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1

Nutritive evaluation of some nitrogen and non-nitrogen fixing multipurpose tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritive value of leaf materials from five each of nitrogen (NFT), namely, Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Butea monosperma, Leucaena leucocephala, Pongamia pinnata and non-nitrogen fixing multipurpose tree (non-NFT) species, namely, Anogeissus pendula, Azadirachta indica, Ficus bengalensis, Terminalia arjuna and Syzygium cumini grown at National Research Centre for Agroforestry, were evaluated by chemical and in sacco methods. Mean organic matter

D. B. V Ramana; Sultan Singh; K. R Solanki; A. S Negi

2000-01-01

2

‘Drumstick tree’ ( Moringa oleifera Lam.): a multipurpose potential species in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera Lam., a medium sized tree species has gained importance due to its multipurpose usage and well adaptability to dry and hot\\u000a climates of north-western plains, central India and dry regions of peninsular India. This species is reported in this paper\\u000a for distribution of diversity and genetic resources value in different parts of the country. Information on diversification\\u000a in

Anjula Pandey; K. Pradheep; Rita Gupta; E. Roshini Nayar; D. C. Bhandari

2011-01-01

3

Potential of nine multipurpose tree species to reduce saline groundwater tables in the lower Amu Darya River region of Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the potential of nine multipurpose tree species for afforestation of degraded land in the Khorezm region, Central Asia, particularly their suitability for biodrainage i.e., lowering the elevated groundwater table through the transpirative capacity of plantations. For this purpose water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and tree physiological factors influencing transpiration were assessed during two consecutive years.

Asia Khamzina; John P. A. Lamers; Christopher Martius; Martin Worbes; Paul L. G. Vlek

2006-01-01

4

Conflict of use for multi-purpose tree species in the state of Pará, eastern Amazonia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although diversified forest management is promoted as a strategy aimed at slowing tropical deforestation, little is known\\u000a about the viability of integrating timber and non-timber forest products in the same forest management plans. In this study\\u000a we offer an initial characterization of multi-purpose tree species in the State of Pará, the principal Amazonian logging region.\\u000a We identify the species used

Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui; Carmen García-Fernández; Plinio L. J. Sist; Miguel A. Casado

2009-01-01

5

Effective information management in forestry: An application to fuel wood and multi-purpose tree species research in Central America  

SciTech Connect

The main goals of this study were: (a) the development of a methodology to collect and organize silvicultural and environmental information in forestry research on fuel wood and multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) production, and (b) the design of a Management Information System (MIS) to supply decision-support for different end-users. This study was supported by a project of USAID for fuel wood research in six Central American countries. Uniform standards and guidelines for implementing fuel wood and MPTS experiments were established in order to permit global exchange and transfer of information on MPTS research. These standards for data collection and field measurements, and minimum data sets were developed in coordination with scientists to ensure the collection of useful information and to gain acceptance of these standards. The minimum data sets were developed to reflect what can be achieved at a reasonable logistic expense with an acceptable degree of consistency. Establishment of MPTS information data bases will permit improvement in all phases of forest management, including seed procurement and species selection for environmental zones.

Ugalde Arias, L.A.

1988-01-01

6

Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series  

SciTech Connect

Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

Wickramasinghe, A.

1992-01-01

7

Do multipurpose companion trees affect high value timber trees in a silvopastoral plantation system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment of native timber trees on deforested land may contribute to the livelihood of farmers, to improved ecosystem\\u000a services and to increased greenhouse gas uptake. Here, we present a new silvopastoral planting design to assess species performance\\u000a and interspecific competition or facilitation effects among native timber and multipurpose trees in Central America. Two timber\\u000a species, Tabebuia rosea and Cedrela odorata,

Karsten Mody; Catherine Potvin; Silvia Dorn

2011-01-01

8

Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.  

PubMed

In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

2013-11-30

9

Species integrity in trees.  

PubMed

From California sequoia, to Australian eucalyptus, to the outstanding diversity of Amazonian forests, trees are fundamental to many processes in ecology and evolution. Trees define the communities that they inhabit, are host to a multiplicity of other organisms and can determine the ecological dynamics of other plants and animals. Trees are also at the heart of major patterns of biodiversity such as the latitudinal gradient of species diversity and thus are important systems for studying the origin of new plant species. Although the role of trees in community assembly and ecological succession is partially understood, the origin of tree diversity remains largely opaque. For instance, the relative importance of differing habitats and phenologies as barriers to hybridization between closely related species is still largely uncharacterized in trees. Consequently, we know very little about the origin of trees species and their integrity. Similarly, studies on the interplay between speciation and tree community assembly are in their infancy and so are studies on how processes like forest maturation modifies the context in which reproductive isolation evolves. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. (2014) and Lagache et al. (2014) overcome some traditional difficulties in studying mating systems and sexual isolation in the iconic oaks and poplars, providing novel insights about the integrity of tree species and on how ecology leads to variation in selection on reproductive isolation over time and space. PMID:25155715

Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J

2014-09-01

10

Fifth International Poplar Symposium: 'Poplars and willows: from research models to multipurpose trees for a bio-based society'.  

PubMed

Carefully managed tree plantations offer an opportunity for sustainable biomass production. In recent years, the responses of the Salicaceae to environmental constraints have increasingly been investigated at different levels of biological integration, giving rise to a physiological approach to the function of trees in environmental restoration and monitoring. Significant progress has been achieved by the poplar and willow community in understanding targeted characteristics of complex tree stress responses. The Fifth International Poplar Symposium brought together experts in this area, with the main objective being to improve, coordinate and communicate existing national research on the biological and environmental dimension of multifunctional poplar and willow plantations. The secondary objective was to develop a network of research scientists and extension workers to provide scientific support for subjects interested in using fast-growing poplar and willow species for tree-related environmental projects. The ultimate goal was to build up services for the multipurpose tree plantation network on local-level management in order to obtain maximized benefits from tree crops. The purpose was also to maximize the synergy between local knowledge and global-level processes that require information on multipurpose tree crop production. PMID:22158009

Tognetti, Roberto; Massacci, Angelo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia

2011-12-01

11

Estimating species trees from unrooted gene trees.  

PubMed

In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals. PMID:21447481

Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili

2011-10-01

12

Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species  

PubMed Central

We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section RF ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately two-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT, enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell’s longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation. PMID:23609185

Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E.P.

2013-01-01

13

SPECIES DIFFER IN RESPONSES TO TREE SHELTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of tree shelters on height, caliper, and di- ameter at breast height of 11 landscape tree species and cul- tivars were investigated in 2 nurseries during a 4-year period; the ratio of height to caliper was calculated as an indicator of trunk sturdiness. Species differed greatly in their responses, ranging in the fourth year from none to 44% and

Henry D. Gerhold

14

Reconciliation with Non-Binary Species Trees  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|VG| · (kS + hS)) time, where |VG| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, hS is the height of the species tree and kS is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in Notung, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets. PMID:18808330

Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton

2008-01-01

15

Reconciliation of Gene and Species Trees  

PubMed Central

The first part of the paper briefly overviews the problem of gene and species trees reconciliation with the focus on defining and algorithmic construction of the evolutionary scenario. Basic ideas are discussed for the aspects of mapping definitions, costs of the mapping and evolutionary scenario, imposing time scales on a scenario, incorporating horizontal gene transfers, binarization and reconciliation of polytomous trees, and construction of species trees and scenarios. The review does not intend to cover the vast diversity of literature published on these subjects. Instead, the authors strived to overview the problem of the evolutionary scenario as a central concept in many areas of evolutionary research. The second part provides detailed mathematical proofs for the solutions of two problems: (i) inferring a gene evolution along a species tree accounting for various types of evolutionary events and (ii) trees reconciliation into a single species tree when only gene duplications and losses are allowed. All proposed algorithms have a cubic time complexity and are mathematically proved to find exact solutions. Solving algorithms for problem (ii) can be naturally extended to incorporate horizontal transfers, other evolutionary events, and time scales on the species tree. PMID:24800245

Rusin, L. Y.; Lyubetskaya, E. V.; Gorbunov, K. Y.; Lyubetsky, V. A.

2014-01-01

16

Reconciliation of gene and species trees.  

PubMed

The first part of the paper briefly overviews the problem of gene and species trees reconciliation with the focus on defining and algorithmic construction of the evolutionary scenario. Basic ideas are discussed for the aspects of mapping definitions, costs of the mapping and evolutionary scenario, imposing time scales on a scenario, incorporating horizontal gene transfers, binarization and reconciliation of polytomous trees, and construction of species trees and scenarios. The review does not intend to cover the vast diversity of literature published on these subjects. Instead, the authors strived to overview the problem of the evolutionary scenario as a central concept in many areas of evolutionary research. The second part provides detailed mathematical proofs for the solutions of two problems: (i) inferring a gene evolution along a species tree accounting for various types of evolutionary events and (ii) trees reconciliation into a single species tree when only gene duplications and losses are allowed. All proposed algorithms have a cubic time complexity and are mathematically proved to find exact solutions. Solving algorithms for problem (ii) can be naturally extended to incorporate horizontal transfers, other evolutionary events, and time scales on the species tree. PMID:24800245

Rusin, L Y; Lyubetskaya, E V; Gorbunov, K Y; Lyubetsky, V A

2014-01-01

17

Cloning of elite, multipurpose trees of the Prosopis juliflora \\/ pallida complex in Piura, Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen fixing trees of the Prosopis juliflora\\/P. pallida complex are among the most adaptable and fastest growing trees in the truly tropical arid regions and have become naturalized\\u000a in semi-arid tropics in Latin America, the Caribbean, Hawaii, Sahelian Africa, the Indian subcontinent and northern Australia.\\u000a The trees have been regarded both as a serious weed and as a valuable

L. Alban; M. Matorel; J. Romero; N. Grados; G. Cruz; P. Felker

2002-01-01

18

Australian tree species selection in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), through collaborative projects with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia, and the Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), has been involved in tree species selection trials in southern China since 1984. The trials were aimed at identifying fast-growing species of Eucalyptus, Acacia and Casuarina. The Chinese have been planting Australian

Daniel W. McKenney

1998-01-01

19

Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. PMID:15701397

Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

2005-05-01

20

TreeFix: Statistically Informed Gene Tree Error Correction Using Species Trees  

PubMed Central

Accurate gene tree reconstruction is a fundamental problem in phylogenetics, with many important applications. However, sequence data alone often lack enough information to confidently support one gene tree topology over many competing alternatives. Here, we present a novel framework for combining sequence data and species tree information, and we describe an implementation of this framework in TreeFix, a new phylogenetic program for improving gene tree reconstructions. Given a gene tree (preferably computed using a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic program), TreeFix finds a “statistically equivalent” gene tree that minimizes a species tree-based cost function. We have applied TreeFix to 2 clades of 12 Drosophila and 16 fungal genomes, as well as to simulated phylogenies and show that it dramatically improves reconstructions compared with current state-of-the-art programs. Given its accuracy, speed, and simplicity, TreeFix should be applicable to a wide range of analyses and have many important implications for future investigations of gene evolution. The source code and a sample data set are available at http://compbio.mit.edu/treefix. PMID:22949484

Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Bansal, Mukul S.; Kellis, Manolis

2013-01-01

21

Genetic variation within European tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews results of studies on genetic variation in various European coniferous and angiosperm tree species, with emphasis on Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, and Castanea sativa. Most of the studies employ enzyme gene markers, but terpenes and other markers are also used. The comparison of data is complicated due to the variety of measures

G. Müller-Starck; Ph. Baradat; F. Bergmann

1992-01-01

22

FORAGING SUCCESS AND TREE SPECIES USE IN THE LEAST FLYCATCHER  

Microsoft Academic Search

.,BSTRACT.--I examined the effect of tree species morphology on foraging behavior in a hover-gleaning bird species, the Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus). Birds in four breeding territories in northern Wisconsin displayed nonsignificant differences in an index of forag- ing success (S) among four tree species of divergent morphology. However, significant vari- ation in S occurred among the three tree species common

CHRISTOPHER M. ROGERS

23

Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L. (horseradish tree) and Moringa stenopetala L.  

PubMed

Moringa species are important multi-purpose tropical crops, as human foods and for medicine and oil production. There has been no previous comprehensive analysis of the secondary metabolites in Moringa species. Tissues of M. oleifera from a wide variety of sources and M. stenopetala from a single source were analyzed for glucosinolates and phenolics (flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and cinnamates). M. oleifera and M. stenopetala seeds only contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate at high concentrations. Roots of M. oleifera and M. stenopetala had high concentrations of both 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and benzyl glucosinolate. Leaves from both species contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and three monoacetyl isomers of this glucosinolate. Only 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate was detected in M. oleifera bark tissue. M. oleifera leaves contained quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside), and lower amounts of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside). M. oleifera leaves also contained 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Leaves of M. stenopetala contained quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Neither proanthocyanidins nor anthocyanins were detected in any of the tissues of either species. PMID:12769522

Bennett, Richard N; Mellon, Fred A; Foidl, Nikolaus; Pratt, John H; Dupont, M Susan; Perkins, Lionel; Kroon, Paul A

2003-06-01

24

A tree species inventory over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the Corine Land Cover (CLC2000) or Global Land Cover (GLC2000). Possible applications of the inventory include emissions of VOCs and pollen, CO2 fluxes and dry deposition - in general calculations which are tree specie dependent.

Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

2009-04-01

25

Tree architecture and life-history strategies across 200 co-occurring tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Tree architecture is thought to allow species to partition horizontal and vertical light gradients in the forest canopy. Tree architecture is closely related to light capture, carbon gain and the efficiency with which trees reach the canopy. Previous studies that investigated how light gradients drive differentiation in tree architecture have produced inconsistent results, partially because of the differences in which

Y. Iida; T. S. Kohyama; T. Kubo; A. R. Kassim; L. Poorter; F. J. Sterck; M. D. Potts

2011-01-01

26

Molecular phylogeography, intraspecific variation and the conservation of tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species are becoming the focus of increasing conservation concern, with some 9000 species now threatened globally. Studies of intraspecific variation can contribute to the development of conservation strategies, by identifying appropriate units for conservation. The recent application of molecular techniques to a variety of tree species has highlighted a far higher degree of population differentiation than indicated by previous

A. C. Newton; T. R. Allnutt; A. C. M. Gillies; A. J. Lowe; R. A. Ennos

1999-01-01

27

Biomass equations for sixty-five North American tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a comprehensive review of the biomass equations for 65 North American tree species. All equations are of the form M = aDb, where M is the oven-dry weight of the biomass component of a tree (kg), D is diameter at breast height (DBH) (cm), and a and b are parameters. Equations for the following tree components were

Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Michael D. Korzukhin

1997-01-01

28

Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis  

E-print Network

trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computesInferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University *Corresponding author: E-mail: david

Rosenberg, Noah

29

The probability distribution of ranked gene trees on a species tree James H. Degnan a,  

E-print Network

evolutionary model, en- abling predictions about gene tree patterns that the evolutionary process is expected] are unranked, in that they consider only the topological relationship among gene lineages, and not the sequence of evolutionary modeling and in species tree inference problems. Our interest in ranked gene tree topologies

Rosenberg, Noah

30

Tree Volume Equations for 10 Urban Species in California1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first phase of a three-phase urban forest utilization project at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Selected samples of 10 urban species were carefully measured in order to develop tree volume equations. These species include Chinese elm, holly oak, camphor tree, jacaranda, American sweet gum, Monterey pine, blue gum, Monterey cypress, acacia (golden wattle), and

Norman H. Pillsbury; Jeffrey L. Reimer

31

Multipurpose Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

Gordon, Douglas

2010-01-01

32

Borers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer,  

E-print Network

Roundheaded apple-tree borer larva #12;control apple maggot, leafminers, and other pests. Backyard treesBorers in New Hampshire Apple Trees Several species of insects bore into New Hampshire apple trees, including roundheaded apple tree borer, flatheaded apple-tree borer, dogwood borer (and the uncommon look

New Hampshire, University of

33

Exploring the Taxonomy of Oaks and Related Tree Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lab in Eastern North America conducted a study to determine the taxonomic relationship between deciduous trees and several species of oaks by calculating the similarity index of all species to be studied. The study enabled students to classify the different species of oaks according to their distinct characteristics.

McMaster, Robert T.

2004-01-01

34

Responses of twelve tree species common in Everglades tree islands to simulated hydrologic regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve tree species common in Everglades tree islands were subjected to three hydrologic regimes under controlled conditions\\u000a for 25 weeks and assessed for growth and physiological responses. Treatments representing high, low, and no flood were maintained\\u000a in pools of water to mimic seasonal variation in water depths at different positions in tree islands. Soil inundation under\\u000a the high flood treatment

David T. Jones; Jay P. Sah; Michael S. Ross; Steven F. Oberbauer; Bernice Hwang; Krish Jayachandran

2006-01-01

35

Resolving the Gene Tree and Species Tree Problem by Phylogenetic Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene tree and species tree problem remains a central problem in phylogenomics. To overcome this problem, gene concatenation approaches have been used to combine a certain number of genes randomly from a set of widely distributed orthologous genes selected from genome data to conduct phylogenetic analysis. The random concatenation mechanism prevents us from the further investigations of the inner

Xiaoxu Han

2006-01-01

36

FROM GENE TREES TO SPECIES TREES BIN MA, MING LI, AND LOUXIN ZHANG  

E-print Network

by Eulenstein, Mirkin, and Vingron [J. Comput. Bio., 5 (1998), pp. 135­148]. 2. The complexity of finding cost and for the mutation cost. Further, the concept of reconciled trees was introduced by Goodman et experimental tests demonstrate that when the number of species is larger than 15 and gene trees are close

Zhang, Louxin

37

Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical tree species  

PubMed Central

The importance of niche vs. neutral assembly mechanisms in structuring tropical tree communities remains an important unsettled question in community ecology [Bell G (2005) Ecology 86:1757–1770]. There is ample evidence that species distributions are determined by soils and habitat factors at landscape (<104 km2) and regional scales. At local scales (<1 km2), however, habitat factors and species distributions show comparable spatial aggregation, making it difficult to disentangle the importance of niche and dispersal processes. In this article, we test soil resource-based niche assembly at a local scale, using species and soil nutrient distributions obtained at high spatial resolution in three diverse neotropical forest plots in Colombia (La Planada), Ecuador (Yasuni), and Panama (Barro Colorado Island). Using spatial distribution maps of >0.5 million individual trees of 1,400 species and 10 essential plant nutrients, we used Monte Carlo simulations of species distributions to test plant–soil associations against null expectations based on dispersal assembly. We found that the spatial distributions of 36–51% of tree species at these sites show strong associations to soil nutrient distributions. Neutral dispersal assembly cannot account for these plant–soil associations or the observed niche breadths of these species. These results indicate that belowground resource availability plays an important role in the assembly of tropical tree communities at local scales and provide the basis for future investigations on the mechanisms of resource competition among tropical tree species. PMID:17215353

John, Robert; Dalling, James W.; Harms, Kyle E.; Yavitt, Joseph B.; Stallard, Robert F.; Mirabello, Matthew; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Valencia, Renato; Navarrete, Hugo; Vallejo, Martha; Foster, Robin B.

2007-01-01

38

Species Richness of the Parasitic Fungi of British Trees  

PubMed Central

The species richness of fungi associated with British trees is described by a significant species/area curve (r = 0.53, 0.01 > P > 0.001). Introduced tree species cannot be shown to have fewer fungal species than natives, per unit distributional range about Britain. Also, among natives and among introductions, older host taxa do not have more fungal species than do younger ones. This indicates the species richness of fungi to rapidly reach the limit set by host range, within ecological time. The slope of the species/area relationship for fungi is one-fourth that for insects; we propose that this is due to the inherently greater dispersability of fungi. Finally, the species/area regression residuals for fungi are correlated with those for insects (r = 0.65, 0.001 > P), suggesting plant defense mechanisms may be generally effective to plant parasites, be they insects or fungi. PMID:16592248

Strong, Donald R.; Levin, Donald A.

1975-01-01

39

Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical trees species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of niche vs. neutral assembly mechanisms in structuring tropical tree communities remains an important unsettled question in community ecology [Bell G (2005) Ecology 86:1757-1770]. There is ample evidence that species distributions are determined by soils and habitat factors at landscape (0.5 million individual trees of 1,400 species and 10 essential plant nutrients, we used Monte Carlo simulations of species distributions to test plant-soil associations against null expectations based on dispersal assembly. We found that the spatial distributions of 36-51% of tree species at these sites show strong associations to soil nutrient distributions. Neutral dispersal assembly cannot account for these plant-soil associations or the observed niche breadths of these species. These results indicate that belowground resource availability plays an important role in the assembly of tropical tree communities at local scales and provide the basis for future investigations on the mechanisms of resource competition among tropical tree species. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

John, R.; Dalling, J.W.; Harms, K.E.; Yavitt, J.B.; Stallard, R.F.; Mirabello, M.; Hubbell, S.P.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Vallejo, M.; Foster, R.B.

2007-01-01

40

Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 ?M BA + 0.73 ?M PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 ?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 ?M activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:23573054

Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

2012-04-01

41

Modeling individual tree mortality for Austrian forest species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual tree mortality models were developed for the six major forest species of Austria: Norway spruce (Picea abies), white fir (Abies alba), European larch (Larix decidua), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European beech (Fagus silvatica), and oak (Quercus spp.); a joint model for the remaining broadleaf species was also developed. Data came from 5-year remeasurements of the permanent plot network of

Robert A. Monserud; Hubert Sterba

1999-01-01

42

Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species  

E-print Network

Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species Niklaus E. Zimmermanna,1 presented by several authors (3, 4). Climatic variables are often used to predict biogeographical patterns in general use monthly or annual climatic means to analyze species distribution patterns. To date, little

Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

43

Bayesian Inference of Species Trees from Multilocus Data  

PubMed Central

Until recently, it has been common practice for a phylogenetic analysis to use a single gene sequence from a single individual organism as a proxy for an entire species. With technological advances, it is now becoming more common to collect data sets containing multiple gene loci and multiple individuals per species. These data sets often reveal the need to directly model intraspecies polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting in phylogenetic estimation procedures. For a single species, coalescent theory is widely used in contemporary population genetics to model intraspecific gene trees. Here, we present a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the multispecies coalescent. Our method coestimates multiple gene trees embedded in a shared species tree along with the effective population size of both extant and ancestral species. The inference is made possible by multilocus data from multiple individuals per species. Using a multiindividual data set and a series of simulations of rapid species radiations, we demonstrate the efficacy of our new method. These simulations give some insight into the behavior of the method as a function of sampled individuals, sampled loci, and sequence length. Finally, we compare our new method to both an existing method (BEST 2.2) with similar goals and the supermatrix (concatenation) method. We demonstrate that both BEST and our method have much better estimation accuracy for species tree topology than concatenation, and our method outperforms BEST in divergence time and population size estimation. PMID:19906793

Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J.

2010-01-01

44

Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree in Drosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequenced species Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D. melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All three possible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, though recent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sister species. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as the four other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set out to investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D. melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the past incongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D. yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespread incongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions and deletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two key speciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, the incongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supporting the same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different trees was found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes support the same tree most often in regions of low recombination and substitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on the same scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineage sorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant and robust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. We conclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster species complex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting. Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence in many comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct species tree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methods that control for and/or utilize this information will be valuable advancements for the field of comparative genomics. PMID:17132051

Pollard, Daniel A; Eisen, Michael B

2006-01-01

45

Oviposition preference of Anoplophora glabripennis emerging from five host tree species under field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is a polyphagous woodborer of hardwood trees. In order to well understand the oviposition preference of A. glabripennis emerging from different larval host tree species, we selected five common host tree species in the field and evaluated its\\u000a oviposition preferences. The five host tree species are Acer negundo (AN), Salix matsudana f.

Xiong-fei Yan; Xiao-juan Li; You-qing Luo; Zhi-chun Xu; Gui-fang Tian; Tie-lin Zhang

2008-01-01

46

DRUMSTICK TREE WATER RELATIONS Moravec, C.M., Bradford, K.J. and Laca, E.A. (2008), Seed Sci. & Technol., 36, 311-324  

E-print Network

. & Technol., 36, 311-324 Water relations of drumstick tree seed (Moringa oleifera): imbibition, desiccation@elpasoco.com) (Accepted October 2007) Summary Interest in seed propagation of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera) has the consumption of drumstick tree leaves (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a multi-purpose tree species originating from

Bradford, Kent

47

Establishment and growth potential of fuelwood species in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen multipurpose tree species native and introduced to the matorral (low dry shrubland and forest) of the Gulf Coastal Plain in north-eastern Mexico were planted in monoculture in four randomized blocks. Measurements of various growth parameters and volume of trees over the first five years were evaluated. Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. microtheca, Leucaena leucocephala (exotic species) and Parkinsonia aculeata (native species)

R. Foroughbakhch

1992-01-01

48

Boron toxicity characteristics of four northern California endemic tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the characteristics of soil B toxicity for four tree species endemic to The Geysers area in northern California: digger pine (Pinus sabiniana Dougl. ex D. Don), California laurel (or, California bay) (Umbellularia californica (Hoo. and Arn. Nutt.)), madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh). Significant exponential relationships were found between

B. A. Glaubig; F. T. Bingham

2009-01-01

49

tropiTree: An NGS-Based EST-SSR Resource for 24 Tropical Tree Species  

PubMed Central

The development of genetic tools for non-model organisms has been hampered by cost, but advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have created new opportunities. In ecological research, this raises the prospect for developing molecular markers to simultaneously study important genetic processes such as gene flow in multiple non-model plant species within complex natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we report the use of bar-coded multiplexed paired-end Illumina NGS for the de novo development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers at low cost for a range of 24 tree species. Each chosen tree species is important in complex tropical agroforestry systems where little is currently known about many genetic processes. An average of more than 5,000 EST-SSRs was identified for each of the 24 sequenced species, whereas prior to analysis 20 of the species had fewer than 100 nucleotide sequence citations. To make results available to potential users in a suitable format, we have developed an open-access, interactive online database, tropiTree (http://bioinf.hutton.ac.uk/tropiTree), which has a range of visualisation and search facilities, and which is a model for the efficient presentation and application of NGS data. PMID:25025376

Russell, Joanne R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Cardle, Linda; Dancey, Siobhan; Morris, Jenny; Booth, Allan; Odee, David; Mwaura, Lucy; Omondi, William; Angaine, Peter; Machua, Joseph; Muchugi, Alice; Milne, Iain; Kindt, Roeland; Jamnadass, Ramni; Dawson, Ian K.

2014-01-01

50

Gene trees versus species trees: reassessing life-history evolution in a freshwater fish radiation.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of speciation are best understood in the context of phylogenetic relationships and as such have often been inferred from single gene trees, typically those derived from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Recent studies, however, have noted the potential for phylogenetic discordance between gene trees and underlying species trees (e.g., due to stochastic lineage sorting, introgression, or selection). Here, we employ a variety of nuclear DNA loci to reassess evolutionary relationships within a recent freshwater fish radiation to reappraise modes of speciation. New Zealand's freshwater-limited Galaxias vulgaris complex is thought to have evolved from G. brevipinnis, a widespread migratory species that retains a plesiomorphic marine juvenile phase. A well-resolved tree, based on four mtDNA regions, previously suggested that marine migratory ability has been lost on 3 independent occasions in the evolution of this species flock (assuming that loss of diadromy is irreversible). Here, we use pseudogene (galaxiid Numt: 1801 bp), intron (S: 903 bp), and exon (RAG-1: 1427 bp) markers, together with mtDNA, to reevaluate this hypothesis of parallel evolution. Interestingly, partitioned Bayesian analysis of concatenated nuclear sequences (3141 bp) and concatenated nuclear and mtDNA (4770 bp) both recover phylogenies implying a single loss of diadromy, not three parallel losses as previously inferred from mtDNA alone. This phylogenetic result is reinforced by a multilocus analysis performed using Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) software that estimates the posterior distribution of species trees under a coalescent model. We discuss factors that might explain the apparently misleading phylogenetic inferences generated by mtDNA. PMID:20603441

Waters, Jonathan M; Rowe, Diane L; Burridge, Christopher P; Wallis, Graham P

2010-10-01

51

Hydraulics and life history of tropical dry forest tree species: coordination of species' drought and shade  

E-print Network

Hydraulics and life history of tropical dry forest tree species: coordination of species' drought-8137.2011.03708.x Key words: drought tolerance, hydraulic conductivity, juvenile crown exposure, life- history properties relate to species' life history strategies, such as drought and shade tolerance. The prevailing

Sack, Lawren

52

Species mixing boosts root yield in mangrove trees.  

PubMed

Enhanced species richness can stimulate the productivity of plant communities; however, its effect on the belowground production of forests has scarcely been tested, despite the role of tree roots in carbon storage and ecosystem processes. Therefore, we tested for the effects of tree species richness on mangrove root biomass: thirty-two 6 m by 6 m plots were planted with zero (control), one, two or three species treatments of six-month-old Avicennia marina (A), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (B) and Ceriops tagal (C). A monoculture of each species and the four possible combinations of the three species were used, with four replicate plots per treatment. Above- and belowground biomass was measured after three and four years' growth. In both years, the all-species mix (ABC) had significant overyielding of roots, suggesting complementarity mediated by differences in rhizosphere use amongst species. In year four, there was higher belowground than aboveground biomass in all but one treatment. Belowground biomass was strongly influenced by the presence of the most vigorously growing species, A. marina. These results demonstrate the potential for complementarity between fast- and slow-growing species to enhance belowground growth in mangrove forests, with implications for forest productivity and the potential for belowground carbon sequestration. PMID:23073636

Lang'at, Joseph K Sigi; Kirui, Bernard K Y; Skov, Martin W; Kairo, James G; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Huxham, Mark

2013-05-01

53

Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate change requires knowledge of the determinants of the environmental niche and species range limits. Mean values of climatic variables are often used in such analyses. In contrast, the increasing frequency of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate parameters) explain and predict spatial patterns of 11 tree species in Switzerland. We find clear, although comparably small, improvement (+20% in adjusted D2, +8% and +3% in cross-validated True Skill Statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of extremes in addition to means. The primary effect of including information on climate extremes is a correction of local overprediction and underprediction. Our results demonstrate that measures of climate extremes are important for understanding the climatic limits of tree species and assessing species niche characteristics. The inclusion of climate variability likely will improve models of species range limits under future conditions, where changes in mean climate and increased variability are expected.

Zimmermann, N. E.; Yoccoz, N. G.; Edwards, Jr. , T. C.; Meier, E. S.; Thuiller, W.; Guisan, A.; Schmatz, D. R.; Pearman, P. B.

2009-01-01

54

Seasonal trends in separability of leaf reflectance spectra for Ailanthus altissima and four other tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project investigated the spectral separability of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, and four other native species. Leaves were collected from Ailanthus and four native tree species from May 13 through August 24, 2008, and spectral reflectance factor measurements were gathered for each tree using an ASD (Boulder, Colorado) FieldSpec Pro full-range spectroradiometer. The original

Aaron Burkholder

2010-01-01

55

Native tree species regulate nitrous oxide fluxes in tropical plantations.  

PubMed

Secondary and managed plantation forests comprise a rapidly increasing portion of the humid tropical forest biome, a region that, in turn, is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. Previous work has demonstrated reduced N2O emissions in regenerating secondary stands compared to mature forests, yet the importance of species composition in regulating N2O production in young forests remains unclear. We measured N2O fluxes beneath four native tree species planted in replicated, 21-yr-old monodominant stands in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica in comparison with nearby mature forest and abandoned pasture sites at two time points (wetter and drier seasons). We found that species differed eight-fold in their production of N2O, with slower growing, late-successional species (including one legume) promoting high N2O fluxes similar to mature forest, and faster growing, early successional species maintaining low N2O fluxes similar to abandoned pasture. Across all species, N2O flux was positively correlated with soil nitrate concentration in the wetter season and with soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) in the drier season. However, the strongest predictor of N2O fluxes was fine-root growth rate, which was negatively correlated with N2O emissions at both time points. We suggest that tree-specific variation in growth habits creates differences in both N demand and soil water conditions that may exert significant control on N2O fluxes from tropical forests. With the advent of REDD+ and related strategies for fostering climate mitigation via tropical forest regrowth and plantations, we note that species-specific traits as they relate to N2O fluxes may be an important consideration in estimating overall climate benefits. PMID:24988773

Weintraub, Samantha R; Russell, Ann E; Townsend, Alan R

2014-06-01

56

Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees in a Radiation of California Trapdoor Spiders (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus)  

PubMed Central

Background The California Floristic Province is a biodiversity hotspot, reflecting a complex geologic history, strong selective gradients, and a heterogeneous landscape. These factors have led to high endemic diversity across many lifeforms within this region, including the richest diversity of mygalomorph spiders (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, and kin) in North America. The trapdoor spider genus Aliatypus encompasses twelve described species, eleven of which are endemic to California. Several Aliatypus species show disjunct distributional patterns in California (some are found on both sides of the vast Central Valley), and the genus as a whole occupies an impressive variety of habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected specimens from 89 populations representing all described species. DNA sequence data were collected from seven gene regions, including two newly developed for spider systematics. Bayesian inference (in individual gene tree and species tree approaches) recovered a general “3 clade” structure for the genus (A. gulosus, californicus group, erebus group), with three other phylogenetically isolated species differing slightly in position across different phylogenetic analyses. Because of extremely high intraspecific divergences in mitochondrial COI sequences, the relatively slowly evolving 28S rRNA gene was found to be more useful than mitochondrial data for identification of morphologically indistinguishable immatures. For multiple species spanning the Central Valley, explicit hypothesis testing suggests a lack of monophyly for regional populations (e.g., western Coast Range populations). Phylogenetic evidence clearly shows that syntopy is restricted to distant phylogenetic relatives, consistent with ecological niche conservatism. Conclusions/Significance This study provides fundamental insight into a radiation of trapdoor spiders found in the biodiversity hotspot of California. Species relationships are clarified and undescribed lineages are discovered, with more geographic sampling likely to lead to additional species diversity. These dispersal-limited taxa provide novel insight into the biogeography and Earth history processes of California. PMID:21966507

Satler, Jordan D.; Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.; Hedin, Marshal

2011-01-01

57

Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

Oblé Neya

2006-01-01

58

Estimating phylogenetic relationships despite discordant gene trees across loci: the species tree of a diverse species group of feather mites (Acari: Proctophyllodidae).  

PubMed

With the increased availability of multilocus sequence data, the lack of concordance of gene trees estimated for independent loci has focused attention on both the biological processes producing the discord and the methodologies used to estimate phylogenetic relationships. What has emerged is a suite of new analytical tools for phylogenetic inference--species tree approaches. In contrast to traditional phylogenetic methods that are stymied by the idiosyncrasies of gene trees, approaches for estimating species trees explicitly take into account the cause of discord among loci and, in the process, provides a direct estimate of phylogenetic history (i.e. the history of species divergence, not divergence of specific loci). We illustrate the utility of species tree estimates with an analysis of a diverse group of feather mites, the pinnatus species group (genus Proctophyllodes). Discord among four sequenced nuclear loci is consistent with theoretical expectations, given the short time separating speciation events (as evident by short internodes relative to terminal branch lengths in the trees). Nevertheless, many of the relationships are well resolved in a Bayesian estimate of the species tree; the analysis also highlights ambiguous aspects of the phylogeny that require additional loci. The broad utility of species tree approaches is discussed, and specifically, their application to groups with high speciation rates--a history of diversification with particular prevalence in host/parasite systems where species interactions can drive rapid diversification. PMID:21554840

Knowles, Lacey L; Klimov, Pavel B

2011-11-01

59

Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial characterization of the tree rhizosphere provides important information relating to the screening of tree species for re-vegetation of degraded land. Rhizosphere soil samples collected from a few predominant tree species growing in the coal mining ecosystem of Dhanbad, India, were analyzed for soil organic carbon (SOC), mineralizable N, microbial biomass carbon (MBC), active microbial biomass carbon (AMBC), basal soil

Shipra Sinha; R. E. Masto; L. C. Ram; V. A. Selvi; N. K. Srivastava; R. C. Tripathi; Joshy George

2009-01-01

60

Limits to tree species invasion in pampean grassland and forest plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors limiting tree invasion in the Inland Pampas of Argentina were studied by monitoring the establishment of four alien tree species in remnant grassland and cultivated forest stands. We tested whether disturbances facilitated tree seedling recruitment and survival once seeds of invaders were made available by hand sowing. Seed addition to grassland failed to produce seedlings of two study species,

Noemí C. Mazia; Enrique J. Chaneton; Claudio M. Ghersa; Rolando J. C. León

2001-01-01

61

Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species  

PubMed Central

Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6–5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8–10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely. PMID:23404439

Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

2013-01-01

62

Population structure and morphology of the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera along an altitude gradient in Eritrea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Eritrea, the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera is a multipurpose plant. Human induced factors such as land clearing for agriculture, overgrazing by livestock and overtapping of resin are threatening its distribution. Against this background, a study was carried out to investigate the species current population structure and tree morphology in five Boswellia areas along an altitude gradient (range 800 -

W. Ogbazghi; F. J. J. M. Bongers; A. J. M. Rijkers; M. Wessel

2006-01-01

63

A maximum pseudo-likelihood approach for estimating species trees under the coalescent model  

PubMed Central

Background Several phylogenetic approaches have been developed to estimate species trees from collections of gene trees. However, maximum likelihood approaches for estimating species trees under the coalescent model are limited. Although the likelihood of a species tree under the multispecies coalescent model has already been derived by Rannala and Yang, it can be shown that the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the species tree (topology, branch lengths, and population sizes) from gene trees under this formula does not exist. In this paper, we develop a pseudo-likelihood function of the species tree to obtain maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates (MPE) of species trees, with branch lengths of the species tree in coalescent units. Results We show that the MPE of the species tree is statistically consistent as the number M of genes goes to infinity. In addition, the probability that the MPE of the species tree matches the true species tree converges to 1 at rate O(M -1). The simulation results confirm that the maximum pseudo-likelihood approach is statistically consistent even when the species tree is in the anomaly zone. We applied our method, Maximum Pseudo-likelihood for Estimating Species Trees (MP-EST) to a mammal dataset. The four major clades found in the MP-EST tree are consistent with those in the Bayesian concatenation tree. The bootstrap supports for the species tree estimated by the MP-EST method are more reasonable than the posterior probability supports given by the Bayesian concatenation method in reflecting the level of uncertainty in gene trees and controversies over the relationship of four major groups of placental mammals. Conclusions MP-EST can consistently estimate the topology and branch lengths (in coalescent units) of the species tree. Although the pseudo-likelihood is derived from coalescent theory, and assumes no gene flow or horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the MP-EST method is robust to a small amount of HGT in the dataset. In addition, increasing the number of genes does not increase the computational time substantially. The MP-EST method is fast for analyzing datasets that involve a large number of genes but a moderate number of species. PMID:20937096

2010-01-01

64

Firewood crops: shrub and tree species for energy production  

SciTech Connect

In the face of global concern over the dwindling supply of fuelwood, the rate of forest decimation to provide basic human necessities in developing countries is alarming. We must look upon woody plants as renewable resources that, if effectively managed, could alleviate the problem not only for the present, but for posterity. This report suggests potential significant fuelwood species for introduction to suitable environments, although it does not suggest a solution for the fuelwood crisis. The emphasis is on species suitable for individual crops, but species suited to plantation cultivation for fueling small industrial factories, electric generators, and crop driers are also considered. Most of the plants are little known in traditional forest production. Some are woody shrubs rather than trees, but all are aggressive and quick growing. They should be introduced with care in areas where the climate and soil conditions are not harsh. The substitution of well-designed stoves, kilns, or boilers could improve fuel efficiency. Each species is illustrated with photographs and diagrams. 420 references.

Not Available

1980-01-01

65

Effect of Liquid Nitrogen Storage on Seed Germination of 51 Tree Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two liquid nitrogen storage experiments were performed on 51 tree species. In experiment 1, seeds of 9 western tree species were placed in a liquid nitrogen tank for 3 time periods: 24 hours, 4 weeks, and 222 days. A corresponding control sample accompanied each treatment. For three species, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jefferyi, and Pinus contorta, the germination percent was not

Jill R. Barbour; Bernard R. Parresol

66

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from nine tree species used in an urban tree-planting program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions of nine urban tree species were studied to assess the air quality impacts from planting a large quantity of these trees in the City and County of Denver, Colorado, through the Mile High Million tree-planting initiative. The deciduous tree species studied were Sugar maple, Ohio buckeye, northern hackberry, Turkish hazelnut, London planetree, American basswood, Littleleaf linden, Valley Forge elm, and Japanese zelkova. These tree species were selected using the i-Tree Species Selector (itreetools.org). BVOC emissions from the selected tree species were investigated to evaluate the Species Selector data under the Colorado climate and environmental growing conditions. Individual tree species were subjected to branch enclosure experiments in which foliar emissions of BVOC were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges. The cartridge samples were analyzed for monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), and other C10-C15 BVOC using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectroscopy (GC-FID/MS). Individual compounds and their emission rates (ER) were identified. MT were observed in all tree species, exhibiting the following total MT basal emission rates (BER; with a 1-? lower bound, upper bound uncertainty window): Sugar maple, 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) ?g g-1 h-1; London planetree, 0.15 (0.02, 0.27) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.33 (0.09, 0.57) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.42 (0.26, 0.58) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.71 (0.33, 1.09) ?g g-1 h-1; Valley Forge elm, 0.96 (0.01, 1.92) ?g g-1 h-1; Turkish hazelnut, 1.30 (0.32, 2.23) ?g g-1 h-1; American basswood, 1.50 (0.40, 2.70) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 6.61 (1.76, 11.47) ?g g-1 h-1. SQT emissions were seen in five tree species with total SQT BER of: London planetree, 0.11 (0.01, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.11 (0.05, 0.16) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.13 (0.06, 0.21) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.20 (0.11, 0.30) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 0.44 (0.06, 0.83) ?g g-1 h-1. The following trees exhibited emissions of other C10-C15 volatile organic compounds (VOC): Littleleaf linden, 0.15 (0.10, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Ohio buckeye, 0.39 (0.14, 0.65) ?g g-1 h-1; and Turkish hazelnut, 0.72 (0.49, 0.95) ?g g-1 h-1. All tree species studied in this experiment were confirmed to be low isoprene emitters. Compared to many other potential urban tree species, the selected trees can be considered low to moderate BVOC emitters under Colorado growing conditions, with total emission rates one-tenth to one-hundredth the rates of potential high-BVOC emitting trees. The emissions data were used to estimate the impact of this targeted tree planting on the urban BVOC flux and atmospheric VOC burden. Selecting the low-emitting tree species over known high BVOC emitters is equivalent to avoiding VOC emissions from nearly 500,000 cars from the inner city traffic.

Curtis, A. J.; Helmig, D.; Baroch, C.; Daly, R.; Davis, S.

2014-10-01

67

Bondability of tropical fast-growing tree species I: Indonesian wood species  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the potential bonding performance of bonded wood products from tropical fast-growing tree species, a study on\\u000a the bondability of Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen, Pinus merkusii Jungh et. De. Vriese, and Acacia mangium Willd from Indonesia was conducted. Two-ply laminations were produced using polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVAc), urea formaldehyde\\u000a (UF), resorcinol formaldehyde (RF), and water-based polymer isocyanate (API) adhesives.

Eka Mulya Alamsyah; Liu Chang Nan; Masaaki Yamada; Kinji Taki; Hiroaki Yoshida

2007-01-01

68

Effects of tree species, water and nitrogen on mycorrhizal C flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mycorrhiza plays an important role in global carbon cycle, especially, in forest soils, yet the effect of tree species on the amount and timing of C transfer through roots to myccorhiza is largely unknown. We studied the C transport to mycorrhiza under 6 most commonly dominant in boreal forests tree species using the mesh collars installed at the Siberian afforestation experiment. The CO2 flux from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal mesh collars indicated the mycorrhizal C flux. Tree species strongly differed in C flux to mycorrhiza: more C was transferred by deciduous species than by conifers. The mycorrhizal CO2 flux was not linked to soil temperature but rather to trees phenology and to photosynthetic activity. All tree species transfered more carbon to mycorrhiza during the second half of summer and in September, this is because all the carbon photosynthesized earlier is used for building the tree biomass. Seasonal variation in C transfer to mycorrhiza was much larger than hourly variation (within a day). Nitrogen application (50 kg/ha) increased mycorrhizal C flux only under Scots pine, but not under larch, thus the effect of N application is tree species dependent. We found under most tree species that more C was transferred by trees to mycorrhiza in root-free collars, where the soil moisture was higher than in collars with roots. This suggests that trees preferentially support those parts of mycorrhiza, which can gain extra-resources.

Menyailo, O.; Matvienko, A.

2012-12-01

69

Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species.  

PubMed

Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000?km(2), we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D; Mikusi?ski, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

2013-01-01

70

Tree root characteristics as criteria for species selection and systems design in agroforestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review presents information about the role of tree root systems for the functioning of agroforestry associations and rotations and attempts to identify root-related criteria for the selection of agroforestry tree species and the design of agroforestry systems. Tree roots are expected to enrich soil with organic matter, feed soil biomass, reduce nutrient leaching, recycle nutrients from the subsoil

G. Schroth

1995-01-01

71

Species Tree Estimation for the Late Blight Pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and Close Relatives  

PubMed Central

To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based “supergene” approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred. PMID:22615869

Blair, Jaime E.; Coffey, Michael D.; Martin, Frank N.

2012-01-01

72

A dynamic species modeling approach to assess climate change impacts on California tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change during the 21st century is anticipated to have consequences on potential niche viability for woody plant species. Previous research on modeling bioclimatic envelopes has allowed us to predict where to find species assemblages under future climate scenarios and hence predict loss or gain of specific habitats. However, species may not identically respond to climate change. This could result in species disassembling and disagreement between predicted potential niches and realized niches. Therefore, it is critical to examine potential niche shifts at the species level. We used a spatially explicit demographic model to predict shifts in tree species of the northern Sierra Nevada mountains in the context of competition with neighboring plant functional types as well as disturbance (i.e. fire) under various climate change scenarios. Additionally, we incorporated a dispersal model to account for intermediary dispersal strategies. In particular, we were interested in modeling Pinus species found in the "checkerboard" region of the northern Sierra Nevada. These populations are of novel interest due to their disparate management strategies (private vs. public landownership). Our findings have important implications for the assessment of the impact of climate change on these high elevation Montane species.

Ries, L. P.; Hannah, L.; Thorne, J.; Seo, C.; Davis, F.

2007-12-01

73

ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE SURFACES FOR NORTH AMERICAN BOREAL TREE SPECIES AND THEIR USE IN FOREST CLASSIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Empirical ecological response surfaces were derived for eight dominant tree species in the boreal forest region of Canada. tepwise logistic regression was used to model species dominance as a response to five climatic predictor variables. he predictor variables (annual snowfall, ...

74

Potential Changes in Tree Species Richness and Forest Community Types following Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential changes in tree species richness and forest community types were evaluated for the eastern United States according\\u000a to five scenarios of future climate change resulting from a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). DISTRIB, an empirical model that uses a regression tree analysis approach, was used to generate suitable habitat, or potential\\u000a future distributions, of 80 common tree species

Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad

2001-01-01

75

Ambient levels of ozone reduce net photosynthesis in tree and crop species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to measure the photosynthetic response of three crop and four tree species to realistic concentrations of ozone and (for tree species only) simulated acidic rain. The ozone concentrations were representative of those found in clean ambient air, in mildly to moderately polluted air such as occurs in much of the US during the summer, and in more

P. B. Reich; R. G. Amundson

1985-01-01

76

Species effects on earthworm density in tropical tree plantations in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree species differ in the quantity and quality of litter produced, and these differences may significantly affect ecosystem structure and function. I examined the importance of tree species in determining earthworm densities in replicated stands of Eucalyptus saligna Sm. and Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosberg, and in mixed stands (25% albizia and 75% eucalyptus). Mean earthworm densities ranged from 92 m-2

Xiaoming Zou

1993-01-01

77

Habitat association among Amazonian tree species: a landscape-scale approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Unravelling which factors affect where tropical trees grow is an important goal for ecologists and conservationists. At the landscape scale, debate is mostly focused on the degree to which the distributions of tree species are determined by soil conditions or by neutral, distance-dependent processes. Problems with spatial autocorrelation, sparse soil sampling, inclusion of species-poor sites with extreme edaphic

Oliver L. Phillips; Percy Nunez Vargas; Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo; Antonio Pena Cruz; Maria-Elena Chuspe Zans; Washington Galiano Sanchez; Markku Yli-Halla; Sam Rose

2003-01-01

78

Effects of tree species and N additions on forest floor microbial communities and extracellular enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest nitrogen (N) retention and soil carbon (C) storage are influenced by tree species and their associated soil microbial communities. As global change factors alter forest composition, predicting long-term C and N dynamics will require understanding microbial community structure and function at the tree species level. Because atmospheric N deposition is increasing N inputs to forested ecosystems across the globe,

Matthew P. Weand; Mary A. Arthur; Gary M. Lovett; Rebecca L. McCulley; Kathleen C. Weathers

2010-01-01

79

Autumn nutrient resorption and losses in four deciduous forest tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient resorption prior to leaf senescence is an important mechanism of nutrient conservation in forest tree species. However, despite the abundance of literature on the subject, inter-specific comparison of common temperate tree species is complicated by both the variability of resorption efficiency, which is affected by many environmental factors, and methodological differences between the studies, especially in relation to measurements

A. Hagen-Thorn; I. Varnagiryte; B. Nihlgård; K. Armolaitis

2006-01-01

80

FRUITS\\/SEEDS WEIGHTS, FLIGHT PATTERNS AND DISPERSAL DISTANCES OF SOME NIGERIAN RAINFOREST TREE SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits\\/seeds weights, flight patterns and dispersal distances of 17 plant families consisting of 30 tree species and 180 individuals were studied at the rainforests at Umudike and Oban Forest Reserve, Nigeria. The weight was measured using the Ohus Scout sensitive weighing balance; while the length and width of 30 fruits and 30 seeds of each tree species were measured using

Michael Okpara

2010-01-01

81

Singletree biomass and stem volume functions for eleven tree species used in Icelandic forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we made destructive measurements on sample trees of eleven tree species from plantations spread around the main island of Iceland. These species are downy birch (Betula pubescens), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), feltleaf willow (Salix alaxensis), dark-leafed willow (Salix myrsinifolia), black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), white spruce (Picea glauca), Norway spruce (Picea

ARNÓR SNORRASON

2006-01-01

82

Pre-epidemic Mortality Rates for Common Phytophthora ramorum Host Tree Species  

E-print Network

371 Pre-epidemic Mortality Rates for Common Phytophthora ramorum Host Tree Species in California1 T pre-epidemic mortality rates for nine common host tree species: bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum (Arbutus menziesii), coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) using

Standiford, Richard B.

83

TREE SPECIES EFFECTS ON DECOMPOSITION AND FOREST FLOOR DYNAMICS IN A COMMON GARDEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous

Sarah E. Hobbie; Peter B. Reich; Jacek Oleksyn; Megan Ogdahl; Roma Zytkowiak; Cynthia Hale; Piotr Karolewski

2006-01-01

84

The Relationship between Species Diversity and Genetic Structure in the Rare Picea chihuahuana Tree Species Community, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as “Endangered” on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between genetic variants and species diversity may be crucial in shaping tree communities. PMID:25375134

Simental-Rodriguez, Sergio Leonel; Quinones-Perez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernandez-Tecles, Enrique; Lopez-Sanchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

2014-01-01

85

Response of five temperate deciduous tree species to water stress.  

PubMed

Gas exchange, tissue water relations, and leaf/root dry weight ratios were compared among young, container-grown plants of five temperate-zone, deciduous tree species (Acer negundo L., Betula papyrifera Marsh, Malus baccata Borkh, Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. There was a small decrease (mean reduction of 0.22 MPa across species) in the water potential at which turgor was lost (Psi(tlp)) in response to water stress. The Psi(tlp) for water-stressed plants was -1.18, -1.34, -1.61, -1.70, and -2.12 MPa for B. papyrifera, A. negundo, U. parvifolia, R. pseudoacacia, and M. baccata, respectively. Variation in Psi(tlp) resulted primarily from differences in tissue osmotic potential and not tissue elasticity. Rates of net photosynthesis declined in response to water stress. However, despite differences in Psi(tlp), there were no differences in net photosynthesis among water-stressed plants under the conditions of water stress imposed. In A. negundo and M. baccata, water use efficiency (net photosynthesis/transpiration) increased significantly in response to water stress. Comparisons among water-stressed plants showed that water use efficiency for M. baccata was greater than for B. papyrifera or U. parvifolia. There were no significant differences in water use efficiency among B. papyrifera, U. parvifolia, A. negundo, and R. pseudoacacia. Under water-stressed conditions, leaf/root dry weight ratios (an index of transpiration to absorptive capacity) ranged from 0.77 in R. pseudoacacia to 1.05 in B. papyrifera. PMID:14972935

Ranney, T G; Whitlow, T H; Bassuk, N L

1990-12-01

86

Thematic and Spatial Resolutions Affect Model-Based Predictions of Tree Species Distribution  

PubMed Central

Subjective decisions of thematic and spatial resolutions in characterizing environmental heterogeneity may affect the characterizations of spatial pattern and the simulation of occurrence and rate of ecological processes, and in turn, model-based tree species distribution. Thus, this study quantified the importance of thematic and spatial resolutions, and their interaction in predictions of tree species distribution (quantified by species abundance). We investigated how model-predicted species abundances changed and whether tree species with different ecological traits (e.g., seed dispersal distance, competitive capacity) had different responses to varying thematic and spatial resolutions. We used the LANDIS forest landscape model to predict tree species distribution at the landscape scale and designed a series of scenarios with different thematic (different numbers of land types) and spatial resolutions combinations, and then statistically examined the differences of species abundance among these scenarios. Results showed that both thematic and spatial resolutions affected model-based predictions of species distribution, but thematic resolution had a greater effect. Species ecological traits affected the predictions. For species with moderate dispersal distance and relatively abundant seed sources, predicted abundance increased as thematic resolution increased. However, for species with long seeding distance or high shade tolerance, thematic resolution had an inverse effect on predicted abundance. When seed sources and dispersal distance were not limiting, the predicted species abundance increased with spatial resolution and vice versa. Results from this study may provide insights into the choice of thematic and spatial resolutions for model-based predictions of tree species distribution. PMID:23861828

Liang, Yu; He, Hong S.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Wu, ZhiWei

2013-01-01

87

Root diameter variations explained by anatomy and phylogeny of 50 tropical and temperate tree species.  

PubMed

Root diameter, a critical indicator of root physiological function, varies greatly among tree species, but the underlying mechanism of this high variability is unclear. Here, we sampled 50 tree species across tropical and temperate zones in China, and measured root morphological and anatomical traits along the first five branch orders in each species. Our objectives were (i) to reveal the relationships between root diameter, cortical thickness and stele diameter among tree species in tropical and temperate forests, and (ii) to investigate the relationship of both root morphological and anatomical traits with divergence time during species radiation. The results showed that root diameter was strongly affected by cortical thickness but less by stele diameter in both tropical and temperate species. Changes in cortical thickness explained over 90% of variation in root diameter for the first order, and ?74-87% for the second and third orders. Thicker roots displayed greater cortical thickness and more cortical cell layers than thinner roots. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that root diameter, cortical thickness and number of cortical cell layers significantly correlated with divergence time at the family level, showing similar variation trends in geological time. The results also suggested that trees tend to decrease their root cortical thickness rather than stele diameter during species radiation. The close linkage of variations in root morphology and anatomy to phylogeny as demonstrated by the data from the 50 tree species should provide some insights into the mechanism of root diameter variability among tree species. PMID:24695727

Gu, Jiacun; Xu, Yang; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan

2014-04-01

88

Conspecific Plant-Soil Feedbacks of Temperate Tree Species in the Southern Appalachians, USA  

PubMed Central

Many tree species have seedling recruitment patterns suggesting that they are affected by non-competitive distance-dependent sources of mortality. We conducted an experiment, with landscape-level replication, to identify cases of negative distance-dependent effects and whether variation in these effects corresponded with tree recruitment patterns in the southern Appalachian Mountains region. Specifically, soil was collected from 14 sites and used as inocula in a 62 day growth chamber experiment determining whether tree seedling growth was less when interacting with soil from conspecific (like) than heterospecific (other) tree species. Tests were performed on six tree species. Three of the tree species had been previously described as having greater recruitment around conspecifics (i.e. facilitator species group) compared to the other half (i.e. inhibitor species group). We were then able to determine whether variation in negative distance-dependent effects corresponded with recruitment patterns in the field. Across the six species, none were negatively affected by soil inocula from conspecific relative to heterospecific sources. Most species (four of six) were unaffected by soil source. Two species (Prunus serotina and Tsuga canadensis) had enhanced growth in pots inoculated with soil from conspecific trees vs. heterospecifics. Species varied in their susceptibility to soil pathogens, but trends across all species revealed that species classified as inhibitors were not more negatively affected by conspecific than heterospecific soil inocula or more susceptible to pathogenic effects than facilitators. Although plant-soil biota interactions may be important for individual species and sites, it may be difficult to scale these interactions over space or levels of ecological organization. Generalizing the importance of plant-soil feedbacks or other factors across regional scales may be especially problematic for hyperdiverse temperate forests where interactions may be spatially variable. PMID:22808231

Reinhart, Kurt O.; Johnson, Daniel; Clay, Keith

2012-01-01

89

From natural forest to tree crops, co-domestication of forests and tree species: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of domestication of tree crops has only been given limited attention. This process starts with the protection of natural forests and ends with the cultivation of domesticated tree crops. In this evolutionary process three types of human-influenced forest environments may be distinguished: (1) conserved forests, (2) modified forests, and (3) transformed forests. During the process of domestication an

K. F. Wiersum

1997-01-01

90

Cellulase in Anoplophora glabripennis adults fed on original host tree species and non-original host trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulase activities of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) adults from two host plants (Populus simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu. and Salix matsudana Koidz) fed on three different host tree species (Acer negundo Linn., S. matsudana Koidz and P. simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu.) were investigated. Enzyme activities of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase in the intestines of the insects were

Xiao-juan Li; Xiong-fei Yan; You-qing Luo; Gui-fang Tian; Yin-jie Nian; Hong Sun

2010-01-01

91

Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.  

PubMed

The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. PMID:25041417

Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

2014-12-01

92

Effects of mother tree ages, different rooting mediums, light conditions and auxin treatments on rooting behaviour of Dalbergia sissoo branch cuttings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. is one of the promising multipurpose tree species of South Asia. Most of the plantations of D. sissoo from seeds are facing severe threats due to the die-back disease, which ultimately causes death of this potential tree-species\\u000a within a few months. Vegetative propagation could avoid the die-back disease. Thirty mother trees of different age-groups\\u000a of D. sissoo

Bhupendra Singh; Rajendra Yadav; B. P. Bhatt

2011-01-01

93

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia  

E-print Network

New Ceratocystis species infecting coffee, cacao, citrus and native trees in Colombia M. Van Wyk a serious canker- stain disease on coffee as well as other fruit trees. Large collections of these isolates. The aim of this study was to compare representatives of these two groups of isolates from coffee, citrus

94

SIMULATION OF OZONE EFFECTS ON EIGHT TREE SPECIES AT SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an assessment of potential effects of air pollutants on the vegetation of Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), we simulated the growth of eight important tree species using TREGRO, a mechanistic model of individual tree growth. Published TREGRO parameters for black cherry...

95

A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae)  

E-print Network

A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae) ROBBIN C-mail: ejs7@duke.edu Abstract. Morphological and plastid rbcL and trnG-R sequence data suggest that the fern currently recognized as Megalastrum lasiernos (Dryopteridaceae) is in fact a tree fern (Cyatheaceae

Schuettpelz, Eric

96

Fine root architecture, morphology, and biomass of different branch orders of two Chinese temperate tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have limited understanding of architecture and morphology of fine root systems in large woody trees. This study investigated architecture, morphology, and biomass of different fine root branch orders of two temperate tree species from Northeastern China—Larix gmelinii Rupr and Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr —by sampling up to five fine root branch orders three times during the 2003 growing season from

Zhengquan Wang; Dali Guo; Xiangrong Wang; Jiacun Gu; Li Mei

2006-01-01

97

Grouping tree species for analysis of forest data in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management, conservation and theoretical understanding of mixed tropical forests rely heavily on the interpretation of data collected from those forests. Data-derived quantities that are averaged over all species often hide important descriptors of the forest, whereas quantities based on individual species are difficult to interpret due to the diversity of tree species. A compromise between these two analytical approaches

P. D. Phillips; I. Yasman; T. E. Brash; P. R. van Gardingen

2002-01-01

98

Optimal Public Control of Exotic Species: Preventing the Brown Tree Snake from Invading Hawai'i  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a theoretical model for the efficient establishment of economic policy pertaining to invasive species, integrating prevention and control of invasive species into a single model of optimal control policy, and applies this model to the case of the Brown tree snake as a potential invader of Hawaii. The arrival of a new species to an existing ecosystem

Brooks Kaiser; James Roumasset

99

Comparative recruitment patterns of two non-pioneer canopy tree species in French Guiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was conducted on the recruitment patterns of two non-pioneer tree species, one dispersed by arboreal mammals and birds (Virola michelii, Myristicaceae) and the other by rodents (Moronobea coccinea, Clusiaceae). These species differ in fruiting phenology, seed size, dispersal distance, germination time and seed nutrient exhaustion. In both species, establishment patterns were consistent with the escape hypothesis and

Pierre-Michel Forget

1991-01-01

100

Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

2014-01-01

101

SHIFTS IN RELATIVE STOCKING OF COMMON TREE SPECIES IN KENTUCKY FROM 1975 TO 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in species-specific relative stocking indicate the extent to which a species is either increasing or decreasing in a particular system. Changes in relative stocking values of common tree species in Kentucky from 1988 to 2004 were compared to values calculated for 1975 to 1988. Mean annual increase in relative stocking between 1988 and 2004 was greatest for eastern white

Christopher M. Oswalt; Jeffrey W. Stringer; Jeffery A. Turner

102

Two new species of Gliricola (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus, in Peru.  

E-print Network

Two new species of Gliricola, G. woodmani and G. halli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), are described and illustrated for specimens from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Peru. Resumen--Se ...

Price, Roger D.; Timm, Robert M.

1993-06-01

103

Mountain landscapes offer few opportunities for high-elevation tree species migration.  

PubMed

Climate change is anticipated to alter plant species distributions. Regional context, notably the spatial complexity of climatic gradients, may influence species migration potential. While high-elevation species may benefit from steep climate gradients in mountain regions, their persistence may be threatened by limited suitable habitat as land area decreases with elevation. To untangle these apparently contradictory predictions for mountainous regions, we evaluated the climatic suitability of four coniferous forest tree species of the western United States based on species distribution modeling (SDM) and examined changes in climatically suitable areas under predicted climate change. We used forest structural information relating to tree species dominance, productivity, and demography from an extensive forest inventory system to assess the strength of inferences made with a SDM approach. We found that tree species dominance, productivity, and recruitment were highest where climatic suitability (i.e., probability of species occurrence under certain climate conditions) was high, supporting the use of predicted climatic suitability in examining species risk to climate change. By predicting changes in climatic suitability over the next century, we found that climatic suitability will likely decline, both in areas currently occupied by each tree species and in nearby unoccupied areas to which species might migrate in the future. These trends were most dramatic for high elevation species. Climatic changes predicted over the next century will dramatically reduce climatically suitable areas for high-elevation tree species while a lower elevation species, Pinus ponderosa, will be well positioned to shift upslope across the region. Reductions in suitable area for high-elevation species imply that even unlimited migration would be insufficient to offset predicted habitat loss, underscoring the vulnerability of these high-elevation species to climatic changes. PMID:24353188

Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

2014-05-01

104

Tree species impact the terrestrial cycle of silicon through various uptakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantification of silicon (Si) uptake by tree species is a mandatory step to study the role of forest vegetations in the\\u000a global cycle of Si. Forest tree species can impact the hydrological output of dissolved Si (DSi) through root induced weathering\\u000a of silicates but also through Si uptake and restitution via litterfall. Here, monospecific stands of Douglas fir, Norway

J.-T. Cornelis; J. Ranger; A. Iserentant; B. Delvaux

2010-01-01

105

Gas Exchange and Water Use Efficiency of Three Native Tree Species in Hunshandak Sandland of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only three tree species, i.e. Ulmus pumila, Malus baccata, and Prunus padus, are distributed in Hunshandak Sandland (HS) in Inner Mongolia, China. Field studies of gas exchange and chlorophyll (Chl)\\u000a fluorescence of these three tree species were conducted in three arid periods of growth season 2002. Net photosynthetic rate\\u000a (P\\u000a N), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (g\\u000a s), and Fv\\/Fm

Y. G. Li; G. M. Jiang; S. L. Niu; M. Z. Liu; Y. Peng; S. L. Yu; L. M. Gao

2003-01-01

106

Shifts in the height-related competitiveness of tree species following recent climate warming and implications for tree community composition: the case of common beech and sessile oak  

E-print Network

and implications for tree community composition: the case of common beech and sessile oak as predominant1 Shifts in the height-related competitiveness of tree species following recent climate warming : 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20080.x #12;2 Abstract Height growth is a trait that contributes to tree

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Growth Strategies of Tropical Tree Species: Disentangling Light and Size Effects  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the drivers of tree growth at the species level is required to predict likely changes of carbon stocks and biodiversity when environmental conditions change. Especially in species-rich tropical forests, it is largely unknown how species differ in their response of growth to resource availability and individual size. We use a hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify the impact of light availability and tree diameter on growth of 274 woody species in a 50-ha long-term forest census plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Light reaching each individual tree was estimated from yearly vertical censuses of canopy density. The hierarchical Bayesian approach allowed accounting for different sources of error, such as negative growth observations, and including rare species correctly weighted by their abundance. All species grew faster at higher light. Exponents of a power function relating growth to light were mostly between 0 and 1. This indicates that nearly all species exhibit a decelerating increase of growth with light. In contrast, estimated growth rates at standardized conditions (5 cm dbh, 5% light) varied over a 9-fold range and reflect strong growth-strategy differentiation between the species. As a consequence, growth rankings of the species at low (2%) and high light (20%) were highly correlated. Rare species tended to grow faster and showed a greater sensitivity to light than abundant species. Overall, tree size was less important for growth than light and about half the species were predicted to grow faster in diameter when bigger or smaller, respectively. Together light availability and tree diameter only explained on average 12% of the variation in growth rates. Thus, other factors such as soil characteristics, herbivory, or pathogens may contribute considerably to shaping tree growth in the tropics. PMID:21966498

Ruger, Nadja; Berger, Uta; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Condit, Richard

2011-01-01

108

Potential effects of climate change on ecosystem and tree species distribution in British Columbia.  

PubMed

A new ecosystem-based climate envelope modeling approach was applied to assess potential climate change impacts on forest communities and tree species. Four orthogonal canonical discriminant functions were used to describe the realized climate space for British Columbia's ecosystems and to model portions of the realized niche space for tree species under current and predicted future climates. This conceptually simple model is capable of predicting species ranges at high spatial resolutions far beyond the study area, including outlying populations and southern range limits for many species. We analyzed how the realized climate space of current ecosystems changes in extent, elevation, and spatial distribution under climate change scenarios and evaluated the implications for potential tree species habitat. Tree species with their northern range limit in British Columbia gain potential habitat at a pace of at least 100 km per decade, common hardwoods appear to be generally unaffected by climate change, and some of the most important conifer species in British Columbia are expected to lose a large portion of their suitable habitat. The extent of spatial redistribution of realized climate space for ecosystems is considerable, with currently important sub-boreal and montane climate regions rapidly disappearing. Local predictions of changes to tree species frequencies were generated as a basis for systematic surveys of biological response to climate change. PMID:17168022

Hamann, Andreas; Wang, Tongli

2006-11-01

109

Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N) concentration and lowest lignin?N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin?N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid mites did not. Conclusions/Significance Although some soil characteristics were unaffected by tree species identity, our results clearly demonstrate that these dominant tree species are associated with soils that differ in several physical, chemical, and biotic properties. Ongoing environmental changes in this region, e.g. changes in fire regime, frequency of insect outbreaks, changes in precipitation patterns and snowpack, and land-use change, may alter the relative abundance of these tree species over coming decades, which in turn will likely alter the soils. PMID:19536334

Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simmons, Breana L.; Wall, Diana H.

2009-01-01

110

Relationships among environmental variables and distribution of tree species at high elevation in the Olympic Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relationships among environmental variables and occurrence of tree species were investigated at Hurricane Ridge in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. A transect consisting of three plots was established down one north-and one south-facing slope in stands representing the typical elevational sequence of tree species. Tree species included subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis). Air and soil temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture were measured during three growing seasons. Snowmelt patterns, soil carbon and moisture release curves were also determined. The plots represented a wide range in soil water potential, a major determinant of tree species distribution (range of minimum values = -1.1 to -8.0 MPa for Pacific silver fir and Douglas-fir plots, respectively). Precipitation intercepted at plots depended on topographic location, storm direction and storm type. Differences in soil moisture among plots was related to soil properties, while annual differences at each plot were most often related to early season precipitation. Changes in climate due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 will likely shift tree species distributions within, but not among aspects. Change will be buffered by innate tolerance of adult trees and the inertia of soil properties.

Woodward, Andrea

1998-01-01

111

Summary Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious tree species that dominates riparian systems at mid elevations  

E-print Network

Summary Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious tree species that dominates riparian systems. One exception is the domi- nant North American riparian tree species Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder have shown that female A. negundo trees occur at higher frequencies along stream mar- gins, whereas

Ehleringer, Jim

112

ISOPRENE EMISSION CAPACITY FOR U.S. TREE SPECIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Isoprene emission capacity measurements are presented from 18 North American oak (Quercus) species and species from six other genera previously found to emit significant quantities of isoprene. Sampling was conducted at physiographically diverse locations in North Carolina...

113

Profile and Use of Multi-Species Tree Crops in the Homesteads of Gazipur District, Central Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry combines agriculture and forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. This study was conducted in Gazipur district (former greater Dhaka district) of Bangladesh and focused on the species composition of homegardens, species richness, species density, relative prevalence, species diversity index, purpose of growing trees and number of trees in homestead. The study

Mir Farid Uddin Ahmed; S. M. Lutfor Rahman

2004-01-01

114

Pioneer trees in Amazonian floodplains: Three key species form monospecific stands in different habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pioneer tree species —Salix humboldtiana, Cecropia latiloba, Senna reticulata — form monospecific stands in the Central Amazonian white-water flood plain. In contrast toterra firma forests where species composition is unpredictable even for pioneer species, in Central Amazonianvárzea the occurrence of the main colonizing species seems to be predictable. This predictability is linked to characteristic habitat\\u000a conditions and the low

Pia Parolin; Astrid C. Oliveira; Maria Teresa F. Piedade; Florian Wittmann; Wolfgang J. Junk

2002-01-01

115

Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from mediterranean climates.  

PubMed

We review the literature dealing with mediterranean climate, vegetation, phenology and ecophysiology relevant to the understanding of tree-ring formation in mediterranean regions. Tree rings have been used extensively in temperate regions to reconstruct responses of forests to past environmental changes. In mediterranean regions, studies of tree rings are scarce, despite their potential for understanding and predicting the effects of global change on important ecological processes such as desertification. In mediterranean regions, due to the great spatio-temporal variability of mediterranean environmental conditions, tree rings are sometimes not formed. Often, clear seasonality is lacking, and vegetation activity is not always associated with regular dormancy periods. We present examples of tree-ring morphology of five species (Arbutus unedo, Fraxinus ornus, Quercus cerris, Q. ilex, Q. pubescens) sampled in Tuscany, Italy, focusing on the difficulties we encountered during the dating. We present an interpretation of anomalies found in the wood structure and, more generally, of cambial activity in such environments. Furthermore, we propose a classification of tree-ring formation in mediterranean environments. Mediterranean tree rings can be dated and used for dendrochronological purposes, but great care should be taken in selecting sampling sites, species and sample trees. PMID:12620063

Cherubini, Paolo; Gartner, Barbara L; Tognetti, Roberto; Bräker, Otto U; Schoch, Werner; Innes, John L

2003-02-01

116

Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) species, flight, and attack on living eastern cottonwood trees.  

PubMed

In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation + fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids. PMID:16539132

Coyle, D R; Booth, D C; Wallace, M S

2005-12-01

117

Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the Ã?Â?Ã?Â?rst time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

D.R. Coyle; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

2005-12-01

118

Stem radial growth of different tree species in an unmanaged southern taiga stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radial growth of stems was measured in altogether 32 sample trees of 5 species (Picea abies (L.)Karst., Populus tremula L., Betula alba L., Sorbus aucuparia L. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench) during the growing season 2000 in a mixed uneven-aged stand dominated by spruce and aspen in the region of upper Volga within the framework of international project “Volgaforest”. Measurement was done by band dendrometers read every two weeks from May to late October 2000. In addition, two readings were done in 2001 (the last one in November, i.e. only the total seasonal growth for this year was obtained). Subsequently the woody cores were taken from all sample spruce and aspen trees in October 2002 in order to evaluate the stem growth over a longer period of time. The growing season 2000 was characterized by late spring frost (approximately until May 20) and very wet summer. In contrast the season 2001 was hot and dry. Radial growth of stems in majority of sample trees of all species started during early May and continued until mid August. However the smallest spruce trees and some deciduous trees (especially birches) started growing later (in late May or even in mid June) and the relatively small aspen trees (although reaching DBH up to 33 cm) did not grew at all during the whole season. As an exception, growth of 2 sample trees (spruce and aspen) continued during the whole season up to mid October. The most interesting seems that aspen showed significantly lower growth of basal area in absolute and relative terms when compared to spruce. This difference was observed in both years under consideration, but was more pronounced in 2000, when the relative growth of basal area reached 1 to 6% in spruce, and was increasing with tree DBH, whereas for aspens the same parameter ranged from 0% for smaller trees to 0.8% for the largest ones. Such difference was not so pronounced and occurred only in small and medium DBH trees in the more favorable growing season of 2001. However, radial growth of the largest aspen tree was similar as in spruce trees with comparable DBH. The reduced growth of aspens can be explained by different factors including normal decrease of growth for the given, rather old age for the species (about 60 years) and the specific conditions of the season 2000 (especially strong spring frost). This result well corresponds with the observed succession changes. Massive occurrence of stem rot and following windfall of aspen trees was manifested. No young aspen trees occurred in the stand, whereas gradual prevailing of regenerated spruce was evident.

Tatarinov, F.; Nadezhdina, N.; Bochkarev, Yu.; Cermak, J.

2003-04-01

119

Spatial occurrence of major tree species groups in Europe derived from multiple data sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pan-European distribution maps have been compiled for six main species groups in Europe. The aim was to combine detailed tree species information from plot data of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) with other existing spatial and statistical information on forests. The applied method involves the interpolation of the plot

Katja Tröltzsch; Jo Van Brusselen; Andreas Schuck

2009-01-01

120

WOOD PROPERTIES AND THEIR VARIATIONS WITHIN THE TREE STEM OF LESSER-USED SPECIES OF TROPICAL  

E-print Network

WOOD PROPERTIES AND THEIR VARIATIONS WITHIN THE TREE STEM OF LESSER-USED SPECIES OF TROPICAL to utilization about the species. This paper examines physical and mechanical properties of wood. There was an overall increase of wood's physical and mechanical properties from the breast height to the top

121

Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests  

E-print Network

. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolanTree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains

Wall, Diana

122

Survival and Development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and Introduced Eurasian Tree Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introd ucedinto North America, survival andd evelopment of L. monacha on 26 North American andeight introd ucedEurasian tree species were examined . Seven conifer species (Abies concolor,

M. A. Keena

2003-01-01

123

Species Composition of Leaf Beetle Assemblages in Deciduous Tree Canopies in Hungary (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in deciduous tree canopies in Hungary. Apple and pear orchards were investigated in Nagykovácsi, Kecskemét and Sárospatak in 1990- 94, and limes and maples in Keszthely in 1999-2002. This study presents in detail the findings on leaf beetles. Earlier investigations in Hungary revealed surprisingly high diversity of Coleoptera assemblages

Károly VIG; Viktor MARKÓ

124

HansenuZa ahi, a New Heterothallic Species of Yeast from Exudates of Alder Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel member of the yeast genus Hansenula was recovered three times in 1968 from slime exudates of Alnus rubra in the state of Washington and in the province of British Columbia. The new species is named Hansenula alni because of its specific habitat in exudates of alder trees. This species occurs naturally in the haploid condition. Upon mixing of

H. J. PHAFF; M. W. MILLER; MARY MIRANDA

125

Climate signal in tree-ring chronologies in a temperate climate: A multi-species approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree-rings can provide continuous yearly paleoclimatic records for regions or periods of time with no instrumental climate data. However, different species respond to different climate parameters with, for example, some sensitive to moisture and others to temperature. Here, we describe four common species growing in Northern Ireland and their suitability for climate reconstruction.Our results suggest that beech and ash are

A. M. García-Suárez; C. J. Butler; M. G. L. Baillie

2009-01-01

126

Tree Species Effects on Soil Organic Matter Dynamics: The Role of Soil  

E-print Network

hypothesized that species would influence chemical stabilization of SOM via cation bridging to mineral surfacesTree Species Effects on Soil Organic Matter Dynamics: The Role of Soil Cation Composition Sarah E, 1987 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, MN 55108, USA; 2 Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science

Minnesota, University of

127

Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forest: species effects on pH and cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified soil acidity and exchangeable cations in the forest floor and upper 7.5 cm of mineral soil beneath the canopies of individual trees of six different species in a mixed-species forest in northwestern Connecticut. Soil pH decreased in a sequence starting with sugar maple (Acer saccharum) . white ash (Fraxinus americana) . red maple (Acer rubrum) . beech (Fagus

Adrien C. Finzi; Charles D. Canham; Nico van Breemen

1998-01-01

128

Hydraulics and life history of tropical dry forest tree species: coordination of species' drought and shade tolerance.  

PubMed

Plant hydraulic architecture has been studied extensively, yet we know little about how hydraulic properties relate to species' life history strategies, such as drought and shade tolerance. The prevailing theories seem contradictory. We measured the sapwood (K(s) ) and leaf (K(l) ) hydraulic conductivities of 40 coexisting tree species in a Bolivian dry forest, and examined associations with functional stem and leaf traits and indices of species' drought (dry-season leaf water potential) and shade (juvenile crown exposure) tolerance. Hydraulic properties varied across species and between life-history groups (pioneers vs shade-tolerant, and deciduous vs evergreen species). In addition to the expected negative correlation of K(l) with drought tolerance, we found a strong, negative correlation between K(l) and species' shade tolerance. Across species, K(s) and K(l) were negatively correlated with wood density and positively with maximum vessel length. Consequently, drought and shade tolerance scaled similarly with hydraulic properties, wood density and leaf dry matter content. We found that deciduous species also had traits conferring efficient water transport relative to evergreen species. Hydraulic properties varied across species, corresponding to the classical trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety, which for these dry forest trees resulted in coordinated drought and shade tolerance across species rather than the frequently hypothesized trade-off. PMID:21477008

Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Paz, Horacio; Sack, Lawren

2011-07-01

129

BOREAS TE-4 Branch Bag Data From Boreal Tree Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-4 team collected continuous records of gas exchange under ambient conditions from intact boreal forest trees in the BOREAS NSA from 23-Jul-1996 until 14-Aug-1996. These measurements can be used to test models of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration, such as SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model (Collatz et al., 1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Berry, Joseph A.; Fu, Wei; Fredeen, Art; Gamon, John

2000-01-01

130

Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.  

PubMed

Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas. PMID:12650343

Keena, M A

2003-02-01

131

Tree Species Composition Influences Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass in the Rhizosphere: A Rhizobox Approach  

PubMed Central

Monoculture causes nutrient losses and leads to declines in soil fertility and biomass production over successive cultivation. The rhizosphere, a zone of usually high microbial activities and clearly distinct from bulk soil, is defined as the volume of soil around living roots and influenced by root activities. Here we investigated enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere under different tree compositions. Six treatments with poplar, willow, and alder mono- or mixed seedlings were grown in rhizoboxes. Enzyme activities associated with nitrogen cycling and microbial biomass were measured in all rhizosphere and bulk soils. Both enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere differed significantly tree compositions. Microbial biomass contents were more sensitive to the changes of the rhizosphere environment than enzyme activities. Tree species coexistence did not consistently increase tested enzyme activities and microbial biomass, but varied depending on the complementarities of species traits. In general, impacts of tree species and coexistence were more pronounced on microbial composition than total biomass, evidenced by differences in microbial biomass C/N ratios stratified across the rhizosphere soils. Compared to poplar clone monoculture, other tree species addition obviously increased rhizosphere urease activity, but greatly reduced rhizosphere L-asparaginase activity. Poplar growth was enhanced only when coexisted with alder. Our results suggested that a highly productive or keystone plant species in a community had greater influence over soil functions than the contribution of diversity. PMID:23637838

Fang, Shengzuo; Liu, Dong; Tian, Ye; Deng, Shiping; Shang, Xulan

2013-01-01

132

Strategy space and the disturbance spectrum : a life history model for tree species coexistence.  

SciTech Connect

The disturbance spectrum consists of disturbance patterns differing in type, size, intensity, and frequency. It is proposed that tree life-history traits are adaptations to particular disturbance regimes. Four independent axes are proposed to define the dominant dimensions of tree strategy space: shade tolerance, tree height, capacity for vegetative reproduction, and seed dispersal distance. A fitness model was developed to elucidate interactions between the proposed life-history traits. The model shows how alternate life-history sets can coexist when disturbance patterns fluctuate in space and time. Variable disturbance regimes were shown, based on data and simulation results, to enhance species coexistence, as predicted. The strategy space model accurately predicts the number of common tree species for the eastern United States, boreal Canada, and southwestern pinon-juniper woodlands. The model also provides an explanation for latitudinal gradients in tree species richness in North America and Europe. The proposed model predicts a relationship between disturbance characteristics and the species composition of a forest that allows for the coexistence of large numbers of species. The life-history traits of size, growth rate, life span, shade tolerance, age of reproduction, seed dispersal distance, and vegetative reproduction are all incorporated into the model.

Loehle, C.; Environmental Research

2000-07-01

133

Strategy space and the disturbance spectrum : a model for tree species coexistence.  

SciTech Connect

The disturbance spectrum consists of disturbance patterns differing in type, size, intensity, and frequency. It is proposed that tree life-history traits are adaptations to particular disturbance regimes. Four independent axes are proposed to define the dominant dimensions of tree strategy space: shade tolerance, tree height, capacity for vegetative reproduction, and seed dispersal distance. A fitness model was developed to elucidate interactions between the proposed life-history traits. The model shows how alternate life-history sets can coexist when disturbance patterns fluctuate in space and time. Variable disturbance regimes were shown, based on data and simulation results, to enhance species coexistence, as predicted. The strategy space model accurately predicts the number of common tree species for the eastern United States, boreal Canada, and southwestern pinon-juniper woodlands. The model also provides an explanation for latitudinal gradients in tree species richness in North America and Europe. The proposed model predicts a relationship between disturbance characteristics and the species composition of a forest that allows for the coexistence of large numbers of species. The life-history traits of size, growth rate, life span, shade tolerance, age of reproduction, seed dispersal distance, and vegetative reproduction are all incorporated into the model.

Loehle, C.; Environmental Research

2000-07-01

134

[Effects of temperature on CH4 emission from subtropical common tree species leaves].  

PubMed

Laboratory incubation test was conducted to study the effects of temperature on the CH4 emission from the leaves of subtropical common tree species Castanopsis carlesii, Schima superb, Cinnamomum chekiangense, Castsanopsis fabri, Cunninghamia lanceolata, and Citrus reticulata. Among the six tree species, only S. superb, C. reticulate, and C. fabri emitted CH4 at 10 degrees C. At above 20 degrees C, all the six species emitted CH4, and the average CH4 emission rate at above 30 degrees C (1.010 ng CH4 x g(-1) DM x h(-1)) was 2.96 times higher than that at 10-30 degrees C (0.255 ng CH4 x g(-1) DM x h(-1)). Moreover, increasing temperature had much more effects on the CH4 emission rate of C. reticulata and C. lanceolata than on that of the other four tree species. Incubation time affected the CH4 emission rate of all test tree species significantly, suggesting that the effects of temperature stress on the CH4 emission could be controlled by plant activity. Dry leaves could not emit CH4 no matter the temperature was very high or low. It was suggested that high temperature stress had important effects on the CH4 emission from subtropical tree leaves, and global warming could increase the CH4 emission from plants. PMID:24066538

Yang, Yan-Hua; Yi, Li-Ming; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Chao; Yang, Yu-Sheng

2013-06-01

135

Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.  

PubMed

During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. PMID:21910838

Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel

2011-09-01

136

Dinitrogen-fixation by three neotropical agroforestry tree species under semi-controlled field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivating dinitrogen-fixing legume trees with crops in agroforestry is a relatively common N management practice in the\\u000a Neotropics. The objective of this study was to assess the N2 fixation potential of three important Neotropical agroforestry tree species, Erythrina poeppigiana, Erythrina fusca, and Inga edulis, under semi-controlled field conditions. The study was conducted in the humid tropical climate of the Caribbean

Humberto A. Leblanc; Robert L. McGraw; Pekka Nygren

2007-01-01

137

An evaluation of fuelwood properties of some Aravally mountain tree and shrub species of Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study analyses the fuelwood characteristics of 26 trees including shrub species from the dry deciduous forest in Aravally region, Rajasthan, Western India was carried out to explore trees with potential for fuelwood production. Fuelwood value index (FVI) based on the properties of calorific value, wood density and ash. Calorific value was ranged between 18.54±0.04 and 27.44±0.09KJg?1 in Jatropha curcus

J. I. Nirmal Kumar; Kanti Patel; Rita N. Kumar; Rohit Kumar Bhoi

2011-01-01

138

Tree species-richness and topographic complexity along the riparian edge of the Potomac River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the riparian edge of a central portion of the Potomac River in order to test the hypothesis of a positive relationship between small-scale topographic complexity of the riverbank profile and tree species-richness. A total of 153 5m-wide transects established at 530m intervals, containing 2568 trees, were measured along 97km of the river corridor between Harpers Ferry, WV and

Daniel A Everson; Douglas H. Boucher

1998-01-01

139

Oviposition preference and larval performance of Aeolesthes sarta (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in six hardwood tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sarta longhorned beetle (SLB), Aeolesthes sarta Solsky, is an economically important pest of fruit and shade trees in central and east Asia. Choice, no-choice, and larval\\u000a insertion experiments were conducted to determine SLB oviposition preference and larval host suitability on six hardwood tree\\u000a species including Ulmus carpinifolia Borkh., Ulmus carpinifolia var. umbraculifera Rehd., Platanus orientalis L., Populus alba L., Salix

Afsaneh Mazaheri; Jahangir Khajehali; Bijan Hatami

140

Supplemental planting of early successional tree species during bottomland hardwood afforestation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.

Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

2002-01-01

141

Quantifying tree mortality in a mixed species woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Widespread tree mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray tree canopies during and shortly after tree damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting trees in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for tree mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed species woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead trees had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-tree image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead tree classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of tree mortality across areas with differences in tree species composition. We found that 38% of tree crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of tree mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the tree canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas experiencing wildfire and management activity. -Our results demonstrate that unsupervised clustering of bi-temporal NDVI and RGI differences can be used to detect tree mortality resulting from numerous causes and in several forest cover types.

Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael

2013-01-01

142

Species tree reconstruction of a poorly resolved clade of salamanders (Ambystomatidae) using multiple nuclear loci.  

PubMed

The analysis of diverse data sets can yield different phylogenetic estimates that challenge systematists to explain the source of discordance. The mole salamanders (family Ambystomatidae) are a classic example of this phylogenetic conflict. Previous attempts to resolve the ambystomatid species tree using allozymic, morphological, and mitochondrial sequence data have yielded different estimates, making it unclear which data source best approximates ambystomatid phylogeny and which ones yield phylogenetically inaccurate reconstructions. To shed light on this conflict, we present the first multi-locus DNA sequence-based phylogenetic study of the Ambystomatidae. We utilized a range of analyses, including coalescent-based methods of species-tree estimation that account for incomplete lineage sorting within a locus and concordance-based methods that estimate the number of sampled loci that support a particular clade. We repeated these analyses with the removal of individual loci to determine if any locus has a disproportionate effect on our phylogenetic results. Collectively, these results robustly resolved many deep and relatively shallow clades within Ambystoma, including the placement of A. gracile and A. talpoideum as the sister clade to a clade containing all remaining ambystomatids, and the placement of A. maculatum as the sister lineage to all remaining ambystomatids excluding A. gracile and A. talpoideum. Both Bayesian coalescent and concordance methods produced similar results, highlighting strongly supported branches in the species tree. Furthermore, coalescent-based analyses that excluded loci produced overlapping species-tree posterior distributions, suggesting that no particular locus--including mtDNA--disproportionately contributed to our species-tree estimates. Overall, our phylogenetic estimates have greater similarity with previous allozyme and mitochondrial sequence-based phylogenetic estimates. However, intermediate depths of divergence in the ambystomatid species tree remain unresolved, potentially highlighting a region of rapid species radiation or a hard polytomy, which limits our ability to comment on previous morphologically-based taxonomic groups. PMID:23632032

Williams, Joshua S; Niedzwiecki, John H; Weisrock, David W

2013-09-01

143

Interpreting species-specific variation in tree-ring oxygen isotope ratios among three temperate forest trees.  

PubMed

Although considerable variation has been documented in tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotope ratios (?(18)O(cell)) among co-occurring species, the underlying causes are unknown. Here, we used a combination of field measurements and modelling to investigate the mechanisms behind variations in late-wood ?(18) O(cell) (?(18)O(lc)) among three co-occurring species (chestnut oak, black oak and pitch pine) in a temperate forest. For two growing seasons, we quantified among-species variation in ?(18)O(lc), as well as several variables that could potentially cause the ?(18)O(lc) variation. Data analysis based on the ?(18) O(cell) model rules out leaf water enrichment (?(18)O(lw)) and tree-ring formation period (?t), but highlights source water ?(18) O (?(18) O(sw)) as an important driver for the measured difference in ?(18)O(lc) between black and chestnut oak. However, the enriched ?(18)O(lc) in pitch pine relative to the oaks could not be sufficiently explained by consideration of the above three variables only, but rather, we show that differences in the proportion of oxygen exchange during cellulose synthesis (p(ex)) is most likely a key mechanism. Our demonstration of the relevance of some species-specific features (or lack thereof) to ?(18)O(cell) has important implications for isotope based ecophysiological/paleoclimate studies. PMID:24588709

Song, Xin; Clark, Kenneth S; Helliker, Brent R

2014-09-01

144

Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial covers various aspects of trees. It explains which chemicals cause leaves to change colors, how the process of photosynthesis works, the functions of bark, roots, pollen and leaves, and the effect of trees on nearby temperature.

145

Different photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in deciduous hardwood and evergreen coniferous tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and leaf nitrogen concentration (N) among all C3 species can be described roughly with one general equation, yet within that overall pattern species groups or individual species may have markedly different Amax-N relationships. To determine whether one or several predictive, fundamental Amax-N relationships exist for temperate trees we measured Amax, specific leaf area (SLA)

P. B. Reich; M. B. Walters; B. D. Kloeppel; D. S. Ellsworth

1995-01-01

146

Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species (Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus

D. R. Coyle; D. C. Booth; M. S. Wallace

2005-01-01

147

Coexistence of three canopy tree species in a riparian forest in the Chichibu Mountains, central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three canopy tree species (Fraxinus platypoda, Pterocarya rhoifolia, andCercidiphyllum japonicum) coexist in riparian forests in the Chichibu Mountains of central Japan. We compared the forest structure and the reproductive\\u000a characteristics of these species.F. platypoda was the dominant canopy species. It produced many saplings and grew in abandoned channels and floodplains, and was able to\\u000a invade both large and small disturbance

Hitoshi Sakio; Masako Kubo; Koji Shimano; Keiichi Ohno

2002-01-01

148

A Climate Change Atlas For 80 Forest Tree Species Of The Eastern United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a tree species distribution atlas. It contains information for 80 species in the eastern half of the United States (east of the 100th meridian). The site contains distribution maps and tables for different climate change scenarios, life-history and disturbance attributes, ecological attributes, forest type maps, sorted lists of species importance values (by state and county) for different climate change scenarios, and more.

Iverson, Louis; Prasad, Anantha

2007-07-22

149

Discovery of three new fungal species from dying Baobab trees in South Africa and Madagascar Prepared by Elsie Cruywagen  

E-print Network

of Capricorn in southern Africa. This species has also been introduced into Madagascar and other partsDiscovery of three new fungal species from dying Baobab trees in South Africa and Madagascar trees in the world. The eight known species of baobab belong to a single genus, Adansonia. Madagascar

150

Influences of Forest Structure, Climate and Species Composition on Tree Mortality across the Eastern US  

PubMed Central

Few studies have quantified regional variation in tree mortality, or explored whether species compositional changes or within-species variation are responsible for regional patterns, despite the fact that mortality has direct effects on the dynamics of woody biomass, species composition, stand structure, wood production and forest response to climate change. Using Bayesian analysis of over 430,000 tree records from a large eastern US forest database we characterised tree mortality as a function of climate, soils, species and size (stem diameter). We found (1) mortality is U-shaped vs. stem diameter for all 21 species examined; (2) mortality is hump-shaped vs. plot basal area for most species; (3) geographical variation in mortality is substantial, and correlated with several environmental factors; and (4) individual species vary substantially from the combined average in the nature and magnitude of their mortality responses to environmental variation. Regional variation in mortality is therefore the product of variation in species composition combined with highly varied mortality-environment correlations within species. The results imply that variation in mortality is a crucial part of variation in the forest carbon cycle, such that including this variation in models of the global carbon cycle could significantly narrow uncertainty in climate change predictions. PMID:20967250

Lines, Emily R.; Coomes, David A.; Purves, Drew W.

2010-01-01

151

Negative density dependence regulates two tree species at later life stage in a temperate forest.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ?2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660

Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil

2014-01-01

152

Forest tree species discrimination in western Himalaya using EO-1 Hyperion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information acquired in the narrow bands of hyperspectral remote sensing data has potential to capture plant species spectral variability, thereby improving forest tree species mapping. This study assessed the utility of spaceborne EO-1 Hyperion data in discrimination and classification of broadleaved evergreen and conifer forest tree species in western Himalaya. The pre-processing of 242 bands of Hyperion data resulted into 160 noise-free and vertical stripe corrected reflectance bands. Of these, 29 bands were selected through step-wise exclusion of bands (Wilk's Lambda). Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms were applied to the selected bands to assess their effectiveness in classification. SVM was also applied to broadband data (Landsat TM) to compare the variation in classification accuracy. All commonly occurring six gregarious tree species, viz., white oak, brown oak, chir pine, blue pine, cedar and fir in western Himalaya could be effectively discriminated. SVM produced a better species classification (overall accuracy 82.27%, kappa statistic 0.79) than SAM (overall accuracy 74.68%, kappa statistic 0.70). It was noticed that classification accuracy achieved with Hyperion bands was significantly higher than Landsat TM bands (overall accuracy 69.62%, kappa statistic 0.65). Study demonstrated the potential utility of narrow spectral bands of Hyperion data in discriminating tree species in a hilly terrain.

George, Rajee; Padalia, Hitendra; Kushwaha, S. P. S.

2014-05-01

153

Complementary models of tree species-soil relationships in old-growth temperate forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem level studies identify plant soil feed backs as important controls on soil nutrient availability,particularly for nitrogen and phosphorus. Although site and species specific studies of tree species soil relationships are relatively common,comparatively fewer studies consider multiple coexisting speciesin old-growth forests across a range of sites that vary underlying soil fertility. We characterized patterns in forest floor and mineral soil nutrients associated with four common tree species across eight undisturbed old-growth forests in Oregon, USA, and used two complementary conceptual models to assess tree species soil relationships. Plant soil feedbacks that could reinforce sitelevel differences in nutrient availability were assessed using the context dependent relationships model, where by relative species based differences in each soil nutrient divergedorconvergedas nutrient status changed across sites. Tree species soil relationships that did not reflect strong feedbacks were evaluated using a site independent relationships model, where by forest floor and surface mineral soil nutrient tools differed consistently by tree species across sites,without variation in deeper mineral soils. We found that theorganically cycled elements carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus exhibited context-dependent differences among species in both forest floor and mineral soil, and most of ten followed adivergence model,where by species differences were greatest at high-nutrient sites. These patterns are consistent with the oryemphasizing biotic control of these elements through plant soil feedback mechanisms. Site independent species differences were strongest for pool so if the weather able cations calcium, magnesium, potassium,as well as phosphorus, in mineral soils. Site independent species differences in forest floor nutrients we reattributable too nespecies that displayed significant greater forest floor mass accumulation. Our finding confirmed that site-independent and context-dependent tree species-soil relationships occur simultaneouslyinold-grow the temperate forests, with context-dependent relationships strongest for organically cycled elements, and site-independent relationships strongest for weather able elements with in organic cycling phases. These models provide complementary explanations for patterns of nutrient accumulation and cycling in mixed species old-growth temperate forests.

Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

2011-01-01

154

Effect of Liquid Nitrogen Storage on Seed Germination of 51 Tree Species  

E-print Network

Two liquid nitrogen storage experiments were performed on 51 tree species. In experiment 1, seeds of 9 western tree species were placed in a liquid nitrogen tank for 3 time periods: 24 hours, 4 weeks, and 222 days. A corresponding control sample accompanied each treatment. For three species, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jefferyi, and Pinus contorta, the germination percent was not significantly different from the controls in any of the liquid nitrogen treatments. Exposure to 24 hours of liquid nitrogen did not affect the germination percent for any of the 9 species compared to their controls. Two species, Abies x shastensis and Picea engelmannii, exhibited a significant negative response to 4 weeks exposure to liquid nitrogen. Four species Abies amabilis, Abies concolor, Pinus monticola, and Pseudotsuga menziesii, exhibited a significant positive response to the 222-day exposure to liquid nitrogen when compared with Control D. Experiment 2 examined the germination response to liquid nitrogen storage after a 24 hour exposure for 42 tree species. The germination percent for nine of the 42 species, Acer rubra, Celtis occidentalis, Lonicera tartarica, Malus prunifolia, Physiocarpus opulifiolius, Pinus banksiana, Pinus clausa, Pinus nigra, and Pinus rigida, was significantly affected by 24 hours exposure to liquid nitrogen. Liquid nitrogen exposure had a negative affect on germination for 7 species and a positive effect for 2 species, Pinus nigra, and Pinus rigida. Only 8 species had enough data to calculate the correlation coefficient between moisture content and germination after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Correlations were significant for 4 species. Two species, Abies fraseri and Liriodendron tulipfera had negative correlations; two species, Pinus ponderosa and Pinus taeda had positive correlations.

unknown authors

155

Genetic variation in a tropical tree species influences the associated epiphytic plant and invertebrate communities in a complex forest ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307

Zytynska, Sharon E.; Fay, Michael F.; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F.

2011-01-01

156

Impact of Tree Species on Carbon in Forest Soils  

E-print Network

root, carbon, nitrogen, soil, DOC Author's address: Karna Hansson, SLU, Department of Ecology, P.O. Box species on soil carbon 29 5.1 Carbon pools (Papers II, V) 30 5.1.1 Soil carbon and nitrogen (Paper II 5.4.3 Soil acidity and mineral nutrients (Paper II) 40 5.4.4 Nitrogen pools and fluxes 40 5

157

Diversity makes a difference: Farmers managing inter- and intra-specific tree species diversity in Meru Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers plant trees in pursuit of their livelihood goals of income generation, risk management, household food security and optimum use of available land, labour and capital. Trees also play a crucial role in the cultural life of people. The many products, services and roles needed by people to be fulfilled by trees cannot be provided by only a few species.

A. G. Lengkeek

2003-01-01

158

Net production relations of three tree species at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. [Liriodendron tulipifera; Quercus alba; Pinus echinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of productivity of forests is a difficult problem which has been variously approached. Results from an exploratory application of one approach (Whittaker 1961) to trees of three species - Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip tree or yellow poplar), Quercus alba (white oak), and Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine) - are reported here. The trees were felled in a logging operation at Oak

R. H. Whittaker; N. Cohen; J. S. Olson

2009-01-01

159

Data Concatenation, Bayesian Concordance and Coalescent-Based Analyses of the Species Tree for the Rapid Radiation of Triturus Newts  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic relationships for rapid species radiations are difficult to disentangle. Here we study one such case, namely the genus Triturus, which is composed of the marbled and crested newts. We analyze data for 38 genetic markers, positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions of protein-coding genes, obtained with 454 sequencing. Our dataset includes twenty Triturus newts and represents all nine species. Bayesian analysis of population structure allocates all individuals to their respective species. The branching patterns obtained by data concatenation, Bayesian concordance analysis and coalescent-based estimations of the species tree differ from one another. The data concatenation based species tree shows high branch support but branching order is considerably affected by allele choice in the case of heterozygotes in the concatenation process. Bayesian concordance analysis expresses the conflict between individual gene trees for part of the Triturus species tree as low concordance factors. The coalescent-based species tree is relatively similar to a previously published species tree based upon morphology and full mtDNA and any conflicting internal branches are not highly supported. Our findings reflect high gene tree discordance due to incomplete lineage sorting (possibly aggravated by hybridization) in combination with low information content of the markers employed (as can be expected for relatively recent species radiations). This case study highlights the complexity of resolving rapid radiations and we acknowledge that to convincingly resolve the Triturus species tree even more genes will have to be consulted. PMID:25337997

Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W.; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Pabijan, Maciej; Babik, Wieslaw

2014-01-01

160

Patterns of Tree Species Diversity in Relation to Climatic Factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9–14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold, humid temperate climates than in dry, hot climates. PMID:25127455

Silva-Flores, Ramon; Perez-Verdin, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

2014-01-01

161

Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.  

PubMed

Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold, humid temperate climates than in dry, hot climates. PMID:25127455

Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

2014-01-01

162

Seasonal and meteorological effects on differential stemflow funneling ratios for two deciduous tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stemflow is an important subcanopy flux that delivers enriched rainfall to soils immediately surrounding a tree. Stemflow volume represents the quantity of this hydrologic flux while funneling ratio (FR) represents the efficiency with which individual trees scavenge water during rainfall events. Stemflow hydrology and storm meteorological characteristics were monitored from 2007 through 2012 to determine the interspecific differences in stemflow flux with a focus on FR efficiency. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of tree species and size on stemflow FR, determine how seasonality affects stemflow FR, and quantify the role of storm meteorological conditions on stemflow FR. The results presented in this paper build upon 2 years of previous hydrologic research from the Fair Hill, MD field site, which strengthen previous findings via larger storm sample size and highlight more complex stemflow hydrologic relationships than originally assumed. Specifically, this study has demonstrated (1) the efficiency with which smaller trees gain access to rainfall via higher FR than larger trees, (2) the FR variability of F. grandifolia induced by the species' ease of generating stemflow under many storm conditions, and (3) the necessity of many years of hydrometeorological sampling to capture long-term rainfall characteristics and trends. The efficiency of smaller trees to preferentially funnel water to their tree base has implications for forests undergoing change. Forest disturbance and subsequent regrowth is dominated by smaller trees, but additional research is necessary to understand how saplings compete among one another to gain access to stemflow and how this may be influenced by changing climates and forest composition.

Siegert, C. M.; Levia, D. F.

2014-11-01

163

Certified and Uncertified Logging Concessions Compared in Gabon: Changes in Stand Structure, Tree Species, and Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest management certification is assumed to promote sustainable forest management, but there is little field-based evidence to support this claim. To help fill this gap, we compared a Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)-certified with an adjacent uncertified, conventionally logged concession (CL) in Gabon on the basis of logging damage, above-ground biomass (AGB), and tree species diversity and composition. Before logging, we marked, mapped, and measured all trees >10 cm dbh in 20 and twelve 1-ha permanent plots in the FSC and CL areas, respectively. Soil and tree damage due to felling, skidding, and road-related activities was then assessed 2-3 months after the 508 ha FSC study area and the 200 ha CL study area were selectively logged at respective intensities of 5.7 m3/ha (0.39 trees/ha) and 11.4 m3/ha (0.76 trees/ha). For each tree felled, averages of 9.1 and 20.9 other trees were damaged in the FSC and CL plots, respectively; when expressed as the impacts per timber volume extracted, the values did not differ between the two treatments. Skid trails covered 2.9 % more of the CL surface, but skid trail length per unit timber volume extracted was not greater. Logging roads were wider in the CL than FSC site and disturbed 4.7 % more of the surface. Overall, logging caused declines in AGB of 7.1 and 13.4 % at the FSC and CL sites, respectively. Changes in tree species composition were small but greater for the CL site. Based on these findings and in light of the pseudoreplicated study design with less-than perfect counterfactual, we cautiously conclude that certification yields environmental benefits even after accounting for differences in logging intensities.

Medjibe, V. P.; Putz, Francis E.; Romero, Claudia

2013-03-01

164

Tree species diversity interacts with elevated CO2 to induce a greater root system response.  

PubMed

As a consequence of land-use change and the burning of fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are increasing and altering the dynamics of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. In a number of studies using single tree species, fine root biomass has been shown to be strongly increased by elevated CO2 . However, natural forests are often intimate mixtures of a number of co-occurring species. To investigate the interaction between tree mixture and elevated CO2 , Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were planted in areas of single species and a three species polyculture in a free-air CO2 enrichment study (BangorFACE). The trees were exposed to ambient or elevated CO2 (580 ?mol mol(-1) ) for 4 years. Fine and coarse root biomass, together with fine root turnover and fine root morphological characteristics were measured. Fine root biomass and morphology responded differentially to the elevated CO2 at different soil depths in the three species when grown in monocultures. In polyculture, a greater response to elevated CO2 was observed in coarse roots to a depth of 20 cm, and fine root area index to a depth of 30 cm. Total fine root biomass was positively affected by elevated CO2 at the end of the experiment, but not by species diversity. Our data suggest that existing biogeochemical cycling models parameterized with data from species grown in monoculture may be underestimating the belowground response to global change. PMID:23504733

Smith, Andrew R; Lukac, Martin; Bambrick, Michael; Miglietta, Franco; Godbold, Douglas L

2013-01-01

165

Eco-physiological adaptation of dominant tree species at two contrasting karst habitats in southwestern China  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the eco-physiological adaptation of indigenous woody species to their habitats in karst areas of southwestern China. Two contrasting forest habitats were studied: a degraded habitat in Daxiagu and a well-developed habitat in Tianlongshan, and the eco-physiological characteristics of the trees were measured for three growth seasons. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of the tree species in Daxiagu were 2-3 times higher than those in Tianlongshan under ambient conditions. However, this habitat effect was not significant when measurements were taken under controlled conditions. Under controlled conditions, Pn, gs, and Tr of the deciduous species were markedly higher than those for the evergreen species. Habitat had no significant effect on water use efficiency (WUE) or photochemical characteristics of PSII. The stomatal sensitivity of woody species in the degraded habitat was much higher than that in the well-developed habitat. Similarly, the leaf total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) contents expressed on the basis of either dry mass or leaf area were also much higher in Daxiagu than they were in Tianlongshan. The mass-based leaf total N content of deciduous species was much higher than that of evergreen species, while leaf area-based total N and P contents of evergreens were significantly higher than those of deciduous species. The photosynthetic nitrogen- and phosphorus-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) of deciduous species were much higher than those of evergreens. Further, the PPUE of the woody species in Tianlongshan was much higher than that  of the woody species in Daxiagu. The results from three growth seasons imply that the tree species were able to adapt well to their growth habitats. Furthermore, it seems that so-called “temporary drought stress” may not occur, or may not be severe for most woody plants in karst areas of southwestern China. PMID:24555059

2013-01-01

166

Epigenetic regulation of adaptive responses of forest tree species to the environment  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic variation is likely to contribute to the phenotypic plasticity and adaptative capacity of plant species, and may be especially important for long-lived organisms with complex life cycles, including forest trees. Diverse environmental stresses and hybridization/polyploidization events can create reversible heritable epigenetic marks that can be transmitted to subsequent generations as a form of molecular “memory”. Epigenetic changes might also contribute to the ability of plants to colonize or persist in variable environments. In this review, we provide an overview of recent data on epigenetic mechanisms involved in developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plant, with a focus on forest tree species. We consider the possible role of forest tree epigenetics as a new source of adaptive traits in plant breeding, biotechnology, and ecosystem conservation under rapid climate change. PMID:23467802

Brautigam, Katharina; Vining, Kelly J; Lafon-Placette, Clement; Fossdal, Carl G; Mirouze, Marie; Marcos, Jose Gutierrez; Fluch, Silvia; Fraga, Mario Fernandez; Guevara, M Angeles; Abarca, Dolores; Johnsen, ?ystein; Maury, Stephane; Strauss, Steven H; Campbell, Malcolm M; Rohde, Antje; Diaz-Sala, Carmen; Cervera, Maria-Teresa

2013-01-01

167

Influence of chemically mediated behavior on host tree colonization by four cohabiting species of bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically mediated behavioral interactions among four species of Scolytidae cohabitingPinus taeda in east Texas appear to be significant in delineating breeding areas within trees and in influencing the sequence of colonization.Dendroctonus frontalis usually arrived first and was not attracted to logs occupied by any of the threeIps species (I. avulsus, I. calligraphus, andI. grandicollis). The response ofI. avulsus to conspecific

M. C. Birch; P. Svihra; T. D. Paine; J. C. Miller

1980-01-01

168

Evaluation of several tree species for activity against the animal fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus fumigatus causes severe problems in poultry production systems. Seven South African tree species were selected from the database of the Phytomedicine Programme based on its antifungal activity against the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. The acetone leaf extracts of the selected species had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.16 mg\\/ml and lower in the preliminary screening. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of

M. M. Suleiman; L. J. McGaw; V. Naidoo; J. N. Eloff

2010-01-01

169

Pre-epidemic Mortality Rates for Common Phytophthora ramorum Host Tree Species in California1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the impacts of Phytophthora ramorum on forests will require knowledge of pre-disease distribution, abundance, and rates of change for affected species. This study estimated pre-epidemic mortality rates for nine common host tree species: bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga

T. M. Barrett

170

Effects of canopy tree species on belowground biogeochemistry in a lowland wet tropical forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tropical rain forests are known for their high biological diversity, but the effects of plant diversity on important ecosystem processes in this biome remain unclear. Interspecies differences in both the demand for nutrients and in foliar and litter nutrient concentrations could drive variations in both the pool sizes and fluxes of important belowground resources, yet our understanding of the effects and importance of aboveground heterogeneity on belowground biogeochemistry is poor, especially in the species-rich forests of the wet tropics. To investigate the effects of individual tree species on belowground biogeochemical processes, we used both field and laboratory studies to examine how carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycles vary under nine different canopy tree species – including three legume and six non-legume species – that vary in foliar nutrient concentrations in a wet tropical forest in southwestern Costa Rica. We found significant differences in belowground C, N and P cycling under different canopy tree species: total C, N and P pools in standing litter varied by species, as did total soil and microbial C and N pools. Rates of soil extracellular acid phosphatase activity also varied significantly among species and functional groups, with higher rates of phosphatase activity under legumes. In addition, across all tree species, phosphatase activity was significantly positively correlated with litter N/P ratios, suggesting a tight coupling between relative N and P inputs and resource allocation to P acquisition. Overall, our results suggest the importance of aboveground plant community composition in promoting belowground biogeochemical heterogeneity at relatively small spatial scales.

Keller, Adrienne B.; Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.

2013-01-01

171

Soil-related habitat specialization in dipterocarp rain forest tree species in Borneo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 We conducted a field experiment to test whether aggregated spatial distributions were related to soil variation in locally sympatric tree species in the rain forests of Sarawak, Malaysia. Dryobalanops aromatica , Shorea laxa , and Swintonia schwenkii are naturally aggregated on low-fertility humult ultisols, Dryobalanops lanceolata and Hopea dryobalanoides on moderate-fertility udult ultisols and Shorea balanocarpoides is found

PETER A. PALMIOTTO; STUART J. DAVIES; KRISTIINA A. VOGT; MARK S. ASHTON; DANIEL J. VOGT; PETER S. ASHTON

2004-01-01

172

Aluminum and iron chemistry in the O horizon changed by a shift in tree species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we characterized the buffering system including aluminum in the organic surface horizon (O) of field experiments with replicated plots of pure Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and replicated plots of spruce with a birch (Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh.) admixture. Our results show that a change in tree species composition may have a

P.-O. Brandtberg; M. Simonsson

2003-01-01

173

FOLIAR RESORPTION OF NUTRIENTS IN SELECTED SYMPATRIC TREE SPECIES IN GALLERY FOREST ?BLACK SEA REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallery forests in Central Black Sea Region are dominated by Platanus orientalis L. The studies were performed in four sites (Mert River, Adalar, Kurupelit and Taflan Regions) located in V-shaped river valleys and differing with soil conditions. Nutrient concen- trations were measured in green and senescent leaves in selected sympatric tree species. Foliar nutrient resorption efficiency (RE; as the ratio

Hamdi Güray KUTBAY; Duygu KILIC; Hasan KORKMAZ; Erkan YALÇIN; Zeki APAYDIN

174

Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: II. Effects on Tropical and Subtropical Tree Species  

E-print Network

Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: II. Effects on Tropical and Subtropical Tree Species Mary L. Duryea, Eliana Kampf, Ramon C. Littell, and Carlos D. Rodríguez-Pedraza Abstract. In 1998 when Hurricane Georges (177 km/h) crossed over the entire island of Puerto Rico, and in 2004 when Hurricanes Jeanne (193

Jawitz, James W.

175

Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: I. Effects on Southeastern United States Coastal Plain Tree Species  

E-print Network

Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: I. Effects on Southeastern United States Coastal Plain Tree Species Mary L. Duryea, Eliana Kampf, and Ramon C. Littell Abstract. Several hurricanes struck Florida, U of these hurricanes on the urban forest and combined these results with four other hurricanes to present an assessment

Jawitz, James W.

176

TREE SPECIES EFFECTS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND RETENTION: A SYNTHESIS OF  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 TREE SPECIES EFFECTS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND RETENTION: A SYNTHESIS OF STUDIES USING 15 N Mountains in New York receive some of the highest rates of nitrogen (N) deposition in the northeastern likely occur in biogeochemical cycles. #12;52 INTRODUCTION Humans have dramatically increased the amount

Templer, Pamela

177

Assessing the potential for rhizoremediation of PCB contaminated soils in northern regions using native tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) offers a potentially inexpensive approach to remediating contaminated soils that is particularly attractive in remote regions including the Arctic. We assessed the abilities of two tree species native to Alaska, Salix alaxensis (felt-leaf willow) and Picea glauca (white spruce), to promote microbial biodegradation of PCBs via the release of phytochemicals upon fine root death.

Heather Slater; Todd Gouin; Mary Beth Leigh

2011-01-01

178

Identifying a species tree subject to random lateral gene transfer Mike Steel a,n  

E-print Network

analysis involves a novel connection between the LGT problem and random walks on cyclic graphs. We haveIdentifying a species tree subject to random lateral gene transfer Mike Steel a,n , Simone Linz a¨ubingen, Germany c Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, 1041 E. Lowell, Tucson

Sanderson, Mike

179

Fire resistance of tree species explains historical gallery forest community composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire, climatic variability, and grazing by large herbivores have historically limited woody vegetation in the tallgrass prairie region of North America to gallery forests in protected areas along rivers and streams. Fire, in particular, has been a strong selective pressure against woody vegetation. Consequently, we expect that dominant tree species in these forests have developed mechanisms for tolerating periodic surface

Benjamin L. VanderWeide; David C. Hartnett

2011-01-01

180

Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America  

E-print Network

Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and spatial scale and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes

Brown, James H.

181

Coal Dust Pollution Effects on Wetland Tree Species in Richards Bay,South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of coal dust on four, sympatric, wetland tree species in Richards Bay Harbour were investigated. We tested the hypothesis that leaf micromorphology influenced dust accumulation and that coal dust occluded stomata and reduced photosynthetic performance of three mangroves, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Rhizophora mucronata, and a mangrove associate, Hibiscus tiliaceus. To investigate leaf micromorphology,

G. Naidoo; Y. Naidoo

2005-01-01

182

Oxygen-dependent electron transport and protection from photoinhibition in leaves of tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of photorespiration and the Mehlerperoxidase pathway in sustaining electron transport and protection from photoinhibition were studied in outer canopy leaves of two species of tropical trees: the drought-deciduous Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq.) Dug. and the evergreen Ficus insipida Willd. Ficus had a higher photosynthetic capacity than Pseudobombax and also a greater capacity for light-dependent electron transport under photorespiratory conditions

Catherine E. Lovelock; Klaus Winter

1996-01-01

183

ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Species Assemblage Arriving at and Emerging from Trees Colonized  

E-print Network

by Ips pini in the Great Lakes Region: Partitioning by Time Since Colonization, Season, and Host Species, resource partitioning, tritrophic interactions, kairo- mones THE PINE ENGRAVER, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera of insects that arrive at and reproduce in trees colonized byI. pini, and how this assemblage is partitioned

Aukema, Brian

184

Phytophthora species in oak ecosystems in Turkey and their association with declining oak trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1999 to 2001, a survey on the occurrence of Phytophthora spp. in the rhizosphere soil of healthy and declining oak trees was conducted in 51 oak stands in Turkey. Seven Phytophthora spp. were recovered from six out of the nine oak species sampled: P. cinnamomi , P. citricola , P. cryptogea , P. gonapodyides , P. quercina , Phytophthora

Y. Balci; E. Halmschlager

2003-01-01

185

Tree species diversity increases fine root productivity through increased soil volume filling  

E-print Network

Tree species diversity increases fine root productivity through increased soil volume filling Brian Forestry Centre, 1055 du P.E.P.S., P.O. Box 10380, Stn Sainte-Foy, QC, G1V 4C7, Canada; 4 Department, Australia Summary 1. Although fine roots (

Minnesota, University of

186

Co-occurring species differ in tree-ring 8 18 0 trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The stable oxygen isotope ratio (? 18 O) of tree- ring cellulose is jointly determined by the ? 18 O of xylem water, the ? 18 O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmo- sphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric humidity and the ? 18 Oo f water vapor vary seasonally

JOHN D. MARSHALL; ROBERT A. MONSERUD

2006-01-01

187

Comparison of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activities in two nitrogen-fixing tree species  

E-print Network

Comparison of nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activities in two nitrogen-fixing tree species), the present paper examines the nitrogenase and nitrate reductase ac- tivities, measured in vivo, in R. pseudoa. Nitrate reductase (NR) activities were assayed on 5 mm sections of small roots (diameter11 mrr!; 100 mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia  

E-print Network

Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia ShuaiFei Chen cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously

189

Research article Analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity in tree species of various  

E-print Network

Research article Analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity in tree species of various replicative capacity. With each cell division, telomeres (the physical ends of linear chromosomes. Some cells maintain telomere length by the action of the telomerase enzyme. The bristlecone pine, Pinus

Kletetschka, Gunther

190

Rapid in vitro multiplication and conservation of Garcinia indica: A tropical medicinal tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and efficient method has been developed for rapid regeneration of plantlets via adventitious bud differentiation on mature seeds of Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy, a medicinally important facultative apomictic tropical tree species. High frequency direct shoot proliferation was induced in seed segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with cytokinins (BAP, kinetin and TDZ) alone and in combination

S. K. Malik; R. Chaudhury; Rajwant K. Kalia

2005-01-01

191

Aboveground biomass and nitrogen allocation of ten deciduous southern Appalachian tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allometric equations were developed for mature trees of 10 deciduous species (Acer rubrum L., Betula lenta L., Carya spp., Comus florida L., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC., Quercus alba L., Quercus coccinea Muenchh., Quercus prinus L., and Quercus rubra L.) at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina, U.S.A. These equations included the following dependent variables: stem

Jonathan G. Martin; Brian D. Kloeppel; Tara L. Schaefer; Darrin L. Kimbler; Steven G. McNulty

1998-01-01

192

Hierarchical spatial models for predicting tree species assemblages across large domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially explicit data layers of tree species assemblages, referred to as forest types or forest type groups, are a key component in large-scale assessments of forest sustainability, biodiversity, timber biomass, carbon sinks and forest health monitoring. This paper explores the utility of coupling georeferenced national forest inventory (NFI) data with readily available and spatially complete environmental predictor variables through spatially-varying

Andrew O. Finley; Sudipto Banerjee; Ronald E. McRoberts

2009-01-01

193

In Vitro Activities of Ketoconazole, Econazole, Miconazole, and Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil against Malassezia Species  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of ketoconazole, econazole, miconazole, and tea tree oil against 54 Malassezia isolates were determined by agar and broth dilution methods. Ketoconazole was more active than both econazole and miconazole, which showed very similar activities. M. furfur was the least susceptible species. M. sympodialis, M. slooffiae, M. globosa, and M. obtusa showed similar susceptibilities to the four agents. PMID:10639388

Hammer, K. A.; Carson, C. F.; Riley, T. V.

2000-01-01

194

Forest soil characteristics under varing tree species in East Texas: implications for sustained productivity  

E-print Network

productivity, and tree species may alter nutrient cycles within the same location and soil type through time. This study examined the influence of 33 years of sit occupancy by lobolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and oak (Quercus spp.) plantations on forest floor mass...

Scott, David Andrew

2012-06-07

195

Alternative to Ash Trees: Commercially Available Species and Cultivars Dr. Laura G. Jull  

E-print Network

Ã? freemanii, Acer rubrum, Acer platanoides, Acer saccharum, etc. Plant no more than 10% of a species: i.e. Acer platanoides Large to medium-sized Street/Urban Trees Acer Ã? freemanii: Freeman maple, Zone 3b-4 Acer platanoides: Norway maple, Zone 4b, native to Europe, wide-spreading, rounded, dense form, 40

Balser, Teri C.

196

Canopy tree-soil interactions within temperate forest: species effects on soil carbon and nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a northwestern Connecticut forest, we quantified the carbon (C) and ni- trogen (N) content of the forest floor and the top 15 cm of mineral soil and the rate of midsummer net N mineralization beneath six different tree species. There were large in- terspecific differences in forest floor depth and mass, in the size and distribution of C and

Adrien C. Finzi; Nico Van Breemen; Charles D. Canham

1998-01-01

197

BOREAS TE-4 Gas Exchange Data from Boreal Tree Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-4 team collected steady-state gas exchange and reflectance data from several species in the BOREAS SSA during 1994 and in the NSA during 1996. Measurements of light, CO2, temperature, and humidity response curves were made by the BOREAS TE-4 team during the summers of 1994 and 1996 using intact attached leaves of boreal forest species located in the BOREAS SSA and NSA. These measurements were conducted to calibrate models used to predict photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration. The 1994 and 1996 data can be used to construct plots of response functions or for parameterizing models. Parameter values are suitable for application in SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model of Collatz et al. (1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Collatz, G. James; Berry, Joseph A.; Gamon, John; Fredeen, Art; Fu, Wei

2000-01-01

198

Narrowing historical uncertainty: probabilistic classification of ambiguously identified tree species in historical forest survey data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems. Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set of this type is the Public Land Survey (PLS) of the United States General Land Office, which contains data on multiple tree species, sizes, and distances recorded at each survey point, located at half-mile (0.8 km) intervals on a 1-mi (1.6 km) grid. This survey method was begun in the 1790s on US federal lands extending westward from Ohio. Thus, the data have the potential of providing a view of much of the US landscape from the mid-1800s, and they have been used extensively for this purpose. However, historical data sources, such as those describing the species composition of forests, can often be limited in the detail recorded and the reliability of the data, since the information was often not originally recorded for ecological purposes. Forest trees are sometimes recorded ambiguously, using generic or obscure common names. For the PLS data of northern Wisconsin, USA, we developed a method to classify ambiguously identified tree species using logistic regression analysis, using data on trees that were clearly identified to species and a set of independent predictor variables to build the models. The models were first created on partial data sets for each species and then tested for fit against the remaining data. Validations were conducted using repeated, random subsets of the data. Model prediction accuracy ranged from 81% to 96% in differentiating congeneric species among oak, pine, ash, maple, birch, and elm. Major predictor variables were tree size, associated species, landscape classes indicative of soil type, and spatial location within the study region. Results help to clarify ambiguities formerly present in maps of historic ecosystems for the region and can be applied to PLS datasets elsewhere, as well as other sources of ambiguous historical data. Mapping the newly classified data with ecological land units provides additional information on the distribution, abundance, and associations of tree species, as well as their relationships to environmental gradients before the industrial period, and clarifies the identities of species formerly mapped only to genus. We offer some caveats on the appropriate use of data derived in this way, as well as describing their potential.

Mladenoff, D.J.; Dahir, S.E.; Nordheim, E.V.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

2002-01-01

199

The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India.  

PubMed

This study reports the widespread prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of 14 species representing 12 families of trees and from soil near the base of various host trees from Delhi and several places in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh Union Territory. Of the 311 trees from which samples were obtained, 64 (20.5%) were found to contain strains of the C. neoformans species complex. The number of trees positive for C. neoformans var grubii (serotypeA) was 51 (16.3%), for C. gattii (serotype B) 24 (7.7%) and for both C. neoformans and C. gattii 11 (3.5%). The overall prevalence of C. neoformans species complex in decayed wood samples was 19.9% (111/556). There was no obvious correlation between the prevalence of these two yeast species and the species of host trees. The data on prevalence of C. gattii (24%) and C. neoformans (26%) in soil around the base of some host trees indicated that soil is another important ecologic niche for these two Cryptococcus species in India. Among our sampled tree species, eight and six were recorded for the first time as hosts for C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii, respectively. A longitudinal surveillance of 8 host tree species over 0.7 to 2.5 years indicated long term colonization of Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi and Manilkara hexandra trees by C. gattii and/or C. neoformans. The mating type was determined for 153 of the isolates, including 98 strains of serotype A and 55 of serotype B and all proved to be mating type alpha (MAT alpha). Our observations document the rapidly expanding spectrum of host tree species for C. gattii and C. neoformans and indicate that decayed woods of many tree species are potentially suitable ecological niches for both pathogens. PMID:18608895

Randhawa, H S; Kowshik, T; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Preeti Sinha, K; Khan, Z U; Sun, Sheng; Xu, Jianping

2008-12-01

200

Stochasticity of species assemblage of canopy trees and understorey plants in a temperate secondary forest created by major disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was applied to explore the species assemblage of plants in a temperate secondary forest that was created by major disturbances. The DCCA showed vague relationships between species dominance and environmental factors for canopy tree species even when rare species were excluded from the analysis. For the highest dominant species of the understorey, the scores of

Tsutom Hiura

2001-01-01

201

Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

1988-03-01

202

Winning and Losing Tree Species of Reassembly in Minnesota's Mixed and Broadleaf Forests  

PubMed Central

We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota’s mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity. PMID:23613911

Hanberry, Brice B.; Palik, Brian J.; He, Hong S.

2013-01-01

203

Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart species effects on decomposition via leaf litter chemistry vs. effects on the decomposition environment. Decomposition rates of litter in its plot of origin were negatively correlated with litter lignin and positively correlated with mean annual soil temperature (MAT(soil)) across species. Likewise, decomposition of a common litter type across all plots was positively associated with MAT(soil), and decomposition of litter from all plots in a common plot was negatively related to litter lignin but positively related to litter Ca. Taken together, these results indicate that tree species influenced microbial decomposition primarily via differences in litter lignin (and secondarily, via differences in litter Ca), with high-lignin (and low-Ca) species decomposing most slowly, and by affecting MAT(soil), with warmer plots exhibiting more rapid decomposition. In addition to litter bag experiments, we examined forest floor dynamics in each plot by mass balance, since earthworms were a known component of these forest stands and their access to litter in litter bags was limited. Forest floor removal rates estimated from mass balance were positively related to leaf litter Ca (and unrelated to decay rates obtained using litter bags). Litter Ca, in turn, was positively related to the abundance of earthworms, particularly Lumbricus terrestris. Thus, while species influence microbially mediated decomposition primarily through differences in litter lignin, differences among species in litter Ca are most important in determining species effects on forest floor leaf litter dynamics among these 14 tree species, apparently because of the influence of litter Ca on earthworm activity. The overall influence of these tree species on leaf litter decomposition via effects on both microbial and faunal processing will only become clear when we can quantify the decay dynamics of litter that is translocated belowground by earthworms. PMID:16995629

Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Ogdahl, Megan; Zytkowiak, Roma; Hale, Cynthia; Karolewski, Piotr

2006-09-01

204

TimeTree2: species divergence times on the iPhone  

PubMed Central

Summary: Scientists, educators and the general public often need to know times of divergence between species. But they rarely can locate that information because it is buried in the scientific literature, usually in a format that is inaccessible to text search engines. We have developed a public knowledgebase that enables data-driven access to the collection of peer-reviewed publications in molecular evolution and phylogenetics that have reported estimates of time of divergence between species. Users can query the TimeTree resource by providing two names of organisms (common or scientific) that can correspond to species or groups of species. The current TimeTree web resource (TimeTree2) contains timetrees reported from molecular clock analyses in 910 published studies and 17 341 species that span the diversity of life. TimeTree2 interprets complex and hierarchical data from these studies for each user query, which can be launched using an iPhone application, in addition to the website. Published time estimates are now readily accessible to the scientific community, K–12 and college educators, and the general public, without requiring knowledge of evolutionary nomenclature. Availability: TimeTree2 is accessible from the URL http://www.timetree.org, with an iPhone app available from iTunes (http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/timetree/id372842500?mt=8) and a YouTube tutorial (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxmshZQciwo). Contact: sbh1@psu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21622662

Kumar, Sudhir; Hedges, S. Blair

2011-01-01

205

The Exotic Legume Tree Species Acacia holosericea Alters Microbial Soil Functionalities and the Structure of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast- growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared

P. Remigi; A. Faye; A. Kane; M. Deruaz; J. Thioulouse; M. Cissoko; Y. Prin; A. Galiana; B. Dreyfus; R. Duponnois

2008-01-01

206

Root morphology and anchorage of six native tree species from a tropical montane forest and an elfin forest in Ecuador  

E-print Network

and an elfin forest in Ecuador N. Soethe1,3 , J. Lehmann2 & C. Engels1 1 Department of Plant Nutrition tree species growing in tropical montane and elfin forests show a variety of root traits that improveRoot morphology and anchorage of six native tree species from a tropical montane forest

Lehmann, Johannes

207

Effects of Host Tree Species on Attractiveness of Tunneling Pine Engravers, Ips pini, to Conspecifics and Insect Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of host tree species on the attractiveness of tunneling Ips pini to flying beetles and their insect predators in Wisconsin was investigated. Tree species influenced the flight response of both predators and prey in the same rank order. Ips pini and its major predators, Thanasimus dubius and Platysoma cylindrica, were more attracted to I. pini males boring into

Nadir Erbilgin; Kenneth F. Raffa

2000-01-01

208

Tree Density and Species Decline in the African Sahel Attributable to Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Increased aridity and human population have reduced tree cover in parts of the African Sahel and degraded resources for local people. Yet, tree cover trends and the relative importance of climate and population remain unresolved. From field measurements, aerial photos, and Ikonos satellite images, we detected significant 1954-2002 tree density declines in the western Sahel of 18 +/- 14% (P = 0.014, n = 204) and 17 +/- 13% (P = 0.0009, n = 187). From field observations, we detected a significant 1960-2000 species richness decline of 21 +/- 11% (P = 0.0028, n = 14) across the Sahel and a southward shift of the Sahel, Sudan, and Guinea zones. Multivariate analyses of climate, soil, and population showed that temperature most significantly (P < 0.001) explained tree cover changes. Multivariate and bivariate tests and field observations indicated the dominance of temperature and precipitation, supporting attribution of tree cover changes to climate variability. Climate change forcing of Sahel climate variability, particularly the significant (P < 0.05) 1901-2002 temperature increases and precipitation decreases in the research areas, connects Sahel tree cover changes to global climate change. This suggests roles for global action and local adaptation to address ecological change in the Sahel.

Gonzalez, Patrick; Tucker, Compton J.; Sy, H.

2012-01-01

209

Anatomical, chemical, and ecological factors affecting tree species choice in dendrochemistry studies  

SciTech Connect

Recently, element concentrations in tree rings have been used to monitor metal contamination, fertilization, and the effects of acid precipitation on soils. This has stimulated interest in which tree species may be suitable for use in studies of long-term trends in environmental chemistry. Potential radial translocation of elements across living boundaries can be a confounding factor in assessing environmental change. The selection of species which minimizes radial translocation of elements can be critical to the success of dendrochemical research. Criteria for selection of species with characteristics favorable for dendrochemical analysis are categorized into (1) habitat-based factors, (2) xylem-based factors, and (3) element-based factors. A wide geographic range and ecological amplitude provide an advantage in calibration and better controls on the effects of soil chemistry. The most important xylem-based criteria are heartwood moisture content, permeability, and the nature of the sapwood-heartwood transition. The element of interest is important in determining suitable tree species because all elements are not equally mobile or detectable in the xylem. Ideally, the tree species selected for dendrochemical study will be long-lived, grow on a wide range of sites over a large geographic distribution, have a distinct heartwood with a low number of rings in the sapwood, a low heartwood moisture content, and have low radial permeability. Recommended temperate zone North American species include white oak (Quercus alba L.), post oak (Q. stellate Wangenh.), eastern redcedar (funiperus virginiana L.), old-growth Douglas-fir [Pseudoaugu menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.). In addition, species such as bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm. syn. longaeva), old-growth redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.], and giant sequoia [S. gigantea (Lindl.) Deene] may be suitable for local purposes. 118 refs., 2 tabs.

Cutter, B.E.; Guyette, R.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-07-01

210

[Distribution patterns of root systems of main planting tree species in Weibei Loess Plateau].  

PubMed

The vertical patterns of root systems of Pinus tabulaeformis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Platycladus orientalis, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus armandi, Prunus armeniacia var. ansu planted in the Weibei Loess Plateau were studied with soil auger. Site conditions had a significant effect on the vertical root distribution of R. pseudoacacia, of which, soil moisture is the key factor. Soil species and soil structure also had great effect on the distribution. P. tabulaeformis had a maximum rooting depth at its young stage(8 years old), but the root density increased with age. There was a great difference in vertical root distribution among the tree species, of them, R. pseudoaccia rooted deepest, which negated the opinion that R. pseudoacacia is a shallow rooted tree species. According to the vertical root distribution of the tree species, the productivity of these species in the south-facing site of yellow loess soil would be in order of R. pseudoacacia > Prunus armeniacia var. ansu > P. tabulaeformis > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > P. armandi > Platycladus orientalis. PMID:11766584

Zhao, Z; Li, P; Wang, N

2000-02-01

211

Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns  

SciTech Connect

A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

Gary D. Kronrad

2006-09-19

212

The demography of range boundaries versus range cores in eastern US tree species  

PubMed Central

Regional species–climate correlations are well documented, but little is known about the ecological processes responsible for generating these patterns. Using the data from over 690?000 individual trees I estimated five demographic rates—canopy growth, understorey growth, canopy lifespan, understorey lifespan and per capita reproduction—for 19 common eastern US tree species, within the core and the northern and southern boundaries, of the species range. Most species showed statistically significant boundary versus core differences in most rates at both boundary types. Differences in canopy and understorey growth were relatively small in magnitude but consistent among species, being lower at the northern (average ?17%) and higher at the southern (average +12%) boundaries. Differences in lifespan were larger in magnitude but highly variable among species, except for a marked trend for reduced canopy lifespan at the northern boundary (average ?49%). Differences in per capita reproduction were large and statistically significant for some species, but highly variable among species. The rate estimates were combined to calculate two performance indices: R0 (a measure of lifetime fitness in the absence of competition) was consistently lower at the northern boundary (average ?86%) whereas Z* (a measure of competitive ability in closed forest) showed no sign of a consistent boundary–core difference at either boundary. PMID:19324819

Purves, Drew W.

2009-01-01

213

Avian Species Richness in Relation to Intensive Forest Management Practices in Early Seral Tree Plantations  

PubMed Central

Background Managers of landscapes dedicated to forest commodity production require information about how practices influence biological diversity. Individual species and communities may be threatened if management practices truncate or simplify forest age classes that are essential for reproduction and survival. For instance, the degradation and loss of complex diverse forest in young age classes have been associated with declines in forest-associated Neotropical migrant bird populations in the Pacific Northwest, USA. These declines may be exacerbated by intensive forest management practices that reduce hardwood and broadleaf shrub cover in order to promote growth of economically valuable tree species in plantations. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to evaluate relationships between avian species richness and vegetation variables that reflect stand management intensity (primarily via herbicide application) on 212 tree plantations in the Coast Range, Oregon, USA. Specifically, we estimated the influence of broadleaf hardwood vegetation cover, which is reduced through herbicide applications, on bird species richness and individual species occupancy. Our model accounted for imperfect detection. We used average predictive comparisons to quantify the degree of association between vegetation variables and species richness. Both conifer and hardwood cover were positively associated with total species richness, suggesting that these components of forest stand composition may be important predictors of alpha diversity. Estimates of species richness were 35–80% lower when imperfect detection was ignored (depending on covariate values), a result that has critical implications for previous efforts that have examined relationships between forest composition and species richness. Conclusion and Significance Our results revealed that individual and community responses were positively associated with both conifer and hardwood cover. In our system, patterns of bird community assembly appear to be associated with stand management strategies that retain or increase hardwood vegetation while simultaneously regenerating the conifer cover in commercial tree plantations. PMID:22905249

Jones, Jay E.; Kroll, Andrew J.; Giovanini, Jack; Duke, Steven D.; Ellis, Tana M.; Betts, Matthew G.

2012-01-01

214

Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different tree species on Taihang Mountain, North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how tree species, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each tree species. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all tree species were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric N2O. Tree species had a significant effect on CO2 and N2O releases but not on CH4 uptake. The lower net global warming potential in natural regenerated vegetation suggested that natural regenerated vegetation were more desirable plant species in reducing global warming.

Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.

2014-03-01

215

Gene trees, species trees, and morphology converge on a similar phylogeny of living gars (Actinopterygii: Holostei: Lepisosteidae), an ancient clade of ray-finned fishes.  

PubMed

Extant gars represent the remaining members of a formerly diverse assemblage of ancient ray-finned fishes and have been the subject of multiple phylogenetic analyses using morphological data. Here, we present the first hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among living gar species based on molecular data, through the examination of gene tree heterogeneity and coalescent species tree analyses of a portion of one mitochondrial (COI) and seven nuclear (ENC1, myh6, plagl2, S7 ribosomal protein intron 1, sreb2, tbr1, and zic1) genes. Individual gene trees displayed varying degrees of resolution with regards to species-level relationships, and the gene trees inferred from COI and the S7 intron were the only two that were completely resolved. Coalescent species tree analyses of nuclear genes resulted in a well-resolved and strongly supported phylogenetic tree of living gar species, for which Bayesian posterior node support was further improved by the inclusion of the mitochondrial gene. Species-level relationships among gars inferred from our molecular data set were highly congruent with previously published morphological phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of two species, Lepisosteus osseus and L. platostomus. Re-examination of the character coding used by previous authors provided partial resolution of this topological discordance, resulting in broad concordance in the phylogenies inferred from individual genes, the coalescent species tree analysis, and morphology. The completely resolved phylogeny inferred from the molecular data set with strong Bayesian posterior support at all nodes provided insights into the potential for introgressive hybridization and patterns of allopatric speciation in the evolutionary history of living gars, as well as a solid foundation for future examinations of functional diversification and evolutionary stasis in a "living fossil" lineage. PMID:22445447

Wright, Jeremy J; David, Solomon R; Near, Thomas J

2012-06-01

216

Seed consumption and caching on seeds of three sympatric tree species by four sympatric rodent species in a subtropical forest, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because it is difficult and often impossible to distinguish dispersal, consumption and caching of seeds among different rodent species in the field, the differences of sympatric rodent species in affecting seed fates and forest regeneration are often unknown. To understand the different impact of four sympatric rodent species on seed fates of three sympatric tree species, we studied the food-hoarding

Jinrui Cheng; Zhishu Xiao; Zhibin Zhang

2005-01-01

217

Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies. PMID:22905127

Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frederic; Swaine, Michael; Rejou-Mechain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

2012-01-01

218

The right tree for the job? perceptions of species suitability for the provision of ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Stakeholders in plantation forestry are increasingly aware of the importance of the ecosystem services and non-market values associated with forests. In New Zealand, there is significant interest in establishing species other than Pinus radiata D. Don (the dominant plantation species) in the belief that alternative species are better suited to deliver these services. Significant risk is associated with this position as there is little objective data to support these views. To identify which species were likely to be planted to deliver ecosystem services, a survey was distributed to examine stakeholder perceptions. Stakeholders were asked which of 15 tree attributes contributed to the provision of five ecosystem services (amenity value, bioenergy production, carbon capture, the diversity of native habitat, and erosion control/water quality) and to identify which of 22 candidate tree species possessed those attributes. These data were combined to identify the species perceived most suitable for the delivery of each ecosystem service. Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. closely matched the stakeholder derived ideotypes associated with all five ecosystem services. Comparisons to data from growth, physiological and ecological studies demonstrated that many of the opinions held by stakeholders were inaccurate, leading to erroneous assumptions regarding the suitability of most candidate species. Stakeholder perceptions substantially influence tree species selection, and plantations established on the basis of inaccurate opinions are unlikely to deliver the desired outcomes. Attitudinal surveys associated with engagement campaigns are essential to improve stakeholder knowledge, advancing the development of fit-for-purpose forest management that provides the required ecosystem services. PMID:24488084

Smaill, Simeon J; Bayne, Karen M; Coker, Graham W R; Paul, Thomas S H; Clinton, Peter W

2014-04-01

219

Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

1991-01-01

220

Xylem cavitation vulnerability influences tree species' habitat preferences in miombo woodlands.  

PubMed

Although precipitation plays a central role in structuring Africa's miombo woodlands, remarkably little is known about plant-water relations in this seasonally dry tropical forest. Therefore, in this study, we investigated xylem vulnerability to cavitation for nine principal tree species of miombo woodlands, which differ in habitat preference and leaf phenology. We measured cavitation vulnerability (?(50)), stem-area specific hydraulic conductivity (K S), leaf specific conductivity (K L), seasonal variation in predawn water potential (?(PD)) and xylem anatomical properties [mean vessel diameter, mean hydraulic diameter, mean hydraulic diameter accounting for 95 % flow, and maximum vessel length (V L)]. Results show that tree species with a narrow habitat range (mesic specialists) were more vulnerable to cavitation than species with a wide habitat range (generalists). ?(50) for mesic specialists ranged between -1.5 and -2.2 MPa and that for generalists between -2.5 and -3.6 MPa. While mesic specialists exhibited the lowest seasonal variation in ?(PD), generalists displayed significant seasonal variations in ?(PD) suggesting that the two miombo habitat groups differ in their rooting depth. We observed a strong trade-off between K S and ?(50) suggesting that tree hydraulic architecture is one of the decisive factors setting ecological boundaries for principal miombo species. While vessel diameters correlated weakly (P > 0.05) with ?(50), V L was positively and significantly correlated with ?(50). ?(PD) was significantly correlated with ?(50) further reinforcing the conclusion that tree hydraulic architecture plays a significant role in species' habitat preference in miombo woodlands. PMID:23649755

Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Fisher, Joshua B; Brown, Nick; Brodribb, Timothy J; Aragao, Luiz E

2013-11-01

221

Microbiology of Wetwood: Importance of Pectin Degradation and Clostridium Species in Living Trees  

PubMed Central

Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (104 to 106 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (?0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by C. butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these trees. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the tree samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by C. butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium species, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living trees. Images PMID:16345848

Schink, Bernhard; Ward, James C.; Zeikus, J. Gregory

1981-01-01

222

Influence of shade tolerance and development stage on the allometry of ten temperate tree species.  

PubMed

Allometry studies the change in scale between two dimensions of an organism. The metabolic theory of ecology predicts invariant allometric scaling exponents, while empirical studies evidenced inter- and intra-specific variations. This work aimed at identifying the sources of variations of the allometric exponents at both inter- and intra-specific levels using stem analysis from 9,363 trees for ten Eastern Canada species with a large shade-tolerance gradient. Specifically, the yearly allometric exponents, ? v,DBH [volume (v) and diameter at breast height (DBH)], ? v,h [v and height (h)], and ? h,DBH (h and DBH) were modelled as a function of tree age for each species. ? v,DBH, and ? h,DBH increased with tree age and then reached a plateau ranging from 2.45 to 3.12 for ? v,DBH, and 0.874-1.48 for ? h,DBH. Pine species presented a local maximum. No effect of tree age on ? v,h was found for conifers, while it increased until a plateau ranging from 3.71 to 5.16 for broadleaves. The influence of shade tolerance on the growth trajectories was then explored. In the juvenile stage, ? v,DBH, and ? h,DBH increased with shade tolerance while ? v,h was shade-tolerance independent. In the mature stage, ? v,h increased with shade tolerance, whereas ? h,DBH decreased and ? v,DBH was shade-tolerance independent. The interaction between development stage and shade tolerance for allometric exponents demonstrates the importance of the changing functional requirements of trees for resource allocation at both the inter- and intra-specific level. These results indicate the need to also integrate specific functional traits, growth strategies and allocation, in allometric theoretical frameworks. PMID:25168006

Franceschini, Tony; Schneider, Robert

2014-11-01

223

Sap Flux Scaled Transpiration in Ring-porous Tree Species: Assumptions, Pitfalls and Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow (Granier-type) at the whole tree and stand level are routinely used in forest ecology and site water balance studies. While the original empirical relationship used to calculate sap flow was reported as independent of wood anatomy (ring-porous, diffuse-porous, tracheid), it has been suggested that potentially large errors in sap flow calculations may occur when using the original calibration for ring-porous species, due to large radial trends in sap velocity and/or shallow sapwood depth. Despite these concerns, sap flux measurements have rarely been calibrated in ring-porous taxa. We used a simple technique to calibrate thermal dissipation sap flux measurements on ring-porous trees in the lab. Calibration measurements were conducted on five ring-porous species in the Salt Lake City, USA metropolitan area including Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda), and Celtis occidentalis (Common hackberry). Six stems per species of approximately 1 m in length were instrumented with heat dissipation probes to measure sap flux concurrently with gravimetric measurements of water flow through each stem. Safranin dye was pulled through the stems following flow rate measurements to determine sapwood area. As expected, nearly all the conducting sapwood area was limited to regions within the current year growth rings. Consequently, we found that the original Granier equation underestimated sap flux density for all species considered. Our results indicate that the use of thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow in ring-porous species should be independently calibrated, particularly when species- specific calibration data are not available. Ring-porous taxa are widely distributed and represent an important component of the regional water budgets of many temperate regions. Our results are important for evaluating plant water use of ring-porous tree species with thermal dissipation probes at multiple spatial scales.

Bush, S. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

2008-12-01

224

Predicting species' range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America  

PubMed Central

Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Bjorn; Wirth, Christian

2014-01-01

225

The effect of the density of flowering individuals on the mating systems of nine tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating systems were examined through allozyme analysis for nine tropical tree species that occur on Barro Colorado Island, Republic of Panama. Estimates of outcrossing rates, using a mixed mating model, ranged from 0.35 to 1.08. Most species were highly outcrossed but two species that occurred at low densities had outcrossing rates below 0.7. Heterogeneity among trees in pollen allele frequencies

D A Murawski; J L Hamrick

1991-01-01

226

Foliar temperature-respiration response functions for broad-leaved tree species in the southern Appalachians.  

PubMed

We measured leaf respiration in 18 eastern deciduous forest tree species to determine if there were differences in temperature-respiration response functions among species or among canopy positions. Leaf respiration rates were measured in situ and on detached branches for Acer pensylvanicum L., A. rubrum L., Betula spp. (B. alleghaniensis Britt. and B. lenta L.), Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Cornus florida L., Fraxinus spp. (primarily F. americana L.), Liriodendron tulipifera L., Magnolia fraseri Walt., Nyssa sylvatica Marsh., Oxydendrum arboreum L., Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus alba L., Q. coccinea Muenchh., Q. prinus L., Q. rubra L., Rhododendron maximum L., Robinia psuedoacacia L., and Tilia americana L. in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Dark respiration was measured on fully expanded leaves at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C with an infrared gas analyzer equipped with a temperature-controlled cuvette. Temperature-respiration response functions were fit for each leaf. There were significant differences in response functions among species and by canopy position within species. These differences were observed when respiration was expressed on a mass, nitrogen, or area basis. Cumulative nighttime leaf respiration was calculated and averaged over ten randomly selected nights for each leaf. Differences in mean cumulative nighttime respiration were statistically significant among canopy positions and species. We conclude that effects of canopy position and species on temperature-respiration response functions may need to be considered when making estimates of whole-tree or canopy respiration. PMID:10562404

Bolstad; Mitchell; Vose

1999-11-01

227

The relationship between tree growth patterns and likelihood of mortality: A study of two tree species in the Sierra Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined mortality of Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) and Pinus lambertiana Dougl. (sugar pine) by developing logistic models using three growth indices obtained from tree rings: average growth, growth trend, and count of abrupt growth declines. For P. lambertiana, models with average growth, growth trend, and count of abrupt declines improved overall prediction (78.6% dead trees correctly classified, 83.7% live trees correctly classified) compared with a model with average recent growth alone (69.6% dead trees correctly classified, 67.3% live trees correctly classified). For A. concolor, counts of abrupt declines and longer time intervals improved overall classification (trees with DBH ???20 cm: 78.9% dead trees correctly classified and 76.7% live trees correctly classified vs. 64.9% dead trees correctly classified and 77.9% live trees correctly classified; trees with DBH <20 cm: 71.6% dead trees correctly classified and 71.0% live trees correctly classified vs. 67.2% dead trees correctly classified and 66.7% live trees correctly classified). In general, count of abrupt declines improved live-tree classification. External validation of A. concolor models showed that they functioned well at stands not used in model development, and the development of size-specific models demonstrated important differences in mortality risk between understory and canopy trees. Population-level mortality-risk models were developed for A. concolor and generated realistic mortality rates at two sites. Our results support the contention that a more comprehensive use of the growth record yields a more robust assessment of mortality risk. ?? 2007 NRC.

Das, A.J.; Battles, J.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

2007-01-01

228

Altered resource availability and the population dynamics of tree species in Amazonian secondary forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite research demonstrating that water and nutrient availability exert strong effects on multiple ecosystem processes in\\u000a tropical forests, little is known about the effect of these factors on the demography and population dynamics of tropical\\u000a trees. Over the course of 5 years, we monitored two common Amazonian secondary forest species—Lacistema pubescens and Myrcia sylvatica—in dry-season irrigation, litter-removal and control plots. We

Lucas Berio Fortini; Emilio M. Bruna; Daniel J. ZarinSteel; Steel S. Vasconcelos; Izildinha S. Miranda

2010-01-01

229

Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31×10?5SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland

Jing-Shu Wang; David A. Grimley; Chonggang Xu; Jeffrey O. Dawson

2008-01-01

230

Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees and performance of two outbreak insect species.  

PubMed

This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on the foliar quality of two deciduous trees species and the performance of two outbreak herbivore species. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE research site in northern Wisconsin, USA, under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO(2) and O(3). We measured the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on aspen and birch phytochemistry and on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) performance. Elevated CO(2) nominally affected foliar quality for both tree species. Elevated O(3) negatively affected aspen foliar quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO(2) slightly improved herbivore performance, while elevated O(3) decreased herbivore performance, and both responses were stronger on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO(2) largely offset decreased herbivore performance under elevated O(3). Nitrogen, lignin, and C:N were identified as having strong influences on herbivore performance when larvae were fed aspen, but no significant relationships were observed for insects fed birch. Our results support the notion that herbivore performance can be affected by atmospheric change through altered foliar quality, but how herbivores will respond will depend on interactions among CO(2), O(3), and tree species. An emergent finding from this study is that tree age and longevity of exposure to pollutants may influence the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant-herbivore interactions, highlighting the need to continue long-term atmospheric change research. PMID:21971584

Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Lindroth, Richard L

2012-03-01

231

Ecophysiological responses of Japanese forest tree species to ozone, simulated acid rain and soil acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, I summarized the results obtained from experimental studies on the ecophysiological responses of Japanese\\u000a forest tree species to O3, simulated acid rain and soil acidification. Based on the studies conducted in Japan, exposure to ambient levels of O3 below 100 nl·l?1 (ppb) for several months is sufficient to inhibit dry matter production and net photosynthesis of sensitive

Takeshi Izuta

1998-01-01

232

Species-specific climate sensitivity of tree growth in Central-West Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth responses to twentieth century climate variability of the three main European tree species Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, and Pinus sylvestris within two temperate low mountain forest sites were analyzed, with particular emphasis on their dependence upon ecological\\u000a factors and temporal stability in the obtained relationships. While site conditions in Central (~51°N, 9°E, KEL) and West\\u000a (50.5°N, 6.5°E, EIF) Germany

Dagmar A. Friedrichs; Valerie Trouet; Ulf Büntgen; David C. Frank; Jan Esper; Burkhard Neuwirth; Jörg Löffler

2009-01-01

233

Fine-root mass, growth and nitrogen content for six tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fine roots might account for 50% of the annual net primary productivity in moist tropical forests, there are relatively\\u000a few studies of fine-root dynamics in this biome. We examined fine-root distributions, mass, growth and tissue N and C concentrations\\u000a for six tree species established in 16-year-old plantations in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica in a randomized-block\\u000a design (n?=?4).

Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes; James W. Raich; Ann E. Russell

2009-01-01

234

Fine-root mass, growth and nitrogen content for six tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fine roots might account for 50% of the annual net primary productivity in moist tropical forests, there are relatively\\u000a few studies of fine-root dynamics in this biome. We examined fine-root distributions, mass, growth and tissue N and C concentrations\\u000a for six tree species established in 16-year-old plantations in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica in a randomized-block\\u000a design (n = 4).

Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes; James W. Raich; Ann E. Russell

2007-01-01

235

The water relations of two evergreen tree species in a karst savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecohydrology of karst has not received much attention, despite the disproportionally large contribution of karst aquifers\\u000a to freshwater supplies. Karst savannas, like many savannas elsewhere, are encroached by woody plants, with possibly negative\\u000a consequences on aquifer recharge. However, the role of savanna tree species in hydrological processes remains unclear, not\\u000a least because the location and water absorption zones of

Susanne Schwinning

2008-01-01

236

Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.  

PubMed

A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification. PMID:24027913

Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

2013-09-01

237

Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

2012-04-01

238

Fine root decomposition rates do not mirror those of leaf litter among temperate tree species.  

PubMed

Elucidating the function of and patterns among plant traits above ground has been a major research focus, while the patterns and functioning of belowground traits remain less well understood. Even less well known is whether species differences in leaf traits and their associated biogeochemical effects are mirrored by differences in root traits and their effects. We studied fine root decomposition and N dynamics in a common garden study of 11 temperate European and North American tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra and Tilia cordata) to determine whether leaf litter and fine root decomposition rates are correlated across species as well as which species traits influence microbial decomposition above versus below ground. Decomposition and N immobilization rates of fine roots were unrelated to those of leaf litter across species. The lack of correspondence of above- and belowground processes arose partly because the tissue traits that influenced decomposition and detritus N dynamics different for roots versus leaves, and partly because influential traits were unrelated between roots and leaves across species. For example, while high hemicellulose concentrations and thinner roots were associated with more rapid decomposition below ground, low lignin and high Ca concentrations were associated with rapid aboveground leaf decomposition. Our study suggests that among these temperate trees, species effects on C and N dynamics in decomposing fine roots and leaf litter may not reinforce each other. Thus, species differences in rates of microbially mediated decomposition may not be as large as they would be if above- and belowground processes were working in similar directions (i.e., if faster decomposition above ground corresponded to faster decomposition below ground). Our results imply that studies that focus solely on aboveground traits may obscure some of the important mechanisms by which plant species influence ecosystem processes. PMID:19882174

Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Eissenstat, David M; Reich, Peter B

2010-02-01

239

Differential diameter-size effects of forest management on tree species richness and community structure: implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we tested the hypothesis that logging effects in the adult tree community reverberate upon the regeneration\\u000a contingent. We examined the differences on the tree community between forest reserves and 10 year-old logged areas in the\\u000a Yucatan Peninsula. We used a paired design in three independent sites to estimate the effects of logging on tree species richness,\\u000a diversity, composition

Gabriel Gutierrez-GranadosDiego; Diego R. Pérez-Salicrup; Rodolfo Dirzo

2011-01-01

240

Detecting CO2 Fertilization in Tree Ring Records: Evidence from Natural Populations of Boreal Forest Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global increases of atmospheric CO2 concentration are predicted to enhance tree growth, particularly where water limitation is important, but evidence of CO2 fertilization in Canada's forests is limited. This study examined the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on tree ring increments in south-east Yukon, west-central Manitoba and northern Ontario, sampling the dominant tree species at each site: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), white spruce (Picea glauca) and black spruce (Picea mariana), respectively. Over 50 tree cores from each site were sampled, analysed for ring-width, cross- dated and averaged, generating a ~100 y chronology for each population. We examined the residuals following a regression with climate variables for a positive trend over time, which has been interpreted in prior studies as evidence for a CO2 fertilization effect. We were only able to detect an increase in ring width residuals over time in the Manitoba white spruce population, which were located at the most water-limited site. We did further analyses to see whether CO2 fertilization was stronger or more detectable in younger trees or more water-limited years. Although we were unable to find any evidence that drier years experienced increases in relative growth as a result of increased CO2 availability, we did find stronger CO2 responses in younger trees. In conclusion, forest populations that are water-limited or young in age are more likely to benefit from global increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, and are better able to contribute to overall boreal forest carbon sequestration.

Nelson, E. A.; Thomas, S. C.

2008-12-01

241

Species distributions in response to individual soil nutrients and seasonal drought across a community of tropical trees  

PubMed Central

Tropical forest vegetation is shaped by climate and by soil, but understanding how the distributions of individual tree species respond to specific resources has been hindered by high diversity and consequent rarity. To study species over an entire community, we surveyed trees and measured soil chemistry across climatic and geological gradients in central Panama and then used a unique hierarchical model of species occurrence as a function of rainfall and soil chemistry to circumvent analytical difficulties posed by rare species. The results are a quantitative assessment of the responses of 550 tree species to eight environmental factors, providing a measure of the importance of each factor across the entire tree community. Dry-season intensity and soil phosphorus were the strongest predictors, each affecting the distribution of more than half of the species. Although we anticipated clear-cut responses to dry-season intensity, the finding that many species have pronounced associations with either high or low phosphorus reveals a previously unquantified role for this nutrient in limiting tropical tree distributions. The results provide the data necessary for understanding distributional limits of tree species and predicting future changes in forest composition. PMID:23440213

Condit, Richard; Engelbrecht, Bettina M. J.; Pino, Delicia; Perez, Rolando; Turner, Benjamin L.

2013-01-01

242

Flooding induced emissions of volatile signalling compounds in three tree species with differing waterlogging tolerance.  

PubMed

To gain insight into variations in waterlogging responsiveness, net assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, emissions of isoprene and marker compounds of anoxic metabolism ethanol and acetaldehyde, and stress marker compounds nitric oxide (NO), volatile products of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway and methanol were studied in seedlings of temperate deciduous tree species Alnus glutinosa, Populus tremula and Quercus rubra (from highest to lowest waterlogging tolerance) throughout sustained root zone waterlogging of up to three weeks. In all species, waterlogging initially resulted in reductions in net assimilation and stomatal conductance and enhanced emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, NO, LOX products and methanol, followed by full or partial recovery depending on process and species. Strong negative correlations between g(s) and internal NO concentration and NO flux, valid within and across species, were observed throughout the experiment. Isoprene emission capacity was not related to waterlogging tolerance. Less waterlogging tolerant species had greater reduction and smaller acclimation capacity in foliage physiological potentials, and larger emission bursts of volatile stress marker compounds. These data collectively provide encouraging evidence that emissions of volatile organics and NO can be used as quantitative measures of stress tolerance and acclimation kinetics in temperate trees. PMID:20444211

Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ulo

2010-09-01

243

The Role of Native Tree Species on Leaf Breakdown Dynamics of the Invasive Tree of Heaven ( Ailanthus altissima) in an Urban Stream  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystem processes is increasingly being explored in urban settings. One profound impact is the striking increase in the distribution of invasive plant species. For example, Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima, TOH), introduced into the U.S. from Asia in 1784, is a successful colonist of recently deforested habitats. As a result, remnant patches in urban ecosystems have become overrun with this tree species, excluding native species via fast growth and allelopathy. While suffering from human-induced degradation, urban streams still support food webs that function to process riparian-derived organic matter (e.g., leaves, wood). The purpose of this study was to (1) estimate leaf litter breakdown of native tree leaves and those of TOH in an urban stream, (2) study the detritivore feeding rate of the same leaf species, and (3) determine if increasing native species richness of leaf litter can alter breakdown of TOH leaves. Field manipulations of leaf pack composition were done in a highly urbanized stream (>30% upstream urban land use) in Baltimore County, Maryland, USA. This was complimented by a series of laboratory feeding experiments employing similar leaf treatments and local shredding invertebrate taxa. Breakdown of TOH alone was extremely rapid, significantly exceeding that of all native tree species employed. Furthermore, mixing TOH with native tree species, red maple and white oak, substantially reduced TOH decay compared to decay of TOH alone. However, supporting laboratory studies showed that TOH was a preferred resource by shredding invertebrates over all native species. Subsequent analysis of the structural integrity of all leaf species revealed that TOH was the least resistant to force, possibly explaining the counterintuitive decrease of TOH decay in mixtures. We interpret this as meaning the stream invertebrates, while preferring to consume TOH, appeared not to influence TOH decay in mixtures with native species. Instead, the relatively tougher nature of native species appeared to slow TOH breakdown by armoring the invasive from the highly-variable flow regime characteristic of urban streams. Therefore, the presence of native tree species in urban riparian zones may be critical to how invasive trees, like TOH, could alter carbon flux in urban streams.

Swan, C.; Healey, B.

2005-05-01

244

Evaluating variations on the STAR algorithm for relative efficiency and sample sizes needed to reconstruct species trees.  

PubMed

Many methods for inferring species trees from gene trees have been developed when incongruence among gene trees is due to incomplete lineage sorting. A method called STAR (Liu et al, 2009), assigns values to nodes in gene trees based only on topological information and uses the average value of the most recent common ancestor node for each pair of taxa to construct a distance matrix which is then used for clustering taxa into a tree. This method is very efficient computationally, scaling linearly in the number of loci and quadratically in the number of taxa, and in simulations has shown to be highly accurate for moderate to large numbers of loci as well as robust to molecular clock violations and misestimation of gene trees from sequence data. The method is based on a particular choice of numbering nodes in the gene trees; however, other choices for numbering nodes in gene trees can also lead to consistent inference of the species tree. Here, expected values and variances for average pairwise distances and differences between average pairwise distances in the distance matrix constructed by the STAR algorithm are used to analytically evaluate efficiency of different numbering schemes that are variations on the original STAR numbering for small trees. PMID:23424131

Degnan, James H

2013-01-01

245

Chemical taxonomy of tree peony species from China based on root cortex metabolic fingerprinting.  

PubMed

The section Moutan of the genus Paeonia consists of eight species that are confined to a small area in China. A wide range of metabolites, including monoterpenoid glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, triterpenoids, steroids, paeonols, and phenols, have been found in the species belonging to section Moutan. However, although previous studies have analyzed the metabolites found in these species, the metabolic similarities that can be used for the chemotaxonomic distinction of section Moutan species are not yet clear. In this study, HPLC-DAD-based metabolic fingerprinting was applied to the classification of eight species: Paeoniasuffruticosa, Paeoniaqiui, Paeoniaostii, Paeoniarockii, Paeoniajishanensis, Paeoniadecomposita, Paeoniadelavayi, and Paeonialudlowii. In total, of the 47 peaks that exhibited an occurrence frequency of 75% in all 23 tree peony samples, 43 of these metabolites were identified according to their retention times and UV absorption spectra, together with combined HPLC-QTOF-MS. These data were compared with reference standard compounds. The 43 isolated compounds included 17 monoterpenoid glucosides, 11 galloyl glucoses, 5 flavonoids, 6 paeonols and 4 phenols. Principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), showed a clear separation between the species based on metabolomics similarities and four groups were identified. The results exhibited good agreement with the classical classification based on the morphological characteristics and geographical distributions of the subsections Vaginatae F.C. Stern and Delavayanae F.C. Stern with the exception of P. decomposita, which was found to be a transition species between these two subsections. According to their metabolic fingerprinting characteristics, P. ostii and P. suffruticosa can be considered one species, and this result is consistent with the viewpoint of medicinal plant scientists but different from that of classical morphological processing. Significantly large variations were obtained in the metabolic profiles of P. delavayi, whereas no significant difference was found between P. delavayi and P. ludlowii. This indicates that these two species have a close genetic relationship. In conclusion, the combination of HPLC-DAD and multivariate analyses has great potential for guiding future chemotaxonomic studies to examine the potential pharmaceutical value of the effective constituents of tree peony species and appears to be able to clarify the confusion and skepticism associated with the reported morphology- and molecular phylogenetics-based taxonomy of tree peonies. PMID:25220499

He, Chunnian; Peng, Bing; Dan, Yang; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

2014-11-01

246

Seasonal trends in separability of leaf reflectance spectra for Ailanthus altissima and four other tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project investigated the spectral separability of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, and four other native species. Leaves were collected from Ailanthus and four native tree species from May 13 through August 24, 2008, and spectral reflectance factor measurements were gathered for each tree using an ASD (Boulder, Colorado) FieldSpec Pro full-range spectroradiometer. The original data covered the range from 350-2500 nm, with one reflectance measurement collected per one nm wavelength. To reduce dimensionality, the measurements were resampled to the actual resolution of the spectrometer's sensors, and regions of atmospheric absorption were removed. Continuum removal was performed on the reflectance data, resulting in a second dataset. For both the reflectance and continuum removed datasets, least angle regression (LARS) and random forest classification were used to identify a single set of optimal wavelengths across all sampled dates, a set of optimal wavelengths for each date, and the dates for which Ailanthus is most separable from other species. It was found that classification accuracy varies both with dates and bands used. Contrary to expectations that early spring would provide the best separability, the lowest classification error was observed on July 22 for the reflectance data, and on May 13, July 11 and August 1 for the continuum removed data. This suggests that July and August are also potentially good months for species differentiation. Applying continuum removal in many cases reduced classification error, although not consistently. Band selection seems to be more important for reflectance data in that it results in greater improvement in classification accuracy, and LARS appears to be an effective band selection tool. The optimal spectral bands were selected from across the spectrum, often with bands from the blue (401-431 nm), NIR (1115 nm) and SWIR (1985-1995 nm), suggesting that hyperspectral sensors with broad wavelength sensitivity are important for mapping and identification of Ailanthus.

Burkholder, Aaron

247

Community structure, diversity and total biomass of tree species at Kapur dominated forests in Peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to determine the species composition, diversity and biomass of Kapur (Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f.) dominated forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Three forests were selected in different geographical zones, namely Bukit Bauk Virgin Jungle Reserve (BBVJR), Terengganu, Lesong Forest Reserve (LFR), Pahang and Gunung Belumut Recreational Forest (GBRF), Johor. Thirty plots of 0.1 ha (50 m × 20 m) were established with a total sampling area of 1.0 ha at each forest site. All trees with ?5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were tagged, measured and voucher specimens were collected. Floristic composition in the study plot at BBVJR recorded 55 families, 147 genera and 336 species. In LFR, there were 52 families, 138 genera and 288 species, whereas in GBRF there were 52 families, 132 genera and 271 species. D. aromatica was the most important species in all study plots with the Importance Value Index (IVi) of 17.81%, 23.01% and 16.25% in BBVJR, LFR and GBRF, respectively. Similar trend at family level showed the Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family in each of the areas with the family Importance Value Index (FIVi) of 27.95% (BBVJR), 26.09% (LFR) and 27.16% (GBRF). Shannon diversity index (H'f) and Shannon evenness index (J'f) of trees at BBVJR was 5.02 and 0.86; LFR was 4.63 and 0.82; and GBRF was 4.82 and 0.86, respectively. Sorensen's community similarity coefficient (CCs) showed that tree communities between BBVJR, LFR and GBRF had low similarities with values of 0.3 to 0.4. The highest total biomass estimated was in LFR with a value of 739.44 t/ha, followed by BBVJR at 701.34 t/ha and GBRF at 606.29 t/ha.

Norafida, N. A. Nik; Nizam, M. S.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

2013-11-01

248

Effects of tree species diversity on insect herbivory A thesis submitted to the University of London in partial fulfilment  

E-print Network

size (physical apparency), physical properties of leaves or natural enemies. Interestingly, tree and damage. Tree species richness effects depended on the insect herbivore feeding guild, but also changed with high diversity of volatile emissions. This suggests that increasing chemical complexity in mixed stands

Chittka, Lars

249

Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central cascades of Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including

Michele L. Pruyn; Mark E. Harmon; B. L. Gartner

2003-01-01

250

Cross-Fertility in Two Tropical Tree Species: Evidence of Inbreeding Depression within Populations and Genetic Divergence among Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing the spatial patterns of cross-fertility in natural plant populations yields key insight into biparental inbreeding depression, isolation by distance, and, ultimately, speciation. Three adults each of two tropical tree species ( Syzygium rubicundum and Shorea cordifolia) were each crossed with five conspecific pollen donors ranging from self to trees occurring in separate forest reserves (12 and 35 km distance

Elizabeth A. Stacy

2001-01-01

251

Leaf Phenological Characters of Main Tree Species in Urban Forest of Shenyang  

PubMed Central

Background Plant leaves, as the main photosynthetic organs and the high energy converters among primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems, have attracted significant research attention. Leaf lifespan is an adaptive characteristic formed by plants to obtain the maximum carbon in the long-term adaption process. It determines important functional and structural characteristics exhibited in the environmental adaptation of plants. However, the leaf lifespan and leaf characteristics of urban forests were not studied up to now. Methods By using statistic, linear regression methods and correlation analysis, leaf phenological characters of main tree species in urban forest of Shenyang were observed for five years to obtain the leafing phenology (including leafing start time, end time, and duration), defoliating phenology (including defoliation start time, end time, and duration), and the leaf lifespan of the main tree species. Moreover, the relationships between temperature and leafing phenology, defoliating phenology, and leaf lifespan were analyzed. Findings The timing of leafing differed greatly among species. The early leafing species would have relatively early end of leafing; the longer it took to the end of leafing would have a later time of completed leafing. The timing of defoliation among different species varied significantly, the early defoliation species would have relatively longer duration of defoliation. If the mean temperature rise for 1°C in spring, the time of leafing would experience 5 days earlier in spring. If the mean temperature decline for 1°C, the time of defoliation would experience 3 days delay in autumn. Interpretation There is significant correlation between leaf longevity and the time of leafing and defoliation. According to correlation analysis and regression analysis, there is significant correlation between temperature and leafing and defoliation phenology. Early leafing species would have a longer life span and consequently have advantage on carbon accumulation compared with later defoliation species. PMID:24963625

Xu, Sheng; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei; He, Xingyuan; Huang, Yanqing; Wen, Hua

2014-01-01

252

Co-occurring species differ in tree-ring delta(18)O trends.  

PubMed

The stable oxygen isotope ratio (delta(18)O) of tree-ring cellulose is jointly determined by the delta(18)O of xylem water, the delta(18)O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmosphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric humidity and the delta(18)O of water vapor vary seasonally and annually, but if the canopy atmosphere is well mixed, atmospheric characteristics should be uniform among co-occurring trees. In contrast, xylem water delta(18)O is determined by the delta(18)O of water being drawn from the soil, which varies with depth. If co-occurring trees draw water from different soil depths, this soil-water delta(18)O signal would be manifest as differences in delta(18)O among the trees. We examined the variation in tree ring delta(18)O, over eight decades during the 20th Century, among three species co-occurring in natural forest stands of the northern Rocky Mountains in the USA. We sampled 10 Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca), 10 ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and seven western white pines (Pinus monticola Dougl.). As expected, variation in atmospheric conditions was recorded in the delta(18)O of the cellulose produced in a given year, but observed climatic correlations with delta(18)O were weak. Significant correlations with June climate data included: daily maximum temperature (r = 0.29), daily minimum temperature (r = -0.25), mean temperature (r = 0.20), mean daily precipitation (r = -0.54), vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.32) and solar radiation (r = 0.44). Lagged effects were observed in Douglas-fir and western white pine. In these species, the delta(18)O of a given annual ring was correlated with the delta(18)O of the previous ring. Ponderosa pine showed no significant autocorrelation. Although the species means were correlated among years (r = 0.67 to 0.76), ponderosa pine was consistently enriched in delta(18)O relative to the other species; differences were close to 2 per thousand and they are steadily increasing. Relative to the mean for the three species, ponderosa pine is becoming steadily more enriched (-1.0 per thousand). In contrast, Douglas-fir is being steadily depleted and western pine is intermediate, with an enrichment of 0.5 per thousand. Because all trees were exposed to the same atmospheric conditions, the differences in delta(18)O observed between species are likely due either to differences in the depth of water extraction or leaf function. If the former, presumably ponderosa pine has steadily taken up more water from near the soil surface and Douglas-fir has shifted uptake to a greater depth. If the latter, we suggest the pronounced changes in leaf-water delta(18)O are a result of changes in leaf structure and function with tree size and age. PMID:16651255

Marshall, John D; Monserud, Robert A

2006-08-01

253

Some autecological characteristics of early to late successional tree species in Venezuela  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breadth of the continuum concept of strategy with respect to succession was tested on 21 tree and shrub species common in either unlogged or logged stands, respectively, in the Forest Reserve of Caparo, Venezuela, by examining morphological, physiological and population characteristics. Based on a preliminary abundance analysis, `early', `mid' and `late' successional species as well as `generalists' were distinguished. Early successional species, i.e. Ochroma lagopus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia peltata were similar in many autecological aspects, e.g. monolayered leaf arrangement, orthotropic architectural models, no adaptive reiteration, clumped distribution, but differed in gap association and distribution along a drainage gradient. Mid-successional species established themselves both in large and small gaps (> 300 m[sup2 ]; 80-300 m[sup2 ]) and showed a clumped to regular distribution pattern in logged areas; they exhibited more diverse crown and leaf characteristics than early successional species. Late successional species established themselves only in small gaps and understorey, and showed a regular spatial pattern in undisturbed areas. All late successional species displayed architectural models with plagiotropic lateral axes and showed a multilayered leaf arrangement. Adaptive reiteration was a common feature of late successional species which could be further subdivided into large, medium-sized and small trees, indicating different light requirements at maturity. Generalists were common treelet and shrub species in both disturbed and undisturbed sites where they are also capable of completing their life cycle. The light compensation point (LCP) of an individual plant was strongly influenced by its crown illuminance. Large late successional species showed the widest range of LCP values, reflecting the increasing light availability with increasing height in mature forest. On the basis of many autecological characteristics, it was found (i) that there is in fact a continuum of species strategies with respect to succession even among early and mid-successional species and (ii) that the latter group of species showed the widest breadth of autecological traits, reflecting the heterogeneous environment in which they establish and mature.

Kammesheidt, Ludwig

2000-01-01

254

Separating the Effects of Environment and Space on Tree Species Distribution: From Population to Community  

PubMed Central

Quantifying the relative contributions of environmental conditions and spatial factors to species distribution can help improve our understanding of the processes that drive diversity patterns. In this study, based on tree inventory, topography and soil data from a 20-ha stem-mapped permanent forest plot in Guangdong Province, China, we evaluated the influence of different ecological processes at different spatial scales using canonical redundancy analysis (RDA) at the community level and multiple linear regression at the species level. At the community level, the proportion of explained variation in species distribution increased with grid-cell sizes, primarily due to a monotonic increase in the explanatory power of environmental variables. At the species level, neither environmental nor spatial factors were important determinants of overstory species' distributions at small cell sizes. However, purely spatial variables explained most of the variation in the distributions of understory species at fine and intermediate cell sizes. Midstory species showed patterns that were intermediate between those of overstory and understory species. At the 20-m cell size, the influence of spatial factors was stronger for more dispersal-limited species, suggesting that much of the spatial structuring in this community can be explained by dispersal limitation. Comparing environmental factors, soil variables had higher explanatory power than did topography for species distribution. However, both topographic and edaphic variables were highly spatial structured. Our results suggested that dispersal limitation has an important influence on fine-intermediate scale (from several to tens of meters) species distribution, while environmental variability facilitates species distribution at intermediate (from ten to tens of meters) and broad (from tens to hundreds of meters) scales. PMID:23409151

Lin, Guojun; Stralberg, Diana; Gong, Guiquan; Huang, Zhongliang; Ye, Wanhui; Wu, Linfang

2013-01-01

255

Size-Class Effect Contributes to Tree Species Assembly through Influencing Dispersal in Tropical Forests  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of trees. Specifically our work examined (1) whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2) which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining species-area relationships (SARs) and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used tree species data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the species level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the species and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape species’ distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to species assembly and enhances our understanding of species coexistence. PMID:25251538

Hu, Yue-Hua; Kitching, Roger L.; Lan, Guo-Yu; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min

2014-01-01

256

Structure, composition and species diversity in an altitude-substrate matrix of rain forest tree communities on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied forest structure, composition and tree species diversity of eight plots in an environmental matrix of four altitudes (700, 1700, 2700 and 3100 m) and two types of geological substrates (ultrabasic and non-ultrabasic rocks) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. On both substrate series, forest stature, mean leaf area and tree species diversity (both =?4.8 cm and =?10 cm diameter at breast height [dbh])

Shin-ichiro Aiba; Kanehiro Kitayama

1999-01-01

257

Genetic Structure of Tree and Shrubby Species Among Anthropogenic Edges, Natural Edges, and Interior of an Atlantic Forest Fragment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species, Psychotria tenuinervis (shrub, Rubiaceae) and Guarea guidonia (tree, Meliaceae), were used as models to compare the genetic structure of tree and shrubby species among natural edges,\\u000a anthropogenic edges, and a fragment interior. There were significant differences between two genetic markers. For isozymes,\\u000a P. tenuinervis presented greater heterozygosity (expected and observed) and a higher percentage of polymorphic loci and median number of

Flavio Nunes Ramos; Paula Feliciano de Lima; Maria Imaculada Zucchi; Carlos Augusto Colombo; Vera Nisaka Solferini

2010-01-01

258

Deciduous Tree Species Alter Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability in Mid-successional Alaskan Boreal Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Alaskan boreal forest, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering successional processes and ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Fire is a common disturbance in Interior Alaska and typically burns forests dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow nutrient turnover and high soil organic matter accumulation rates. Historically, low severity fires have driven black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow nutrient cycling rates and large soil organic matter stocks. In contrast, high severity fires consume the organic layer and can lead to the establishment of deciduous tree species on exposed mineral soil, which produce less recalcitrant leaf litter and exhibit faster nutrient cycling rates. To improve our understanding of the long-term impacts of tree species composition on nutrient cycling in boreal forest, we quantified nitrogen (N) cycling rates and estimated soil N, phosphorus (P), and base cation pools in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1960 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Results indicate significantly higher net N mineralization in paper birch soils relative to black spruce for both the fibric organic layer and top 10 cm of mineral soil during 30-day and 90-day lab incubation studies. Net nitrification was significantly higher in the paper birch fibric layer after 90 days. Total soil N concentrations did not differ between paper birch and black spruce stands, however the black spruce organic layer was significantly larger than that of birch, resulting in larger organic layer N stocks (130 vs. 87 g N m2). In contrast, total P concentrations were significantly higher in the organic layer in birch forest, but the total P stocks did not differ significantly between species because of the larger mass of soil organic matter in the black spruce. These findings suggest that a shift towards greater deciduous forest cover may result in long-term changes ecosystem N and P availability.

Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A.

2013-12-01

259

Species differences in evergreen tree transpiration at daily, seasonal, and interannual timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean climates have rainy winter and dry summer seasons, so the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand (summer). In this study, we investigate the seasonality of tree transpiration in a Mediterranean climate, using observations from a small (8000 m2), forested, steep (~35 degree) hillslope at the UC Angelo Reserve, in the northern California Coast Range. The site is instrumented with over 850 sensors transmitting hydrologic and meteorological data at less than 30-minute intervals. Here, we analyze four years of high-frequency measurements from 45 sap flow sensors in 30 trees, six depth profiles of soil moisture measured by TDR, and spatially distributed measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and other meteorological variables. The sap flow measurements show a difference in transpiration seasonality between common California Coast Range evergreen tree species. Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii) maintain significant transpiration through the winter rainy season and transpire maximally in the spring, but Douglas fir transpiration declines sharply in the summer dry season. Madrones (Arbutus menziesii), in contrast, transpire maximally in the summer dry season. The seasonal patterns are quantified using principal component analysis. Nonlinear regressions against environmental variables show that the difference in transpiration seasonality arises from different sensitivities to atmospheric demand (VPD) and root-zone moisture. The different sensitivities to VPD and root-zone moisture cause species differences not just in seasonal patterns, but also in high temporal frequency (daily to weekly) variability of transpiration. We also contrast the interannual variability of dry season transpiration among the different species, and show that precipitation above a threshold triggers a Douglas fir response. Finally, we use a simple 1-D model of the atmospheric boundary layer to estimate the effects of species differences in transpiration on atmospheric boundary layer temperature and humidity.

Link, P.; Simonin, K. A.; Oshun, J.; Dietrich, W.; Dawson, T. E.; Fung, I.

2012-12-01

260

[Distribution of fine root biomass of main planting tree species in Loess Plateau, China].  

PubMed

The distribution of fine roots of Pinus tabuliformis, Populus tomentosa, Prunus armeniaca, Robinia pseudoacacia, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Caragana korshinskii was investigated by using soil core method and the fine root was defined as root with diameter less than 2 mm. The soil moisture and soil properties were measured. The results showed that in the horizontal direction, the distribution of fine root biomass of P. tabuliformis presented a conic curve, and the fine root biomass of the other species expressed logarithm correlation. Radial roots developed, the fine root biomass were concentrated within the scope of the 2-3 times crown, indicating that trees extended their roots laterally to seek water farther from the tree. In the vertical direction, the fine root biomass decreased with the increasing soil depth. Fine root biomass had significant negative correlation with soil water content and bulk density, while significant positive correlation with organic matter and total N contents. PMID:25345038

Jian, Sheng-Qi; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Fang, Shu-Min; Yu, Kai

2014-07-01

261

Temporal variability of forest communities: empirical estimates of population change in 4000 tree species.  

PubMed

Long-term surveys of entire communities of species are needed to measure fluctuations in natural populations and elucidate the mechanisms driving population dynamics and community assembly. We analysed changes in abundance of over 4000 tree species in 12 forests across the world over periods of 6-28 years. Abundance fluctuations in all forests are large and consistent with population dynamics models in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role. At some sites we identify clear environmental drivers, such as fire and drought, that could underlie these patterns, but at other sites there is a need for further research to identify drivers. In addition, cross-site comparisons showed that abundance fluctuations were smaller at species-rich sites, consistent with the idea that stable environmental conditions promote higher diversity. Much community ecology theory emphasises demographic variance and niche stabilisation; we encourage the development of theory in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role. PMID:24805976

Chisholm, Ryan A; Condit, Richard; Rahman, K Abd; Baker, Patrick J; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chen, Yu-Yun; Chuyong, George; Dattaraja, H S; Davies, Stuart; Ewango, Corneille E N; Gunatilleke, C V S; Nimal Gunatilleke, I A U; Hubbell, Stephen; Kenfack, David; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon; Lin, Yiching; Makana, Jean-Remy; Pongpattananurak, Nantachai; Pulla, Sandeep; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Sukumar, Raman; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Sun, I-Fang; Suresh, H S; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Duncan; Yap, Sandra

2014-07-01

262

Nitrogen-fixing legume tree species for the reclamation of severely degraded lands in Brazil.  

PubMed

The main challenges faced in the reclamation of severely degraded lands are in the management of the systems and finding plant species that will grow under the harsh conditions common in degraded soils. This is especially important in extremely adverse situations found in some substrates from mining activities or soils that have lost their upper horizons. Under these conditions, recolonization of the area by native vegetation through natural succession processes may be extremely limited. Once the main physical and chemical factors restrictive to plant growth are corrected or attenuated, the introduction of leguminous trees able to form symbioses with nodulating N?-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi constitutes an efficient strategy to accelerate soil reclamation and initiate natural succession. These symbioses give the legume species a superior capacity to grow quickly in poor substrates and to withstand the harsh conditions presented in degraded soils. In this article we describe several successful results in Brazil using N?-fixing legume tree species for reclamation of areas degraded by soil erosion, construction and mining activities, emphasizing the potential of the technique to recover soil organic matter levels and restore ecosystem biodiversity and other environmental functions. PMID:21378065

Chaer, Guilherme Montandon; Resende, Alexander Silva; Campello, Eduardo Francia Carneiro; de Faria, Sergio Miana; Boddey, Robert Michael

2011-02-01

263

[Effects of selective cutting on intra- and interspecies competitions among major tree species in mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest].  

PubMed

Taking a Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest stand 37 years after selective cutting as test object, this paper studied the effects of selective cutting on the intra- and interspecies competitions among the major tree species in the stand. Selective cutting had significant effects on the population structure, distribution pattern, and competition index of the major species. There was a significant negative correlation between the changes of competition index and tolerance index of the tree species (r = -0.8821). The intra-species competition index had significant linear relationships with the aggregation index and the number of individuals. Heliophilous species Betula costata and Tilia amurensis had the largest aggregation index, and their intra-species competitions were stronger than interspecies competitions, being favorable to the coexistence of different species. Selective cutting weakened the competition of P. koraiensis with its companion tree species, while strengthened the competition of heliophilous species with other tree species. After 37 years of selective cutting, P. koraiensis varied little in its competition stress, being helpful to its regular growth. Because of self-thinning, the dominance of B. costata and T. amurensis had somewhat decrease. The competition stress suffered by Abies nephrolepis was weakened, being beneficial to its regeneration. PMID:21265135

Jiang, Zi-han; Jin, Guang ze

2010-09-01

264

Dynamics of violaxanthin and lutein epoxide xanthophyll cycles in Lauraceae tree species under field conditions.  

PubMed

Two xanthophyll cycles have been described in higher plants: the violaxanthin xanthophyll (V or VAZ) cycle, which is present in all species, and the taxonomically restricted lutein epoxide xanthophyll (Lx) cycle, which involves the light-induced de-epoxidation of Lx to lutein (L) and its epoxidation back to Lx in low light. Laboratory experiments indicate that the first reaction occurs quickly, but the second reaction is much slower. We investigated the Lx cycle under field conditions in several tree species of the Lauraceae family to determine its relationship with the ubiquitous V cycle. The field study was conducted in two natural laurel forests: one in the Canary Islands, where Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Ocotea foetens (Aiton.) Benth, Apollonias barbujana (Cav.) Bornm. and Persea indica (L.) Spreng were studied; and one in the Basque Atlantic coast where Laurus nobilis L. was studied. The results were complemented by a taxonomic study. The presence of Lx was widespread among Lauraceae species, but its concentration varied even among closely related species. The V pool size correlated positively with growth irradiance, whereas the relationship between Lx pool size and growth irradiance varied with species. A functional Lx cycle was confirmed under field conditions only in O. foetens and L. nobilis. Furthermore, in O. foetens, a correlation between Lx de-epoxidation and photoinhibition suggested a protective role for this cycle. We conclude that, unlike the V cycle, which is normally correlated with irradiance, the operation and light dependence of the Lx cycle is species-dependent. PMID:17669731

Esteban, Raquel; Jiménez, Eduardo T; Jiménez, M Soledad; Morales, Domingo; Hormaetxe, Koldobika; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

2007-10-01

265

Remote tree species identification in a diverse tropical forest using airborne imaging spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant species identification and mapping based on remotely-sensed spectral signatures is a challenging task with the potential to contribute enormously to ecological studies. This task is especially difficult in highly diverse ecosystems such as tropical forests, and for these ecosystems it may be more strategic to direct efforts to identifying crowns of a focal species. We used imaging spectrometer data collected by the Carnegie Airborne Observatory over Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to develop classification models for the identification of tree crowns belonging to selected focal species. We explored alternative methods for detecting crowns of focal species, which included binary, one-class, and biased support vector machines (SVM). Best performance was given by binary and biased SVM, with poor performance observed for one-class SVM. Binary and biased SVM were able to identify crowns of focal species with classification sensitivity and specificity of 87-91% and 89-94%, respectively. The main tradeoff between binary and biased SVM is that construction of binary SVM requires a far greater amount of training data while biased SVM is more difficult to parameterize. Our results show that with sufficient training data, focal species can be mapped with a high degree of accuracy, in terms of both sensitivity and specificity, in this diverse tropical forest.

Baldeck, C.; Asner, G. P.; Kellner, J. R.; Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.

2013-12-01

266

On the biogeography of Centipeda: a species-tree diffusion approach.  

PubMed

Reconstructing the biogeographic history of groups present in continuous arid landscapes is challenging due to the difficulties in defining discrete areas for analyses, and even more so when species largely overlap both in terms of geography and habitat preference. In this study, we use a novel approach to estimate ancestral areas for the small plant genus Centipeda. We apply continuous diffusion of geography by a relaxed random walk where each species is sampled from its extant distribution on an empirical distribution of time-calibrated species-trees. Using a distribution of previously published substitution rates of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for Asteraceae, we show how the evolution of Centipeda correlates with the temporal increase of aridity in the arid zone since the Pliocene. Geographic estimates of ancestral species show a consistent pattern of speciation of early lineages in the Lake Eyre region, with a division in more northerly and southerly groups since ?840 ka. Summarizing the geographic slices of species-trees at the time of the latest speciation event (?20 ka), indicates no presence of the genus in Australia west of the combined desert belt of the Nullabor Plain, the Great Victoria Desert, the Gibson Desert, and the Great Sandy Desert, or beyond the main continental shelf of Australia. The result indicates all western occurrences of the genus to be a result of recent dispersal rather than ancient vicariance. This study contributes to our understanding of the spatiotemporal processes shaping the flora of the arid zone, and offers a significant improvement in inference of ancestral areas for any organismal group distributed where it remains difficult to describe geography in terms of discrete areas. PMID:24335493

Nylinder, Stephan; Lemey, Philippe; De Bruyn, Mark; Suchard, Marc A; Pfeil, Bernard E; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A

2014-03-01

267

Impacts of individual tree species on carbon dynamics in a moist tropical forest environment.  

PubMed

In the moist tropical forest biome, which cycles carbon (C) rapidly and stores huge amounts of C, the impacts of individual species on C balances are not well known. In one of the earliest replicated experimental sites for investigating growth of native tropical trees, we examined traits of tree species in relation to their effects on forest C balances, mechanisms of influence, and consequences for C sequestration. The monodominant stands, established in abandoned pasture in 1988 at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, contained five species in a complete randomized block design. Native species were: Hieronyma alchorneoides, Pentaclethra macroloba, Virola koschnyi, and Vochysia guatemalensis. The exotic species was Pinus patula. By 16 years, the lack of differences among species in some attributes suggested strong abiotic control in this environment, where conditions are very favorable for growth, These attributes included aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), averaging 11.7 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1) across species, and soil organic C (0-100 cm, 167 Mg C/ha). Other traits differed significantly, however, indicating some degree of biological control. In Vochysia plots, both aboveground biomass of 99 Mg C/ha, and belowground biomass of 20 Mg C/ha were 1.8 times that of Virola (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Differences among species in overstory biomass were not compensated by understory vegetation. Belowground NPP of 4.6 Mg C x ha(-1) yr(-1) in Hieronyma was 2.4 times that of Pinus (P < 0.01). Partitioning of NPP to belowground components in Hieronyma was more than double that of Pinus (P = 0.03). The canopy turnover rate in Hieronyma was 42% faster than that of Virola (P < 0.01). Carbon sequestration, highest in Vochysia (7.4 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1), P = 0.02), averaged 5.2 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1), close to the annual per capita fossil fuel use in the United States of 5.3 Mg C. Our results indicated that differences in species effects on forest C balances were related primarily to differences in growth rates, partitioning of C among biomass components, tissue turnover rates, and tissue chemistry. Inclusion of those biological attributes may be critical for robust modeling of C cycling across the moist tropical forest biome. PMID:20597292

Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W; Arrieta, Ricardo Bedoya; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar; González, Eugenio

2010-06-01

268

Positive Effects of Plant Genotypic and Species Diversity on Anti-Herbivore Defenses in a Tropical Tree Species  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on plant chemical defenses. PMID:25141305

Moreira, Xoaquin; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Mooney, Kailen A.

2014-01-01

269

Positive effects of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses in a tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on plant chemical defenses. PMID:25141305

Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Mooney, Kailen A

2014-01-01

270

High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 × 1011 spins/cm2, which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology.

Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Seiler, A.; Bondarchuk, O.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Risse, T.; Freund, H.-J.

2014-08-01

271

High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions--a multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces.  

PubMed

A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 × 10(11) spins/cm(2), which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology. PMID:25173280

Rocker, J; Cornu, D; Kieseritzky, E; Seiler, A; Bondarchuk, O; Hänsel-Ziegler, W; Risse, T; Freund, H-J

2014-08-01

272

Historical Human Footprint on Modern Tree Species Composition in the Purus-Madeira Interfluve, Central Amazonia  

PubMed Central

Background Native Amazonian populations managed forest resources in numerous ways, often creating oligarchic forests dominated by useful trees. The scale and spatial distribution of forest modification beyond pre-Columbian settlements is still unknown, although recent studies propose that human impact away from rivers was minimal. We tested the hypothesis that past human management of the useful tree community decreases with distance from rivers. Methodology/Principal Findings In six sites, we inventoried trees and palms with DBH?10 cm and collected soil for charcoal analysis; we also mapped archaeological evidence around the sites. To quantify forest manipulation, we measured the relative abundance, richness and basal area of useful trees and palms. We found a strong negative exponential relationship between forest manipulation and distance to large rivers. Plots located from 10 to 20 km from a main river had 20–40% useful arboreal species, plots between 20 and 40 km had 12–23%, plots more than 40 km had less than 15%. Soil charcoal abundance was high in the two sites closest to secondary rivers, suggesting past agricultural practices. The shortest distance between archaeological evidence and plots was found in sites near rivers. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly suggest that past forest manipulation was not limited to the pre-Columbian settlements along major rivers, but extended over interfluvial areas considered to be primary forest today. The sustainable use of Amazonian forests will be most effective if it considers the degree of past landscape domestication, as human-modified landscapes concentrate useful plants for human sustainable use and management today. PMID:23185264

Levis, Carolina; de Souza, Priscila Figueira; Schietti, Juliana; Emilio, Thaise; Pinto, Jose Luiz Purri da Veiga; Clement, Charles R.; Costa, Flavia R. C.

2012-01-01

273

Interspecific variation in the response of growth, crown morphology, and survivorship to light of six tree species in the conifer belt of the Bhutan Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The responses of radial and height growth, plant architecture, and the probability of mortality of saplings to varying light levels were quantified for six tree species in temperate,conifer forests of the Bhutan Himalayas. Increases in growth,with increasing light were comparable,with those of high latitude tree species but lower than those of tropi - cal tree species and temperate,species in

Georg Gratzer; Andras Darabant; Purna B. Chhetri; Prem Bahadur Rai; Otto Eckmüllner

2004-01-01

274

Patterns of leaf conductance and water potential of five Himalayan tree species.  

PubMed

We studied variations in water relations and drought response in five Himalayan tree species (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. (chilaune) and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (dhale katus) at an elevation of 1400 m, Quercus lanata Smith (banjh) and Rhododendron arboreum Smith (lali gurans) at 2020 m, and Quercus semecarpifolia Smith (khasru) at 2130 m) at Phulchowki Hill, Kathmandu, Nepal. Soil water potential at 15 (Psi(s15)) and 30 cm (Psi(s30)) depths, tree water potential at predawn (Psi(pd)) and midday (Psi(md)), and leaf conductance during the morning (g(wAM)) and afternoon (g(wPM)) were observed from December 1998 to April 2001, except during the monsoon months. There was significant variation among sites, species and months in Psi(pd), Psi(md), g(wAM) and g(wPM), and among months for all species for Psi(s15). Mean Psi(pd) and Psi(md) were lowest in Q. semecarpifolia (-0.40 and -1.18 MPa, respectively) and highest in S. wallichii (-0.20 and -0.63 MPa, respectively). The minimum Psi value for all species (-0.70 to -1.79 MPa) was observed in March 1999, after 4 months of unusually low rainfall. Some patterns of Psi(pd) were related to phenology and leaf damage. During leafing, Psi(pd) often increased. Mean g(wAM) and g(wPM) were highest in Q. semecarpifolia (172 and 190 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and lowest in C. indica (78 and 74 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Soil water potential (Psi) at 15 cm depth correlated with plant Psi in all species, but rarely with g(wAM) and not with g(wPM). Plant Psi declined with increasing elevation, whereas g(w) increased. As Psi(pd) declined, so did maximal g(w), but overall, g(w) was correlated with Psi(pd) only for R. arboreum. Schima wallichii maintained high Psi, with low stomatal conductance, as did Castanopsis indica, except that C. indica had low Psi during dry months. Rhododendron arboreum maintained high Psi(pd) and g(w), despite low soil Psi. Quercus lanata had low g(w) and low Psi(pd) in some months, but showed no correlation between tree Psi and g(w). Quercus semecarpifolia, which grows at the highest elevation, had low soil and plant Psi and high g(w). PMID:15059769

Poudyal, K; Jha, P K; Zobel, D B; Thapa, C B

2004-06-01

275

Mapping Regional Distribution of a Single Tree Species: Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

Landenburger, Lisa; Lawrence, Rick L.; Podruzny, Shannon; Schwartz, Charles C.

2008-01-01

276

Liberomyces gen. nov. with two new species of endophytic coelomycetes from broadleaf trees.  

PubMed

During a study of endophytic and saprotrophic fungi in the sapwood and phloem of broadleaf trees (Salix alba, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula) fungi belonging to an anamorphic coelomycetous genus not attributable to a described taxon were detected and isolated in pure culture. The new genus, Liberomyces, with two species, L. saliciphilus and L. macrosporus, is described. Both species have subglobose conidiomata containing holoblastic sympodial conidiogenous cells. The conidiomata dehisce irregularly or by ostiole and secrete a slimy suspension of conidia. The conidia are hyaline, narrowly allantoid with a typically curved distal end. In L. macrosporus simultaneous production of synanamorph with thin filamentous conidia was observed occasionally. The genus has no known teleomorph. Related sequences in the public databases belong to endophytes of angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a position close to the Xylariales (Sordariomycetes), but family and order affiliation remained unclear. PMID:21937729

Pazoutová, Sylvie; Srutka, Petr; Holusa, Jaroslav; Chudícková, Milada; Kubátová, Alena; Kolarík, Miroslav

2012-01-01

277

Variability in root production, phenology, and turnover rate among 12 temperate tree species.  

PubMed

The timing of fine root production and turnover strongly influences both the seasonal potential for soil resource acquisition among competing root systems and the plant fluxes of root carbon into soil pools. However, basic patterns and variability in the rates and timing or fine root production and turnover are generally unknown among perennial plants species. We address this shortfall using a heuristic model relating root phenology to turnover together with three years of minirhizotron observations of root dynamics in 12 temperate tree species grown in a common garden. We specifically investigated how the amount and the timing of root production differ among species and how they impact estimates of fine root turnover. Across the 12 species, there was wide variation in the timing of root production with some species producing a single root flush in early summer and others producing roots either more uniformly over the growing season or in multiple pulses. Additionally, the pattern and timing of root production appeared to be consistent across years for some species but varied in others. Root turnover rate was related to total root production (P < 0.001) as species with greater root production typically had faster root turnover rates. We also found that, within species, annual root production varied up to a threefold increase between years, which led to large interannual differences in turnover rate. Results from the heuristic model indicated that shifting the pattern or timing of root production can impact estimates of root turnover rates for root populations with life spans less than one year while estimates of root turnover rate for longer lived roots were unaffected by changes in root phenology. Overall, we suggest that more detailed observations of root phenology and production will improve fidelity of root turnover estimates. Future efforts should link patterns of root phenology and production with whole-plant life history traits and variation in annual and seasonal climate. PMID:25230473

McCormack, M Luke; Adams, Thomas S; Smithwick, Erica A H; Eissenstat, David M

2014-08-01

278

Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm) in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes. PMID:22886165

Magnago, Luiz F S; Martins, Sebastião V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Neri, Andreza V

2012-09-01

279

Tree species classification in the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains based on MASTER and LIDAR imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA recently collected MASTER (MODIS/ASTER) imagery over the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains as part of the HyspIRI (Hyperspectral Infrared Imager) preparatory campaign, a location that was chosen for its distinct changes in vegetative species with elevation. Differentiation between functional types based on spectral data has been successful, however, classification between individual species is more difficult to accomplish with only the visible and near infrared portions of the spectrum. I used MASTER imagery in combination with Critical Zone Observatory LIDAR data to map species across both a low and high elevation site in the San Joaquin Experimental Range. While the visible and thermal bands of MASTER images provided an improved classification over shortwave bands, the physical characteristics from the LIDAR data showed the most contrast between the land covers, including tree species. The National Ecological Observation Network (NEON) plans to use LIDAR and spectral data to monitor 20 domains, including the San Joaquin Experimental Range, for the next thirty years. Understanding the current species distributions not only provides insight on the available resources of the area but will also act as a baseline to determine the effects of environmental changes on vegetation using future NEON data.

Gibbons, S.; Grigsby, S.; Ustin, S.

2013-12-01

280

Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate tree species  

PubMed Central

Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL), fine root diameter (D) and branching intensity (BI) of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e., plasticity). The first dataset included saplings of 12 North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets) co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e., humid organic, mesic, and xeric podzolic).The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e., relative growth rate) were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for Abies balsamea and Acer rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total variability most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity). This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI. PMID:23874347

Tobner, Cornelia M.; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian

2013-01-01

281

Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species  

PubMed Central

How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (Amass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five species on sedimentary soils and five species on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. Amass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 tree species. Mean Amass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122

Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

2013-01-01

282

Relationship between photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and foliar phosphorus fractions in tropical tree species.  

PubMed

How plants develop adaptive strategies to efficiently use nutrients on infertile soils is an important topic in plant ecology. It has been suggested that, with decreasing phosphorus (P) availability, plants increase photosynthetic P-use efficiency (PPUE) (i.e., the ratio of instantaneous photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate per unit foliar P). However, the mechanism to increase PPUE remains unclear. In this study, we tested whether high PPUE is explained by an optimized allocation of P in cells among P-containing biochemical compounds (i.e., foliar P fractions). We investigated the relationships among mass-based photosynthetic carbon assimilation rate (A mass), PPUE, total foliar P concentration, and foliar P fractions in 10 tree species in two tropical montane rain forests with differing soil P availability (five species on sedimentary soils and five species on P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. We chemically fractionated foliar P into the following four fractions: metabolic P, lipid P, nucleic acid P, and residual P. A mass was positively correlated with the concentrations of total foliar P and of metabolic P across 10 tree species. Mean A mass and mean concentrations of total foliar P and of each foliar P fraction were lower on the P-poorer ultrabasic serpentine soils than on the sedimentary soils. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of metabolic P per total P and the proportion of lipid P per total P. PPUE was positively correlated with the ratio of metabolic P to lipid P. High PPUE is explained by the net effect of a relatively greater investment of P into P-containing metabolites and a relatively lesser investment into phospholipids in addition to generally reduced concentrations of all P fractions. We conclude that plants optimize the allocation of P among foliar P fractions for maintaining their productivity and growth and for reducing demand for P as their adaptation to P-poor soils. PMID:24455122

Hidaka, Amane; Kitayama, Kanehiro

2013-12-01

283

Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species  

PubMed Central

Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (±30) kg?ha?1?y?1, double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (±176) kg?ha?1, whereas net losses of soil N (0–100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (±915) kg?ha?1 (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, ?13C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg?ha?1?y?1. All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32–54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942

Russell, Ann E.; Raich, James W.

2012-01-01

284

Leaves of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species as biomonitors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

This study extends the current knowledge regarding the use of plants for the passive accumulation of anthropogenic PAHs that are present in the atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is of major relevance because the anthropic emissions of TSP containing PAHs are significant in these regions, but their monitoring is still scarce. We compared the biomonitor efficiency of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species (Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava 'Paluma') that were growing in an intensely TSP-polluted site in Cubatão (SE Brazil), and established the species with the highest potential for alternative monitoring of PAHs. PAHs present in the TSP indicated that the region is impacted by various emission sources. L. multiflorum showed a greater efficiency for the accumulation of PAH compounds on their leaves than the tropical trees. The linear regression between the logBCF and logKoa revealed that L. multiflorum is an efficient biomonitor of the profile of light and heavy PAHs present in the particulate phase of the atmosphere during dry weather and mild temperatures. The grass should be used only for indicating the PAHs with higher molecular weight in warmer and wetter periods. PMID:22285658

Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa; Dias, Ana P L; Esposito, Jéssica B N; Pagliuso, Josmar D

2012-05-01

285

Age-Specific Fecundity of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Three Tree Species Infested in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Asian long horned bettle), in the United States is dependent on its rates of reproduction and dispersal among host-tree species. Therefore, investigations of the reproductive characteristics of A. glabripennis, including preovipo- sitional period, age speciÞc fecundity and survival, on Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), red maple (Acerrubrum L.), and black willow (Salixnigra Marshall) were

Michael T. Smith; Jay Bancroft; Joseph Tropp

2002-01-01

286

Multipurpose panel display device investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle

R. Sliwa

1977-01-01

287

Multi-purpose seismic transducer  

SciTech Connect

A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.

Hall, E.M.

1981-02-24

288

Development of Rapidly Evolving Intron Markers to Estimate Multilocus Species Trees of Rodents  

PubMed Central

One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related species, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and species tree approaches. Rodent species represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent species belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of species and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister species the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different species of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability. PMID:24804779

Rodriguez-Prieto, Ana; Igea, Javier; Castresana, Jose

2014-01-01

289

Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on apple trees and in surrounding vegetation in southern Finland. Densities and species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf samples were collected from sprayed (n=29) and unsprayed (n=19) apple orchards, from the surrounding vegetation (n=58) and from one arboretum (n=12), altogether from 46 plant species (1–5 samples each). The density of phytoseiid mites averaged 1.2 mites\\/leaf on unsprayed apple trees, but only 0.06 mites\\/leaf on sprayed trees. The phytoseiid density exceeded 1\\/leaf onAesculus hippocastani, Aristolochia macrophylla, Corylus avellana,

T. Tuovinen; J. A. H. Rokx

1991-01-01

290

TimeTree2: Species divergence times on the iPhone Sudhir Kumar1,2  

E-print Network

1 TimeTree2: Species divergence times on the iPhone Sudhir Kumar1,2 and S. Blair Hedges3,* 1 Center and hierarchical data from these studies for each user query, which can be launched using an iPhone application nomenclature. Availability: TimeTree2 is accessible from the URL http://www.timetree.org, with an iPhone app

Hedges, Blair

291

Species identification of individual trees by combining high resolution LiDAR data with multi-spectral images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to identify useful predictive factors for tree species identification of individual trees and to compare classifications based on a combination of LiDAR data and multi?spectral images with classification by the use of each individual data source. Crown segments derived from LiDAR data were mapped to multi?spectral images for extraction of spectral data within individual

J. Holmgren; Å. Persson; U. Söderman

2008-01-01

292

Stem respiratory potential in six softwood and four hardwood tree species in the central cascades of Oregon.  

PubMed

Mature and old growth trees of varying sapwood thickness were compared with regard to stem respiration. An increment core-based, laboratory method under controlled temperature was used to measure tissue-level respiration (termed respiratory potential) of ten different tree species. Bark (dead outer and live inner combined), sapwood, and heartwood thickness measurements were used to predict sapwood volume from stem diameter (including bark) for four of the ten species. These predictions of sapwood volume were used to scale respiratory potential to the main-bole level (excluding all branches). On the core level, species that maintained narrow sapwood (8-16% of bole radius) such as Pseudotusga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia, and Thuja plicata, had sapwood respiratory potentials in the lower bole that were 50% higher (P<0.05) than species with wide sapwood (>16% of bole radius), such as Abies amabilis, Pinus monticola, and Tsuga heterophylla. This pattern was not observed for inner bark respiratory potential, or for sapwood respiratory potential within the crown. On the main-bole level, respiratory potential per unit volume was inversely correlated to the live bole volumetric fraction (inner bark plus sapwood divided by whole bole volume) (Adj. R(2)=0.6). Specifically, tree species with 18-20% of the main bole alive potentially respired 1.3-3 times more per unit live bole volume than species with over 40%, suggesting that the live bole was less metabolically active in tree species that maintained large volumes of sapwood. PMID:12844251

Pruyn, Michele L; Harmon, Mark E; Gartner, B L

2003-09-01

293

Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species.  

PubMed

In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus aucuparia over 3 months. We measured the instantaneous surface tension and followed changes over a period of 0.5-5 h using the pendant drop technique. In all three species the instantaneous surface tension was equal to or within a few percent of that of pure water. Further, in B. papyrifera and S. aucuparia the change over time following drop establishment, although significant, was very small. In P. tremuloides, however, there was a steep decline in surface tension over time that leveled off towards values 21-27% lower than that of pure water. This indicated the presence of surfactants. The values were lower for thinner distal branch segments than for proximal ones closer to the trunk. In some species it appears valid to assume that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of water. However, in branch segments of P. tremuloides close to the terminal bud and hence potentially in other species as well, it may be necessary to take into account the presence of surfactants that reduce the surface tension over time. PMID:21470981

Christensen-Dalsgaard, Karen K; Tyree, Melvin T; Mussone, Paolo G

2011-04-01

294

Differences in salt sensitivity of four deciduous tree species to soil or airborne salt.  

PubMed

Seedlings of four deciduous tree species maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and lime (Tilia cordata) were exposed to de-icing salt (NaCl) either through the soil or applied to the above ground plant parts. A soil solution of 1.65 g l-1 NaCl was maintained from the start of the experiment in January 1999 until termination in June 1999. The main effects caused by salt treatment through the soil were a reduction in photosynthesis of up to 50% and the development of leaf chlorosis or necrosis covering up to 50% of the total leaf area for the most sensitive species (lime and beech); maple and horse chestnut were relatively tolerant. There was no significant correlation between Cl or Na concentration in leaves and the relative sensitivity of the species. Saturated salt solution was applied to bark, buds or leaf scars on two occasions three weeks apart during the winter season. This affected the timing of bud break with delays of up to eight days compared with the controls. In the most sensitive species the above ground salt treatments partly prevented bud break (beech) or reduced photosynthesis (lime). Uptake through the bark was most important for the development of stress effects, compared with uptake through the other above ground plant parts. PMID:11903969

Paludan-Müller, Georg; Saxe, Henrik; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Randrup, Thomas Barfoed

2002-02-01

295

Species-time-area and phylogenetic-time-area relationships in tropical tree communities.  

PubMed

The species-area relationship (SAR) has proven to be one of the few strong generalities in ecology. The temporal analog of the SAR, the species-time relationship (STR), has received considerably less attention. Recent work primarily from the temperate zone has aimed to merge the SAR and the STR into a synthetic and unified species-time-area relationship (STAR) as originally envisioned by Preston (1960). Here we test this framework using two tropical tree communities and extend it by deriving a phylogenetic-time-area relationship (PTAR). The work finds some support for Preston's prediction that diversity-time relationships, both species and phylogenetic, are sensitive to the spatial scale of the sampling. Contrary to the Preston's predictions we find a decoupling of diversity-area and diversity-time relationships in both forests as the time period used to quantify the diversity-area relationship changes. In particular, diversity-area and diversity-time relationships are positively correlated using the initial census to quantify the diversity-area relationship, but weakly or even negatively correlated when using the most recent census. Thus, diversity-area relationships could forecast the temporal accumulation of biodiversity of the forests, but they failed to "back-cast" the temporal accumulation of biodiversity suggesting a decoupling of space and time. PMID:23762505

Swenson, Nathan G; Mi, Xiangcheng; Kress, W John; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, María; Zimmerman, Jess K

2013-05-01

296

Species-time-area and phylogenetic-time-area relationships in tropical tree communities  

PubMed Central

The species-area relationship (SAR) has proven to be one of the few strong generalities in ecology. The temporal analog of the SAR, the species-time relationship (STR), has received considerably less attention. Recent work primarily from the temperate zone has aimed to merge the SAR and the STR into a synthetic and unified species-time-area relationship (STAR) as originally envisioned by Preston (1960). Here we test this framework using two tropical tree communities and extend it by deriving a phylogenetic-time-area relationship (PTAR). The work finds some support for Preston's prediction that diversity-time relationships, both species and phylogenetic, are sensitive to the spatial scale of the sampling. Contrary to the Preston's predictions we find a decoupling of diversity-area and diversity-time relationships in both forests as the time period used to quantify the diversity-area relationship changes. In particular, diversity-area and diversity-time relationships are positively correlated using the initial census to quantify the diversity-area relationship, but weakly or even negatively correlated when using the most recent census. Thus, diversity-area relationships could forecast the temporal accumulation of biodiversity of the forests, but they failed to “back-cast” the temporal accumulation of biodiversity suggesting a decoupling of space and time. PMID:23762505

Swenson, Nathan G; Mi, Xiangcheng; Kress, W John; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, Maria; Zimmerman, Jess K

2013-01-01

297

Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress  

SciTech Connect

Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

1983-09-01

298

Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress  

SciTech Connect

Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

1983-01-01

299

Unrestricted quality of seeds in European broad-leaved tree species growing at the cold boundary of their distribution  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The low-temperature range limit of tree species may be determined by their ability to produce and disperse viable seeds. Biological processes such as flowering, pollen transfer, pollen tube growth, fertilization, embryogenesis and seed maturation are expected to be affected by cold temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of seeds of nine broad-leaved tree species close to their elevational limit. Methods We studied nine, mostly widely distributed, European broad-leaved tree species in the genera Acer, Fagus, Fraxinus, Ilex, Laburnum, Quercus, Sorbus and Tilia. For each species, seeds were collected from stands close to optimal growth conditions (low elevation) and from marginal stands (highest elevation), replicated in two regions in the Swiss Alps. Measurements included seed weight, seed size, storage tissue quality, seed viability and germination success. Key Results All species examined produced a lot of viable seeds at their current high-elevation range limit during a summer ranked ‘normal’ by long-term temperature records. Low- and high-elevation seed sources showed hardly any trait differences. The concentration of non-structural carbohydrates tended to be higher at high elevation. Additionally, in one species, Sorbus aucuparia, all measured traits showed significantly higher seed quality in high-elevation seed sources. Conclusions For the broad-leaved tree taxa studied, the results are not in agreement with the hypothesis of reduced quality of seeds in trees at their high-elevation range limits. Under the current climatic conditions, seed quality does not constitute a serious constraint in the reproduction of these broad-leaved tree species at their high-elevation limit. PMID:22156401

Kollas, C.; Vitasse, Y.; Randin, C. F.; Hoch, G.; Korner, C.

2012-01-01

300

Nuclear and mtDNA phylogenies of the Trimeresurus complex: implications for the gene versus species tree debate.  

PubMed

Phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may represent gene trees that may not be congruent with the equivalent species tree. One solution to this problem is to include additional, independent loci from the nuclear genome. Sequence data from the seventh intron of the beta-fibrinogen gene were generated for 25 specimens of vipers, including 8 nominal species of the Trimeresurus complex of Asian pit vipers. Phylogenetic trees were generated using maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. The taxonomic level at which the intron provided significant phylogenetic information was examined and the trees were compared to those produced from previously obtained mtDNA cytochrome b sequences. A variety of different approaches (separate analyses, conditional data combination, and consensus) were used in an attempt to provide a sound organismal phylogeny based on both nuclear and mtDNA data sets. We discuss the implications for the gene tree-species tree debate and its particular relevance to medically important organisms. PMID:11286491

Giannasi, N; Malhotra, A; Thorpe, R S

2001-04-01

301

Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Betula maximowicziana , a long-lived pioneer tree species and noble hardwood in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betula maximowicziana is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Japan. In order to examine the phylogeographical pattern of\\u000a the species in detail, maternally inherited chloroplast (cp) DNA variations of 25 natural populations of Betula maximowicziana and a total of 12 populations of three related species were evaluated by PCR-RFLP analysis. Two main haplotypic groups of\\u000a B. maximowicziana populations

Yoshiaki Tsuda; Yuji Ide

2010-01-01

302

Canopy gaps decrease microbial densities and disease risk for a shade-intolerant tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canopy disturbances such as windthrow events have obvious impacts on forest structure and composition aboveground, but changes in soil microbial communities and the consequences of these changes are less understood. We characterized the densities of a soil-borne pathogenic oomycete ( Pythium) and a common saprotrophic zygomycete ( Mortierella) in nine pairs of forest gaps created by windthrows and adjacent forest understories. We determined the levels of Pythium necessary to cause disease by performing pathogenicity experiments using two Pythium species, a range of Pythium densities, and two common tree species ( Acer rubrum and Prunus serotina) from the study sites. Three years post-disturbance, densities of Mortierella remained suppressed in soil from forest gaps compared to levels in intact forest understories while varying across sites and sampling dates. Pythium were infrequently detected likely because of soil handling effects. Expression of disease symptoms increased with increasing inoculum density for seedlings of P. serotina with each Pythium spp. having a similar effect on this species. Conversely, A. rubrum appeared resistant to the two species of Pythium. These results suggest that Pythium densities at sites where they were detected are sufficient to cause disease and possibly affect establishment of susceptible species like P. serotina. Because early seral environments have lower loads of the saprotrophic Mortierella, pathogen loads may follow a similar pattern, causing susceptible species to establish more frequently in those habitats than in late-seral forests. Forest disturbances that alter the disease landscape may provide an additional mechanism for explaining succession of temperate forests in addition to the shade-tolerance paradigm.

Reinhart, Kurt O.; Royo, Alejandro A.; Kageyama, Stacie A.; Clay, Keith

2010-11-01

303

Diversity and Population of Timber Tree Species Producing Valuable Non-Timber Products in Two Tropical Rainforests in Cross River State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tropical rainforest reserves, namely Afi River and Oban West forest reserves in Cross River State, Nigeria, were assessed for the diversity and population density of timber tree species producing economically valuable non-timber products. Species similarity index of the two forest reserves was determined using Sorensen's similarity function. Totals of 12 and 11 tree species were encountered in Afi River

OPEYEMI OLAJIDE; ENEFIOK S. UDO

304

Volatile profile differences and the associated Sirex noctilio activity in two host tree species in the Northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Sirex noctilio females are known to be attracted to stem sections of stressed pine trees for oviposition. The volatile profiles and attractiveness of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and two chemotypes of Scots pine (P. sylvestris) were compared after stem injection with herbicide. In general, trap captures on herbicide-treated trees were higher than on controls. The high-carene chemotype of Scots pine captured the highest numbers of females, followed by the low-carene chemotype, and finally the Eastern white pine. Herbicide-treated trees of both species emitted larger quantities of volatiles than the controls. The herbicide treatment induced higher volatile emission rates in the Scots pine chemotypes than in white pine, although there was no difference between the two chemotypes. However, qualitative differences were found between the volatile profiles of the two species as well as between the two Scots pine chemotypes, which could account for the differential attractiveness of the species and chemotypes tested. PMID:22359190

Böröczky, Katalin; Zylstra, Kelley E; McCartney, Nathaniel B; Mastro, Victor C; Tumlinson, James H

2012-02-01

305

Tree species mapping in tropical forests using multi-temporal imaging spectroscopy: Wavelength adaptive spectral mixture analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of imaging spectroscopy for florisic mapping of forests is complicated by the spectral similarity among co-existing species. Here we evaluated an alternative spectral unmixing strategy combining a time series of EO-1 Hyperion images and an automated feature selection in Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). The temporal analysis provided a way to incorporate species phenology while feature selection indicated the best phenological time and best spectral feature set to optimize the separability between tree species. Instead of using the same set of spectral bands throughout the image which is the standard approach in MESMA, our modified Wavelength Adaptive Spectral Mixture Analysis (WASMA) approach allowed the spectral subsets to vary on a per pixel basis. As such we were able to optimize the spectral separability between the tree species present in each pixel. The potential of the new approach for floristic mapping of tree species in Hawaiian rainforests was quantitatively assessed using both simulated and actual hyperspectral image time-series. With a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.65, WASMA provided a more accurate tree species map compared to conventional MESMA (Kappa = 0.54; p-value < 0.05. The flexible or adaptive use of band sets in WASMA provides an interesting avenue to address spectral similarities in complex vegetation canopies.

Somers, B.; Asner, G. P.

2014-09-01

306

Using Data From Seed-Dispersal Modelling to Manage Invasive Tree Species: The Example of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management strategies to control invasive species need information about dispersal distances to predict establishment potential. Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a North American anemochorous tree species that is invasive in many Central European floodplain forests. To predict seed-dispersal potential, the stochastic model WaldStat was used, which enables different options for directionality (isotropic and anisotropic) to be simulated. In this article, we (1) show empirical results of fructification and seed dispersal for this tree species. The model predicts approximately 250,000 seeds for one F. pennsylvanica tree. These results were used to (2) calculate species-specific dispersal distances and effects of wind direction. To consider the influence of wind on dispersal potential of the tree species, long-distance dispersal (LDD [95th percentile dispersal distance]) was calculated. Mean dispersal distances varied between 47 and 66 m. LDD values modelled along the main wind direction ranged from 60 to 150 m. Seed production, dispersal distance, and direction data were (3) incorporated into theoretical management scenarios for forest ecosystems. Finally (4), we discuss management options and the practical relevance of model scenarios in relation to the accuracy of spatial dispersal predictions. Further analyses should be focused on possible, well-adapted management concepts at stand level that could restrict the potential spread of invasive species.

Schmiedel, Doreen; Huth, Franka; Wagner, Sven

2013-10-01

307

Using data from seed-dispersal modelling to manage invasive tree species: the example of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall in Europe.  

PubMed

Management strategies to control invasive species need information about dispersal distances to predict establishment potential. Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a North American anemochorous tree species that is invasive in many Central European floodplain forests. To predict seed-dispersal potential, the stochastic model WaldStat was used, which enables different options for directionality (isotropic and anisotropic) to be simulated. In this article, we (1) show empirical results of fructification and seed dispersal for this tree species. The model predicts approximately 250,000 seeds for one F. pennsylvanica tree. These results were used to (2) calculate species-specific dispersal distances and effects of wind direction. To consider the influence of wind on dispersal potential of the tree species, long-distance dispersal (LDD [95th percentile dispersal distance]) was calculated. Mean dispersal distances varied between 47 and 66 m. LDD values modelled along the main wind direction ranged from 60 to 150 m. Seed production, dispersal distance, and direction data were (3) incorporated into theoretical management scenarios for forest ecosystems. Finally (4), we discuss management options and the practical relevance of model scenarios in relation to the accuracy of spatial dispersal predictions. Further analyses should be focused on possible, well-adapted management concepts at stand level that could restrict the potential spread of invasive species. PMID:23974901

Schmiedel, Doreen; Huth, Franka; Wagner, Sven

2013-10-01

308

Species tree estimation of North American chorus frogs (Hylidae: Pseudacris) with parallel tagged amplicon sequencing.  

PubMed

The field of phylogenetics is changing rapidly with the application of high-throughput sequencing to non-model organisms. Cost-effective use of this technology for phylogenetic studies, which often include a relatively small portion of the genome but several taxa, requires strategies for genome partitioning and sequencing multiple individuals in parallel. In this study we estimated a multilocus phylogeny for the North American chorus frog genus Pseudacris using anonymous nuclear loci that were recently developed using a reduced representation library approach. We sequenced 27 nuclear loci and three mitochondrial loci for 44 individuals on 1/3 of an Illumina MiSeq run, obtaining 96.5% of the targeted amplicons at less than 20% of the cost of traditional Sanger sequencing. We found heterogeneity among gene trees, although four major clades (Trilling Frog, Fat Frog, crucifer, and West Coast) were consistently supported, and we resolved the relationships among these clades for the first time with strong support. We also found discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear datasets that we attribute to mitochondrial introgression and a possible selective sweep. Bayesian concordance analysis in BUCKy and species tree analysis in (*)BEAST produced largely similar topologies, although we identify taxa that require additional investigation in order to clarify taxonomic and geographic range boundaries. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of a reduced representation library approach for marker development and parallel tagged sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq for phylogenetic studies of non-model organisms. PMID:24583020

Barrow, Lisa N; Ralicki, Hannah F; Emme, Sandra A; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty

2014-06-01

309

Elevated night-time temperatures increase growth in seedlings of two tropical pioneer tree species.  

PubMed

Increased night-time temperatures, through their influence on dark respiration, have been implicated as a reason behind decreasing growth rates in tropical trees in the face of contemporary climate change. Seedlings of two neo-tropical tree species (Ficus insipida and Ochroma pyramidale) were grown in controlled-environment chambers at a constant daytime temperature (33°C) and a range of increasing night-time temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31°C) for between 39 d and 54 d. Temperature regimes were selected to represent a realistic baseline condition for lowland Panama, and a rise in night-time temperatures far in excess of those predicted for Central America in the coming decades. Experiments were complemented by an outdoor open-top chamber study in which night-time temperatures were elevated by 2.4°C above ambient. Increasing night-time temperatures resulted in > 2-fold increase in biomass accumulation in growth-chamber studies despite an increase in leaf-level dark respiration. Similar trends were seen in open-top chambers, in which elevated night-time temperatures resulted in stimulation of growth. These findings challenge simplistic considerations of photosynthesis-directed growth, highlighting the role of temperature-dependent night-time processes, including respiration and leaf development as drivers of plant performance in the tropics. PMID:23278464

Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus

2013-03-01

310

Gender-specific patterns of aboveground allocation, canopy conductance and water use in a dominant riparian tree species: Acer negundo.  

PubMed

Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious tree species that dominates riparian systems at mid elevations throughout the southwest and Intermountain West of the United States. Previous studies have shown that female A. negundo trees occur at higher frequencies along stream margins, whereas males occur at higher frequencies in drier microsites. To better understand the adaptive significance of sex ratio biases and their impact on the ecohydrology of riparian ecosystems, we examined whole-plant water relations and hydraulic properties of mature male and female A. negundo trees occurring within 1 m of a perennial stream channel. We hypothesized that (1) females would have significantly greater canopy water fluxes than males (particularly during periods of seed production: May-June), and (2) xylem in females is more hydraulically efficient but more vulnerable to cavitation than xylem in males. Mean sap flux density (J(s)) during the early growing season (May and June) was 43% higher in female trees than in male trees (n = 6 and 7 trees respectively, P < 0.0001). Mean J(s) in July and August remained 17% higher in females than in males (P = 0.0009). Mean canopy stomatal conductance per unit leaf area (g(s,leaf)) in May and June was on average 140% higher in females than in males (P < 0.0001). Mean g(s,leaf) in July and August remained 69% higher in female trees than in male trees (P < 0.0001). Canopy stomatal conductance scaled to basal area was 90 and 31% higher in females relative to males during May-June and July-August, respectively (P < 0.0001 during both periods). Conversely, there were no apparent differences in either branch hydraulic conductance or branch xylem cavitation vulnerability between genders. These results improve our capacity to describe the adaptive forces that shape the spatial distribution of male and female trees in dioecious species, and their consequences for ecohydrological processes in riparian ecosystems. PMID:18595851

Hultine, K R; Bush, S E; West, A G; Burtch, K G; Pataki, D E; Ehleringer, J R

2008-09-01

311

Heterogeneity of net precipitation due to tree species and edge effect in a semi arid cloud forest in Dhofar, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cloud forests of the Dhofar mountains in Oman are one of few water limited seasonal cloud forests in the world. Because of the dry conditions (annual rainfall is only 114-252 mm depending on the location), cloud water interception by tree canopies (horizontal precipitation) is believed to play a major role for survival of the forest. Being the only green belt in the region, these ecosystems are under considerable pressure from animal feeding on tree canopies. In order to protect the Dhofar cloud forest from overgrazing and degradation a number of fenced forest enclosures have been established. Many of the originally established enclosures, however, did not survive and degraded similar to the enclosure surroundings. Our research focuses on the distribution of net precipitation (total water received below the tree canopies), as a function of throughfall, stemflow, and, horizontal precipitation within one of the few successful forest enclosures at Tawi Attair. Based on intensive measurements of throughfall, stemflow, fog, and rainfall water our work shows that the heterogeneity of net precipitation is linked to tree species and tree positioning within the enclosure. We demonstrate the contribution of both stemflow and throughfall for two different tree species, Pithicellobium dulce and Leucaenia leucacephala, as well as for different sectors within the enclosure. For stemflow results show significantly higher amounts for trees situated at the enclosure fence as well as significant differences between the two tree species. For throughfall the results were less pronounced but still show significant differences between different sectors. Generally, stemflow was considerable in all sectors, and is believed to contribute significantly to ground water recharge in this region. The work contributes to the understanding of these water limited seasonal cloud forests and to the future design of successful forest enclosures in the Dhofar mountains.

Bawain, Abdullah; Friesen, Jan; Hildebrandt, Anke

2010-05-01

312

Lutein epoxide cycle, light harvesting and photoprotection in species of the tropical tree genus Inga.  

PubMed

Dynamics and possible function of the lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle, that is, the reversible conversion of Lx to lutein (L) in the light-harvesting antennae, were investigated in leaves of tropical tree species. Photosynthetic pigments were quantified in nine Inga species and species from three other genera. In Inga, Lx levels were high in shade leaves (mostly above 20 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll) and low in sun leaves. In Virola surinamensis, both sun and shade leaves exhibited very high Lx contents (about 60 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll). In Inga marginata grown under high irradiance, Lx slowly accumulated within several days upon transfer to deep shade. When shade leaves of I. marginata were briefly exposed to the sunlight, both violaxanthin and Lx were quickly de-epoxidized. Subsequently, overnight recovery occurred only for violaxanthin, not for Lx. In such leaves, containing reduced levels of Lx and increased levels of L, chlorophyll fluorescence induction showed significantly slower reduction of the photosystem II electron acceptor, Q(A), and faster formation as well as a higher level of non-photochemical quenching. The results indicate that slow Lx accumulation in Inga leaves may improve light harvesting under limiting light, while quick de-epoxidation of Lx to L in response to excess light may enhance photoprotection. PMID:18208510

Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, G Heinrich; Seltmann, Martin; Virgo, Aurelio; Kursar, Thomas A; Jahns, Peter; Winter, Klaus

2008-04-01

313

An appropriate plot area for analyzing canopy cover and tree species richness in Zagros forests.  

PubMed

In order to make the sampling procedure more efficient and more accurate to study the tree species richness and canopy cover, the appropriate plot size was calculated in the this study. The sampling was carried out using 48 four-hectare plots, each with 13 sub-plots of different plot sizes and 7 one-hectare plots, each with 7 sub-plots. The result of this study showed that 300 ARE plot size was determined as the best area for 1-5% density class, 125 ARE plots for 5-10% class, 150 ARE for 10-25% class, 100 ARE for 25-50% class and 75 ARE plot size to sample >50% density class, in 95% confidence level. Consequently, using 100 ARE sampling plots is suggested for all density classes in central Zagros forests. PMID:18819601

Adeli, Kamran; Fallah, Asghar; Kooch, Yahya

2008-01-01

314

Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two tree species in a semiarid plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of transpiration ( E c) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid tree species in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall E c development and recovery rate, and (2) the species responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance ( G c) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two species exhibited the same hydraulic control (-d G c/dlnVPD to G cref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low E c. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand E c. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the E c recovery. Further, the stand E c was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. E c enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (?VWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two species had different response patterns of post-rainfall E c recovery. E c recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall E c increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the species differences of E c in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes.

Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang

2014-09-01

315

Digital Representations of Tree Species Range Maps from "Atlas of United States Trees" by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (and other publications)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Surface Dynamics section of the USGS provides this excellent collection of graphics, depicting range maps for more than 100 common North American tree species. From Abies amabilis to Yucca brevifolia, these color maps may be viewed or downloaded (.pdf, .zip, tgz). Most of the ranges depicted here were digitized by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (USDA Forest Service) for vegetation-climate modeling studies; graphics are best viewed as downloaded files.

316

Management of ectomycorrhizal symbionts associated to useful exotic tree species to improve reforestation performances in tropical Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • The objective of this review was to summarize scientific data on the symbiotic status of exotic tree species useful in tropical\\u000a Africa, and to update reports about their growth improvement through microbial inoculations, especially ectomycorrhizal symbionts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The studies reviewed microbial symbionts associated to exotic tree species belonging to Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Casuarinaceae and Leguminosae. In their native

Amadou M. Bâ; Abdala G. Diédhiou; Yves Prin; Antoine Galiana; Robin Duponnois

2010-01-01

317

Trees, Trees, Trees!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In these activities, students increase their awareness and knowledge of trees through research, literature and hands-on contact. The students will adopt and identify a tree of their choice, make a rubbing of the bark, draw a picture, and research about their tree. They will also write an original piece about their tree, document how it changes throughout the year, and learn the difference between deciduous and coniferous trees.

1998-01-01

318

NH Champion Trees (in accordance with American Forests' National Register of Big Trees) Species Latin Name Nat'l  

E-print Network

Fraxinus pennsylvanica 395 195 100 84 44 2009 Good Portsmouth Rockingham 514State Friday, November 08, 2013 625County 144 90 41 51 1988 Good Hanover Grafton 24County Ash Black Fraxinus nigra 242 157 66 81 38) Year City County Tree ID CondCo Champ White Fraxinus americana 409 350 221 103 102 2009 Excell Derry

New Hampshire, University of

319

NH Champion Trees (in accordance with American Forests' National Register of Big Trees) Species Latin Name Nat'l  

E-print Network

Fraxinus pennsylvanica 395 195 100 84 44 2009 Good Portsmouth Rockingham 514State Monday, January 21, 2013 25County 144 90 41 51 1988 Good Hanover Grafton 24County Ash Black Fraxinus nigra 242 157 59 92 23) Year City County Tree ID CondCo Champ White Fraxinus americana 409 350 221 103 102 2009 Excell Derry

New Hampshire, University of

320

Screening indigenous tree species for suitable tree–crop combinations in the agroforestry system of Mizoram, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted in the northeastern state of Mizoram in India to find out the allelopathic effect of trees on agricultural crops. The study was conducted in a bioassay culture and a pot culture. The following results were received: • In the bioassay culture, the germination and radicle length of all food crops decreased in leaf and bark extracts

Munesh Kumar; S Singshi; B Singh

2008-01-01

321

High Genetic Diversity in a Potentially Vulnerable Tropical Tree Species Despite Extreme Habitat Loss  

PubMed Central

Over the last 150 years, Singapore’s primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter), 193 saplings (>1 yr), and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr) of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae). We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1) that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2) K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He?=?0.843–0.854), high allelic richness (R?=?16.7–19.5), low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS?=?0.013–0.076), and a large proportion (30.1%) of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%). However, spatial genetic structure (SGS) analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0–10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees) are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm?=?0.961), calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss. PMID:24367531

Noreen, Annika M. E.; Webb, Edward L.

2013-01-01

322

RESEARCH: Shrub Propagation Techniques for Biological Control ofInvading Tree Species  

PubMed

/ The use of relatively stable shrub communities to control invasionby trees could be an efficient way of reducing herbicide applications, andthus represents an environmental gain, in areas such as rights-of-way. Thequestion is how to favor the expansion of these relatively stable shrubcommunities using different propagation techniques. Three experimentaltreatments, cutting back, layering, and cutting back-layering were performedon Cornus stolonifera, Salix petiolaris, and Spiraea albaclones already located within the corridor of an electrical power line. Toestablish the efficiency of treatments, we examined the statisticaldifferences of growth traits between species and treatments.An analysis of the effects of layering shows, after the first growth season,differences for all growth traits in only one species, Spiraea alba.After the second growth season, we observed the development of new aerialstems. Layering favors horizontal expansion of shrubs over heightdevelopment. The third year after treatment, the effect of layering isreduced except for Cornus stolonifera, which continuously increases,as shown by the significant progression of the clone issued from the layereven five years after treatments. With the cutting back technique, weexpected a distinct vertical growth of the shrubs at the expense ofincreasing the crown diameter. This technique would be best associated withthe rejuvenation of clones, followed by a layering of new shoots to allow ahorizontal expansion of the shrubs. Therefore, the formation of a dense shrubcommunity by layering should be considered a valuable approach for thebiological control of undesirable trees in powerline rights-of-way.KEY WORDS: Layering; Cutting back; Right-of-way; Cornus stolonifera;Salix petiolaris; Spiraea alba; Quebec PMID:9106416

Meilleur; Veronneau; Bouchard

1997-05-01

323

The ecohydrology of forested peatlands: Simulating the effects of tree shading on moss evaporation and species composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forested peatlands represent an important global carbon pool, storing 48.0 Pg of carbon within continental western Canada alone. Peatland hydrology regulates the carbon dynamics and future stability of this carbon store and provides a critical control on regional water dynamics. Drying associated with land-use change and climate change has the potential to increase tree growth, modifying the density, size, and spatial arrangement of trees. This can reduce peatland evaporation and offset the associated increase in transpiration. To determine the magnitude of this negative ecohydrological feedback, we simulated spatial variations in radiation, turbulent energy fluxes, and temperatures in peatlands with real and idealized tree densities and distributions. For a random tree distribution, an increase in tree density from 0 to 4 trees per m2 reduced available energy at the peat surface, decreasing average evaporation by 25%. At higher tree densities, feather moss species covered a larger fraction of the ground because of lower light availability. In combination with the lower energy availability, this change in moss composition reduced evaporation by ~70%. The reduction in evaporation was greater (83%) when the effects of increased canopy cover on peatland aerodynamic properties were incorporated. Additionally, we found that evaporation was dependent on the spatial arrangement of trees, with evaporation being higher when trees were clustered. Overall, our model showed that the trade-off between reduced evaporation and increased transpiration with increasing tree densities reduced landscape variation in evapotranspiration, with simulated evapotranspiration remaining approximately constant across a broad range of peatland ecosystems despite varying canopy densities.

Kettridge, N.; Thompson, D. K.; Bombonato, L.; Turetsky, M. R.; Benscoter, B. W.; Waddington, J. M.

2013-06-01

324

Stem water storage in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved tree species: significance, temporal dynamics and dependence on tree functional traits.  

PubMed

The functional role of internal water storage is increasingly well understood in tropical trees and conifers, while temperate broad-leaved trees have only rarely been studied. We examined the magnitude and dynamics of the use of stem water reserves for transpiration in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved trees with largely different morphology and physiology (genera Fagus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Carpinus and Acer). We expected that differences in water storage patterns would mostly reflect species differences in wood anatomy (ring vs. diffuse-porous) and wood density. Sap flux density was recorded synchronously at five positions along the root-to-branch flow path of mature trees (roots, three stem positions and branches) with high temporal resolution (2 min) and related to stem radius changes recorded with electronic point dendrometers. The daily amount of stored stem water withdrawn for transpiration was estimated by comparing the integrated flow at stem base and stem top. The temporal coincidence of flows at different positions and apparent time lags were examined by cross-correlation analysis. Our results confirm that internal water stores play an important role in the four diffuse-porous species with estimated 5-12 kg day(-1) being withdrawn on average in 25-28 m tall trees representing 10-22% of daily transpiration; in contrast, only 0.5-2.0 kg day(-1) was withdrawn in ring-porous Fraxinus. Wood density had a large influence on storage; sapwood area (diffuse- vs. ring-porous) may be another influential factor but its effect was not significant. Across the five species, the length of the time lag in flow at stem top and stem base was positively related to the size of stem storage. The stem stores were mostly exhausted when the soil matrix potential dropped below -0.1 MPa and daily mean vapor pressure deficit exceeded 3-5 hPa. We conclude that stem storage is an important factor improving the water balance of diffuse-porous temperate broad-leaved trees in moist periods, while it may be of low relevance in dry periods and in ring-porous species. PMID:23999137

Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

2013-08-01

325

Multipurpose Scribing and Drawing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-part tool reconfigured for variety of jobs. Tool performs several functions useful in layout. Lines, curves, and angles made visible as either bright scribe marks or as dark pencil (or ink) marks. Multipurpose tool speeds up laying out of patterns on sheet metal, wood, plastic, or paper. Tool is carried in pocket, then quickly assembled for service as height gauge, pair of dividers, protractor, surface gauge, or square.

Ellis, J. M.

1986-01-01

326

Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.  

PubMed

In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes. PMID:20730335

Silva, A C; Higuchi, P; van den Berg, E

2010-08-01

327

Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae).  

PubMed

The pantherine lineage of cats diverged from the remainder of modern Felidae less than 11 million years ago and consists of the five big cats of the genus Panthera, the lion, tiger, jaguar, leopard, and snow leopard, as well as the closely related clouded leopard. A significant problem exists with respect to the precise phylogeny of these highly threatened great cats. Despite multiple publications on the subject, no two molecular studies have reconstructed Panthera with the same topology. These evolutionary relationships remain unresolved partially due to the recent and rapid radiation of pantherines in the Pliocene, individual speciation events occurring within less than 1 million years, and probable introgression between lineages following their divergence. We provide an alternative, highly supported interpretation of the evolutionary history of the pantherine lineage using novel and published DNA sequence data from the autosomes, both sex chromosomes and the mitochondrial genome. New sequences were generated for 39 single-copy regions of the felid Y chromosome, as well as four mitochondrial and four autosomal gene segments, totaling 28.7 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of these new data, combined with all published data in GenBank, highlighted the prevalence of phylogenetic disparities stemming either from the amplification of a mitochondrial to nuclear translocation event (numt), or errors in species identification. Our 47.6 kb combined dataset was analyzed as a supermatrix and with respect to individual partitions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference, in conjunction with Bayesian Estimation of Species Trees (BEST) which accounts for heterogeneous gene histories. Our results yield a robust consensus topology supporting the monophyly of lion and leopard, with jaguar sister to these species, as well as a sister species relationship of tiger and snow leopard. These results highlight new avenues for the study of speciation genomics and understanding the historical events surrounding the origin of the members of this lineage. PMID:20138224

Davis, Brian W; Li, Gang; Murphy, William J

2010-07-01

328

Species-specific patterns of hydraulic lift in co-occurring adult trees and grasses in a sandhill community.  

PubMed

Plants can significantly affect ecosystem water balance by hydraulic redistribution (HR) from dry to wet soil layers via roots (also called hydraulic lift, HL, when the redistribution is from deep to shallow soil). However, the information on how co-occurring species in natural habitats differ in HL ability is insufficient. In a field study, we compared HL ability of four tree species (including three congeneric oak species) and two C4 bunch grass species that co-occur in subxeric habitats of fall-line sandhills in southeastern USA. Soil water potentials (psi(s)) were recorded hourly for 3 years both in large chambers that isolated roots for each species and outside the chambers. Outside of root chambers, soil drying occurred periodically in the top 25 cm and corresponded with lack of precipitation during the summer growing season. Soil moisture was continuously available at a 1 m depth. HL activity was observed in three of the tree species, with greater frequency for Pinus palustris than for Quercus laevis and Q. incana. The fourth tree species Q. margaretta did not exhibit HL activity even though it experienced a similar psi(s) gradient. For the C4 bunch grasses, Aristida stricta exhibited a small amount of HL activity, but Schizachyrium scoparium did not. The capacity for HL activity may be linked to the species ecological distribution. The four species that exhibited HL activity in this subxeric habitat are also dominant in adjacent xeric sandhill habitats, whereas the species that did not exhibit HL are scarcely found in the xeric areas. This is consistent with other studies that found greater fine root survival in dry soil for the four xeric species exhibiting HL activity. The differential ability of these species to redistribute water from the deep soil to the rapidly drying shallow soil likely has a strong effect on the water balance of sandhill plant communities, and is likely linked to their differential distribution across edaphic gradients. PMID:14689298

Espeleta, J F; West, J B; Donovan, L A

2004-02-01

329

Antioxidant Activities and Phytochemical Study of Leaf Extracts from 18 Indigenous Tree Species in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to assess antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from the leaves of 18 indigenous tree species in Taiwan. Results revealed that, among 18 species, Acer oliverianum exhibited the best free radical scavenging activities. The IC50 values were 5.8 and 11.8??g/mL on DPPH radical and superoxide radical scavenging activities, respectively. In addition, A. oliverianum also exhibited the strongest ferrous ion chelating activity. Based on a bioactivity-guided isolation principle, the resulting methanolic crude extracts of A. oliverianum leaves were fractionated to yield soluble fractions of hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water. Of these, the EtOAc fraction had the best antioxidant activity. Furthermore, 8 specific phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. Among them, 1,2,3,4,6-O-penta-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose had the best free radical scavenging activity. These results demonstrate that methanolic extracts and their derived phytochemicals of A. oliverianum leaves have excellent antioxidant activities and thus they have great potential as sources for natural health products. PMID:22454657

Ho, Shang-Tse; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chen, Yong-Long; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Chung, Min-Jay; Wu, Jyh-Horng

2012-01-01

330

Herbivory As A Driver For Biogenic Methanol Flux From North American Temperate Tree Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological relationships of plants and herbivores have implications for biosphere-atmosphere interactions. For instance, plant monoterpene emission response to herbivory can significantly impact air quality /(Litvak et al. /(1999/) Ecol. Appl. 9/(4/):1147-1159/). Studies on biogenic methanol emission response to herbivory have observed significant methanol emissions directly following herbivore attack and even larger emissions 24hrs later /(Penuelas et al. /(2005/) New Phytol. 167:851-857/). We investigated gypsy moth defoliation impacts on methanol emissions in the abundant North American temperate tree species big tooth aspen Populus grandidentata. Specifically, we measured methanol emission response to herbivory on both short and long time scales at a field site in northern Michigan. Our results suggest herbivory can significantly increase methanol emissions on both short and long time scales. Unlike previous investigations, we did not observe methanol emissions 24hrs post-attack to be significantly higher than emissions detected directly following attack. When compared to mechanical wounding, herbivory did not elicit a quantitatively different methanol emission response in this species. These results suggest that herbivory in temperate forests may be an important driver for biogenic methanol flux and may therefore be helpful in improving models of methanol dynamics.

Oikawa, P.; Lerdau, M.; Mak, J.

2007-12-01

331

Development of microsatellite markers for the endangered Neotropical tree species Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae).  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci for Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae), an endangered species with narrow and disjunct range, endemics to a few localities in "cerrado rupestre" from Central Brazil. These microsatellites were obtained by sequencing of a genomic shotgun library for primer design. Leaves from 96 individuals collected in the three known local populations were genotyped using the 12 primers designed to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six; two loci were monomorphic. Among the polymorphic loci, expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.161 to 0.714. Combined paternity exclusion probability was 0.957 and combined genetic identity (0.051) was high for studies on parentage. Tibouchina papyrus is a rare and endemic tree species of outcrop quartzite and sandstone soils, with highly isolated populations, which may have lead to the low degree of polymorphism that we detected. Also, motifs of most loci are larger than dinucleotide, which typically display lower levels of polymorphism. PMID:21365547

Telles, M P C; Peixoto, F P; Lima, J S; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Walter, M E M T; Collevatti, R G

2011-01-01

332

Tropical tree species diversity: a test of the Janzen-Connell model  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the premises and predictions of the Janzen-Connell model (Janzen's spacing mechanism), seeds of the rainforest canopy tree, Brosimum alicastrum, were placed at different distances from the parent tree and their removal observed over 3 weeks. The number and density of naturally occurring seeds at different distances from the parent tree were also estimated. Predation was not greater near

T. V. Burkey

1994-01-01

333

Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from mediterranean climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the literature dealing with mediterranean climate, vegetation, phenology and ecophysiology relevant to the understanding of tree-ring formation in mediterranean regions. Tree rings have been used extensively in temperate regions to reconstruct responses of forests to past environmental changes. In mediterranean regions, studies of tree rings are scarce, despite their potential for understanding and predicting the eects of global

PAOLO CHERUBINI; BARBARA L. GARTNER; ROBERTO TOGNETTI; OTTO U. BRÄKER; WERNER SCHOCH; JOHN L. INNES

2003-01-01

334

Influence of SOâ on 10 forest tree species with reference to relative susceptibility, leaf sulfur content, and stomatal response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten species of 2-3 year old tree seedlings were exposed biweekly to 2358 ..mu..g\\/m³ SOâ (0.9 ppm) for 2 hr from May to September 1977. Exposures were conducted in controlled environment chambers maintained at 22C, 75% RH, and 25 Klux light intensity, using a different set of 4 plants of each species each time. Percent foliar tissue injury was evaluated

A. R. Biggs; D. D. Davis; J. B. Coppolino

1977-01-01

335

Process-based modeling of species' responses to climate change - a proof of concept using western North American trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current attempts to forecast how species' distributions will change in response to climate change suffer under a fundamental trade-off: between modeling many species superficially vs. few species in detail (between correlative vs. mechanistic models). The goals of this talk are two-fold: first, we present a Bayesian multilevel modeling framework, dynamic range modeling (DRM), for building process-based forecasts of many species' distributions at a time, designed to address the trade-off between detail and number of distribution forecasts. In contrast to 'species distribution modeling' or 'niche modeling', which uses only species' occurrence data and environmental data, DRMs draw upon demographic data, abundance data, trait data, occurrence data, and GIS layers of climate in a single framework to account for two processes known to influence range dynamics - demography and dispersal. The vision is to use extensive databases on plant demography, distributions, and traits - in the Botanical Information and Ecology Network, the Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIA), and the International Tree Ring Data Bank - to develop DRMs for North American trees. Second, we present preliminary results from building the core submodel of a DRM - an integral projection model (IPM) - for a sample of dominant tree species in western North America. IPMs are used to infer demographic niches - i.e., the set of environmental conditions under which population growth rate is positive - and project population dynamics through time. Based on >550,000 data points derived from FIA for nine tree species in western North America, we show IPM-based models of their current and future distributions, and discuss how IPMs can be used to forecast future forest productivity, mortality patterns, and inform efforts at assisted migration.

Evans, M. E.; Merow, C.; Record, S.; Menlove, J.; Gray, A.; Cundiff, J.; McMahon, S.; Enquist, B. J.

2013-12-01

336

Novel micropropagation and weaning methods for the integrated conservation of a critically endangered tree species, Medusagyne oppositifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medusagyne oppositifolia is a critically endangered monotypic species with only a few trees left in the wild. Due to invasion and habitat clearance,\\u000a genetic diversity of this species has been reduced to an alarmingly low level. Long-term in vitro cultures of M. oppositifolia were slow-growing and eventually lost the ability to multiply and root. Because of the lack of new

Poppy Marriott; Viswambharan Sarasan

2010-01-01

337

The relationship between growth and mortality for seven co-occurring tree species in the southern Appalachian Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Slow growth is associated with high mortality risk for trees, but few data exist to assess interspecific differences in the relationship between growth and mortality. Here we compare low growth tolerance for seven co-occurring species in the southern Appa- lachian Mountains: Acer rubrum , Betula lenta , Cornus florida , Liriodendron tulipifera , Quercus prinus , Quercus rubra

Peter H. Wyckoff; James S. Clark

2002-01-01

338

Effects of logging, liana tangles and pasture on seed fate of dry forest tree species in Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed seed fate of six tree species in a seasonally deciduous forest of Central Brazil. Seed germination, predation, removal and death caused by pathogens or dessication were followed in an undisturbed forest site, a logged forest site, and an active pasture. In both forest types we sowed seeds under patches of liana tangles (Low Forest habitat) and under patches

Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira; Aldicir Scariot

2006-01-01

339

Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of tree species from a semi-arid habitat  

E-print Network

Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of tree species from of tomography for vessel network analysis and the important role of 3-D xylem organization in plant hydraulic Root water uptake and hydraulic transport through xylem are critical for plant functioning and survival

Jackson, Robert B.

340

The influence of sampling design on species tree inference: a new relationship for the New World chickadees (Aves: Poecile).  

PubMed

In this study, we explore the long-standing issue of how many loci are needed to infer accurate phylogenetic relationships, and whether loci with particular attributes (e.g., parsimony informativeness, variability, gene tree resolution) outperform others. To do so, we use an empirical data set consisting of the seven species of chickadees (Aves: Paridae), an analytically tractable, recently diverged group, and well-studied ecologically but lacking a nuclear phylogeny. We estimate relationships using 40 nuclear loci and mitochondrial DNA using four coalescent-based species tree inference methods (BEST, *BEAST, STEM, STELLS). Collectively, our analyses contrast with previous studies and support a sister relationship between the Black-capped and Carolina Chickadee, two superficially similar species that hybridize along a long zone of contact. Gene flow is a potential source of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial gene trees, yet we find a significant, albeit low, signal of gene flow. Our results suggest that relatively few loci with high information content may be sufficient for estimating an accurate species tree, but that substantially more loci are necessary for accurate parameter estimation. We provide an empirical reference point for researchers designing sampling protocols with the purpose of inferring phylogenies and population parameters of closely related taxa. PMID:24111665

Harris, Rebecca B; Carling, Matthew D; Lovette, Irby J

2014-02-01

341

vol. 160, no. 5 the american naturalist november 2002 Cluster Analysis of Spatial Patterns in Malaysian Tree Species  

E-print Network

communities, such as tropical rain forests, through large-scale census experiments (Hubbell 1979; Hubbell. standing of complex ecosystems (Ashton 1976, 1998; Hub- bell and Foster 1983; Hubbell 1997; Levin et al clustering (Wong and Whitmore 1970; Hubbell 1997, 2001). Why should tree species be spatially clumped? Why do

Chave, Jérôme

342

Selective logging of lowland evergreen rainforests in Chiloé Island, Chile: Effects of changing tree species composition on soil nitrogen transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowland evergreen rainforests in southern Chile growing on highly productive soils and accessible sites have been subjected to traditional and industrial logging of valuable timber trees. Old-growth rain forests in this area are characterized by highly conservative N cycles, which results in an efficient N use of ecosystems. We hypothesize that different logging practices, by changing forest structure and species

Cecilia A. Pérez; Martín R. Carmona; José M. Fariña; Juan J. Armesto

2009-01-01

343

Abstract We compared the CO2-and light-dependence of photosynthesis of four tree species (Acer rubrum,  

E-print Network

Abstract We compared the CO2- and light-dependence of photosynthesis of four tree species (Acer CO2 stimulation of photosynthesis. Pho- tosynthetic rates were only 59% greater for A. rubrum stimulated light-saturated photosynthesis more than the apparent quantum yield. The maximum rate of carboxyl

DeLucia, Evan H.

344

Volatile Profile Differences and the Associated Sirex noctilio Activity in Two Host Tree Species in the Northeastern  

E-print Network

- vestris) were compared after stem injection with herbicide. In general, trap captures on herbicide of females, fol- lowed by the low-carene chemotype, and finally the Eastern white pine. Herbicide-treated trees of both species emitted larger quantities of volatiles than the controls. The herbicide treatment

345

Phenotypic variation in seedlings of a “keystone” tree species ( Quercus douglasii ): the interactive effects of acorn source and competitive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is a deciduous tree species endemic to California that currently exhibits poor seedling survival to sapling age classes. We used common garden techniques to examine how genetic variation at regional and local scales affected phenotypic expression in traits affecting oak seedling growth and survival. Between-population variation was examined for seedlings grown from acorns collected from a

K. J. Rice; D. R. Gordon; J. L. Hardison; J. M. Welker

1993-01-01

346

Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play

Delphine Audigeos; Anna Buonamici; Laurent Belkadi; Paul Rymer; David Boshier; Caroline Scotti-Saintagne; Giovanni G Vendramin; Ivan Scotti

2010-01-01

347

Seed dispersal patterns produced by white-faced monkeys: implications for the dispersal limitation of neotropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Primate frugivores are important seed dispersers for a large fraction of tree species in many tropical forests. The movement, diet preferences and defecation patterns pro- duced by primates may therefore strongly influence seed dispersion patterns and seed- ling recruitment success. Here we examine the pattern of seed dispersal generated by white-faced monkeys ( Cebus capucinus ) in relation

E. V. Wehncke; S. P. Hubbell; R. B. Foster; J. W. Dalling

2003-01-01

348

Farmer management of cocoa agroforests in Cameroon: Impacts of decision scenarios on structure and biodiversity of indigenous tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa agroforests are dominant agricultural systems on the forest margins of Cameroon. Their management remains complex involving close interplay and trade-offs in social, ecological, economic and policy questions. To protect the cocoa crop and increase the net livelihood worth of cocoa agroforests, farmers maintain and or integrate diverse indigenous tree species in them. In a broadening context of environmental management

P. Mbile; P. Ngaunkam; M. Besingi; C. Nfoumou; A. Degrande; A. Tsobeng; T. Sado; T. Menimo

2009-01-01

349

Influence of windthrows and tree species on forest soil plant biomass and carbon stocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of forests has generally been recognized in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and policies (e.g. Kyoto Protocol within articles 3.3 and 3.4, RES-E Directive of EU, Country Biomass Action Plans etc.). Application of mitigation actions, to decrease of CO2-emissions and, as the increase of carbon(C)-stocks and appropriate GHG-accounting has been hampered due to a lack of reliable data and good statistical models for the factors influencing C-sequestration in and its release from these systems (e.g. natural and human induced disturbances). Highest uncertainties are still present for estimation of soil C-stocks, which is at the same time the second biggest C-reservoir on earth. Spruce monocultures have been a widely used management practice in central Europe during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes (e.g. submontane to lower montane elevation zone) and on heavy soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially on blowdown. As the windthrow-areas act as CO2-source, we hypothesize that conversion to natural beech and oak forests will provide sustainable wood supply and higher stability of stands against blowdown, which simultaneously provides the long-term belowground C-sequestration. This work focuses on influence of Norway spruce, Common beech and Oak stands on belowground C-dynamics (mineral soil, humus and belowground biomass) taking into consideration the increased impact of windthrows on spruce monocultures as a result of climate change. For this purpose the 300-700m altitude and pseudogley (planosols/temporally logged) soils were chosen in order to evaluate long-term impacts of the observed tree species on belowground C-dynamics and human induced disturbances on secondary spruce stands. Using the false chronosequence approach, the C-pools have been estimated for different compartments and age classes. The sampling of forest floor and surface vegetation was done using 30x30 (homogenous plots) and 50x50cm (inhomogeneous plots) frame. It was distinguished between following fractions: fine/coarse roots ( than 2mm), woody debris (dead wood, branches and seeds), living vegetation (ground vegetation and its roots), litter (leaves fresh and decomposed until the stage where the basic form can still be recognized) and humus layer (more than 30% organic matter in the fine fraction). Mineral soil was sampled down to 1m depth. The C stocks for 60 and 100cm depth were evaluated. The data enable a good overview of allocation of organic C within the belowground compartments, and its dynamics over the stand development stages for the relevant tree species of the Northern Alpine Foothills. In addition, these data enable the simulation of the long-term development of the belowground biomass and C-stocks for the three different stand types (pure spruce stands, mixed beech-spruce stands and oak stands). These results enable improvement of the statistical models in relation to site factors or stocking tree species and serve herewith further, as a valuable decision support for the innovative forest management practices and ensure the accomplishment of ecological, social and economical services of forest ecosystems.

Veselinovic, B.; Hager, H.

2012-04-01

350

USEFUL RESOURCES. (Right) Aggressive eastern redcedar impacts a variety of Nebraska resources. Utilizing this species can help preserve rare native tree stands and increase available grazing land. This  

E-print Network

. Utilizing this species can help preserve rare native tree stands and increase available grazing land and grazing lands, and the riparian forests along the Platte and Niobrara rivers. This aggressive tree species on eastern redcedar expansion is key to improving grazing land and increasing economic development. #12

Farritor, Shane

351

Soil microbial communities in a CO2-enriched and 13C-labelled treeline ecosystem with different tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to estimate the responses of soil microbial communities at the alpine treeline to elevated CO2 and to gain insight into the C cycling through microbial groups under two tree species by tracking 13C signatures into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). In alpine treeline ecosystems, we exposed 30 year-old larch and pine trees growing on undisturbed thick mor-type organic layers to five years of elevated CO2 (+200 ?mol CO2 mol-1) being depleted in 13C. Results showed that elevated CO2 increased soil respiration particularly under pine trees. However, we found negligible CO2 effects on the biomass and community structure of soil microorganisms, which might be due to small plant growth responses, and a comparatively small input of new plant-derived C into the thick organic layers with large C stocks. The tracing of 13C-depleted CO2 revealed that only a small portion of the microbial community actively metabolized new C (25%). The 13C label in individual PLFA indicated that mainly fungi were involved in the use of new substrate. Tree species affected soil microbial communities in the organic layer with a significantly higher ratio of fungal to bacterial fatty acids under pine than under larch trees. Under pine, fungal PLFA of the organic layer carried a stronger 13C label which strongly suggests a greater mycorrhizal activity that might also lead to the 60% greater input of new plant-derived C into soil organic matter under pine than under larch. In conclusion, our results show that significant responses of microbial communities in these treeline ecosystems if any would require more drastic and long lasting effects than five years of elevated CO2. Tree species have a major impact on the cycling of new plant C through soil microbial communities.

Hiltbrunner, David; Hagedorn, Frank; Miltner, Anja; Schmidt, Michael W. I.

2010-05-01

352

Appendix S2. Selection of tree species We selected 14 species from the ICP Forest Level 1 dataset as focal species for our analyses, which  

E-print Network

in TreeMig: Pinus cembra L., Pinus mugo Turra, Taxus baccata L., Acer campestre L., Acer platanoides L deciduous trees (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Betula pendula Roth, Carpinus betulus

Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

353

[Responses of mesophyllic conductance in leaves of 4 dominant subtropical forest tree species to moderate high temperature].  

PubMed

By using CO2 exchange system and chlorophyll fluorescence method, the magnitude of mesophyllic conductance (g(m)), namely the CO2 transfer conductance from intercellular space to chloroplast, in the leaves of four dominant subtropical forest tree species under moderate high temperature (38 degrees C) was studied. The results revealed that sun or early-successional species Schima superba had a higher g(m) than mesophytic and shade-tolerant species, such as Castanopsis hystrix, C. fissa and Cryptocarya concinna, and the leaves under full direct light had a higher g(m) than those under shade. The average g(m) of the four test trees from 25 degrees C to 38 degrees C was 1.59 +/- 0.27, and the responses of g(m) to temperature were dependant on the tree species and their leaf type (sun or shade leaves). Because the diffusion of CO2 in water was only about 1.25, g(m) might be controlled by a protein-related process besides temperature. Moderate high temperature could increase the g(m) value, resulting in the increase of CO2 concentration and carboxylation rate in chloroplasts. Comparing with that of S. superba, the carboxylation rate of C. hystrix, C. fissa and C. concinna was significantly increased by moderate high temperature, regardless of under full direct light or shading, indicating that moderate high temperature would favor the succession of mid- and late-successional species. PMID:17763714

Sun, Gu-chou; Zhao, Ping

2007-06-01

354

[Seed germination and key to seedling identification for six native tree species of wetlands from Southeast Mexico].  

PubMed

Wetland tree species are of importance for economic and restoration purposes. We describe the germination process and seedling morphology of six arboreal native species typical of Southeastern Mexico: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis and Crataeva tapia. A total of 300 seeds per species were planted in a mixture of sand, cocoa plant husk and black soil (1:1:1), and maintained in a tree nursery with 30% artificial shade, from February to November of 2007. We carried out the morphological characterization, and elaborated a key to seedlings based on: 1) germination type 2) seedling axis and 3) leaf elements. P. aquatica has cryptocotylar hypogeal germination, the others have phanerocotylar epigeal germination. Germination rates were high (>86%), except for C. barbadensis (69%). PMID:20527471

Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Vargas Simón, Georgina; Castellanos Albores, Jorge; Jong, Bernardus H J de

2010-06-01

355

Large tree species richness is associated with topography, forest structure and spectral heterogeneity in a neotropical rainforest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large tropical canopy trees contain the majority of forest biomass in addition to being the primary producers in the forest ecosystem in terms of both food and structural habitat. The spatial distributions of large tropical trees are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water and nutrients. These environmental gradients are a result of the biophysical processes related to topography and three-dimensional forest structure. In this study we examine large (>10 cm) diameter tree species richness across Barro Colorado Nature Monument in a tropical moist forest in Panama using active and passive remote sensing. Airborne light detection and ranging and high-resolution satellite imagery were used to quantify spectral heterogeneity, sub-canopy topography and vertical canopy structure across existing vegetation plots to model the extent to which remote sensing variables can be used to explain variation in large tree species richness. Plant species richness data was calculated from the stem mapped 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island in addition to 8 large tree plots across the Barro Colorado Nature Monument at 1.0 ha and 0.25 ha spatial scales. We investigated four statistical models to predict large tree species richness including spectral, topographic, vertical canopy structure and a combined ';global' model which includes all remote sensing derived variables. The models demonstrate that remote sensing derived variables can capture a significant fraction (R2= 0.54 and 0.36) of observed variation in tree species richness across the 1.0 and 0.25 ha spatial scales respectively. A selection of remote sensing derived predictor variables. A) World View-2 satellite imagery in RGB/true color. B) False color image of the principal component analysis. C) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). D) Simple Ratio Index. E) Quickbird satellite imagery in RGB/true color. F) False color image of the principal component analysis. G) NDVI. H) Resampled NDVI to 30 m (right). I) Digital elevation model with 1 m topographic contours. J) Terrain slope (red =high, green = low). K) The Topographic Wetness Index (darker blue = higher index values). L) Maximum canopy height model. M) Max canopy height model colored by the 0.25 ha value for the standard deviation of max canopy height (Red = high SD, Green = low SD). N) Lidar intensity

Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J. A.; Gillespie, T.; Meyer, V.; Hubbell, S. P.; Santo, F. E.; Saatchi, S. S.

2013-12-01

356

Chemical Variation in a Dominant Tree Species: Population Divergence, Selection and Genetic Stability across Environments  

PubMed Central

Understanding among and within population genetic variation of ecologically important plant traits provides insight into the potential evolutionary processes affecting those traits. The strength and consistency of selection driving variability in traits would be affected by plasticity in differences among genotypes across environments (G×E). We investigated population divergence, selection and environmental plasticity of foliar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in a dominant tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. Using two common garden trials we examined variation in PSMs at multiple genetic scales; among 12 populations covering the full geographic range of the species and among up to 60 families within populations. Significant genetic variation in the expression of many PSMs resides both among and within populations of E. globulus with moderate (e.g., sideroxylonal A h2op?=?0.24) to high (e.g., macrocarpal G h2op?=?0.48) narrow sense heritabilities and high coefficients of additive genetic variation estimated for some compounds. A comparison of Qst and Fst estimates suggest that variability in some of these traits may be due to selection. Importantly, there was no genetic by environment interaction in the expression of any of the quantitative chemical traits despite often significant site effects. These results provide evidence that natural selection has contributed to population divergence in PSMs in E. globulus, and identifies the formylated phloroglucinol compounds (particularly sideroxylonal) and a dominant oil, 1,8-cineole, as candidates for traits whose genetic architecture has been shaped by divergent selection. Additionally, as the genetic differences in these PSMs that influence community phenotypes is stable across environments, the role of plant genotype in structuring communities is strengthened and these genotypic differences may be relatively stable under global environmental changes. PMID:23526981

O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Miller, Alison M.; Hamilton, Matthew G.; Williams, Dean; Glancy-Dean, Naomi; Potts, Brad M.

2013-01-01

357

Assessing the potential for rhizoremediation of PCB contaminated soils in northern regions using native tree species.  

PubMed

Rhizosphere bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) offers a potentially inexpensive approach to remediating contaminated soils that is particularly attractive in remote regions including the Arctic. We assessed the abilities of two tree species native to Alaska, Salix alaxensis (felt-leaf willow) and Picea glauca (white spruce), to promote microbial biodegradation of PCBs via the release of phytochemicals upon fine root death. Crushed fine roots, biphenyl (PCB analogue) or salicylate (willow secondary compound) were added to microcosms containing soil spiked with PCBs and resultant PCB disappearance, soil toxicity and microbial community changes were examined. After 180d, soil treated with willow root crushates showed a significantly greater PCB loss than untreated soils for some PCB congeners, including the toxic congeners, PCB 77, 105 and 169, and showed a similar PCB loss pattern (in both extent of degradation and congeners degraded) to biphenyl-treated microcosms. Neither P. glauca (white spruce) roots nor salicylate enhanced PCB loss, indicating that biostimulation is plant species specific and was not mediated by salicylate. Soil toxicity assessed using the Microtox bioassay indicated that the willow treatment resulted in a less toxic soil environment. Molecular microbial community analyses indicated that biphenyl and salicylate promoted shifts in microbial community structure and composition that differed distinctly from each other and from the crushed root treatments. The biphenyl utilizing bacterium, Cupriavidus spp. was isolated from the soil. The findings suggest that S. alaxensis may be an effective plant for rhizoremediation by altering microbial community structure, enhancing the loss of some PCB congeners and reducing the toxicity of the soil environment. PMID:21596420

Slater, Heather; Gouin, Todd; Leigh, Mary Beth

2011-06-01

358

Geographic Variation in Advertisement Calls in a Tree Frog Species: Gene Flow and Selection Hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Background In a species with a large distribution relative to its dispersal capacity, geographic variation in traits may be explained by gene flow, selection, or the combined effects of both. Studies of genetic diversity using neutral molecular markers show that patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) or barrier effect may be evident for geographic variation at the molecular level in amphibian species. However, selective factors such as habitat, predator, or interspecific interactions may be critical for geographic variation in sexual traits. We studied geographic variation in advertisement calls in the tree frog Hyla japonica to understand patterns of variation in these traits across Korea and provide clues about the underlying forces for variation. Methodology We recorded calls of H. japonica in three breeding seasons from 17 localities including localities in remote Jeju Island. Call characters analyzed were note repetition rate (NRR), note duration (ND), and dominant frequency (DF), along with snout-to-vent length. Results The findings of a barrier effect on DF and a longitudinal variation in NRR seemed to suggest that an open sea between the mainland and Jeju Island and mountain ranges dominated by the north-south Taebaek Mountains were related to geographic variation in call characters. Furthermore, there was a pattern of IBD in mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, no comparable pattern of IBD was found between geographic distance and call characters. We also failed to detect any effects of habitat or interspecific interaction on call characters. Conclusions Geographic variations in call characters as well as mitochondrial DNA sequences were largely stratified by geographic factors such as distance and barriers in Korean populations of H. japoinca. Although we did not detect effects of habitat or interspecific interaction, some other selective factors such as sexual selection might still be operating on call characters in conjunction with restricted gene flow. PMID:21858061

Jang, Yikweon; Hahm, Eun Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Soyeon; Won, Yong-Jin; Choe, Jae C.

2011-01-01

359

Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences.  

PubMed

Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are revolutionizing many biological disciplines but have been slow to take root in phylogeography. This is partly due to the difficulty of using NGS to sequence orthologous DNA fragments for many individuals at low cost. We explore cases of recent divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mined from the loci, we detected population differentiation in each of the four bird systems, including: a case of ecological speciation in rails (Rallus); a rapid postglacial radiation in the genus Junco; recent in situ speciation among hummingbirds (Trochilus) in Jamaica; and subspecies of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) along the Pacific coast. The number of recovered loci aligning closely to chromosomal locations on the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome was highly correlated to the size of the chromosome, suggesting that loci are randomly distributed throughout the genome. Using eight loci found in Zonotrichia and Junco lineages, we were also able to generate a species tree of these sparrow sister genera, demonstrating the potential of this method for generating data amenable to coalescent-based analysis. We discuss improvements that should enhance the method's utility for primary data generation. PMID:22063264

McCormack, John E; Maley, James M; Hird, Sarah M; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Graves, Gary R; Brumfield, Robb T

2012-01-01

360

Biochemical changes in some deciduous tree species around Talcher thermal power station, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate biochemical traits in leaves to assess the air pollution impact on plants caused by thermal power plant emissions. Ten species of deciduous trees were selected from study sites in different seasons. pH, chlorophyll, phenols, total soluble sugar content and proline content in fresh leaf was analyzed. The leaf wash pH content reveals moderately acidic (4.5-5.0) to highly acidic (3.5-4.5) range. Significant differences (p < 0.01) were observed in chlorophyll content according to the seasons and sites. Maximum reduction in chlorophyll was noticed at 2.5 km and 5.0 km west from the power plant. Greater reduction in chloropohyll 'b' than chlorophyll 'a' was noticed. An increase in total soluble sugars and phenols was observed at sites closer to thermal power plant in comparison to control. Highest concentration of total phenols was found in summer season in Dalbergia sissoo (1.52%), Butea monosperma (1.12%), Mangifera indica (1.2%), Tectona grandis (1.26%) and Acacia leucophloea (1.16%) at 2.5 km north from the source. Highest concentration of soluble sugar was found in Dalbergia sissoo (7.75%) during winter season. There was about 10-20 fold increase in proline content of leaves in comparison to the control. PMID:24617137

Nayak, Rekha; Biswal, Debasis; Sett, Rupnarayan

2013-05-01

361

Radial Growth of Two Dominant Montane Conifer Tree Species in Response to Climate Change in North-Central China  

PubMed Central

North-Central China is a region in which the air temperature has clearly increased for several decades. Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii are the most dominant co-occurring tree species within the cold coniferous forest belt ranging vertically from 1800 m to 2800 m a.s.l. in this region. Based on a tree-ring analysis of 292 increment cores sampled from 146 trees at different elevations, this study aimed to examine if the radial growth of the two species in response to climate is similar, whether the responses are consistent along altitudinal gradients and which species might be favored in the future driven by the changing climate. The results indicated the following: (1) The two species grew in different rhythms at low and high elevation respectively; (2) Both species displayed inconsistent relationships between radial growth and climate data along altitudinal gradients. The correlation between radial growth and the monthly mean temperature in the spring or summer changed from negative at low elevation into positive at high elevation, whereas those between the radial growth and the total monthly precipitation displayed a change from positive into negative along the elevation gradient. These indicate the different influences of the horizontal climate and vertical mountainous climate on the radial growth of the two species; (3) The species-dependent different response to climate in radial growth appeared mainly in autumn of the previous year. The radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii displayed negative responses both to temperature and to precipitation in the previous September, October or November, which was not observed in the radial growth of P. meyeri. (4) The radial growth of both species will tend to be increased at high elevation and limited at low elevation, and L. principis-rupprechtii might be more favored in the future, if the temperature keeps rising. PMID:25393738

Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Mingchang; Kang, Muyi; Dong, Manyu

2014-01-01

362

Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F/M ? 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F/M ? 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost in females compared to males. If so, female Acer negundo trees would be under stronger selection to maximize resource uptake, and would therefore likely occur at greater frequencies in high resources sites (i.e., along streamsides), and increase rates of resource acquisition (i.e., water and nutrients). The spatial segregation of the sexes leads to the hypothesis that male and female individuals have varying influence on ecosystem evapotranspiration. To address this, stem sap flux was measured on mature streamside (?1 m from stream channel) and nonstreamside (>1 m from stream channel) male and female Acer negundo trees occurring in Red Butte Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah, during the 2004 growing season. Despite having similar predawn and midday water potentials, sap flux density was 76% higher in streamside female trees than in males (P < 0.0001), while sap flux density was 19% greater in nonstreamside female trees compared to males (P < 0.0001). Mean daily sap flux density of all A. negundo populations was highly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit (P < 0.0001), and was moderately correlated with mean daily photosynthetic active radiation (P = 0.0263). At the watershed scale, nonstreamside male and female A. negundo trees contributed 20 and 21% respectively to the estimated 1.7 mm d-1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation away from streamsides (estimated from scaled sap flux measurements of all dominant riparian tree species in Red Butte Canyon). Male and female A. negundo trees contributed 31 and 46% respectively of the estimated 8.0 mm d-1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation adjacent to the stream channel. Results from this investigation show that the population structure of dioecious riparian trees has direct consequences on ecosystem ET, particularly along stream margins. Shifts in population structure therefore, may have profound impacts on several ecohydrological processes including stream discharge, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem productivity.

Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.; West, A. G.; Ehleringer, J. R.

2007-09-01

363

Variation in leaf flushing date influences autumnal senescence and next year's flushing date in two temperate tree species.  

PubMed

Recent temperature increases have elicited strong phenological shifts in temperate tree species, with subsequent effects on photosynthesis. Here, we assess the impact of advanced leaf flushing in a winter warming experiment on the current year's senescence and next year's leaf flushing dates in two common tree species: Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L. Results suggest that earlier leaf flushing translated into earlier senescence, thereby partially offsetting the lengthening of the growing season. Moreover, saplings that were warmed in winter-spring 2009-2010 still exhibited earlier leaf flushing in 2011, even though the saplings had been exposed to similar ambient conditions for almost 1 y. Interestingly, for both species similar trends were found in mature trees using a long-term series of phenological records gathered from various locations in Europe. We hypothesize that this long-term legacy effect is related to an advancement of the endormancy phase (chilling phase) in response to the earlier autumnal senescence. Given the importance of phenology in plant and ecosystem functioning, and the prediction of more frequent extremely warm winters, our observations and postulated underlying mechanisms should be tested in other species. PMID:24799708

Fu, Yongshuo S H; Campioli, Matteo; Vitasse, Yann; De Boeck, Hans J; Van den Berge, Joke; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Piao, Shilong; Deckmyn, Gaby; Janssens, Ivan A

2014-05-20

364

Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species  

SciTech Connect

We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

Wagner, Rebekah J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Kaye, Margot W. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Abrams, Marc D. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL

2012-01-01

365

Photosynthetic and growth responses of two broad-leaf tree species to irrigation with municipal landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to investigate leaf photosynthesis and stem growth responses of saplings of two broad-leaf tree species to irrigation with municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate in a northern temperate climate at Ontario, Canada. The objective was to quantify plant stresses or changes in plant productivity that could be attributed to this low technology option for the treatment and disposal of groundwater contaminated by municipal refuse. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and hybrid poplar (Populus spp. nigra x maximowiczii (NM6)) were subjected to two consecutive seasons of leachate irrigation in a three factor, RCBD split-plot field experiment. The three factors were irrigant type (MSW leachate, water), mode of application (spray, surface trickle, subsurface irrigation), and raft of application (3.5, 7.0, and 14.0 mm d{sup -1}). The main treatment plots in inch of three blocks were split into subplots planted to different tree species. In the second irrigation season, the mean seasonal photosynthesis rates increased for irrigated saplings of both species relative to rain-fed control saplings, irrespective of irrigant type. Mean seasonal photosynthesis rates for red maple increased with irrigant application rate, but were unaffected by irrigant type. The mode of irrigant application was not a significant factor in explaining plant response for either species. Direct exposure of leaves to potentially phytolaxic compounds m MSW leachate, (volatile organics, and inorganics including metals) by spraying did not induce phytotoxic symptoms in the saplings. Irrigation of a MSW leachate of relatively high ionic strength can be carried out successfully on clay soils under Ontario climatic conditions without causing significant adverse effects on saplings of these tree species. Treatment and disposal of MSW leachates in tree plantations may offer a low technology, low cost option to municipalities. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Shrive, S.C.; McBride, R.A.; Gordon, A.M. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada)

1994-05-01

366

Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah  

PubMed Central

Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. PMID:18642470

ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A

2007-01-01

367

Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

1991-01-01

368

Using phylogeographic analyses of gene trees to test species status and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene tree is an evolutionary reconstruction of the genealogical history of the genetic vari- ation found in a sample of homologous genes or DNA regions that have experienced little or no recombination. Gene trees have the potential of straddling the interface between intra- and interspecific evolution. It is precisely at this interface that the process of speciation occurs, and

ALAN R. T EMPLETON

2001-01-01

369

137Cs distribution among annual rings of different tree species contaminated after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of 137Cs among annual rings of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula at four experimental sites located in the most contaminated areas in the Russian territory after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. Trees of different ages were sampled from four forest sites with different tree compositions and soil properties. The data analysis shows that 137Cs is very

N. V Soukhova; S. V Fesenko; D Klein; S. I Spiridonov; N. I Sanzharova; P. M Badot

2003-01-01

370

Documenting Biogeographical Patterns of African Timber Species Using Herbarium Records: A Conservation Perspective Based on Native Trees from Angola  

PubMed Central

In many tropical regions the development of informed conservation strategies is hindered by a dearth of biodiversity information. Biological collections can help to overcome this problem, by providing baseline information to guide research and conservation efforts. This study focuses on the timber trees of Angola, combining herbarium (2670 records) and bibliographic data to identify the main timber species, document biogeographic patterns and identify conservation priorities. The study recognized 18 key species, most of which are threatened or near-threatened globally, or lack formal conservation assessments. Biogeographical analysis reveals three groups of species associated with the enclave of Cabinda and northwest Angola, which occur primarily in Guineo-Congolian rainforests, and evergreen forests and woodlands. The fourth group is widespread across the country, and is mostly associated with dry forests. There is little correspondence between the spatial pattern of species groups and the ecoregions adopted by WWF, suggesting that these may not provide an adequate basis for conservation planning for Angolan timber trees. Eight of the species evaluated should be given high conservation priority since they are of global conservation concern, they have very restricted distributions in Angola, their historical collection localities are largely outside protected areas and they may be under increasing logging pressure. High conservation priority was also attributed to another three species that have a large proportion of their global range concentrated in Angola and that occur in dry forests where deforestation rates are high. Our results suggest that timber tree species in Angola may be under increasing risk, thus calling for efforts to promote their conservation and sustainable exploitation. The study also highlights the importance of studying historic herbarium collections in poorly explored regions of the tropics, though new field surveys remain a priority to update historical information. PMID:25061858

Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueira, Rui; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Beja, Pedro; Darbyshire, Iain

2014-01-01

371

EPIPHYTE FLORA AND DIVERSITY ON BASAL TRUNKS OF SIX OLD-GROWTH FOREST TREE SPECIES IN SOUTHERN AND MIDDLE BOREAL FINLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte species composition, richness and diversity were surveyed on basal trunks of six common old-growth forest tree species,Picea abies,Pinus sylvestris,Betula pendula,Alnus incana,Salix capreaandPopulus tremula, in two old-growth forest areas, one in southern and one in middle boreal Finland. The average species numbers per tree ranged from 18 (Picea) to 27 (Salix) in the southern and from 20

Mikko KUUSINEN

1996-01-01

372

Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants  

PubMed Central

Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100

Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

2006-01-01

373

Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system.  

PubMed

Facilitation cascades arise where primary foundation species facilitate secondary (dependent) foundation species, and collectively, they increase habitat complexity and quality to enhance biodiversity. Whether such phenomena occur in nonmarine systems and if secondary foundation species enhance food web structure (e.g., support novel feeding guilds) and ecosystem function (e.g., provide nursery for juveniles) remain unclear. Here we report on field experiments designed to test whether trees improve epiphyte survival and epiphytes secondarily increase the number and diversity of adult and juvenile invertebrates in a potential live oak-Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) facilitation cascade. Our results reveal that trees reduce physical stress to facilitate Tillandsia, which, in turn, reduces desiccation and predation stress to facilitate invertebrates. In experimental removals, invertebrate total density, juvenile density, species richness and H' diversity were 16, 60, 1.7, and 1.5 times higher, and feeding guild richness and H' were 5 and 11 times greater in Tillandsia-colonized relative to Tillandsia-removal limb plots. Tillandsia enhanced communities similarly in a survey across the southeastern United States. These findings reveal that a facilitation cascade organizes this widespread terrestrial assemblage and expand the role of secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic structure and ecosystem function. We conceptualize the relationship between foundation species' structural attributes and associated species abundance and composition in a Foundation Species-Biodiversity (FSB) model. Importantly, the FSB predicts that, where secondary foundation species form expansive and functionally distinct structures that increase habitat availability and complexity within primary foundation species, they generate and maintain hot spots of biodiversity and trophic interactions. PMID:24649658

Angelini, Christine; Silliman, Brian R

2014-01-01

374

Facilitation and Inhibition of Seedlings of an Invasive Tree ( Acer platanoides ) by Different Tree Species in a Mountain Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facilitation is known to be an important process structuring natural plant communities. However, much less is known about\\u000a its role in facilitating the invasion of ecosystems by non-native plant species. In this study we evaluated the effects of\\u000a invasive (Acer platanoides) and native (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest types on the performance of A. platanoides seedlings, and related these effects to structural

K. O. Reinhart; Fernando T. Maestre; Ragan M. Callaway

2006-01-01

375

Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in forest soils depending on light conditions and tree species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N-pools were estimated for different compartments over the available age classes. The sampling of humus and surface vegetation was done using 30x30 and 50x50 cm frame. It was distinguished between following fractions: fine/coarse roots ( than 2 mm), woody debris (dead wood, branches, cones and acorns), living vegetation (ground vegetation and its roots), litter (leaves fresh and decomposed coarse organic layer) and humus (more than 30% of fine organic matter). C and N stocks in mineral soil were assessed for the 10, 30 and 60 cm depth. Furthermore, the influence of solar radiation on humus and mineral soil C and N was evaluated using the GSF (global site factor) estimated with hemispherical photography. The photographs were taken on each sampling point using the 180_ viewing angle looking upward into the canopy. As expected, the solar energy strongly influences the occurrence of herbaceous layer in spruce and oak stands. Furthermore, beech and oak chronosequences display positive (although not strong) correlation between the light factor and C & N accumulation in the humus fractions. In the beech chronosequence, good correlation with light conditions in stands is only found in the sum of all forest floor compartments (litter, woody debris and humus). On the contrary, with exception of spruce (r = 0.391** for the 10 cm depth) no significant correlation was found with the mineral soil C for the three observed depths. depths.

Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert

2013-04-01

376

Ecological niche modeling and local knowledge predict new populations of *Gymnocladus assamicus* a critically endangered tree species  

E-print Network

and natural regeneration abil- ities, and separate male and hermaphrodite trees. We present results of field surveys and interviews with vil- lagers based on the ENM predictions of highly suitable areas for the species’ occurrence, and discuss implica- tions..., such as logging, agricultural extension, human settlement, road construction, and landslides. The dominant tribes (Monpa, Miji, Sherdukpen, Aka, and Khawa) of the surrounding areas are predomi- nantly Buddhist. They depend on nature and plant and animal products...

Menon, Shaily; Choudhury, Bahrul I.; Khan, M. Latif; Peterson, A. Townsend

2010-04-16

377

Multi-locus species tree for the Amazonian peacock basses (Cichlidae: Cichla): emergent phylogenetic signal despite limited nuclear variation.  

PubMed

The inference of phylogenies of closely related species is obstructed by phenomena such as porous species boundaries and deep coalescence, and is often exacerbated by low levels of nucleotide variation among most loci surveyed in phylogenetic studies. We investigated the utility of twenty-one nuclear loci that had a range of 5-40 (median of 14) variable sites per locus to estimate the phylogeny of the genus Cichla, a group of 15 Neotropical cichlid fishes that began to diverge in the early to mid Miocene. We found that under a concatenated approach, the least variable loci, while contributing less to the overall phylogenetic signal (posterior node support), nevertheless provided information that increased support for the final tree. Moreover, this was not a result of misdirection by mutational noise, as the inference from all data was far superior to those from reduced datasets (those with more variable loci) in terms of the relative precision of posterior tree space. Phylogenetic methods that allowed each locus to have a separate genealogy, including Bayesian concordance analysis and a multispecies coalescent model, provided phylogenies that were also compatible with the concatenated tree in terms of the eight recently delimited species of Cichla, albeit with somewhat diminished support for some branches. In contrast, described species that still regularly exchange genes showed unstable relationships among analyses: not a surprising result from analyses that assume that gene tree heterogeneity results from incomplete lineage sorting and not gene flow. Importantly, we also observed that the confidence intervals for node ages in the coalescent analyses were quite wide, and likely susceptible to influence of the prior on node density (e.g. birth-death). PMID:23939135

Willis, Stuart C; Farias, Izeni P; Ortí, Guillermo

2013-12-01

378

Inferring Species Networks from Gene Trees in High-Polyploid North American and Hawaiian Violets (Viola, Violaceae)  

PubMed Central

The phylogenies of allopolyploids take the shape of networks and cannot be adequately represented as bifurcating trees. Especially for high polyploids (i.e., organisms with more than six sets of nuclear chromosomes), the signatures of gene homoeolog loss, deep coalescence, and polyploidy may become confounded, with the result that gene trees may be congruent with more than one species network. Herein, we obtained the most parsimonious species network by objective comparison of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and homoeolog loss in a high-polyploid lineage of violets (Viola, Violaceae) mostly or entirely restricted to North America, Central America, or Hawaii. We amplified homoeologs of the low-copy nuclear gene, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), by single-molecule polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the chloroplast trnL-F region by conventional PCR for 51 species and subspecies. Topological incongruence among GPI homoeolog subclades, owing to deep coalescence and two instances of putative loss (or lack of detection) of homoeologs, were reconciled by applying the maximum tree topology for each subclade. The most parsimonious species network and the fossil-based calibration of the homoeolog tree favored monophyly of the high polyploids, which has resulted from allodecaploidization 9–14 Ma, involving sympatric ancestors from the extant Viola sections Chamaemelanium (diploid), Plagiostigma (paleotetraploid), and Viola (paleotetraploid). Although two of the high-polyploid lineages (Boreali-Americanae, Pedatae) remained decaploid, recurrent polyploidization with tetraploids of section Plagiostigma within the last 5 Ma has resulted in two 14-ploid lineages (Mexicanae, Nosphinium) and one 18-ploid lineage (Langsdorffianae). This implies a more complex phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of the Hawaiian violets (Nosphinium) than that previously inferred from rDNA data and illustrates the necessity of considering polyploidy in phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstruction. PMID:21918178

Marcussen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Danihelka, Jiri; Ballard, Harvey E.; Blaxland, Kim; Brysting, Anne K.; Oxelman, Bengt

2012-01-01

379

Migration of tree species in New England based on elevational and regional analyses. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With field measurements of migration patterns, we used two complementary approaches to examine tree-species movement after a documented increase in temperature. The advancing-front theory was used to examine age trends over distance and elevation for both a mountain site in New Hampshire and a regional comparison across the State of Maine. Well-defined stationary fronts were identified for red spruce (Picea

D. S. Solomon; W. B. Leak

1994-01-01

380

Long-term ecological impacts of clear-fell logging on tree species diversity in a subtropical forest, southern Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining the spatial arrangement and length of the cutting cycle in a logged area is crucial for reconciling potential conflicts\\u000a between timber yields and maintenance of ecosystem services in natural forests. In this study, we investigated long-term impacts\\u000a of clear-fell logging on timber production and tree species diversity in a subtropical forest on the Ryukyu Islands, using\\u000a an individual-based simulation

Shinjiro Fujii; Yasuhiro Kubota; Tsutomu Enoki

2010-01-01

381

Tree species composition, dispersion and diversity along a disturbance gradient in a dry tropical forest region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest inventory data were collected in 1998–2000 from fifteen 1ha permanent plots along a disturbance gradient in a dry tropical forest region of India. A total of 4033 stems, 49 species, 44 genera and 24 families of adult trees (?30cm CBH), occurred in the 15ha of forest area. The study indicated that the dry tropical forest is characterised by a

R Sagar; A. S Raghubanshi; J. S Singh

2003-01-01

382

Bioreclamation of coalmine overburden dumps—with special empasis on micronutrients and heavy metals accumulation in tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major environmental impacts of opencast mining are degradation of landscape and aesthetics of the area by creating huge overburden\\u000a dumps and deep voids at the mining sites. These overburden dumps are characterised by high rock fragment contents, low moisture\\u000a retention capacity, higher bulk density, low nutrients, lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Overburden dumps are reclaimed\\u000a by tree species for

Subodh Kumar Maiti

2007-01-01

383

Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F\\/M ? 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F\\/M ? 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost

K. R. Hultine; S. E. Bush; A. G. West; J. R. Ehleringer

2007-01-01

384

Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder ( Acer negundo )  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F\\/M ? 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F\\/M ? 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive

K. R. Hultine; S. E. Bush; A. G. West; J. R. Ehleringer

2007-01-01

385

Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F\\/M ~ 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F\\/M ~ 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost

K. R. Hultine; S. E. Bush; A. G. West; J. R. Ehleringer

2007-01-01

386

[Effects of tree species diversity on fine-root biomass and morphological characteristics in subtropical Castanopsis carlesii forests].  

PubMed

Fine roots in the Castanopsis carlesii plantation forest (MZ), the secondary forest of C. carlesii through natural regeneration with anthropogenic promotion (AR), and the secondary forest of C. carlesii through natural regeneration (NR) in Sanming City, Fujian Province, were estimated by soil core method to determine the influence of tree species diversity on biomass, vertical distribution and morphological characteristics of fine roots. The results showed that fine root biomass for the 0-80 cm soil layer in the MZ, AR and NR were (182.46 +/- 10.81), (242.73 +/- 17.85) and (353.11 +/- 16.46) g x m(-2), respectively, showing an increased tendency with increasing tree species diversity. In the three forests, fine root biomass was significantly influenced by soil depth, and fine roots at the 0-10 cm soil layer accounted for more than 35% of the total fine root biomass. However, the interaction of stand type and soil depth on fine-root distribution was not significant, indicating no influence of tree species diversity on spatial niche segregation in fine roots. Root surface area density and root length density were the highest in NR and lowest in the MZ. Specific root length was in the order of AR > MZ > NR, while specific root surface area was in the order of NR > MZ > AR. There was no significant interaction of stand type and soil depth on specific root length and specific root surface area. Fine root morphological plasticity at the stand level had no significant response to tree species diversity. PMID:24830228

Wang, Wei-Wei; Huang, Jin-Xue; Chen, Feng; Xiong, De-Cheng; Lu, Zheng-Li; Huang, Chao-Chao; Yang, Zhi-Jie; Chen, Guang-Shui

2014-02-01

387

Seabird Nutrient Subsidies Benefit Non-Nitrogen Fixing Trees and Alter Species Composition in South American Coastal Dry Forests  

PubMed Central

Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not. PMID:24466065

Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena

2014-01-01

388

Seabird nutrient subsidies benefit non-nitrogen fixing trees and alter species composition in South American coastal dry forests.  

PubMed

Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not. PMID:24466065

Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena

2014-01-01

389

Landscape genomics and a common garden trial reveal adaptive differentiation to temperature across Europe in the tree species Alnus glutinosa.  

PubMed

The adaptive potential of tree species to cope with climate change has important ecological and economic implications. Many temperate tree species experience a wide range of environmental conditions, suggesting high adaptability to new environmental conditions. We investigated adaptation to regional climate in the drought-sensitive tree species Alnus glutinosa (Black alder), using a complementary approach that integrates genomic, phenotypic and landscape data. A total of 24 European populations were studied in a common garden and through landscape genomic approaches. Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to identify SNPs across the genome, resulting in 1990 SNPs. Although a relatively low percentage of putative adaptive SNPs was detected (2.86% outlier SNPs), we observed clear associations among outlier allele frequencies, temperature and plant traits. In line with the typical drought avoiding nature of A. glutinosa, leaf size varied according to a temperature gradient and significant associations with multiple outlier loci were observed, corroborating the ecological relevance of the observed outlier SNPs. Moreover, the lack of isolation by distance, the very low genetic differentiation among populations and the high intrapopulation genetic variation all support the notion that high gene exchange combined with strong environmental selection promotes adaptation to environmental cues. PMID:24860941

De Kort, Hanne; Vandepitte, Katrien; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Closset-Kopp, Déborah; Honnay, Olivier; Mergeay, Joachim

2014-10-01

390

Accurate gene-tree reconstruction by learning gene- and species-specific substitution rates across multiple complete genomes  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics provides a general methodology for discovering functional DNA elements and understanding their evolution. The availability of many related genomes enables more powerful analyses, but requires rigorous phylogenetic methods to resolve orthologous genes and regions. Here, we use 12 recently sequenced Drosophila genomes and nine fungal genomes to address the problem of accurate gene-tree reconstruction across many complete genomes. We show that existing phylogenetic methods that treat each gene tree in isolation show large-scale inaccuracies, largely due to insufficient phylogenetic information in individual genes. However, we find that gene trees exhibit common properties that can be exploited for evolutionary studies and accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. Evolutionary rates can be decoupled into gene-specific and species-specific components, which can be learned across complete genomes. We develop a phylogenetic reconstruction methodology that exploits these properties and achieves significantly higher accuracy, addressing the species-level heterotachy and enabling studies of gene evolution in the context of species evolution. PMID:17989260

Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Kellis, Manolis

2007-01-01

391

Establishment of the evergreen broad-leaved tree species Castanopsis cuspidata in an abandoned secondary forest in western Japan.  

PubMed

Recently, populations of Castanopsis cuspidata have often expanded into secondary forests in western Japan. To determine the establishment processes of this species, we analyzed its spatial distribution in a secondary forest dominated by Quercus variabilis and Quercus serrata that is located adjacent to a stand dominated by C. cuspidata. Saplings, defined as >or=30 cm stem length (SL) and <5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH), were abundant and their size distribution was inversely J-shaped, indicating continuous recruitment. Although seedlings (SL < 30 cm) and small saplings (30 trees of this species, some were found >or=40 m from the nearest adults, suggesting that there is animal-aided dispersal of acorns. The distribution of larger-sized individuals (>or=100 cm SL) of C. cuspidata was unrelated to distance from the nearest flowering C. cuspidata or dominant Quercus species (>or=5 cm DBH), but was associated with dead Pinus densiflora trees, which were abundant at the site. Thus, the establishment of C. cuspidata in this forest is controlled mainly by two factors, viz. patterns of acorn dispersal by animals, and forest disturbance regime (i.e., deaths of pine trees). PMID:20157757

Hirayama, Kimiko; Kawamura, Shota; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Takahara, Hikaru

2010-09-01

392

Aquaporins in the wild: natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species  

PubMed Central

Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions. PMID:20587054

2010-01-01

393

A hybrid phylogenetic-phylogenomic approach for species tree estimation in African Agama lizards with applications to biogeography, character evolution, and diversification.  

PubMed

Africa is renowned for its biodiversity and endemicity, yet little is known about the factors shaping them across the continent. African Agama lizards (45 species) have a pan-continental distribution, making them an ideal model for investigating biogeography. Many species have evolved conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits, including extravagant breeding coloration in adult males, large adult male body sizes, and variability in social systems among colorful versus drab species. We present a comprehensive time-calibrated species tree for Agama, and their close relatives, using a hybrid phylogenetic-phylogenomic approach that combines traditional Sanger sequence data from five loci for 57 species (146 samples) with anchored phylogenomic data from 215 nuclear genes for 23 species. The Sanger data are analyzed using coalescent-based species tree inference using (*)BEAST, and the resulting posterior distribution of species trees is attenuated using the phylogenomic tree as a backbone constraint. The result is a time-calibrated species tree for Agama that includes 95% of all species, multiple samples for most species, strong support for the major clades, and strong support for most of the initial divergence events. Diversification within Agama began approximately 23 million years ago (Ma), and separate radiations in Southern, East, West, and Northern Africa have been diversifying for >10Myr. A suite of traits (morphological, coloration, and sociality) are tightly correlated and show a strong signal of high morphological disparity within clades, whereby the subsequent evolution of convergent phenotypes has accompanied diversif