suggested that beta-diversity in the study area is largely driven by <span class="hlt">species</span> with narrow spatial ranges, due to the interactions between topography, climate and soil formation processes, especially around the wind-exposed and cloud covered ridge area. The findings emphasize the extraordinary conservation value of tropical montane cloud forests in environmentally heterogeneous areas at mid-elevations. PMID:21247001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24737514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24737514"><span id="translatedtitle">Microsatellite markers for the Cabreúva <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Myroxylon peruiferum (Fabaceae), an endangered medicinal <span class="hlt">species</span> from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwarcz, K D; Bajay, M M; Macrini, C M T; Salazar, V L P; Souza, A P; Pinheiro, J B; Brancalion, P H S; Rodrigues, R R; Zucchi, M I</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Cabreúva <span class="hlt">tree</span>, Myroxylon peruiferum, is an endangered tropical <span class="hlt">species</span> from Brazil used in forest restoration projects. It is known for its medicinal properties. Eleven microsatellite markers were developed for this <span class="hlt">species</span>, from a microsatellite-enriched library. Nine of these markers, characterized in 30 individuals from a semideciduous forest remnant population in southeast Brazil, were polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from 2 to 8 per locus; expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.103 to 0.757 and 0.107 to 0.704, respectively. One locus (Mpe-C04) showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably due to null alleles. Two other loci (Mpe-E09 and Mpe-H07) were monomorphic in this population. These microsatellite loci should be useful for future population genetic studies of this <span class="hlt">species</span>. PMID:24737514</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250418"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem cubic-foot volume tables for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plain. Forest Service research paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 14 <span class="hlt">species</span> and 9 <span class="hlt">species</span> groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,728 <span class="hlt">trees</span> sampled in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plain and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each <span class="hlt">species</span> based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250420','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250420"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem cubic-foot volume tables for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Appalachian area. Forest Service research paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 20 <span class="hlt">species</span> and 8 <span class="hlt">species</span> groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Appalachian Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 2,670 <span class="hlt">trees</span> sampled in the Appalachian Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each <span class="hlt">species</span> based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250421"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem cubic-foot volume tables for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Arkansas area. Forest Service research paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 9 <span class="hlt">species</span> and 9 <span class="hlt">species</span> groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Arkansas Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 1,417 <span class="hlt">trees</span> sampled in the Arkansas Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each <span class="hlt">species</span> based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination woth total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250417','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250417"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem cubic-foot volume tables for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the upper coastal plain. Forest Service research paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 11 <span class="hlt">species</span> and 8 <span class="hlt">species</span> groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Upper Coastal Plain. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 521 <span class="hlt">trees</span> sampled in the Upper Coastal Plain and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each <span class="hlt">species</span> based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on d.b.h. in combination with height to a 7-inch d.o.b. top for softwoods and height to a 9-inch d.o.b. top for hardwoods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250419','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/250419"><span id="translatedtitle">Stem cubic-foot volume tables for <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in the Delta area. Forest Service research paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clark, A.; Souter, R.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Steamwood cubic-foot volume inside bark tables are presented for 13 <span class="hlt">species</span> and 6 <span class="hlt">species</span> groups based on equations used to estimate timber sale volumes on national forests in the Delta Area. Tables are based on form class measurement data for 990 <span class="hlt">trees</span> sampled in the Delta Area and taper data collected across the South. A series of tables is presented for each <span class="hlt">species</span> based on diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) in combination with total height and height to a 4-inch diameter outside bark (d.o.b.) top. Volume tables are also presented based on diameter outside of the bark (d.o.b.) in combination with height with to a 9-inch d.o.b. top.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25441614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25441614"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaf morphology of 40 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and relationships to functional ecophysiological traits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kröber, W; Heklau, H; Bruelheide, H</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We explored potential of morphological and anatomical leaf traits for predicting ecophysiological key functions in subtropical <span class="hlt">trees</span>. We asked whether the ecophysiological parameters stomatal conductance and xylem cavitation vulnerability could be predicted from microscopy leaf traits. We investigated 21 deciduous and 19 evergreen subtropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, using individuals of the same age and from the same environment in the Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning experiment at Jiangxi (BEF-China). Information-theoretic linear model selection was used to identify the best combination of morphological and anatomical predictors for ecophysiological functions. Leaf anatomy and morphology strongly depended on leaf habit. Evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span> tended to have thicker leaves, thicker spongy and palisade mesophyll, more palisade mesophyll layers and a thicker subepidermis. Over 50% of all evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span> had leaves with multi-layered palisade parenchyma, while only one deciduous <span class="hlt">species</span> (Koelreuteria bipinnata) had this. Interactions with leaf habit were also included in best multi-predictor models for stomatal conductance (gs ) and xylem cavitation vulnerability. In addition, maximum gs was positively related to log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness. Vapour pressure deficit (vpd) for maximum gs increased with the log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness in <span class="hlt">species</span> having leaves with papillae. In contrast, maximum specific hydraulic conductivity and xylem pressure at which 50% loss of maximum specific xylem hydraulic conductivity occurred (?50 ) were best predicted by leaf habit and density of spongy parenchyma. Evergreen <span class="hlt">species</span> had lower ?50 values and lower maximum xylem hydraulic conductivities. As hydraulic leaf and wood characteristics were reflected in structural leaf traits, there is high potential for identifying further linkages between morphological and anatomical leaf traits and ecophysiological responses. PMID:25441614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24871599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24871599"><span id="translatedtitle">Phytophthora niederhauserii sp. nov., a polyphagous <span class="hlt">species</span> associated with ornamentals, fruit <span class="hlt">trees</span> and native plants in 13 countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abad, Z Gloria; Abad, Jorge A; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Antonella; Faedda, Roberto; Moralejo, Eduardo; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Alvarez-Bernaola, Luis A; Bakonyi, József; Józsa, András; Herrero, Maria Luz; Burgess, Treena I; Cunnington, James H; Smith, Ian W; Balci, Yilmaz; Blomquist, Cheryl; Henricot, Béatrice; Denton, Geoffrey; Spies, Chris; Mcleod, Adele; Belbahri, Lassaad; Cooke, David; Kageyama, Koji; Uematsu, Seiji; Kurbetli, Ilker; De?irmenci, Kemal</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora <span class="hlt">species</span> first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant <span class="hlt">species</span> in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new <span class="hlt">species</span>. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This <span class="hlt">species</span> was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the <span class="hlt">species</span> with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) <span class="hlt">trees</span> in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the <span class="hlt">species</span> and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described <span class="hlt">species</span>. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1?, and ?-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown <span class="hlt">species</span>. It is closely related to <span class="hlt">species</span> in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related <span class="hlt">species</span> being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. PMID:24871599</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019878','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150019878"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">Species</span> Composition of Forests and <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Plantations in Northeastern Costa Rica with an Integration of Hyperspectral and Multitemporal Landsat Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fagan, Matthew E.; Defries, Ruth S.; Sesnie, Steven E.; Arroyo-Mora, J. Pablo; Soto, Carlomagno; Singh, Aditya; Townsend, Philip A.; Chazdon, Robin L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An efficient means to map <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations is needed to detect tropical land use change and evaluate reforestation projects. To analyze recent <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantation expansion in northeastern Costa Rica, we examined the potential of combining moderate-resolution hyperspectral imagery (2005 HyMap mosaic) with multitemporal, multispectral data (Landsat) to accurately classify (1) general forest types and (2) <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations by <span class="hlt">species</span> composition. Following a linear discriminant analysis to reduce data dimensionality, we compared four Random Forest classification models: hyperspectral data (HD) alone; HD plus interannual spectral metrics; HD plus a multitemporal forest regrowth classification; and all three models combined. The fourth, combined model achieved overall accuracy of 88.5%. Adding multitemporal data significantly improved classification accuracy (p less than 0.0001) of all forest types, although the effect on <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantation accuracy was modest. The hyperspectral data alone classified six <span class="hlt">species</span> of <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations with 75% to 93% producer's accuracy; adding multitemporal spectral data increased accuracy only for two <span class="hlt">species</span> with dense canopies. Non-native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> had higher classification accuracy overall and made up the majority of <span class="hlt">tree</span> plantations in this landscape. Our results indicate that combining occasionally acquired hyperspectral data with widely available multitemporal satellite imagery enhances mapping and monitoring of reforestation in tropical landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25870320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25870320"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four <span class="hlt">species</span> of wet tropical rain forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>How <span class="hlt">trees</span> sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all <span class="hlt">species</span> by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one <span class="hlt">species</span> by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four <span class="hlt">species</span> by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen <span class="hlt">species</span>, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback in leaves. In three <span class="hlt">species</span>, removal of three-quarters of phloem area did not cause leaf carbohydrates to accumulate nor did it change photosynthesis or respiration, suggesting that phloem transport is flexible and transport rate per unit phloem can rapidly increase under an increase in carbohydrate supply relative to phloem area. Leaf carbohydrate content thus may be decoupled from whole plant carbon balance by phloem transport in some <span class="hlt">species</span>, and carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration may not be as common in <span class="hlt">trees</span> as previous girdling studies suggest. Further studies in carbohydrate regulation should avoid using girdling as girdling can decrease photosynthesis through unintended means without the tested mechanisms of accumulating leaf carbohydrates. PMID:25870320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRG..113.4025H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRG..113.4025H"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevated stream inorganic nitrogen impacts on a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>: Results from an experimental riparian stream system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hultine, K. R.; Jackson, T. L.; Burtch, K. G.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The release of inorganic nitrogen from intensive agricultural practices and urbanization has resulted in significant alterations of the aquatic nitrogen cycle in riparian ecosystems. Nevertheless, impacts of stream nitrogen inputs on the terrestrial nitrogen cycle and the water and carbon cycles are unclear. Information on terrestrial ecosystem responses to stream N loading is largely absent in part because of the difficulty in controlling for temporal and spatial variation in streamflow, geomorphology, climate, and vegetation. To address these issues, we constructed a dual-plot artificial stream riparian system within a 10-year-old plantation of a dominant riparian <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, box elder (Acer negundo). The dual-plot design allowed for different concentrations of stream inorganic nitrogen between plots while controlling for ecohydrologic and geohydrologic variability. The system was used to investigate elevated inorganic stream nitrogen impacts on water use patterns, above-ground productivity, and leaf chemistry of streamside box elder <span class="hlt">trees</span> over two consecutive growing seasons (2006 and 2007). One plot received inorganic soluble fertilizer that brought the NO3 concentration of stream water from 5 ?mol l-1 to about 100 ?mol l-1, while the second plot received no additional nitrogen. Relative stem sap flux density (Js) did not vary between plots until near the conclusion of the 2006 growing season, when <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the fertilized plot showed a steep upswing in Js relative to <span class="hlt">trees</span> in the control plot. Sap flux in 2007 increased consistently by 0.4% day-1 in the fertilized plot relative to the control plot over a 75-day period, before leveling off near the conclusion of the growing season. At the onset of the experiment, leaf nitrogen per unit mass and leaf nitrogen per unit area were significantly higher in the control plot, and leaf C:N ratios were lower. In 2007, however, differences in leaf chemistry disappeared, suggesting that leaf nitrogen increased in the fertilized <span class="hlt">trees</span> relative to the control <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Stem diameter growth in 2007 was 15% greater in the fertilized <span class="hlt">trees</span>, although there were no differences in either canopy radial or canopy height growth throughout the experiment. Results from this investigation suggest that increases in stream inorganic nitrogen affect water use, litter quality, and productivity of dominant riparian vegetation. These effects may have important feedbacks on several ecohydrological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25857273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25857273"><span id="translatedtitle">Some South African Rubiaceae <span class="hlt">Tree</span> Leaf Extracts Have Antimycobacterial Activity Against Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Mycobacterium <span class="hlt">Species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aro, Abimbola O; Dzoyem, Jean P; Hlokwe, Tiny M; Madoroba, Evelyn; Eloff, Jacobus N; McGaw, Lyndy J</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Many plant <span class="hlt">species</span> contain antimycobacterial compounds, which may serve as template molecules for new anti-TB drugs. The Rubiaceae family is the largest family of <span class="hlt">trees</span> in southern Africa, and preliminary evidence revealed antimycobacterial activity in several <span class="hlt">species</span> of the genus, motivating further studies. Leaf extracts of 15 <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from the Rubiaceae family were screened for antimycobacterial activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) using a twofold serial microdilution assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against C3A liver cells and Vero kidney cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 0.04?mg/mL against M.?smegmatis and M.?tuberculosis were recorded. Activity against M.?aurum was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis (correlation coefficient?=?0.9). Bioautography indicated at least 40 different antimycobacterial compounds in the extracts. Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and Oxyanthus speciosus had the most promising selectivity index values. PMID:25857273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22324147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22324147"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p < 0.05) with the biochemical constituents of stressed plants. Plants growing in industrial zone exhibit a considerable decline in total chlorophyll (34.97-59.81%), soluble sugars (23.85-33.16%) and protein content (21.59-47.13%) and increase in ascorbic acid (81.87-238.53%) and proline content (123.47-284.91%). Of the studied <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, Shorea robusta (9.78 +/- 0.095), Alstonia scholaris (8.76 +/- 0.084), Peltophorum pterocarpum (8.99 +/- 0.13) and Albizia lebbeck (7.71 +/- 0.012) were found to be more tolerant with higher Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant <span class="hlt">species</span> with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas. PMID:22324147</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014970','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70014970"><span id="translatedtitle">Replacement of native oak and hickory <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paillet, F.L.; Rutter, P.A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy <span class="hlt">species</span> over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native <span class="hlt">species</span> by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of <span class="hlt">trees</span> become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510152H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510152H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and climatic factors driving net precipitation partitioning in regions with prevailing cloud deposition and wind-driven rain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hildebrandt, Anke; Bawain, Abdullah; Friesen, Jan</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Partitioning of rainwater in interception, throughfall and stemflow plays a crucial role for potential soil water fluxes, especially in semiarid regions. On the one hand, reducing interception and enhancing net precipitation is crucial for maximizing rain yield. On the other hand, a large proportion of stemflow is likely to induce infiltration hotspots leading to fast transport of water to the deep soil, where it is safe from evaporation. In this paper we investigate, whether climate factors or <span class="hlt">species</span> properties are more conducive to dividing net precipitation into stemflow and throughfall. For this, we use measurements of stemflow and throughfall from two growing seasons in an semiarid cloud forest in Oman, where both wind-driven rain and cloud deposition occur together. Using multivariate statistics, we compare the drivers of stemflow, throughfall partitioning between periods with different wind and rain conditions to understand, weather periods of extremely inclined rain promote stemflow, or alternatively weather stemflow depends solely on the specific position, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and <span class="hlt">tree</span> morphology (height, crown diameter). Our results indicate that in particular position and <span class="hlt">species</span> shape stemflow rates, while variation between singular events are influenced by climate variables. Our results show the importance of tall vegetation in semiarid regions for shaping patterns of soil infiltration and potential for groundwater recharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3076449','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3076449"><span id="translatedtitle">Island Invasion by a Threatened <span class="hlt">Tree</span> <span class="hlt">Species</span>: Evidence for Natural Enemy Release of Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) on Dominica, Lesser Antilles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Norghauer, Julian M.; Martin, Adam R.; Mycroft, Erin E.; James, Arlington; Thomas, Sean C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Despite its appeal to explain plant invasions, the enemy release hypothesis (ERH) remains largely unexplored for tropical forest <span class="hlt">trees</span>. Even scarcer are ERH studies conducted on the same host <span class="hlt">species</span> at both the community and biogeographical scale, irrespective of the system or plant life form. In Cabrits National Park, Dominica, we observed patterns consistent with enemy release of two introduced, congeneric mahogany <span class="hlt">species</span>, Swietenia macrophylla and S. mahagoni, planted almost 50 years ago. Swietenia populations at Cabrits have reproduced, with S. macrophylla juveniles established in and out of plantation areas at densities much higher than observed in its native range. Swietenia macrophylla juveniles also experienced significantly lower leaf-level herbivory (?3.0%) than nine co-occurring <span class="hlt">species</span> native to Dominica (8.4–21.8%), and far lower than conspecific herbivory observed in its native range (11%–43%, on average). These complimentary findings at multiple scales support ERH, and confirm that Swietenia has naturalized at Cabrits. However, Swietenia abundance was positively correlated with native plant diversity at the seedling stage, and only marginally negatively correlated with native plant abundance for stems ?1-cm dbh. Taken together, these descriptive patterns point to relaxed enemy pressure from specialized enemies, specifically the defoliator Steniscadia poliophaea and the shoot-borer Hypsipyla grandella, as a leading explanation for the enhanced recruitment of Swietenia <span class="hlt">trees</span> documented at Cabrits. PMID:21533206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4048558','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4048558"><span id="translatedtitle">The extracts of Japanese willow <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are effective forapoptotic desperation or differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fujita, Kounosuke; Nomura, Yuji; Sawajiri, Masahiko; Mohapatra, Pravat K.; El-Shemy, Hany A.; Nguyen, Nguyen T.; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo; Maeda, Teruo; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Shohei; Fujita, Takayuki</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: The antileukemic activity of hot water extract of plant parts of some Japanese willow <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> grown at different levels of nitrogen were examined. Materials and Methods: Water extracts of willow leaves were prepared for this studies in different level of nitrogen nutrition. Results: The extracts obtained from the leaves and stem exhibited anti-leukemic activities prominently. The crude hot water extracts of the young growing parts including apex, matured leaves and stem, killed the blasts of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, (HL60 and NB4) after 48h incubation, however, such desperation was far less in the root extract. Similar to the plant parts, response of extracts obtained from different willow <span class="hlt">species</span> was not identical; the proportion of dead cells relative to whole cells of the culture medium ranged from 21% to 93% among the <span class="hlt">species</span>. Leaf extracts obtained from the responsive willow <span class="hlt">species</span> decreased the live cell percentage and increased the dead cell percentage at higher level of nitrogen nutrition. The mode of desperation of leaf extract treated AML cells in such <span class="hlt">species</span> appeared to be cell apoptosis as shown by binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -labeled Annexin V. Conclusion: Differentiation of alive AML cells continued unabated and apoptosis was poor when extract of an unresponsive <span class="hlt">species</span> added to the culture medium. PMID:24914277</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19086587','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19086587"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the yield of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont) Singer on selected economic <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayodele, S M; Akpaja, E O; Anyiador, F</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Sawdust from seven economic <span class="hlt">trees</span> (Mansonia altissima, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Nesogordonia papaverifera, Combretodendron macrocarpum, Terminalia sp., Khaya ivorensis and Brachystegia nigerica were used to cultivate Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont) Singer. The highest mycelial density was observed in the sawdust of Mansonia altissimia and lowest in Piptadeniastrum africanum. Time of premodial emergence, fresh weight of mushroom and number of flushes varied from one sawdust to the other. The best sawdust for the growth of this mushroom among the sawdust of the economic <span class="hlt">trees</span> was that of Combretodendron macrocarpum. PMID:19086587</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4379754','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4379754"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced <span class="hlt">species</span> of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and which impact this exerts regarding important <span class="hlt">tree</span> functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and the other three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other <span class="hlt">tree</span> functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all <span class="hlt">species</span>. Drought-adapted <span class="hlt">species</span> showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest <span class="hlt">species</span>. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of <span class="hlt">tree</span> hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25873922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25873922"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced <span class="hlt">species</span> of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> and which impact this exerts regarding important <span class="hlt">tree</span> functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>, and the other three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other <span class="hlt">tree</span> functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all <span class="hlt">species</span>. Drought-adapted <span class="hlt">species</span> showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest <span class="hlt">species</span>. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of <span class="hlt">tree</span> hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23359919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23359919"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of light quality on the seed germination of main <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Min; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yan, Qiao-Ling</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>This paper explored the effects of light quality on the seed germination of five dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> (Larix kaempferi, Phellodendron amurense, Acer mono, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus koraiensis) in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China, based on the experiments with the seeds of the five <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in laboratory and those of the P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi in the field. Four treatments of different light quality were designed in laboratory (taking dark as the control), and three treatments of R/FR (the ratio of red light and far red light intensity) were installed in the field. The laboratory experiment showed that light quality had less effect on the seed germination of L. kaempferi, but the seed germination rates of the other four <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> were significantly different under the treatments of different light quality. P. amurense had the highest seed germination rate under white light, whereas A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis had the highest one under the alternative irradiation with red light and far red light (R-FR-R). In consistence with the results in laboratory, the seed germination rate of P. koraiensis in the field decreased with decreasing R/FR ratio, while that of L. kaempferi was less affected. Under natural condition, the R-FR-R fluctuated with the activity of sun-fleck, and the seed germination patterns of A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis could be the adaptation to the sun-fleck environment in forest stand. The germination of large seeds was significantly affected by light quality. PMID:23359919</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727745"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Species</span>-independent down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis and respiration in response to shading: evidence from six temperate <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Anping; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Osnas, Jeanne L D; Pacala, Stephen W</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The ability to down-regulate leaf maximum net photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and dark respiration rate (Rdark) in response to shading is thought to be an important adaptation of <span class="hlt">trees</span> to the wide range of light environments that they are exposed to across space and time. A simple, general rule that accurately described this down-regulation would improve carbon cycle models and enhance our understanding of how forest successional diversity is maintained. In this paper, we investigated the light response of Amax and Rdark for saplings of six temperate forest <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in New Jersey, USA, and formulated a simple model of down-regulation that could be incorporated into carbon cycle models. We found that full-sun values of Amax and Rdark differed significantly among <span class="hlt">species</span>, but the rate of down-regulation (proportional decrease in Amax or Rdark relative to the full-sun value) in response to shade was not significantly <span class="hlt">species</span>- or taxon-specific. Shade leaves of sun-grown plants appear to follow the same pattern of down-regulation in response to shade as leaves of shade-grown plants. Given the light level above a leaf and one <span class="hlt">species</span>-specific number (either the full-sun Amax or full-sun Rdark), we provide a formula that can accurately predict the leaf's Amax and Rdark. We further show that most of the down regulation of per unit area Rdark and Amax is caused by reductions in leaf mass per unit area (LMA): as light decreases, leaves get thinner, while per unit mass Amax and Rdark remain approximately constant. PMID:24727745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053227"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> in shallow soil over bedrock.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kukowski, Kelly R; Schwinning, Susanne; Schwartz, Benjamin F</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>An important component of the hydrological niche involves the partitioning of water sources, but in landscapes characterized by shallow soils over fractured bedrock, root growth is highly constrained. We conducted a study to determine how physical constraints in the root zone affected the water use of three <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> that commonly coexist on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas; cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), live oak (Quercus fusiformis), and Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). The year of the study was unusually dry; minimum predawn water potentials measured in August were -8 MPa in juniper, less than -8 MPa in elm, and -5 MPa in oak. All year long, <span class="hlt">species</span> used nearly identical water sources, based on stable isotope analysis of stem water. Sap flow velocities began to decline simultaneously in May, but the rate of decline was fastest for oak and slowest for juniper. Thus, <span class="hlt">species</span> partitioned water by time when they could not partition water by source. Juniper lost 15-30 % of its stem hydraulic conductivity, while percent loss for oak was 70-75 %, and 90 % for elm. There was no <span class="hlt">tree</span> mortality in the year of the study, but 2 years later, after an even more severe drought in 2011, we recorded 34, 14, 6, and 1 % mortality among oak, elm, juniper, and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), respectively. Among the study <span class="hlt">species</span>, mortality rates ranked in the same order as the rate of sap flow decline in 2009. Among the angiosperms, mortality rates correlated with wood density, lending further support to the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">species</span> with more cavitation-resistant xylem are more susceptible to catastrophic hydraulic failure under acute drought. PMID:23053227</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/16624','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/16624"><span id="translatedtitle">What matters for predicting spatial distributions of <span class="hlt">trees</span>: Techniques, data, or <span class="hlt">species</span>’ characteristics?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Guisan, A.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Elith, J.; Graham, C. H.; Phillips, S.; Peterson, A. Townsend</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Data characteristics and <span class="hlt">species</span> traits are expected to influence the accuracy with which <span class="hlt">species</span>' distributions can be modeled and predicted. We compare 10 modeling techniques in terms of predictive power and sensitivity to location error, change...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711914A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711914A"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting for selection bias in <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution models: An econometric approach on forested <span class="hlt">trees</span> based on structural modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ay, Jean-Sauveur; Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Doyen, Luc; Leadley, Paul</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Species</span> distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global change on <span class="hlt">species</span>. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given <span class="hlt">species</span> is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and <span class="hlt">species</span> responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of <span class="hlt">species</span> response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of application on forested <span class="hlt">trees</span> over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8 km). We also compared the output of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM in term of bioclimatic response curves and potential distribution under current climate. According to the <span class="hlt">species</span> and the spatial resolution of the calibration dataset, shapes of bioclimatic response curves the modelled <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution maps differed markedly between the SSDM and classical SDMs. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents a crucial step to account for economic constraints on <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">species</span> distribution that will help to assess the trade-offs and opportunities arising from global change and refine adaptive management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/247416','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/247416"><span id="translatedtitle">Multilocus <span class="hlt">Species</span> <span class="hlt">Trees</span> Show the Recent Adaptive Radiation of the Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kozak, Krzysztof M.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Neild, Andrew F. E.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D.</p> <p>2015-01-28</p> <p>of the relative timing of the divergence events and motivated the most widely cited study of the molecular clock in Arthropoda (Brower 1994a). Mallet et al. (2007) created a chronogram from a partially unresolved <span class="hlt">tree</span>, using a relaxed clock procedure and the Co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/forestsci/Langatetal2012.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/forestsci/Langatetal2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH <span class="hlt">Species</span> mixing boosts root yield in mangrove <span class="hlt">trees</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mencuccini, Maurizio</p> <p></p> <p>-month-old Avicennia marina (A), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (B) and Ceriops tagal (C). A monoculture of each <span class="hlt">species</span>). The increased productivity of a mixed-<span class="hlt">species</span> assemblage compared to monocultures of the component <span class="hlt">species</span>. The former refers to a situation in which a mixture outproduces the highest yielding monoculture</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H31F0720J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H31F0720J"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations between regional moisture gradient, <span class="hlt">tree</span> <span class="hlt">specie