Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388
Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar
Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run.
Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar
In a preliminary study on the nutritional value of seven multipurpose trees (MPTs), currently showing potential use in agroforestry systems in Zimbabwe, crude protein values ranged from 189 g kg?1 DM in Flemingia macrophylla to 292 g kg?1 DM in Acacia angustissima. Acid detergent fibre (ADF) content was low especially in Sesbania sesban (99 g kg?1 DM), while ADF contents
B. H. Dzowela; L. Hove; J. H. Topps; P. L. Mafongoya
In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084
Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter
Background Prosopis alba (Fabaceae) is an important native tree adapted to arid and semiarid regions of north-western Argentina which is of great value as multipurpose species. Despite its importance, the genomic resources currently available for the entire Prosopis genus are still limited. Here we describe the development of a leaf transcriptome and the identification of new molecular markers that could support functional genetic studies in natural and domesticated populations of this genus. Results Next generation DNA pyrosequencing technology applied to P. alba transcripts produced a total of 1,103,231 raw reads with an average length of 421 bp. De novo assembling generated a set of 15,814 isotigs and 71,101 non-assembled sequences (singletons) with an average of 991 bp and 288 bp respectively. A total of 39,000 unique singletons were identified after clustering natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads. Regarding the non-redundant sequences or unigenes, 22,095 out of 54,814 were successfully annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Moreover, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were searched, resulting in 5,992 and 6,236 markers, respectively, throughout the genome. For the validation of the the predicted SSR markers, a subset of 87 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidence was successfully amplified from six DNA samples of seedlings. From this analysis, 11 of these 87 SSRs were identified as polymorphic. Additionally, another set of 123 nuclear polymorphic SSRs were determined in silico, of which 50% have the probability of being effectively polymorphic. Conclusions This study generated a successful global analysis of the P. alba leaf transcriptome after bioinformatic and wet laboratory validations of RNA-Seq data. The limited set of molecular markers currently available will be significantly increased with the thousands of new markers that were identified in this study. This information will strongly contribute to genomics resources for P. alba functional analysis and genetics. Finally, it will also potentially contribute to the development of population-based genome studies in the genera.
We investigated variation in forage production, in sacco dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) degradations, and in vitro gas production characteristics of four Albizia (A. lebbeck N 864, A. procera N 865, A. saman N 825) and Paraserianthes falcataria (N 783) provenances obtained from The Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association. After one year of establishment forage production was assessed by harvesting
A. Larbi; J. W. Smith; I. O. Adekunle; I. O. Kurdi
In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is, average gene-tree internode distance. The distance method is named NJ(st) to distinguish it from the original NJ method. Under the coalescent model, we show that if gene trees are known or estimated correctly, the NJ(st) method is statistically consistent in estimating unrooted species trees. The simulation results suggest that NJ(st) and STAR (another coalescence-based method for inferring species trees) perform almost equally well in estimating topologies of species trees, whereas the Bayesian coalescence-based method, BEST, outperforms both NJ(st) and STAR. Unlike BEST and STAR, the NJ(st) method can take unrooted gene trees to infer species trees without using an outgroup. In addition, the NJ(st) method can handle missing data and is thus useful in phylogenomic studies in which data sets often contain missing loci for some individuals. PMID:21447481
Liu, Liang; Yu, Lili
This paper describes the traditional agroforestry systems based on Acacia albida and other multipurpose trees as practised by the sedentary Fur people on the lower slopes and highlands of the Jebel Marra massif, Sudan. The basic agrosilvopastoral system consists of terraced village fields, where semipermanent rainfed cropping of staple millet and other subsistence crops takes place under stands of multipurpose
Background Reconciliation is the commonly used method for inferring the evolutionary scenario for a gene family. It consists in “embedding” inferred gene trees into a known species tree, revealing the evolution of the gene family by duplications and losses. When a species tree is not known, a natural algorithmic problem is to infer a species tree from a set of gene trees, such that the corresponding reconciliation minimizes the number of duplications and/or losses. The main drawback of reconciliation is that the inferred evolutionary scenario is strongly dependent on the considered gene trees, as few misplaced leaves may lead to a completely different history, with significantly more duplications and losses. Results In this paper, we take advantage of certain gene trees’ properties in order to preprocess them for reconciliation or species tree inference. We flag certain duplication vertices of a gene tree, the “non-apparent duplication” (NAD) vertices, as resulting from the misplacement of leaves. In the case of species tree inference, we develop a polynomial-time heuristic for removing the minimum number of species leading to a set of gene trees that exhibit no NAD vertices with respect to at least one species tree. In the case of reconciliation, we consider the optimization problem of removing the minimum number of leaves or species leading to a tree without any NAD vertex. We develop a polynomial-time algorithm that is exact for two special classes of gene trees, and show a good performance on simulated data sets in the general case.
An experiment was conducted to study the potential of chromium (Cr) phytoaccumulatory capabilities of four tree species viz., Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia arjuna, Tecomella undulata, and Salvadora persica Possibility of enhancement of Cr uptake by citric acid and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) amendments were also tried. Cr is a major pollutant of the environment. Chromium can exist in oxidation states from III to VI, but the most stable and common forms of Cr are trivalent and hexavalent species. Cr(VI) was more toxic to the tree growth in terms of collar diameter (CD) increment in all the tree species than Cr(lll). Roots accumulated more Cr than shoots in all the tree species. There was more than 10 fold increase in root Cr content in comparison with shoot Cr content in all the trees at all the concentration of Cr and all sources of Cr. Citric acid significantly increased the Cr content in the tissues of roots in all the species under both speciation of Cr. The highest increase in Cr content brought by 20 mM citric acid addition was in A. latifolia Results suggest that Anogeissus latifolia is a potential Cr accumulator with citric acid as soil amendment. PMID:21166349
Mathur, Nishi; Singh, Joginder; Bohra, Sachendra; Bohra, Avinash; Vyas, Anil
Paralogy is a pervasive problem in trying to use nuclear gene sequences to infer species phylogenies. One strategy for dealing with this problem is to infer species phylogenies from gene trees using reconciled trees, rather than directly from the sequences themselves. In this approach, the optimal species tree is the tree that requires the fewest gene duplications to be invoked.
Roderic D. M. Page
Background Tree reconciliation problems have long been studied in phylogenetics. A particular variant of the reconciliation problem for a gene tree T and a species tree S assumes that for each interior vertex x of T it is known whether x represents a speciation or a duplication. This problem appears in the context of analyzing orthology data. Results We show that S is a species tree for T if and only if S displays all rooted triples of T that have three distinct species as their leaves and are rooted in a speciation vertex. A valid reconciliation map can then be found in polynomial time. Simulated data shows that the event-labeled gene trees convey a large amount of information on underlying species trees, even for a large percentage of losses. Conclusions The knowledge of event labels in a gene tree strongly constrains the possible species tree and, for a given species tree, also the possible reconciliation maps. Nevertheless, many degrees of freedom remain in the space of feasible solutions. In order to disambiguate the alternative solutions additional external constraints as well as optimization criteria could be employed.
We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section RF ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately two-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT, enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell’s longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation.
Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E.P.
Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree species' potential for surviving future aggravated environmental conditions is rather demanding. The aim of this study was to find a tree-ring-based method suitable for identifying very drought-tolerant species, particularly potential substitute species for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Valais. In this inner-Alpine valley, Scots pine used to be the dominating species for dry forests, but today it suffers from high drought-induced mortality. We investigate the growth response of two native tree species, Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and two non-native species, black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. var. menziesii), to drought. This involved analysing how the radial increment of these species responded to increasing water shortage (abandonment of irrigation) and to increasingly frequent drought years. Black pine and Douglas fir are able to cope with drought better than Scots pine and larch, as they show relatively high radial growth even after irrigation has been stopped and a plastic growth response to drought years. European larch does not seem to be able to cope with these dry conditions as it lacks the ability to recover from drought years. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the most promising and suitable method for detecting how tolerant a tree species is towards drought. However, combining all the methods used in this study provides a complete picture of how water shortage could limit species. PMID:22363071
Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas
Seasonal variations in chemical composition, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) degradation, and gas production characteristics of 18 multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTs) from the humid lowlands of West Africa were evaluated. The MPTs have potential for the development of integrated crop and livestock agroforestry technologies in the region. The experiment was conducted in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria during the main-wet
A Larbi; J. W Smith; I. O Kurdi; I. O Adekunle; A. M Raji; D. O Ladipo
The first part of the paper briefly overviews the problem of gene and species trees reconciliation with the focus on defining and algorithmic construction of the evolutionary scenario. Basic ideas are discussed for the aspects of mapping definitions, costs of the mapping and evolutionary scenario, imposing time scales on a scenario, incorporating horizontal gene transfers, binarization and reconciliation of polytomous trees, and construction of species trees and scenarios. The review does not intend to cover the vast diversity of literature published on these subjects. Instead, the authors strived to overview the problem of the evolutionary scenario as a central concept in many areas of evolutionary research. The second part provides detailed mathematical proofs for the solutions of two problems: (i) inferring a gene evolution along a species tree accounting for various types of evolutionary events and (ii) trees reconciliation into a single species tree when only gene duplications and losses are allowed. All proposed algorithms have a cubic time complexity and are mathematically proved to find exact solutions. Solving algorithms for problem (ii) can be naturally extended to incorporate horizontal transfers, other evolutionary events, and time scales on the species tree.
Rusin, L. Y.; Lyubetskaya, E. V.; Gorbunov, K. Y.; Lyubetsky, V. A.
Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. PMID:15701397
Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K
Accurate gene tree reconstruction is a fundamental problem in phylogenetics, with many important applications. However, sequence data alone often lack enough information to confidently support one gene tree topology over many competing alternatives. Here, we present a novel framework for combining sequence data and species tree information, and we describe an implementation of this framework in TreeFix, a new phylogenetic program for improving gene tree reconstructions. Given a gene tree (preferably computed using a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic program), TreeFix finds a "statistically equivalent" gene tree that minimizes a species tree-based cost function. We have applied TreeFix to 2 clades of 12 Drosophila and 16 fungal genomes, as well as to simulated phylogenies and show that it dramatically improves reconstructions compared with current state-of-the-art programs. Given its accuracy, speed, and simplicity, TreeFix should be applicable to a wide range of analyses and have many important implications for future investigations of gene evolution. The source code and a sample data set are available at http://compbio.mit.edu/treefix. PMID:22949484
Wu, Yi-Chieh; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Bansal, Mukul S; Kellis, Manolis
Many seasonally flooded habitats in the tropics are dominated by one or a few tree species. We tested the hypothesis that the inability to tolerate flooding restricts most species from becoming established in flood-prone habitats. We compared morphological and physiological responses to flooding in seedlings of Prioria copaifera Griseb., a species that forms monodominant stands in seasonally flooded habitats, and in three species confined to flood-free sites; namely, Calophyllum longifolium Willd., Virola surinamensis Aubl. and Gustavia superba (H.B.K.) Berg. Flooding reduced photosynthesis at Day 45 in all species by 10-30%. By Day 90, photosynthesis returned to the control rate in Prioria, but not in the other species. Flooding reduced stomatal conductance by 25-35% in all species except Calophyllum, and it reduced leaf area growth by 44% in Virola, but not in the other species. All species survived 90 days of flooding without mortality, leaf chlorosis, leaf necrosis, or leaf abscission. Flooding reduced root:shoot ratio significantly in Gustavia and Calophyllum, but not in the other species, and it reduced maximum root depth by 29% in Prioria, but by 61% or more in the species from flood-free habitats. PMID:12651304
Lopez, Omar R.; Kursar, Thomas A.
Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the Corine Land Cover (CLC2000) or Global Land Cover (GLC2000). Possible applications of the inventory include emissions of VOCs and pollen, CO2 fluxes and dry deposition - in general calculations which are tree specie dependent.
Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.
The paper presents a comprehensive review of the biomass equations for 65 North American tree species. All equations are of the form M = aDb, where M is the oven-dry weight of the biomass component of a tree (kg), D is diameter at breast height (DBH) (cm), and a and b are parameters. Equations for the following tree components were
Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Michael D. Korzukhin
A major problem for inferring species trees from gene trees is that evolutionary processes can sometimes favor gene tree topologies that conflict with an underlying species tree. In the case of incomplete lineage sorting, this phenomenon has recently been well-studied, and some elegant solutions for species tree reconstruction have been proposed. One particularly simple and statistically consistent estimator of the species tree under incomplete lineage sorting is to combine three-taxon analyses, which are phylogenetically robust to incomplete lineage sorting. In this paper, we consider whether such an approach will also work under lateral gene transfer (LGT). By providing an exact analysis of some cases of this model, we show that there is a zone of inconsistency when majority-rule three-taxon gene trees are used to reconstruct species trees under LGT. However, a triplet-based approach will consistently reconstruct a species tree under models of LGT, provided that the expected number of LGT transfers is not too high. Our analysis involves a novel connection between the LGT problem and random walks on cyclic graphs. We have implemented a procedure for reconstructing trees subject to LGT or lineage sorting in settings where taxon coverage may be patchy and illustrate its use on two sample data sets. PMID:23340439
Steel, Mike; Linz, Simone; Huson, Daniel H; Sanderson, Michael J
Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Bia?owie?a forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood.
Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Muller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas
Background As originally defined, orthologous genes implied a reflection of the history of the species. In recent years, many studies have examined the concordance between orthologous gene trees and species trees in bacteria. These studies have produced contradictory results that may have been influenced by orthologous gene misidentification and artefactual phylogenetic reconstructions. Here, using a method that allows the detection and exclusion of false positives during identification of orthologous genes, we address the question of whether putative orthologous genes within bacteria really reflect the history of the species. Results We identified a set of 370 orthologous genes from the bacterial order Rhizobiales. Although manifesting strong vertical signal, almost every orthologous gene had a distinct phylogeny, and the most common topology among the orthologous gene trees did not correspond with the best estimate of the species tree. However, each orthologous gene tree shared an average of 70% of its bipartitions with the best estimate of the species tree. Stochastic error related to gene size affected the concordance between the best estimated of the species tree and the orthologous gene trees, although this effect was weak and distributed unevenly among the functional categories. The nodes showing the greatest discordance were those defined by the shortest internal branches in the best estimated of the species tree. Moreover, a clear bias was evident with respect to the function of the orthologous genes, and the degree of divergence among the orthologous genes appeared to be related to their functional classification. Conclusion Orthologous genes do not reflect the history of the species when taken as individual markers, but they do when taken as a whole. Stochastic error affected the concordance of orthologous genes with the species tree, albeit weakly. We conclude that two important biological causes of discordance among orthologous genes are incomplete lineage sorting and functional restriction.
Some of the first applications of transgenic trees in North America may be for the conservation or restoration of threatened\\u000a forest trees that have been devastated by fungal pathogens or insect pests. In some cases, where resistance has yet to be\\u000a found in the natural population of a tree species, incorporating genes from other organisms may offer the only hope
S. A. Merkle; G. M. Andrade; C. J. Nairn; W. A. Powell; C. A. Maynard
\\u000a According to climate change predictions, water availability might change dramatically in Europe and adjacent regions. This\\u000a change will undoubtedly have an adverse effect on existing tree species and affect their ability to cope with a lack or an\\u000a excess of water, changes in annual precipitation patterns, soil salinity and fire disturbance. The following chapter will\\u000a describe tree species and provenances
Martin Lukac; Margus Pensa; Gabriel Schiller
Abstract Several methods have been designed to infer species trees from gene trees while taking into account gene tree/species tree discordance. Although some of these methods provide consistent species tree topology estimates under a standard model, most either do not estimate branch lengths or are computationally slow. An exception, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch, is consistent for the species tree topology, estimates branch lengths, and is computationally fast. However, GLASS systematically overestimates divergence times, leading to biased estimates of species tree branch lengths. By assuming a multispecies coalescent model in which multiple lineages are sampled from each of two taxa at L independent loci, we derive the distribution of the waiting time until the first interspecific coalescence occurs between the two taxa, considering all loci and measuring from the divergence time. We then use the mean of this distribution to derive a correction to the GLASS estimator of pairwise divergence times. We show that our improved estimator, which we call iGLASS, consistently estimates the divergence time between a pair of taxa as the number of loci approaches infinity, and that it is an unbiased estimator of divergence times when one lineage is sampled per taxon. We also show that many commonly used clustering methods can be combined with the iGLASS estimator of pairwise divergence times to produce a consistent estimator of the species tree topology. Through simulations, we show that iGLASS can greatly reduce the bias and mean squared error in obtaining estimates of divergence times in a species tree.
Rosenberg, Noah A.
The importance of niche vs. neutral assembly mechanisms in structuring tropical tree communities remains an important unsettled question in community ecology [Bell G (2005) Ecology 86:1757–1770]. There is ample evidence that species distributions are determined by soils and habitat factors at landscape (<104 km2) and regional scales. At local scales (<1 km2), however, habitat factors and species distributions show comparable spatial aggregation, making it difficult to disentangle the importance of niche and dispersal processes. In this article, we test soil resource-based niche assembly at a local scale, using species and soil nutrient distributions obtained at high spatial resolution in three diverse neotropical forest plots in Colombia (La Planada), Ecuador (Yasuni), and Panama (Barro Colorado Island). Using spatial distribution maps of >0.5 million individual trees of 1,400 species and 10 essential plant nutrients, we used Monte Carlo simulations of species distributions to test plant–soil associations against null expectations based on dispersal assembly. We found that the spatial distributions of 36–51% of tree species at these sites show strong associations to soil nutrient distributions. Neutral dispersal assembly cannot account for these plant–soil associations or the observed niche breadths of these species. These results indicate that belowground resource availability plays an important role in the assembly of tropical tree communities at local scales and provide the basis for future investigations on the mechanisms of resource competition among tropical tree species.
John, Robert; Dalling, James W.; Harms, Kyle E.; Yavitt, Joseph B.; Stallard, Robert F.; Mirabello, Matthew; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Valencia, Renato; Navarrete, Hugo; Vallejo, Martha; Foster, Robin B.
Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…
American School & University, 2003
Until recently, it has been common practice for a phylogenetic analysis to use a single gene sequence from a single individual organism as a proxy for an entire species. With technological advances, it is now becoming more common to collect data sets containing multiple gene loci and multiple individuals per species. These data sets often reveal the need to directly model intraspecies polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting in phylogenetic estimation procedures. For a single species, coalescent theory is widely used in contemporary population genetics to model intraspecific gene trees. Here, we present a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the multispecies coalescent. Our method coestimates multiple gene trees embedded in a shared species tree along with the effective population size of both extant and ancestral species. The inference is made possible by multilocus data from multiple individuals per species. Using a multiindividual data set and a series of simulations of rapid species radiations, we demonstrate the efficacy of our new method. These simulations give some insight into the behavior of the method as a function of sampled individuals, sampled loci, and sequence length. Finally, we compare our new method to both an existing method (BEST 2.2) with similar goals and the supermatrix (concatenation) method. We demonstrate that both BEST and our method have much better estimation accuracy for species tree topology than concatenation, and our method outperforms BEST in divergence time and population size estimation.
Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J.
Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20–25 ha where all individuals ?1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >105 km2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species’ abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges.
Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping
Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20-25 ha where all individuals ?1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km(2), and >90% of 651 species had ranges >10(5) km(2). There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species' abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges. PMID:24130772
Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping
Neutral models of species diversity predict patterns of abundance for communities in which all individuals are ecologically equivalent. These models were originally developed for Panamanian trees and successfully reproduce observed distributions of abundance. Neutral models also make macroevolutionary predictions that have rarely been evaluated or tested. Here we show that neutral models predict a humped or flat relationship between species age and population size. In contrast, ages and abundances of tree species in the Panamanian Canal watershed are found to be positively correlated, which falsifies the models. Speciation rates vary among phylogenetic lineages and are partially heritable from mother to daughter species. Variable speciation rates in an otherwise neutral model lead to a demographic advantage for species with low speciation rate. This demographic advantage results in a positive correlation between species age and abundance, as found in the Panamanian tropical forest community.
Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Fang, Jingyun; Pacala, Stephen W.
Heroine cichlids are major components of the fish faunas in both Central America and the Caribbean. To examine the evolutionary patterns of how cichlids colonized both of these regions, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 23 cichlid lineages. We used three phylogenetically novel nuclear markers (Dystropin b, Myomesin1, and Wnt7b) in combination with sequence data from seven other gene regions (Nd2, Rag1, Enc1, Sreb2, Ptr, Plagl2, and Zic1) to elucidate the species tree of these cichlids. The species examined represent major heroine lineages in South America, Central America, and the Greater Antilles. The individual gene trees of these groups were topologically quite discordant. Therefore, we combined the genetic partitions and inferred the species tree using both concatenation and a coalescent-based Bayesian method. The two resulting phylogenetic topologies were largely concordant but differed in two fundamental ways. First, more nodes in the concatenated tree were supported with substantial or 100% Bayesian posterior support than in the coalescent-based tree. Second, there was a minor, but biogeographically critical, topological difference between the concatenated and coalescent-based trees. Nevertheless, both analyses recovered topologies consistent with the Greater Antillean heroines being phylogenetically nested within the largely Central American heroine radiation. This study suggests that reconstructions of cichlid phylogeny and historical biogeography should account for the vagaries of individual gene histories. PMID:21112406
Hulsey, C Darrin; Keck, Benjamin P; Hollingsworth, Phillip R
Projected climate warming will potentially have profound effects on the earth's biota, including a large redistribution of tree species. We developed models to evaluate potential shifts for 80 individual tree species in the eastern United States. First, environmental factors associated with current ranges of tree species were assessed using geographic information systems (GIS) in conjunction with regression tree analysis (RTA).
Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad
The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is a polyphagous woodborer of hardwood trees. In order to well understand the oviposition preference of A. glabripennis emerging from different larval host tree species, we selected five common host tree species in the field and evaluated its\\u000a oviposition preferences. The five host tree species are Acer negundo (AN), Salix matsudana f.
Xiong-fei Yan; Xiao-juan Li; You-qing Luo; Zhi-chun Xu; Gui-fang Tian; Tie-lin Zhang
The development of genetic tools for non-model organisms has been hampered by cost, but advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have created new opportunities. In ecological research, this raises the prospect for developing molecular markers to simultaneously study important genetic processes such as gene flow in multiple non-model plant species within complex natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we report the use of bar-coded multiplexed paired-end Illumina NGS for the de novo development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers at low cost for a range of 24 tree species. Each chosen tree species is important in complex tropical agroforestry systems where little is currently known about many genetic processes. An average of more than 5,000 EST-SSRs was identified for each of the 24 sequenced species, whereas prior to analysis 20 of the species had fewer than 100 nucleotide sequence citations. To make results available to potential users in a suitable format, we have developed an open-access, interactive online database, tropiTree (http://bioinf.hutton.ac.uk/tropiTree), which has a range of visualisation and search facilities, and which is a model for the efficient presentation and application of NGS data.
Russell, Joanne R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Cardle, Linda; Dancey, Siobhan; Morris, Jenny; Booth, Allan; Odee, David; Mwaura, Lucy; Omondi, William; Angaine, Peter; Machua, Joseph; Muchugi, Alice; Milne, Iain; Kindt, Roeland; Jamnadass, Ramni; Dawson, Ian K.
Band selection was performed based on hyperspectral data taken at 400 ? 900 nm spectral range for 25 subtropical tree species in Hong Kong. Stepwise discriminant analysis and hierarchical clustering were used to select bands with high discriminatory power. Bands selected from stepwise discriminant analysis mainly lied along the green, red and near?infrared bands. Using hierarchical clustering, in addition to
Tung Fung; Hester Fung Yan Ma; Wai Lok Siu
Equations to predict masses of tree components were prepared for seven species common to the island of Newfoundland. Equations that are applicable to regions of the island and to the whole Island are provided. Breast-height diameter and total height were ...
M. B. Lavigne
Abstract Among the methods currently available for inferring species trees from gene trees, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch (2010), the Shallowest Divergence (SD) method of Maddison and Knowles (2006), the STEAC method of Liu et al. (2009), and a related method that we call Minimum Average Coalescence (MAC) are computationally efficient and provide branch length estimates. Further, GLASS and STEAC have been shown to be consistent estimators of tree topology under a multispecies coalescent model. However, divergence time estimates obtained with these methods are all systematically biased under the model because the pairwise interspecific gene divergence times on which they rely must be more ancient than the species divergence time. Jewett and Rosenberg (2012) derived an expression for the bias of GLASS and used it to propose an improved method that they termed iGLASS. Here, we derive the biases of SD, STEAC, and MAC, and we propose improved analogues of these methods that we call iSD, iSTEAC, and iMAC. We conduct simulations to compare the performance of these methods with their original counterparts and with GLASS and iGLASS, finding that each of them decreases the bias and mean squared error of pairwise divergence time estimates. The new methods can therefore contribute to improvements in the estimation of species trees from information on gene trees.
Jewett, Ethan M.; Rosenberg, Noah A.
Enhanced species richness can stimulate the productivity of plant communities; however, its effect on the belowground production of forests has scarcely been tested, despite the role of tree roots in carbon storage and ecosystem processes. Therefore, we tested for the effects of tree species richness on mangrove root biomass: thirty-two 6 m by 6 m plots were planted with zero (control), one, two or three species treatments of six-month-old Avicennia marina (A), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (B) and Ceriops tagal (C). A monoculture of each species and the four possible combinations of the three species were used, with four replicate plots per treatment. Above- and belowground biomass was measured after three and four years' growth. In both years, the all-species mix (ABC) had significant overyielding of roots, suggesting complementarity mediated by differences in rhizosphere use amongst species. In year four, there was higher belowground than aboveground biomass in all but one treatment. Belowground biomass was strongly influenced by the presence of the most vigorously growing species, A. marina. These results demonstrate the potential for complementarity between fast- and slow-growing species to enhance belowground growth in mangrove forests, with implications for forest productivity and the potential for belowground carbon sequestration. PMID:23073636
Lang'at, Joseph K Sigi; Kirui, Bernard K Y; Skov, Martin W; Kairo, James G; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Huxham, Mark
The potential of waveform Lidar is investigated in a series of three articles. In the first, a new approach is found to capture patterns within waveforms using an old technique: the Fourier transform. The mean spectral pattern between waveforms hitting an individual tree is found to aid in discriminating species. Using the full dataset, an overall accuracy of 75 percent is achieved using a classification tree approach for 44 sample trees of 3 hardwood species native to the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Important wavelengths within the waveforms include 1.5, 0.75, and 0.35 meters. In a second article, the ability of the above technique to classify species using datasets of lower densities is analyzed. From the original dataset with approximately 10 waveforms/pulses crossing a square meter at ground level (equivalent to a first and last return discrete point dataset of about 20 points per square meter), reduced datasets were created at 80, 60, 40 and 20 percent of the original density. The classification was then performed at each density level. Reducing the density to 80 percent actually increased the overall accuracy to 82 percent, while subsequent reductions reduced the accuracy to 61, 54, and 66 percent respectively for the 60, 40 and 20 percent reduced datasets. A third article compares a combination of several variables obtained from a discrete point Lidar dataset before and after the addition of variables obtained from waveform Lidar data. The addition of waveform information aided in the classification of five species, as well as in the classification of several two-species subsets. Performance of small groups of similar discrete point Lidar-derived variables varied much more between different species combinations, but when grouped they performed very well in all combinations. These results provide some suggestive evidence that fine-scale waveform Lidar information is important to classification of at least some tree species.
We describe algorithms to study the space of all possible reconciliations between a gene tree and a species tree, that is counting the size of this space, uniformly generate a random reconciliation, and exploring this space in optimal time using combinatorial operators. We also extend these algorithms for optimal and sub-optimal reconciliations according to the three usual combinatorial costs (duplication, loss, and mutation). Applying these algorithms to simulated and real gene family evolutionary scenarios, we observe that the LCA (Last Common Ancestor) based reconciliation is almost always identical to the real one. PMID:19754270
Doyon, Jean-Philippe; Chauve, Cedric; Hamel, Sylvie
In this paper, I develop efficient tools to simulate trees with a fixed number of extant species. The tools are provided in my open source R-package TreeSim available on CRAN. The new model presented here is a constant rate birth-death process with mass extinction and/or rate shift events at arbitrarily fixed times 1) before the present or 2) after the origin. The simulation approach for case (2) can also be used to simulate under more general models with fixed events after the origin. I use the developed simulation tools for showing that a mass extinction event cannot be distinguished from a model with constant speciation and extinction rates interrupted by a phase of stasis based on trees consisting of only extant species. However, once we distinguish between mass extinction and period of stasis based on paleontological data, fast simulations of trees with a fixed number of species allow inference of speciation and extinction rates using approximate Bayesian computation and allow for robustness analysis once maximum likelihood parameter estimations are available. PMID:21482552
Large differences in soil pH and available Ca in the surface soil exist among tree species growing in a mixed hardwood forest in northwestern Connecticut. The observed association between tree species and specific soil chemical properties within mixed-species stands implies that changes in the distribution and abundance of tree species alter the spatial and temporal pattern of soil acidity and
F. A. Dijkstra
Painted frogs (Discoglossus) are an anuran clade that originated in the Upper Miocene. Extant species are morphologically similar and have a circum-Mediterranean distribution. We assembled a multilocus dataset from seven nuclear and four mitochondrial genes for several individuals of all but one of the extant species and reconstructed a robust phylogeny by applying a coalescent-based species-tree method and a concatenation approach, both of which gave congruent results. The earliest phylogenetic split within Discoglossus separates D. montalentii from a clade comprising all other species. Discoglossus montalentii is monophyletic for haplotype variation at all loci and has distinct morphological, bioacoustic and karyotypic characters. We find moderate support for a sister-group relationship between the Iberian taxa and the Moroccan D. scovazzi, and high support for a D. pictus -D. sardus clade distributed around the Tyrrhenian basin. Topological discordance among gene trees during the speciation of D. galganoi, D. scovazzi, D. pictus and D. sardus is interpreted as the consequence of nearly simultaneous, vicariant diversification. The timing of these events is unclear, but possibly coincided with the final geotectonic rearrangement of the Western Mediterranean in the Middle Miocene or later during the Messinian salinity crisis. The Iberian taxa D. galganoi galganoi and D. g. jeanneae are reciprocally monophyletic in mitochondrial DNA but not in nuclear gene trees, and are therefore treated as subspecies of D. galganoi. PMID:22641173
Pabijan, Maciej; Crottini, Angelica; Reckwell, Dennis; Irisarri, Iker; Hauswaldt, J Susanne; Vences, Miguel
Genetic engineering of forest tree species is regarded as a strategy to reduce worldwide pressure on natural forests, to conserve\\u000a genetic resources and ameliorate stress on global climate, and to meet growing demand for forest wood and timber products.\\u000a Genetic engineering approaches toward the control or management of fungal pathogens, arthropod herbivores, bacterial and viral\\u000a diseases, the use of pest
Tang Wei; Janet Ogbon; Aquilla McCoy
Gene flow among populations or species and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) are two evolutionary processes responsible for generating gene tree discordance and therefore hindering species tree estimation. Numerous studies have evaluated the impacts of ILS on species tree inference, yet the ramifications of gene flow on species trees remain less studied. Here, we simulate and analyse multilocus sequence data generated with ILS and gene flow to quantify their impacts on species tree inference. We characterize species tree estimation errors under various models of gene flow, such as the isolation-migration model, the n-island model, and gene flow between non-sister species or involving ancestral species, and species boundaries crossed by a single gene copy (allelic introgression) or by a single migrant individual. These patterns of gene flow are explored on species trees of different sizes (4 vs. 10 species), at different time scales (shallow vs. deep), and with different migration rates. Species trees are estimated with the multispecies coalescent model using Bayesian methods (BEST and *BEAST) and with a summary statistic approach (MPEST) that facilitates phylogenomic-scale analysis. Even in cases where the topology of the species tree is estimated with high accuracy, we find that gene flow can result in overestimates of population sizes (species tree dilation) and underestimates of species divergence times (species tree compression). Signatures of migration events remain present in the distribution of coalescent times for gene trees, and with sufficient data it is possible to identify those loci that have crossed species boundaries. These results highlight the need for careful sampling design in phylogeographic and species delimitation studies as gene flow, introgression, or incorrect sample assignments can bias the estimation of the species tree topology and of parameter estimates such as population sizes and divergence times. PMID:23945075
Leaché, Adam D; Harris, Rebecca B; Rannala, Bruce; Yang, Ziheng
Background The California Floristic Province is a biodiversity hotspot, reflecting a complex geologic history, strong selective gradients, and a heterogeneous landscape. These factors have led to high endemic diversity across many lifeforms within this region, including the richest diversity of mygalomorph spiders (tarantulas, trapdoor spiders, and kin) in North America. The trapdoor spider genus Aliatypus encompasses twelve described species, eleven of which are endemic to California. Several Aliatypus species show disjunct distributional patterns in California (some are found on both sides of the vast Central Valley), and the genus as a whole occupies an impressive variety of habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected specimens from 89 populations representing all described species. DNA sequence data were collected from seven gene regions, including two newly developed for spider systematics. Bayesian inference (in individual gene tree and species tree approaches) recovered a general “3 clade” structure for the genus (A. gulosus, californicus group, erebus group), with three other phylogenetically isolated species differing slightly in position across different phylogenetic analyses. Because of extremely high intraspecific divergences in mitochondrial COI sequences, the relatively slowly evolving 28S rRNA gene was found to be more useful than mitochondrial data for identification of morphologically indistinguishable immatures. For multiple species spanning the Central Valley, explicit hypothesis testing suggests a lack of monophyly for regional populations (e.g., western Coast Range populations). Phylogenetic evidence clearly shows that syntopy is restricted to distant phylogenetic relatives, consistent with ecological niche conservatism. Conclusions/Significance This study provides fundamental insight into a radiation of trapdoor spiders found in the biodiversity hotspot of California. Species relationships are clarified and undescribed lineages are discovered, with more geographic sampling likely to lead to additional species diversity. These dispersal-limited taxa provide novel insight into the biogeography and Earth history processes of California.
Satler, Jordan D.; Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y.; Hedin, Marshal
Evaluation of dead trees of four Rocky Mountain species as raw material for pulp and paper indicated that 14 to 30 percent more horsepower was required to chip dead trees than green trees. Dead trees produced a slightly greater percentage of fines than di...
D. P. Lowery W. A. Hillstrom E. E. Elert
Isoprene is a dominant constituent of the global biogenic volatile organic compounds budget. It plays an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including tropospheric ozone concentrations. In this study, monthly measurements of isoprene emission rates were carried out over a 1-year period (December 2002-November 2003) from four Indian deciduous tree species, namely Ficus relegiosa, Ficus infectoria, Pongamia pinnata, and Morus alba, using branch enclosure method. Significantly high monthly variations in isoprene emission rates were observed in all four-plant species. Also, each plant species exhibited pronounced seasonal variation in isoprene emission. Maximum isoprene emissions were observed during summer and minimum during the winter or spring months. PMID:17242968
Singh, Abhai Pratap; Varshney, C K; Singh, U K
The goals of this study were to (1) investigate plant mercury (Hg) uptake using different air and soil Hg concentrations near natural background values for three tree species, and (2) test if measured foliar Hg fluxes could explain observed foliar Hg concentrations. Plants were exposed to three soil treatments (<0.01, 0.09 +/- 0.02, and 0.92 +/- 0.27 microg Hg g(-1)), and to three atmospheric exposure concentrations (5.9 +/- 2.3, 14.3 +/- 2.7, and 30.1 +/- 3.5 ng Hg m(-3)). Foliar Hg concentrations were found to be influenced primarily by atmospheric Hg concentrations and to a lesser extent by soil Hg exposures. Data indicated that deciduous species might play a more active role in ecosystem Hg cycling than evergreen trees. Foliar mercury fluxes quantified using a dynamic single-plant gas-exchange chamber for two species were variable and accumulation rates were lower than those predicted based on foliar Hg concentrations. A hypothesis to explain this discrepancy is that the plant gas-exchange chamber measures net flux which includes emission, deposition, adsorption, and reemission of Hg at the leaf surface, while total foliar accumulation represents only deposition and assimilation. PMID:17051791
Millhollen, Allison G; Gustin, Mae S; Obrist, Daniel
Tree size, density, and species richness were established for three one-hectare plots of terra firme forest in central Amazonian Brazil. In the three hectares, 1916 individual trees with DBH 10 = cm were sampled. A total of 58 families, 181 genera, and 513 species were determined. Hectare A had 285 species, 138 genera, and 47 families; hectare B 280 species,
Alexandre A. De Oliveira; Scott A. Mori
Previous studies pointed out that species richness and high density values within the Leguminosae in Brazilian forest fragments affected by fire could be due, at least partially, to the high incidence of root sprouting in this family. However, there are few studies of the factors that induce root sprouting in woody plants after disturbance. We investigated the bud formation on root cuttings, and considered a man-made disturbance that isolates the root from the shoot apical dominance of three Leguminosae (Bauhinia forficata Link., Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth, and Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd) and one Rutaceae (Esenbeckia febrifuga (St. Hil.) Juss. ex Mart.). All these species resprout frequently after fire. We also attempted to induce bud formation on root systems by removing the main trunk, girdling or sectioning the shallow lateral roots from forest tree species Esenbeckia febrifuga and Hymenaea courbaril L. We identified the origin of shoot primordia and their early development by fixing the samples in Karnovsky solution, dehydrating in ethyl alcohol series and embedding in plastic resin. Serial sections were cut on a rotary microtome and stained with toluidine blue O. Permanent slides were mounted in synthetic resin. We observed different modes of bud origin on root cuttings: close to the vascular cambium (C. tomentosum), from the callus (B. forficata and E. febrifuga) and from the phloematic parenchyma proliferation (I. laurina). Fragments of B. forficata root bark were also capable of forming reparative buds from healing phellogen formed in callus in the bark's inner side. In the attempt of bud induction on root systems, Hymenaea courbaril did not respond to any of the induction tests, probably because of plant age. However, Esenbeckia febrifuga roots formed suckers when the main trunk was removed or their roots were sectioned and isolated from the original plant. We experimentally demonstrated the ability of four tree species to resprout from roots after disturbance. Our results suggest that the release of apical dominance enables root resprouting in the studied species. PMID:19928472
Hayashi, Adriana Hissae; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz
Individual trees can be detected using high-density airborne laser scanner data. Also, variables characterizing the detected trees such as tree height, crown area, and crown base height can be measured. The Scandinavian boreal forest mainly consists of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and deciduous trees. It is possible to separate coniferous from deciduous trees
Johan Holmgren; Åsa Persson
Many tropical forest tree species have broad geographic ranges, and fossil records indicate that population disjunctions in some species were established millions of years ago. Here we relate biogeographic history to patterns of population differentiation, mutational and demographic processes in the widespread rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera using ribosomal (ITS) and chloroplast DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite (nSSR) loci. Fossil records document sweepstakes dispersal origins of Neotropical S. globulifera populations from Africa during the Miocene. Despite historical long-distance gene flow, nSSR differentiation across 13 populations from Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador (east and west of Andes) and French Guiana was pronounced (F(ST)= 0.14, R(ST)= 0.39, P < 0.001) and allele-size mutations contributed significantly (R(ST) > F(ST)) to the divergences between cis- and trans-Andean populations. Both DNA sequence and nSSR data reflect contrasting demographic histories in lower Mesoamerica and Amazonia. Amazon populations show weak phylogeographic structure and deviation from drift-mutation equilibrium indicating recent population expansion. In Mesoamerica, genetic drift was strong and contributed to marked differentiation among populations. The genetic structure of S. globulifera contains fingerprints of drift-dispersal processes and phylogeographic footprints of geological uplifts and sweepstakes dispersal. PMID:18764917
Dick, Christopher W; Heuertz, Myriam
Background Several phylogenetic approaches have been developed to estimate species trees from collections of gene trees. However, maximum likelihood approaches for estimating species trees under the coalescent model are limited. Although the likelihood of a species tree under the multispecies coalescent model has already been derived by Rannala and Yang, it can be shown that the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the species tree (topology, branch lengths, and population sizes) from gene trees under this formula does not exist. In this paper, we develop a pseudo-likelihood function of the species tree to obtain maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates (MPE) of species trees, with branch lengths of the species tree in coalescent units. Results We show that the MPE of the species tree is statistically consistent as the number M of genes goes to infinity. In addition, the probability that the MPE of the species tree matches the true species tree converges to 1 at rate O(M -1). The simulation results confirm that the maximum pseudo-likelihood approach is statistically consistent even when the species tree is in the anomaly zone. We applied our method, Maximum Pseudo-likelihood for Estimating Species Trees (MP-EST) to a mammal dataset. The four major clades found in the MP-EST tree are consistent with those in the Bayesian concatenation tree. The bootstrap supports for the species tree estimated by the MP-EST method are more reasonable than the posterior probability supports given by the Bayesian concatenation method in reflecting the level of uncertainty in gene trees and controversies over the relationship of four major groups of placental mammals. Conclusions MP-EST can consistently estimate the topology and branch lengths (in coalescent units) of the species tree. Although the pseudo-likelihood is derived from coalescent theory, and assumes no gene flow or horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the MP-EST method is robust to a small amount of HGT in the dataset. In addition, increasing the number of genes does not increase the computational time substantially. The MP-EST method is fast for analyzing datasets that involve a large number of genes but a moderate number of species.
With the increasing interest in recognizing the discordance between gene genealogies, various gene tree/species tree reconciliation methods have been developed. We present here the first attempt to assess and compare two such Bayesian methods, Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) and BUCKy (Bayesian untangling of concordance knots), in the presence of several known processes of gene tree discordance. DNA alignments were simulated under the influence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). BEST and BUCKy both account for uncertainty in gene tree estimation but differ substantially in their assumptions of what caused gene tree discordance. BEST estimates a species tree using the coalescent model, assuming that all gene tree discordance is due to ILS. BUCKy does not assume any specific biological process of gene tree discordance through the use of a nonparametric clustering of concordant genes. BUCKy estimates the concordance factor (CF) of a clade, which is defined as the proportion of genes that truly have the clade in their trees. The estimated concordance tree is then built from clades with the highest estimated CFs. Because of their different assumptions, it was expected that BEST would perform better in the presence of ILS and that BUCKy would perform better in the presence of HGT. As expected, the species tree was more accurately reconstructed by BUCKy in the presence of HGT, when the HGT events were unevenly placed across the species tree. BUCKy and BEST performed similarly in most other cases, including in the presence of strong ILS and of HGT events that were evenly placed across the tree. However, BUCKy was shown to underestimate the uncertainty in CF estimation, with short credibility intervals. Despite this, the discordance pattern estimated by BUCKy could be compared with the signature of ILS. The resulting test for the adequacy of the coalescent model proved to have low Type I error. It was powerful when HGT was the major source of discordance and when HGT events were unevenly placed across the species tree. PMID:21368324
Chung, Yujin; Ané, Cécile
BackgroundPrevious studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which
Edward Ayres; Heidi Steltzer; Sarah Berg; Matthew D. Wallenstein; Breana L. Simmons; Diana H. Wall; Thomas Bell
Background: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce,
Edward Ayres; Heidi Steltzer; Sarah Berg; Matthew D. Wallenstein; Breana L. Simmons; Diana H. Wall
Image classification using multispectral sensors has shown good performance in detecting macrophytes at the species level. However, species level classification often does not utilize the texture information provided by high resolution images. This study investigated whether image texture provides useful vector(s) for the discrimination of monospecific stands of three floating macrophyte species in Quickbird imagery of the South Nation River. Semivariograms indicated that window sizes of 5 × 5 and 13 × 13 pixels were the most appropriate spatial scales for calculation of the grey level co-occurrence matrix and subsequent texture attributes from the multispectral and panchromatic bands. Of the 214 investigated vectors (13 Haralick texture attributes * 15 bands + 9 spectral bands + 10 transformations/indices), feature selection determined which combination of spectral and textural vectors had the greatest class separability based on the Mann-Whitney U-test and Jefferies-Matusita distance. While multispectral red and near infrared (NIR) performed satisfactorily, the addition of panchromatic-dissimilarity slightly improved class separability and the accuracy of a decision tree classifier (Kappa: red/NIR/panchromatic-dissimilarity - 93.2% versus red/NIR - 90.4%). Class separability improved by incorporating a second texture attribute, but resulted in a decrease in classification accuracy. The results suggest that incorporating image texture may be beneficial for separating stands with high spatial heterogeneity. However, the benefits may be limited and must be weighed against the increased complexity of the classifier.
Proctor, Cameron; He, Yuhong; Robinson, Vincent
Seed dispersal should leave a signature on the spatial distribution of recruits that can be quantified using sophisticated techniques of spatial pattern analysis. Here we study spatial patterns of five frugivore-dispersed tropical tree species at the Barro Colorado Island forest, Panama, to describe detailed properties of the spatial patterns of recruits and to investigate whether these patterns were produced by temporally consistent mechanisms. Our spatial point pattern analyses detected the existence of surprising spatial structures, such as double-cluster and superposition patterns, and they allowed for a detailed quantification of their properties. The spatial recruitment patterns were composed of two independent components comprising a random component and a component showing a complex spatial pattern with two critical scales of clustering. The analysis allowed an estimation of the relative contribution of scatter dispersal versus clump dispersal in effective seed dispersal for our study species. Additionally, the cluster characteristics were temporally consistent over 25 years and correlated with several species traits. We are just beginning to discover the richness of spatial patterns found at tropical forests, and we are confident that a combination of advanced point pattern analysis with field data will allow for significant advances in establishing the link between spatial patterns and processes. PMID:19691434
Wiegand, Thorsten; Martínez, Isabel; Huth, Andreas
This literature review presents information about the role of tree root systems for the functioning of agroforestry associations and rotations and attempts to identify root-related criteria for the selection of agroforestry tree species and the design of agroforestry systems. Tree roots are expected to enrich soil with organic matter, feed soil biomass, reduce nutrient leaching, recycle nutrients from the subsoil
TreeFam (http://www.treefam.org) is a database of phylogenetic trees inferred from animal genomes. For every TreeFam family we provide homology predictions together with the evolutionary history of the genes. Here we describe an update of the TreeFam database. The TreeFam project was resurrected in 2012 and has seen two releases since. The latest release (TreeFam 9) was made available in March 2013. It has orthology predictions and gene trees for 109 species in 15,736 families covering ?2.2 million sequences. With release 9 we made modifications to our production pipeline and redesigned our website with improved gene tree visualizations and Wikipedia integration. Furthermore, we now provide an HMM-based sequence search that places a user-provided protein sequence into a TreeFam gene tree and provides quick orthology prediction. The tool uses Mafft and RAxML for the fast insertion into a reference alignment and tree, respectively. Besides the aforementioned technical improvements, we present a new approach to visualize gene trees and alternative displays that focuses on showing homology information from a species tree point of view. From release 9 onwards, TreeFam is now hosted at the EBI. PMID:24194607
Schreiber, Fabian; Patricio, Mateus; Muffato, Matthieu; Pignatelli, Miguel; Bateman, Alex
To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based “supergene” approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.
Blair, Jaime E.; Coffey, Michael D.; Martin, Frank N.
Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields.
Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.
Empirical ecological response surfaces were derived for eight dominant tree species in the boreal forest region of Canada. tepwise logistic regression was used to model species dominance as a response to five climatic predictor variables. he predictor variables (annual snowfall, ...
Tree species identification is important for a variety of natural resource management and monitoring activities including riparian buffer characterization, wildfire risk assessment, biodiversity monitoring, and wildlife habitat improvement. Coordinate data from airborne laser scanners can be used to detect individual trees and characterize forest biophysical attributes. Metrics computed from LIDAR point data describe tree size and crown shape characteristics. The intensity data recorded for each laser point is related to the spectral reflectance of the target material and thus may be useful for differentiating materials and ultimately tree species. The aim of this study is to test if LIDAR intensity data and crown structure metrics can be used to differentiate tree species. Leaf-on and leaf-off LIDAR were obtained in the Washington Park Arboretum. Field work was conducted to measure tree locations, heights, crown base heights, and crown diameters for eight broadleaved species and seven conifers. LIDAR points from individual trees were identified using the field-measured tree location. Points from adjacent trees were excluded. We found that intensity values for different tree species varied depending on foliage characteristics, the presence or absence of foliage, and the position of the LIDAR return within the tree crown. In terms of the intensity analysis, the classification accuracy for broadleaved and coniferous species was better using leaf-off data than using leaf-on data while in terms of the structure analysis, the accuracy was better using leaf-on data than using leaf-off data. The stepwise cluster analysis was conducted to find similar groups of species at consecutive steps using k-medoid algorithm. When using both LIDAR datasets showed the most reasonable clustering result compared with the result using either one of the datasets. The research presented in this dissertation provides a significant contribution to the understanding of how various tree species can be identified through the structural and spectral characteristics derived from LIDAR data.
Arbuscular mycorrhizas improve the growth and nutrient uptake of plants and are formed in 80% of all land plants. Little information is available on the status of arbuscular mycorrhizas in tropical soils. The objective of this study was to clarify mycorrhizal colonization of tree species grown in tropical peat soils. Seedlings of 22 tree species in 14 families grown in
K. Tawaraya; Y. Takaya; M. Turjaman; S. J. Tuah; S. H. Limin; Y. Tamai; J. Y. Cha; T. Wagatsuma; M. Osaki
Summary 1 Unravelling which factors affect where tropical trees grow is an important goal for ecologists and conservationists. At the landscape scale, debate is mostly focused on the degree to which the distributions of tree species are determined by soil conditions or by neutral, distance-dependent processes. Problems with spatial autocorrelation, sparse soil sampling, inclusion of species-poor sites with extreme edaphic
Oliver L. Phillips; Percy Nunez Vargas; Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo; Antonio Pena Cruz; Maria-Elena Chuspe Zans; Washington Galiano Sanchez; Markku Yli-Halla; Sam Rose
We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous
Sarah E. Hobbie; Peter B. Reich; Jacek Oleksyn; Megan Ogdahl; Roma Zytkowiak; Cynthia Hale; Piotr Karolewski
An understanding of plant domestication history provides insights into general mechanisms of plant adaptation and diversification and can guide breeding programmes that aim to improve cultivated species. Cultivated tree peonies (genus Paeonia L.) are among the most popular ornamental plants in the world; yet, the history of their domestication is still unresolved. Here, we explored whether the domestication in China of historically cultivated peonies, that is, the common and flare cultivated tree peonies, was a single event or whether independent domestications occurred. We used 14 nuclear microsatellite markers and a comprehensive set of 553 tree peonies collected across China, including common tree peonies, flare tree peonies and the wild species or subspecies that are potential contributors to the cultivated tree peonies, that is, Paeonia rockii ssp. rockii, P. rockii ssp. atava, P. jishanensis and P. decomposita. Assignment methods, a principal component analysis and approximate Bayesian computations provided clear evidence for independent domestications of these common tree and flare tree peonies from two distinct and allopatric wild species, P. jishanensis and P. rockii ssp. atava, respectively. This study provides the first example of independent domestications of cultivated trees from distinct species and locations. This work also yields crucial insight into the history of domestication of one of the most popular woody ornamental plants. The cultivated peonies represent an interesting case of parallel and convergent evolution. The information obtained in this study will be valuable both for improving current tree peony breeding strategies and for understanding the mechanisms of domestication, diversification and adaptation in plants. PMID:24138195
Yuan, Jun-Hui; Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Cheng, Fang-Yun; Hu, Yong-Hong
An efficient method for cloning Syzygium cumini (above 40 years old) through mature nodal segments has been successfully developed and that could be exploited for large-scale production of this valuable multipurpose tree. Nodal segments from mature tree were taken as explants and cultured on MS basal medium with different cytokinins (BA, Kin, AdS). The application of BA proved to be the best responsive cytokinin for the induction of shoot buds and shoots, but the proliferated shoots exhibited slower and stunted growth accompanied with abscission of leaves and shoot tip necrosis (STN). The problem of leaf abscission and STN was considerably reduced by the application of an adjuvant, adenine sulphate (AdS) in the optimal medium which led to the production of a maximum of 14 shoots. Further improvement in shoot bud regeneration and improved growth pattern of the regenerating tissue was obtained on the media comprised of MS?+?BA (10 ?M)?+?GA3 (2.5 ?M). A total number of 15 shoots with mean shoot length of 5.9 cm was obtained. The healthy elongated shoots were then rooted on MS basal augmented with NAA (5 ?M). The plantlets obtained were healthy and were successfully acclimatized and transferred under field condition with 70 % survival rate. PMID:24682901
Naaz, Afshan; Shahzad, Anwar; Anis, Mohammad
Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from trees can enhance the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone. Isoprene is one of the most environmentally important BVOCs, since its emission rate from certain tree species can be high and its chemical structure gives it high ozone forming potential. Understanding of isoprene emission rates from many tree species is limited, including influences of tree age, season, and other factors. Five oak species were studied which represent approximately 85 percent of the deciduous trees in South Korean forests. In general, there were obvious seasonal variations of isoprene emissions from five oak trees. Especially, Quercus aliena B. and Quercus mongolica F showed substantial seasonal variations of isoprene emissions; However, Quercus serrata T. and Quercus acutissima C. generally did not. It was found that Q. serrata T. showed the highest isoprene emission rates among the species tested (up to 130.5 ?gC gdw -1 h -1) and its emission rates were highest during spring followed by summer and fall. The emission rates from two ( Q. acutissima C., Quercus variabilis B.) of the other tested oak species were lower by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Besides, two oak species, Q. aliena B. and Q. mongolica F. were chosen to determine the effect of tree age on isoprene emissions. Trees at the age of 21˜30 years had significantly higher isoprene emission rates than those at the age of 41˜50.
Lim, Yong-Jae; Armendariz, Al; Son, Youn-Suk; Kim, Jo-Chun
Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, J. -S.; Grimley, D. A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J. O.
In this study seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are described from baobab (Adansonia gibbosa) and surrounding endemic tree species growing in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae were predominantly endophytes isolated from apparently healthy sapwood and bark of endemic trees; others were isolated from dying branches. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and EF1-alpha sequence data revealed seven new species: Dothiorella longicollis, Fusicoccum ramosum, Lasiodiplodia margaritacea, Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae, Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae, P. ardesiacum and P. kimberleyense. PMID:19202840
Pavlic, Draginja; Wingfield, Michael J; Barber, Paul; Slippers, Bernard; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I
Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), an invasive tree species in southern Florida, is generally thought to have higher transpiration rates than the native vegetation, however little empirical data is available to support this claim. In this study, thermal dissipation probes were used to measure transpiration rates of the three species growing in a hydric ecotone in southwest Florida. Transpiration rates of melaleuca, slash pine (Pinus elliottii), and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) were compared to assess seasonal variability between the wet and dry seasons. Individually trees of both bald cypress and slash pine showed significantly higher water fluxes than melaleuca (p<0.05). However, when individual tree fluxes were scaled to the ecosystem-level, melaleuca contributed 21% of the water flux and bald cypress contributed 72% during the wet season. Melaleuca's increased contribution at the landscape-level results from higher tree densities at our study site. Following leaf senescence in the early dry season, bald cypress continues to be a significant water user at the landscape level. With higher atmospheric demands for water, bald cypress was the least conservative of the three species with respect to water use, whereas on days with low atmospheric demands for water the three species function similarly. These results do not support the hypothesis that melaleuca uses more water than the native Florida tree species, however, they suggest the density of melaleuca at the landscape-scale is important in our understanding of its role in the hydrologic cycle.
Knight, T. M.; Leisure, R. M.; Everham, E. M.; Bovard, B. D.
Acacia senegal, an important leguminous tree in arid and semi-arid environments, has shown promise as a multipurpose species, including gum production and soil fertility improvement, linked with N2-fixation capabilities. Of particular interest are ontogenetic and edaphic effects on A. senegal performance in natural populations. Our research objectives were to investigate the effect of tree age and site phosphorus conditions on
Marney E. Isaac; Jean-Michel Harmand; Didier Lesueur; Joseph Lelon
Root diameter, a critical indicator of root physiological function, varies greatly among tree species, but the underlying mechanism of this high variability is unclear. Here, we sampled 50 tree species across tropical and temperate zones in China, and measured root morphological and anatomical traits along the first five branch orders in each species. Our objectives were (i) to reveal the relationships between root diameter, cortical thickness and stele diameter among tree species in tropical and temperate forests, and (ii) to investigate the relationship of both root morphological and anatomical traits with divergence time during species radiation. The results showed that root diameter was strongly affected by cortical thickness but less by stele diameter in both tropical and temperate species. Changes in cortical thickness explained over 90% of variation in root diameter for the first order, and ?74-87% for the second and third orders. Thicker roots displayed greater cortical thickness and more cortical cell layers than thinner roots. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that root diameter, cortical thickness and number of cortical cell layers significantly correlated with divergence time at the family level, showing similar variation trends in geological time. The results also suggested that trees tend to decrease their root cortical thickness rather than stele diameter during species radiation. The close linkage of variations in root morphology and anatomy to phylogeny as demonstrated by the data from the 50 tree species should provide some insights into the mechanism of root diameter variability among tree species. PMID:24695727
Gu, Jiacun; Xu, Yang; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan
Dispersal limitation plays an important role in a number of equilibrium and nonequilibrium theories about community ecology. In this study we use the framework of island biogeography to look for evidence of dispersal limitation in ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages on "tree islands," patches of host trees located in a non-host vegetation matrix. Because of the potentially strong effects of island area on species richness and immigration, we chose to control island size by sampling tree islands consisting of a single host individual. Richness on tree islands was high, with estimates ranging up to 42 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi associating with a single host individual. Species richness decreased significantly with increasing isolation of tree islands, with our regression predicting a 50% decrease in species richness when tree islands are located distances of approximately 1 km from large patches of contiguous forests. Despite the fact that fungal fruit bodies produce large numbers of spores with high potential for long-distance travel, these results suggest that dispersal limitation is significant in ectomycorrhizal assemblages. There were no discernible effects of isolation or environment on the species identity of tree island fungal colonists. In contrast to the highly predictable patterns of tree island colonization we observed in a previous study on early successional forests, we suggest that over longer time periods the community assembly process becomes more dominated by stochastic immigration and local extinction events. PMID:21302834
Peay, Kabir G; Garbelotto, Matteo; Bruns, Thomas D
We explored the efficacy of species tree methods at the family level in birds, using the Australo-Papuan Fairy-wrens (Passeriformes: Maluridae) as a model system. Fairy-wrens of the genus Malurus are known for high intensities of sexual selection, resulting in some cases in rapid speciation. This history suggests that incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) of neutrally evolving loci could be substantial, a situation that could compromise traditional methods of combining loci in phylogenetic analysis. Using 18 molecular markers (5 anonymous loci, 7 exons, 5 introns, and 1 mitochondrial DNA locus), we show that gene tree monophyly across species could be rejected for 16 of 18 loci, suggesting substantial ILS at the family level in these birds. Using the software Concaterpillar, we also detect three statistically distinct clusters of gene trees among the 18 loci. Despite substantial variation in gene trees, species trees constructed using four different species tree estimation methods (BEST, BUCKy, and STAR) were generally well supported and similar to each other and to the concatenation tree, with a few mild discordances at nodes that could be explained by rapid and recent speciation events. By contrast, minimizing deep coalescences produced a species tree that was topologically more divergent from those of the other methods as measured by multidimensional scaling of trees. Additionally, gene and species trees were topologically more similar in the BEST analysis, presumably because of the species tree prior employed in BEST which appropriately assumes that gene trees are correlated with each other and with the species tree. Among the 18 loci, we also discovered 102 independent indel markers, which also proved phylogenetically informative, primarily among genera, and displayed a ?4-fold bias towards deletions. As suggested in earlier work, the grasswrens (Amytornis) are sister to the rest of the family and the emu-wrens (Stipiturus) are sister to fairy-wrens (Malurus, Clytomyias). Our study shows that ILS is common at the family level in birds yet, despite this, species tree methods converge on broadly similar results for this family. PMID:21978990
Lee, June Y; Joseph, Leo; Edwards, Scott V
A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30-40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop. PMID:24751720
Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer
A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30–40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop.
Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer
Regeneration of seven indigenous tree species having significant ecological and economic importance was investigated in the Munessa-Shashemene dry Afromontane forest (MSF), southern Ethiopia. Densities and distributions of seedlings, saplings and trees were assessed along gradients of altitude, light and disturbance using quadrat sizes of 10×5m (for seedlings) and 20×20m (saplings and trees) following line transects. The number of individuals, frequency
Getachew Tesfaye; Demel Teketay; Masresha Fetene; Erwin Beck
Cellulase activities of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) adults from two host plants (Populus simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu. and Salix matsudana Koidz) fed on three different host tree species (Acer negundo Linn., S. matsudana Koidz and P. simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu.) were investigated. Enzyme activities of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase in the intestines of the insects were
Xiao-juan Li; Xiong-fei Yan; You-qing Luo; Gui-fang Tian; Yin-jie Nian; Hong Sun
The commercial cultivation of rosaceous fruit trees (e.g., pear, apple, cherry, peach, plum) relies heavily upon the quality and performance of the rootstocks. This is even more the case now that self-rooted scions produce larger trees with a longer juvenile phase (1). It would, therefore, be of special interest for the fruit breeder to have general purpose rootstocks with a wide ecophysiological adaptation and high compatibility coupled with early cropping. In addition, many of the older and highly adapted scion varieties of fruit trees could benefit greatly from the introduction of stable, yet minor changes in their genome. Fruit trees are generally highly heterozygous, outbreeding, and thus are asexually propagated (see Chapter 10 , this vol.). Consequently, genetic improvement is likely to be based on protoplast technology, and achieved mainly through somatic methods, such as somaclonal variation or somatic hybridization. PMID:21390607
Ochatt, S J; Davey, M R; Power, J B
Modern forest management poses an increasing need for detailed knowledge of forest information at different spatial scales. At the forest level, the information for tree species assemblage is desired whereas at or below the stand level, individual tree related information is preferred. Remote Sensing provides an effective tool to extract the above information at multiple spatial scales in the continuous time domain. To date, the increasing volume and readily availability of high-spatial-resolution data have lead to a much wider application of remotely sensed products. Nevertheless, to make effective use of the improving spatial resolution, conventional pixel-based classification methods are far from satisfactory. Correspondingly, developing object-based methods becomes a central challenge for researchers in the field of Remote Sensing. This thesis focuses on the development of methods for accurate individual tree identification and tree species classification. We develop a method in which individual tree crown boundaries and treetop locations are derived under a unified framework. We apply a two-stage approach with edge detection followed by marker-controlled watershed segmentation. Treetops are modeled from radiometry and geometry aspects. Specifically, treetops are assumed to be represented by local radiation maxima and to be located near the center of the tree-crown. As a result, a marker image was created from the derived treetop to guide a watershed segmentation to further differentiate overlapping trees and to produce a segmented image comprised of individual tree crowns. The image segmentation method developed achieves a promising result for a 256 x 256 CASI image. Then further effort is made to extend our methods to the multiscales which are constructed from a wavelet decomposition. A scale consistency and geometric consistency are designed to examine the gradients along the scale-space for the purpose of separating true crown boundary from unwanted textures occurring due to branches and twigs. As a result from the inverse wavelet transform, the tree crown boundary is enhanced while the unwanted textures are suppressed. Based on the enhanced image, an improvement is achieved when applying the two-stage methods to a high resolution aerial photograph. To improve tree species classification, we develop a new method to choose the optimal scale parameter with the aid of Bhattacharya Distance (BD), a well-known index of class separability in traditional pixel-based classification. The optimal scale parameter is then fed in the process of a region-growing-based segmentation as a break-off value. Our object classification achieves a better accuracy in separating tree species when compared to the conventional Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC). In summary, we develop two object-based methods for identifying individual trees and classifying tree species from high-spatial resolution imagery. Both methods achieve promising results and will promote integration of Remote Sensing and GIS in forest applications.
Casuarina equisetifolia is one of the most extensively introduced tree species outside its natural range and is a true multipurpose species, providing\\u000a a range of services and products for industrial and local end users. Natural hybrids of C. equisetifolia have been reported and a putative hybrid of C. junghuhniana and C. equisetifolia is commercially cultivated in Thailand and India. In
Modhumita Ghosh; Palanisamy Chezhian; Ramasamy Sumathi; Ramasamy Yasodha
Mango (Mangifera indica) sudden decline is an important disease in Oman, which is closely associated with infections by Ceratocystis fimbriata and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Another Ceratocystis species has also been found associated with symptoms on diseased trees. In this study, we identify that Ceratocystis based on morphology and DNA sequences. Morphological comparisons showed that the fungus from dying mango trees in
Ali M. Al-Subhi; Ali O. Al-Adawi; Marelize Van Wyk; Michael L. Deadman; Michael J. Wingfield
Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community. PMID:21562693
Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D
The climbing habit is an evolutionary key innovation in plants because it is associated with enhanced clade diversification. We tested whether patterns of species divergence and variation of three ecophysiological traits that are fundamental for plant adaptation to light environments (maximum photosynthetic rate [Amax], dark respiration rate [Rd], and specific leaf area [SLA]) are consistent with this key innovation. Using data reported from four tropical forests and three temperate forests, we compared phylogenetic distance among species as well as the evolutionary rate, phylogenetic distance and phylogenetic signal of those traits in lianas and trees. Estimates of evolutionary rates showed that Rd evolved faster in lianas, while SLA evolved faster in trees. The mean phylogenetic distance was 1.2 times greater among liana species than among tree species. Likewise, estimates of phylogenetic distance indicated that lianas were less related than by chance alone (phylogenetic evenness across 63 species), and trees were more related than expected by chance (phylogenetic clustering across 71 species). Lianas showed evenness for Rd, while trees showed phylogenetic clustering for this trait. In contrast, for SLA, lianas exhibited phylogenetic clustering and trees showed phylogenetic evenness. Lianas and trees showed patterns of ecophysiological trait variation among species that were independent of phylogenetic relatedness. We found support for the expected pattern of greater species divergence in lianas, but did not find consistent patterns regarding ecophysiological trait evolution and divergence. Rd followed the species-level pattern, i.e., greater divergence/evolution in lianas compared to trees, while the opposite occurred for SLA and no pattern was detected for Amax. Rd may have driven lianas' divergence across forest environments, and might contribute to diversification in climber clades.
Rios, Rodrigo S.; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto
The climbing habit is an evolutionary key innovation in plants because it is associated with enhanced clade diversification. We tested whether patterns of species divergence and variation of three ecophysiological traits that are fundamental for plant adaptation to light environments (maximum photosynthetic rate [Amax], dark respiration rate [Rd], and specific leaf area [SLA]) are consistent with this key innovation. Using data reported from four tropical forests and three temperate forests, we compared phylogenetic distance among species as well as the evolutionary rate, phylogenetic distance and phylogenetic signal of those traits in lianas and trees. Estimates of evolutionary rates showed that Rd evolved faster in lianas, while SLA evolved faster in trees. The mean phylogenetic distance was 1.2 times greater among liana species than among tree species. Likewise, estimates of phylogenetic distance indicated that lianas were less related than by chance alone (phylogenetic evenness across 63 species), and trees were more related than expected by chance (phylogenetic clustering across 71 species). Lianas showed evenness for Rd, while trees showed phylogenetic clustering for this trait. In contrast, for SLA, lianas exhibited phylogenetic clustering and trees showed phylogenetic evenness. Lianas and trees showed patterns of ecophysiological trait variation among species that were independent of phylogenetic relatedness. We found support for the expected pattern of greater species divergence in lianas, but did not find consistent patterns regarding ecophysiological trait evolution and divergence. Rd followed the species-level pattern, i.e., greater divergence/evolution in lianas compared to trees, while the opposite occurred for SLA and no pattern was detected for Amax. Rd may have driven lianas' divergence across forest environments, and might contribute to diversification in climber clades. PMID:24914958
Rios, Rodrigo S; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto
Many studies on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have characterized emission rates with dependencies on temperature and light radiation. Few studies have examined emission trends in relation to seasonal variation. In this study, BVOC emissions of several coniferous tree species were monitored in Boulder, Colorado for one complete seasonal cycle between 2009 and 2010. Four coniferous tree species native to Colorado were selected; a ponderosa pine, blue spruce, douglas fir and bristlecone pine. BVOC emissions were collected using branch enclosure methods and sampled onto solid adsorbent cartridges with subsequent analysis by thermal desorption, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tree species were sampled monthly for 3 to 5 days time period throughout the entire year. Temperature and photosynthetically active radiation were monitored concurrently with emission samples. Monoterpenes and oxidized monoterpenes were the dominant BVOC emissions. Emissions from all tree species displayed strong temperature dependence with highest emission rates observed between May - July and minimal emissions during the winter season.
Daly, R. W.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A. B.; Baghi, R.; Baroch, C.; Borke, C.
Differences in within-species phenology and structure driven by factors including topography, edaphic properties, and climatic variables across the landscape present important challenges to species differentiation with remote sensing. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the classification performance of a multiple-endmember spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification approach in discriminating seven common African savanna tree species and to compare the
Moses Azong Cho; Renaud Mathieu; Pravesh Debba
A total of 458 in situ hyperspectral data were collected from 13 urban tree species in the City of Tampa, FL, USA using a spectrometer. The 13 species include 11 broadleaf and two conifer species. Three different techniques, segmented canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), segmented principal component analysis (PCA) and segmented stepwise discriminate analysis (SDA), were applied and compared for dimension
Ruiliang Pu; Desheng Liu
The aim of the study was to identify pioneering species that naturally colonize Fe tailings and accumulation of heavy metals. Total, bioavailable, acid extractable and water?soluble fractions were studied. After the second year onwards, along with nine herbaceous pioneering species, four tree species (Teactona grandis, Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica and Peltaphorum) were found growing naturally. The study shows that some
S. K. Maiti; S. Nandhini; Manab Das
Conifer-feeding sawflies in the genus Neodiprion provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the origin and maintenance of barriers to reproduction, but obtaining a phylogenetic estimate for comparative studies of Neodiprion speciation has proved difficult. Specifically, nonmonophyly within and discordance between individual gene trees, both of which are common in groups that diverged recently and/or rapidly, make it impossible to infer a species tree using methods that are designed to estimate gene trees. Therefore, in this study, we estimate relationships between members of the lecontei species group using four approaches that are intended to estimate species, not gene, trees: (1) minimize deep coalescences (MDC), (2) shallowest divergences (SD), (3) Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST), and (4) a novel approach that combines concatenation with monophyly constraints (CMC). Multiple populations are sampled for most species and all four methods incorporate this intraspecific variation into estimates of interspecific relationships. We investigate the sensitivity of each method to taxonomic sampling, and, for the BEST method, we assess the impact of prior choice on species-tree inference. We also compare species-tree estimates to one another and to a morphologically based hypothesis to identify clades that are supported by multiple analyses and lines of evidence. We find that both taxonomic sampling and method choice impact species-tree estimates and that, for these data, the BEST method is strongly influenced by Theta and branch-length priors. We also find that the CMC method is the least sensitive to taxonomic sampling. Finally, although interspecific genetic variation is low due to the recent divergence of the lecontei group, our results to date suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific gene flow are the main factors complicating species-tree inference in Neodiprion. Based on these analyses, we propose a phylogenetic hypothesis for the lecontei group. Finally, our results suggest that, even for very challenging groups like Neodiprion, an underlying species-tree signal can be extracted from multi-locus data as long as intraspecific variation is adequately sampled and methods that focus on the estimation of species trees are used. PMID:19085330
Linnen, Catherine R; Farrell, Brian D
We investigated the utility of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery for the automated species-level classification of individual tree crowns (ITCs) in a tropical rain forest (TRF). Laboratory spectrometer and airborne reflectance spectra (161 bands, 437–2434 nm) were acquired from seven species of emergent trees. Analyses focused on leaf-, pixel- and crown-scale spectra. We first described the spectral regions and
Matthew L. Clark; Dar A. Roberts; David B. Clark
Presence of different types of trees dispersed singly or in small groups throughout the fields is a very common feature in\\u000a the extensive rice paddies of Laos and Thailand. Factors such as land-settlement history, proximity to forest, and role of\\u000a species in the local culture are known to influence the nature and distribution of tree species so retained. The extent
Y. Kosaka; S. Takeda; S. Prixar; S. Sithirajvongsa; K. Xaydala
Reintroducing orangutans (Pongo spp.) into the wild requires a suitable, secure habitat. To identify acceptable areas for their reintroduction and define priority conservation sites, we analysed the tree species composition in the Bukit Tigapuluh ecosystem in Jambi, Sumatra. We used this information to determine the distribution patterns of those species that represent an essential part of the diet of reintroduced orangutans. Important orangutan food tree species showed significant differences in composition, frequency and abundance among topographic forest types and recovered selectively logged and unlogged forests. Riparian forests and recovered selectively logged areas offered a vegetation composition and forest structure most suitable for the reintroduction of orangutans and showed numerous important tree species that serve as indicator species, i.e. species growing predominantly or exclusively in a specific forest type. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24504132
Kelle, Doris; Gärtner, Stefanie; Pratje, Peter H; Storch, Ilse
Bowers, M. C.; Gao, J. B.; Tung, W. W.
An understanding of the drivers of tree growth at the species level is required to predict likely changes of carbon stocks and biodiversity when environmental conditions change. Especially in species-rich tropical forests, it is largely unknown how species differ in their response of growth to resource availability and individual size. We use a hierarchical Bayesian approach to quantify the impact of light availability and tree diameter on growth of 274 woody species in a 50-ha long-term forest census plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Light reaching each individual tree was estimated from yearly vertical censuses of canopy density. The hierarchical Bayesian approach allowed accounting for different sources of error, such as negative growth observations, and including rare species correctly weighted by their abundance. All species grew faster at higher light. Exponents of a power function relating growth to light were mostly between 0 and 1. This indicates that nearly all species exhibit a decelerating increase of growth with light. In contrast, estimated growth rates at standardized conditions (5 cm dbh, 5% light) varied over a 9-fold range and reflect strong growth-strategy differentiation between the species. As a consequence, growth rankings of the species at low (2%) and high light (20%) were highly correlated. Rare species tended to grow faster and showed a greater sensitivity to light than abundant species. Overall, tree size was less important for growth than light and about half the species were predicted to grow faster in diameter when bigger or smaller, respectively. Together light availability and tree diameter only explained on average 12% of the variation in growth rates. Thus, other factors such as soil characteristics, herbivory, or pathogens may contribute considerably to shaping tree growth in the tropics.
Ruger, Nadja; Berger, Uta; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Condit, Richard
In this paper, a methodology for individual tree-based species classification using high sampling density and small footprint lidar data is clarified, corrected and improved. For this purpose, a well-defined directed graph (digraph) is introduced and it plays a fundamental role in the approach. It is argued that there exists one and only one such unique digraph that describes all four pure events and resulting disjoint sets of laser points associated with a single tree in data from a two-return lidar system. However, the digraph is extendable so that it fits an n-return lidar system ( n > 2) with higher logical resolution. Furthermore, a mathematical notation for different types of groupings of the laser points is defined, and a new terminology for various types of individual tree-based concepts defined by the digraph is proposed. A novel calibration technique for estimating individual tree heights is evaluated. The approach replaces the unreliable maximum single laser point height of each tree with a more reliable prediction based on shape characteristics of a marginal height distribution of the whole first-return point cloud of each tree. The result shows a reduction of the RMSE of the tree heights of about 20% (stddev = 1.1 m reduced to stddev = 0.92 m). The method improves the species classification accuracy markedly, but it could also be used for reducing the sampling density at the time of data acquisition. Using the calibrated tree heights, a scale-invariant rescaled space for the universal set of points for each tree is defined, in which all individual tree-based geometric measurements are conducted. With the corrected and improved classification methodology the total accuracy raises from 60% to 64% for classifying three leaf-off individual tree deciduous species ( N = 200 each) in West Virginia, USA: oaks ( Quercus spp.), red maple ( Acer rubrum), and yellow poplar ( Liriodendron tuliperifera).
Population-specific differences in the freezing resistance of Metrosideros polymorpha leaves were studied along an elevational gradient from sea level to tree line (located at ca. 2500 m above sea level) on the east flank of the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. In addition, we also studied 8-yr-old saplings grown in a common garden from seeds collected from the same field populations. Leaves of low-elevation field plants exhibited damage at -2 degrees C, before the onset of ice formation, which occurred at -5.7 degrees C. Leaves of high-elevation plants exhibited damage at ca. -8.5 degrees C, concurrent with ice formation in the leaf tissue, which is typical of plants that avoid freezing in their natural environment by supercooling. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed that water molecules of both extra- and intracellular leaf water fractions from high-elevation plants had restricted mobility, which is consistent with their low water content and their high levels of osmotically active solutes. Decreased mobility of water molecules may delay ice nucleation and/or ice growth and may therefore enhance the ability of plant tissues to supercool. Leaf traits that correlated with specific differences in supercooling capacity were in part genetically determined and in part environmentally induced. Evidence indicated that lower apoplastic water content and smaller intercellular spaces were associated with the larger supercooling capacity of the plant's foliage at tree line. The irreversible tissue-damage temperature decreased by ca. 7 degrees C from sea level to tree line in leaves of field populations. However, this decrease appears to be only large enough to allow M. polymorpha trees to avoid leaf tissue damage from freezing up to a level of ca. 2500 m elevation, which is also the current tree line location on the east flank of Mauna Loa. The limited freezing resistance of M. polymorpha leaves may be partially responsible for the occurrence of tree line at a relatively low elevation in Hawaii compared with continental tree lines, which can be up to 1500 m higher. If the elevation of tree line is influenced by the inability of M. polymorpha leaves to supercool to lower subzero temperatures, then it will be the first example that freezing damage resulting from limited supercooling capacity can be a factor in tree line formation. PMID:10817972
Melcher; Cordell; Jones; Scowcroft; Niemczura; Giambelluca; Goldstein
Background Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N) concentration and lowest lignin?N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin?N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid mites did not. Conclusions/Significance Although some soil characteristics were unaffected by tree species identity, our results clearly demonstrate that these dominant tree species are associated with soils that differ in several physical, chemical, and biotic properties. Ongoing environmental changes in this region, e.g. changes in fire regime, frequency of insect outbreaks, changes in precipitation patterns and snowpack, and land-use change, may alter the relative abundance of these tree species over coming decades, which in turn will likely alter the soils.
Ayres, Edward; Steltzer, Heidi; Berg, Sarah; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Simmons, Breana L.; Wall, Diana H.
Tree species composition (diameter at breast height (dbh) = 10 cm) was studied in primary, selectively logged and heavily burnt forests in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The number of trees, tree species, and the Fishers's-a diversity index were determined for the first 15 years (burnt forest) and 25 years (selectively logged forest) after disturbance. Additionally the population structure of six common
J. W. Ferry Slik; Rene W. Verburg; Paul J. a. Keßler
The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a destructive pest that attacks many species of deciduous hardwood trees. One of its natural enemies is Dastarcus helophoroides that parasitizes many species of longhorned beetles. Larval frass from six different host tree species varied in attraction to D. helophoroides adults, and frass from one host species, Acer negundo, showed no attraction at
Jian Rong Wei; Li Jiang
This study tests the capacity of relatively low density (<1 return/m 2) airborne laser scanner data for discriminating between Douglas-fir, western larch, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine in a western North American montane forest and it evaluates the relative importance of intensity, height, and return type metrics for classifying tree species. Collectively, Exploratory Data Analysis, Pearson Correlation, ANOVA, and Linear Discriminant Analysis show that structural and intensity characteristics generated from LIDAR data are useful for classifying species at dominant and individual tree levels in multi-aged, mixed conifer forests. Proportions of return types and mean intensities are significantly different between species ( p-value < 0.001) for plot-level dominant species and individual trees. Classification accuracies based on single variables range from 49%-61% at the dominant species level and 37%-52% for individual trees. The accuracy can be improved to 95% and 68% respectively by using multiple variables. The inclusion of proportion of return type greatly improves the classification accuracy at the dominant species level, but not for individual trees, while canopy height improves the accuracy at both levels. Overall differences in intensity and return type between species largely reflect variations in the physical structure of trees and stands. These results are consistent with the findings of others and point to airborne laser scanning as a useful source of data for species classification. However, there are still many knowledge gaps that prevent accurate mapping of species using ALS data alone, particularly with relatively sparse datasets like the one used in this study. Further investigations using other datasets in different forest types will likely result in improvements to species identification and mapping for some time to come.
Suratno, Agus; Seielstad, Carl; Queen, Lloyd
We studied the influence of tree species on soil carbon and nitrogen (N) dynamics in a common garden of replicated monocultures\\u000a of fourteen angiosperm and gymnosperm, broadleaf and needleleaf species in southwestern Poland. We hypothesized that species\\u000a would influence soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition primarily via effects on biogeochemical recalcitrance, with species\\u000a having tissues with high lignin concentrations retarding rates
Sarah E. Hobbie; Megan Ogdahl; Jon Chorover; Oliver A. Chadwick; Jacek Oleksyn; Roma Zytkowiak; Peter B. Reich
Mount Papandayan Nature Reserve (MPNR) is an area highly rich in biodiversity, however deforestation has left a vast area urgently in need of reforestation. When reforestation is designed to restore some level of biodiversity, it is imperative that native tree species are used for planting. This research aimed to provide information on the flowering and fruiting phenology of native trees. Such information can be useful to plan seed collection and mass seedling production in the nursery. The observations were conducted each month during August 2009-July 2010 by recording flowering and fruiting trees along two survey track passing through the middle of the mixed forest of MPNR. Data gathered were used to construct a simple phenology calendar. During the study, there were 155 trees of 43 species found flowering or fruiting along the survey track. The peak time of flowering and fruiting was in July (13 species flowering and 19 species fruiting), while the lowest level was in October (1 species flowering and 3 species fruiting). According to the phenology calendar constructed, March to July were considered to be the appropriate time to collect seeds of native trees in Mount Papandayan. PMID:24575236
Sulistyawati, Endah; Mashita, Nusa; Setiawan, Nuri Nurlaila; Choesin, Devi N; Suryana, Pipin
Mount Papandayan Nature Reserve (MPNR) is an area highly rich in biodiversity, however deforestation has left a vast area urgently in need of reforestation. When reforestation is designed to restore some level of biodiversity, it is imperative that native tree species are used for planting. This research aimed to provide information on the flowering and fruiting phenology of native trees. Such information can be useful to plan seed collection and mass seedling production in the nursery. The observations were conducted each month during August 2009–July 2010 by recording flowering and fruiting trees along two survey track passing through the middle of the mixed forest of MPNR. Data gathered were used to construct a simple phenology calendar. During the study, there were 155 trees of 43 species found flowering or fruiting along the survey track. The peak time of flowering and fruiting was in July (13 species flowering and 19 species fruiting), while the lowest level was in October (1 species flowering and 3 species fruiting). According to the phenology calendar constructed, March to July were considered to be the appropriate time to collect seeds of native trees in Mount Papandayan.
Sulistyawati, Endah; Mashita, Nusa; Setiawan, Nuri Nurlaila; Choesin, Devi N; Suryana, Pipin
With recent advances in genomic sequencing, the importance of taking the effects of the processes that can cause discord between the speciation history and the individual gene histories into account has become evident. For multilocus datasets, it is difficult to achieve complete coverage of all sampled loci across all sample specimens, a problem that also arises when combining incompletely overlapping datasets. Here we examine how missing data affects the accuracy of species tree reconstruction. In our study, 10- and 100-locus sequence datasets were simulated under the coalescent model from shallow and deep speciation histories, and species trees were estimated using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian frameworks (with STEM and (*)BEAST, respectively). The accuracy of the estimated species trees was evaluated using the symmetric difference and the SPR distance. We examine the effects of sampling more than one individual per species, as well as the effects of different patterns of missing data (i.e., different amounts of missing data, which is represented among random taxa as opposed to being concentrated in specific taxa, as is often the case for empirical studies). Our general conclusion is that the species tree estimates are remarkably resilient to the effects of missing data. We find that for datasets with more limited numbers of loci, sampling more than one individual per species has the strongest effect on improving species tree accuracy when there is missing data, especially at higher degrees of missing data. For larger multilocus datasets (e.g., 25-100 loci), the amount of missing data has a negligible effect on species tree reconstruction, even at 50% missing data and a single sampled individual per species. PMID:23769751
Hovmöller, Rasmus; Knowles, L Lacey; Kubatko, Laura S
Savanna tree-grass interactions may be particularly sensitive to climate change. Establishment of two tree canopy dominants, post oak (Quercus stellata) and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), grown with the dominant C4 perennial grass (Schizachyrium scoparium) in southern oak savanna of the United States were evaluated under four climatic scenarios for 6 years. Tree-grass interactions were examined with and without warming (+1.5 °C) in combination with a long-term mean rainfall treatment and a modified rainfall regime that redistributed 40% of summer rainfall to spring and fall, intensifying summer drought. The aim was to determine: (1) the relative growth response of these species, (2) potential shifts in the balance of tree-grass interactions, and (3) the trajectory of juniper encroachment into savannas, under these anticipated climatic conditions. Precipitation redistribution reduced relative growth rate (RGR) of trees grown with grass. Warming increased growth of J. virginiana and strongly reduced Q. stellata survival. Tiller numbers of S. scoparium plants were unaffected by warming, but the number of reproductive tillers was increasingly suppressed by intensified drought each year. Growth rates of J. virginiana and Q. stellata were suppressed by grass presence early, but in subsequent years were higher when grown with grass. Quercus stellata had overall reduced RGR, but enhanced survival when grown with grass, while survival of J. virginiana remained near 100% in all treatments. Once trees surpassed a threshold height of 1.1 m, both tiller number and survival of S. scoparium plants were drastically reduced by the presence of J. virginiana, but not Q. stellata. Juniperus virginiana was the only savanna dominant in which neither survival nor final aboveground mass were adversely affected by the climate scenario of warming and intensified summer drought. These responses indicate that climate warming and altered precipitation patterns will further accelerate juniper encroachment and woody thickening in a warm-temperate oak savanna. PMID:23504841
Volder, Astrid; Briske, David D; Tjoelker, Mark G
Wind disturbance has been a frequently overlooked abiotic cause of mass tree mortality in the Amazon basin. In the Peruvian Amazon these wind disturbances are produced by meteorological events such as convective systems. Downbursts for example produce short term descendent wind speeds that can be in excess of 30 m s-1. These are capable of producing tree blowdowns which have been reported to be as large as 33 km2 in the Amazon basin. We used the chronosequence of Landsat Satellite imagery to find and locate where these blowdowns have occurred in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. Spectral Mixture Analysis was used to estimate the proportion landcover of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil and shade in each pixel. The change in NPV was calculated by subtracting the NPV signal in the Landsat image prior to the blowdown occurrence, from the image following the disturbance. Our prior research has established a linear relationship between tree mortality and change in NPV. It is hypothesized that these mass tree mortality events result in changes in the tree species assemblage of affected forests. Here we present preliminary tree species assemblage data from two sites in the Peruvian Amazon near Iquitos, Peru. The site (ALP) at the Allpahuayo Mishana reserve (3.945 S, 73.455 W) is 30 km south of Iquitos, Peru, and hosts the remnants of a 50 ha blowdown that occurred in either 1992 or 1993. Another site (NAPO) on the Napo river about 60 km north of Iquitos, is the location of an approximately 300 ha blowdown that occurred in 1998. At each site, a 3000 m x 10 m transect encompassing non disturbed and disturbed areas was installed, and trees greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured for diameter, height and were identified to the species. Stem density of trees with diameter at breast height > 10 cm, and tree height appear to be similar both inside and outside the blowdown affected areas of the forests at both sites. At the ALP and NAPO sites the most dramatic change in the tree species assemblage has been a three and an eleven fold increase in the pioneer tree family, Cecropiaceae, respectively. This preliminary data suggests that wind disturbance is capable of producing large shifts in the tree species assemblage of affected Amazon forests.
Rifai, S. W.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Ramirez, F.; Tello, R.; Alegria Muñoz, W.
Eleven hypogeous, ectomycorrhizal species of Basidiomycota, including two new species, and one of the Zygomycota were collected in exotic tree plantations in C6rdoba Province, Argentina. Descomyces fusisporus sp. nov., D. varians sp. nov., Hydnangium archeri (Berk.) Rodway, H. carneum Wallr., Hysterangium gardneri E. Fisch. and Setchelliogaster tenuipes (Setch.) Pouzar were associated with Eucalyptus spp. Endogone lactiflua Berk., Hymenogaster lycoperdineus Vittad., H. griseus Vittad., H. rehsteineri Bucholtz, Rhizopogon couchii A.H. Sm. and R. roseolus (Corda) Th. Fr., were associated with various northern hemisphere tree species. Descriptions are provided to aid identification of the hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations of Argentina. PMID:18959161
Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Daniele, Graciela G; Longo, Silvana; Trappe, James M; Claridge, Andrew W
A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV–vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species.
Micaela M. Sousa; Maria J. Melo; A. Jorge Parola; J. Sérgio Seixas de Melo; Fernando Catarino; Fernando Pina; Frances E. M. Cook; Monique S. J. Simmonds; João A. Lopes
Eucalyptus globulus is an important species for pulpwood production in many countries. The pattern and partitioning of variation is important baseline knowledge for tree breeding. Currently the species is divided into four subspecies: globulus, bicostata, pseudoglobulus and maidenii. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to analyse variation in 173 representatives of 37 natural populations of E. globulus: 31
K A Nesbitt; B M Potts; R E Vaillancourt; A K West; J B Reid
Empirical ecological response surfaces were derived for eight dominant tree species in the boreal forest region of Canada. Stepwise logistic regression was used to model species dominance as a response to five climatic predictor variables. The predictor variables (annual snowfall, degree-days, absolute minimum temperature, annual soil moisture deficit, and actual evapotranspiration summed over the summer months) influence the response of
James M. Lenihan
Composite indices of site moisture and fertility regimes, site variables, and individual tree species were tested for their relationship with site productivity on forest survey plots in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Mew annual basal area increment was significantly associated with the fertility index and site variables including elevation, slope gradient, and stand merchantable size. Four species, including Fraxinus arnericana and
W. H. McNab; D. L. Loftis; R. M. Shefield
The relationship between inorganic nitrogen (N) cycling and plant productivity is well established. However, recent research has demonstrated the ability of plants to take up low molecular weight organic N compounds (i.e., amino acids) at rates that often rival those of inorganic N forms. In this study, we hypothesize that temperate forest tree species characteristic of low-fertility habitats will prefer amino acids over species characteristic of high-fertility habitats. We measured the uptake of (15)N-labeled amino acids (glycine, glutamine, arginine, serine), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) by four tree species that commonly occur in eastern North America, where their abundances have been correlated with inorganic N availability. Specific uptake rates of amino acids were largely similar for all tree species; however, high-fertility species took up NH(4)(+) at rates more than double those of low-fertility species, rendering amino acid N relatively more important to the N nutrition of low-fertility species. Low-fertility species acquired over four times more total N from arginine compared to NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-); high-fertility species acquired the most N from NH(4)(+). Arginine had the highest uptake rates of any amino acid by all species; there were no significant differences in uptake rates of the remaining amino acids. Our results support the idea that the dominant species in a particular habitat are those best able to utilize the most available N resources. PMID:21553264
Scott, Emily E; Rothstein, David E
The report of an ad hoc panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation Board on Science and Technology for International Development Commission on International Relations. After an introduction by Eckholm, E., the first chapter, Wood as fuel, discusses firewood plantations, fuelwood management and species, wood-burning stoves, and the use of charcoal. The remaining 3 chapters each describe in alphabetical order: fuelwood species for humid tropics, tropical highlands, and for arid and semiarid regions. For each species there is a general description and data on distribution, use as firewood, yield, other uses, environmental requirements, establishment, pests and diseases, and limitations, with at least one black and white plate. There are 10 appendices: Using fuelwood efficiently; Case study; Ethiopia; Cast study: South Korea (Eckholm, E.); Master list of firewood species; Selected readings (general, and by species); Research contacts (by species); Explanation of terms; Biographical sketches of panel members; Contributors (to the report); and Index of plants.
Monoculture causes nutrient losses and leads to declines in soil fertility and biomass production over successive cultivation. The rhizosphere, a zone of usually high microbial activities and clearly distinct from bulk soil, is defined as the volume of soil around living roots and influenced by root activities. Here we investigated enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere under different tree compositions. Six treatments with poplar, willow, and alder mono- or mixed seedlings were grown in rhizoboxes. Enzyme activities associated with nitrogen cycling and microbial biomass were measured in all rhizosphere and bulk soils. Both enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere differed significantly tree compositions. Microbial biomass contents were more sensitive to the changes of the rhizosphere environment than enzyme activities. Tree species coexistence did not consistently increase tested enzyme activities and microbial biomass, but varied depending on the complementarities of species traits. In general, impacts of tree species and coexistence were more pronounced on microbial composition than total biomass, evidenced by differences in microbial biomass C/N ratios stratified across the rhizosphere soils. Compared to poplar clone monoculture, other tree species addition obviously increased rhizosphere urease activity, but greatly reduced rhizosphere L-asparaginase activity. Poplar growth was enhanced only when coexisted with alder. Our results suggested that a highly productive or keystone plant species in a community had greater influence over soil functions than the contribution of diversity.
Fang, Shengzuo; Liu, Dong; Tian, Ye; Deng, Shiping; Shang, Xulan
Reforestation of former bottom land hardwood forests that have been cleared for agriculture (i.e., afforestation) has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya spp.). These species are slow to develop vertical forest structure. However, vertical forest structure is key to colonization of afforested sites by forest birds. Although early-successional tree species often enhance vertical structure, few of these species invade afforested sites that are distant from seed sources. Furthermore, many land mangers are reluctant to establish and maintain stands of fast-growing plantation trees. Therefore, on 40 afforested bottomland sites, we supplemented heavy-seeded seedlings with 8 patches of fast-growing trees: 4 patches of 12 eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stem cuttings and 4 patches of 12 American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) seedlings. To enhance survival and growth, tree patches were subjected to 4 weed control treatments: (1) physical weed barriers, (2) chemical herbicide, (3) both physical and chemical weed control, or (4) no weed control. Overall, first-year survival of cottonwood and sycamore was 25 percent and 47 percent, respectively. Second-year survival of extant trees was 52 percent for cottonwood and 77 percent for sycamore. Physical weed barriers increased survival of cottonwoods to 30 percent versus 18 percent survival with no weed control. Similarly, sycamore survival was increased from 49 percent without weed control to 64 percent with physical weed barriers. Chemical weed control adversely impacted sycamore and reduced survival to 35 percent. Tree heights did not differ between species or among weed control treatments. Girdling of trees by deer often destroyed saplings. Thus, little increase in vertical structure was detected between growing seasons. Application of fertilizer and protection via tree shelters did not improve survival or vertical development of sycamore or cottonwood.
Twedt, D. J.; Wilson, R.R.
The persistence of mesic savannas has been theorised as being dependent on disturbances that restrict the number of juveniles\\u000a growing through the sapling size class to become fire-tolerant trees. We analysed the population structures of four dominant\\u000a tropical savanna tree species from 30 locations in Kakadu National Park (KNP), northern Australia. We found that across KNP\\u000a as a whole, the
Caroline E. R. Lehmann; Lynda D. Prior; David M. J. S. Bowman
Tree species are striking for their high within-population diversity and low among-population differentiation for nuclear genes. In contrast, annual plants show much more differentiation for nuclear genes but much less diversity than trees. The usual explanation for this difference is that pollen flow, and therefore gene flow, is much higher for trees. This explanation is problematic because it relies on equilibrium hypotheses. Because trees have very recently recolonized temperate areas, they have experienced many foundation events, which usually reduce within-population diversity and increase differentiation. Only extremely high levels of gene flow could counterbalance these successive founder effects. We develop a model to study the impact of life cycle of forest trees, in particular of the length of their juvenile phase, on genetic diversity and differentiation during the glacial period and the following colonization period. We show that both a reasonably high level of pollen flow and the life-cycle characteristics of trees are needed to explain the observed structure of genetic diversity. We also show that gene flow and life cycle both have an impact on maternally inherited cytoplasmic genes, which are characterized both in trees and annual species by much less diversity and much more differentiation than nuclear genes.
Austerlitz, F; Mariette, S; Machon, N; Gouyon, P H; Godelle, B
Widespread tree mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray tree canopies during and shortly after tree damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting trees in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for tree mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed species woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead trees had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-tree image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead tree classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of tree mortality across areas with differences in tree species composition. We found that 38% of tree crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of tree mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the tree canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas experiencing wildfire and management activity. -Our results demonstrate that unsupervised clustering of bi-temporal NDVI and RGI differences can be used to detect tree mortality resulting from numerous causes and in several forest cover types.
Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael
Tree bole volumes of 89 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), 96 Brutian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), 107 Cilicica fir (Abies cilicica Carr.) and 67 Cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) trees were estimated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models. Neural networks offer a number of advantages including the ability to implicitly detect complex nonlinear relationships between input and output variables, which is very helpful in tree volume modeling. Two different neural network architectures were used and produced the Back propagation (BPANN) and the Cascade Correlation (CCANN) Artificial Neural Network models. In addition, tree bole volume estimates were compared to other established tree bole volume estimation techniques including the centroid method, taper equations, and existing standard volume tables. An overview of the features of ANNs and traditional methods is presented and the advantages and limitations of each one of them are discussed. For validation purposes, actual volumes were determined by aggregating the volumes of measured short sections (average 1 meter) of the tree bole using Smalian's formula. The results reported in this research suggest that the selected cascade correlation artificial neural network (CCANN) models are reliable for estimating the tree bole volume of the four examined tree species since they gave unbiased results and were superior to almost all methods in terms of error (%) expressed as the mean of the percentage errors. PMID:19880241
Ozçelik, Ramazan; Diamantopoulou, Maria J; Brooks, John R; Wiant, Harry V
The analysis of diverse data sets can yield different phylogenetic estimates that challenge systematists to explain the source of discordance. The mole salamanders (family Ambystomatidae) are a classic example of this phylogenetic conflict. Previous attempts to resolve the ambystomatid species tree using allozymic, morphological, and mitochondrial sequence data have yielded different estimates, making it unclear which data source best approximates ambystomatid phylogeny and which ones yield phylogenetically inaccurate reconstructions. To shed light on this conflict, we present the first multi-locus DNA sequence-based phylogenetic study of the Ambystomatidae. We utilized a range of analyses, including coalescent-based methods of species-tree estimation that account for incomplete lineage sorting within a locus and concordance-based methods that estimate the number of sampled loci that support a particular clade. We repeated these analyses with the removal of individual loci to determine if any locus has a disproportionate effect on our phylogenetic results. Collectively, these results robustly resolved many deep and relatively shallow clades within Ambystoma, including the placement of A. gracile and A. talpoideum as the sister clade to a clade containing all remaining ambystomatids, and the placement of A. maculatum as the sister lineage to all remaining ambystomatids excluding A. gracile and A. talpoideum. Both Bayesian coalescent and concordance methods produced similar results, highlighting strongly supported branches in the species tree. Furthermore, coalescent-based analyses that excluded loci produced overlapping species-tree posterior distributions, suggesting that no particular locus--including mtDNA--disproportionately contributed to our species-tree estimates. Overall, our phylogenetic estimates have greater similarity with previous allozyme and mitochondrial sequence-based phylogenetic estimates. However, intermediate depths of divergence in the ambystomatid species tree remain unresolved, potentially highlighting a region of rapid species radiation or a hard polytomy, which limits our ability to comment on previous morphologically-based taxonomic groups. PMID:23632032
Williams, Joshua S; Niedzwiecki, John H; Weisrock, David W
This is a tree species distribution atlas. It contains information for 80 species in the eastern half of the United States (east of the 100th meridian). The site contains distribution maps and tables for different climate change scenarios, life-history and disturbance attributes, ecological attributes, forest type maps, sorted lists of species importance values (by state and county) for different climate change scenarios, and more.
Prasad, Anantha; Iverson, Louis
This is a tree species distribution atlas. It contains information for 80 species in the eastern half of the United States (east of the 100th meridian). The site contains distribution maps and tables for different climate change scenarios, life-history and disturbance attributes, ecological attributes, forest type maps, sorted lists of species importance values (by state and county) for different climate change scenarios, and more.
Iverson, Louis; Prasad, Anantha
Ecological assembly rules in evergreen broad-leaved forest are far from clear understanding. Spatial dispersion of individuals\\u000a in a species is central in ecological theory. We analyzed the spatial patterns as well as associations between adult and juvenile\\u000a of each tree species in a 5-ha subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest plot in eastern China. Out of the 74 species occurring\\u000a with more
Zhengrong Luo; Bingyang Ding; Xiangcheng Mi; Jiuhua Yu; Yougui Wu
Background As it becomes increasingly possible to obtain DNA sequences of orthologous genes from diverse sets of taxa, species trees are frequently being inferred from multilocus data. However, the behavior of many methods for performing this inference has remained largely unexplored. Some methods have been proven to be consistent given certain evolutionary models, whereas others rely on criteria that, although appropriate for many parameter values, have peculiar zones of the parameter space in which they fail to converge on the correct estimate as data sets increase in size. Results Here, using North American pines, we empirically evaluate the behavior of 24 strategies for species tree inference using three alternative outgroups (72 strategies total). The data consist of 120 individuals sampled in eight ingroup species from subsection Strobus and three outgroup species from subsection Gerardianae, spanning ?47 kilobases of sequence at 121 loci. Each “strategy” for inferring species trees consists of three features: a species tree construction method, a gene tree inference method, and a choice of outgroup. We use multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering to identify tree characteristics that are robustly observed across strategies, as well as to identify groups of strategies that produce trees with similar features. We find that strategies that construct species trees using only topological information cluster together and that strategies that use additional non-topological information (e.g., branch lengths) also cluster together. Strategies that utilize more than one individual within a species to infer gene trees tend to produce estimates of species trees that contain clades present in trees estimated by other strategies. Strategies that use the minimize-deep-coalescences criterion to construct species trees tend to produce species tree estimates that contain clades that are not present in trees estimated by the Concatenation, RTC, SMRT, STAR, and STEAC methods, and that in general are more balanced than those inferred by these other strategies. Conclusions When constructing a species tree from a multilocus set of sequences, our observations provide a basis for interpreting differences in species tree estimates obtained via different approaches that have a two-stage structure in common, one step for gene tree estimation and a second step for species tree estimation. The methods explored here employ a number of distinct features of the data, and our analysis suggests that recovery of the same results from multiple methods that tend to differ in their patterns of inference can be a valuable tool for obtaining reliable estimates.
A spatially explicit tree-based model was used to demonstrate the effects of a mechanism promoting multiple-species coexistence on the development of vegetation zonation and its response to climate change. Temporal fluctuation in reproduction was incorporated as the mechanism, which facilitates the persistence of less competitive species. Four hypothetical tree species with different temperature dependencies of seed production were randomly located
The use of tree root characteristics as criteria in the selection of agroforestry tree species is hampered both by uncertainties in the definition of an ideal tree root system and by the scarcity of information which relates tree root properties to the effects of the trees on the soil and associated plant species. In the present study, carbon and nitrogen
Götz Schroth; Dorothee Kolbe; Balle Pity; Wolfgang Zech
Here we provide first results of a meta-analysis of the response of European tree species to drought. A literature search was conducted in order to collect available studies of the response of the gas exchange of European tree species to either natural or imposed water shortage. The resulting publications were screened and parameters at organ (e.g. leaf or shoot), individual (i.e. tree) and ecosystem scale were transferred to a data base. Here we present preliminary results from queries of the data base aiming at identifying differences in the drought response between species that may have implications for forest productivity and composition under likely future warmer and drier conditions.
Irschick, C.; Mayr, S.; Wohlfahrt, G.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ?2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study.
Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil
An inventory of tree diversity in traditional homegardens of Meitei community was conducted in a Bontarapur village in Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Meitei homegarden locally called Ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. Seventy one tree species were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. Among the families encountered, Rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 species) followed by Meliaceae (5 genus and 5 species), Arecaceae (4 genus and 4 species) and Moraceae (3 genus and 5 species). Total 7946 tree individuals were recorded, with the density of 831 No ha(-1) of and total basal area of 9.54 m2 ha(-1). Areco catechu was the dominant species with the maximum number of individuals. Other dominant trees include Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Citrus grandis, Parkia timoriana, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Being a cash crop, the intensification of betel nut has been preferred in many homegardens. Homegardens form an important component of land use of Meitei community which fulfills the socio-cultural and economic needs of the family and helps in conserving plant diversity through utilization. PMID:24620581
Devi, N Linthoingambi; Das, Ashesh Kumar
The information acquired in the narrow bands of hyperspectral remote sensing data has potential to capture plant species spectral variability, thereby improving forest tree species mapping. This study assessed the utility of spaceborne EO-1 Hyperion data in discrimination and classification of broadleaved evergreen and conifer forest tree species in western Himalaya. The pre-processing of 242 bands of Hyperion data resulted into 160 noise-free and vertical stripe corrected reflectance bands. Of these, 29 bands were selected through step-wise exclusion of bands (Wilk's Lambda). Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms were applied to the selected bands to assess their effectiveness in classification. SVM was also applied to broadband data (Landsat TM) to compare the variation in classification accuracy. All commonly occurring six gregarious tree species, viz., white oak, brown oak, chir pine, blue pine, cedar and fir in western Himalaya could be effectively discriminated. SVM produced a better species classification (overall accuracy 82.27%, kappa statistic 0.79) than SAM (overall accuracy 74.68%, kappa statistic 0.70). It was noticed that classification accuracy achieved with Hyperion bands was significantly higher than Landsat TM bands (overall accuracy 69.62%, kappa statistic 0.65). Study demonstrated the potential utility of narrow spectral bands of Hyperion data in discriminating tree species in a hilly terrain.
George, Rajee; Padalia, Hitendra; Kushwaha, S. P. S.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ?2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660
Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil
We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification tree models for predicting the presence of four lichen species in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by resubstitution rates were similar for each lichen species irrespective of the underlying sample survey form. Cross-validation estimates of prediction accuracies were lower than resubstitution accuracies for all species and both design types, and in all cases were closer to the true prediction accuracies based on the EVALUATION data set. We argue that greater emphasis should be placed on calculating and reporting cross-validation accuracy rates rather than simple resubstitution accuracy rates. Evaluation of the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models on the EVALUATION data set shows significantly lower prediction accuracy for the PURPOSIVE tree models relative to the DESIGN models, indicating that non-probabilistic sample surveys may generate models with limited predictive capability. These differences were consistent across all four lichen species, with 11 of the 12 possible species and sample survey type comparisons having significantly lower accuracy rates. Some differences in accuracy were as large as 50%. The classification tree structures also differed considerably both among and within the modelled species, depending on the sample survey form. Overlap in the predictor variables selected by the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models ranged from only 20% to 38%, indicating the classification trees fit the two evaluated survey forms on different sets of predictor variables. The magnitude of these differences in predictor variables throws doubt on ecological interpretation derived from prediction models based on non-probabilistic sample surveys. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Jr. , T. C.; Cutler, D. R.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Geiser, L.; Moisen, G. G.
We investigated acclimation responses of seedlings and saplings of the pioneer species Cecropia schreberiana Miq. and three non-pioneer species, Dacryodes excelsa Vahl, Prestoea acuminata (Willdenow) H.E. Moore var. montana (Graham) Henderson and Galeano, and Sloanea berteriana Choisy ex DC, following a hurricane disturbance in a lower montane wet forest in Puerto Rico. Measurements were made, shortly after passage of the hurricane, on leaves expanded before the hurricane (pre-hurricane leaves) and, at a later time, on recently matured leaves that developed after the hurricane (post-hurricane leaves) from both seedlings and saplings at sites that were severely damaged by the hurricane (disturbed sites) and at sites with little disturbance (undisturbed sites). Pre-hurricane leaves of the non-pioneer species had relatively low light-saturated photosynthetic rates (A(max)) and stomatal conductance (g(s)); neither A(max) nor g(s) responded greatly to the increase in irradiance that resulted from the disturbance, and there were few significant differences between seedlings and saplings. Pre-hurricane leaves of plants at undisturbed sites had low dark respiration rates per unit area (R(d)) and light compensation points (LCP), whereas pre-hurricane leaves of plants at disturbed sites had significantly higher R(d) and LCP. Post-hurricane leaves of plants at disturbed sites had significantly higher A(max) and R(d) than plants at undisturbed sites. Compared with seedlings, saplings had higher A(max) and R(d) and showed greater acclimation to the increase in irradiance that followed the disturbance. Post-hurricane leaves of the non-pioneer species had significantly lower A(max) and were less responsive to changes in irradiance than the pioneer species C. schreberiana. Variation in A(max) across light environments and stages was strongly related to differences in leaf mass per unit area (LMA), especially in the non-pioneer species. As indicated by V(cmax) or J(max) per unit nitrogen, light acclimation of A(max) was determined by leaf morphology (LMA) for the non-pioneer species and by both leaf morphology and leaf biochemistry for C. schreberiana. Ontogenetic changes in A(max) were attributable to changes in leaf morphology. The ontogenetic component of variation in A(max) across light environments and stages differed among species, ranging from 36 to 59% for the non-pioneer species (D. excelsa, 59.3%; P. acuminata var. montana, 44.7%; and S. berteriana, 36.3%) compared with only 17% in the pioneer species C. schreberiana. PMID:18381274
Wen, Shiyun; Fetcher, Ned; Zimmerman, Jess K
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are mutualists with plant roots that are proposed to enhance plant community diversity. Models indicate that AM fungal communities could maintain plant diversity in forests if functionally different communities are spatially separated. In this study we assess the spatial and temporal distribution of the AM fungal community in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. We test whether distinct fungal communities correlate with variation in tree life history characteristics, with host tree species, and the relative importance of soil type, seasonality and rainfall. Host tree species differ in their associated AM fungal communities, but differences in the AM community between hosts could not be generalized over life history groupings of hosts. Changes in the relative abundance of a few common AM fungal species were the cause of differences in AM fungal communities for different host tree species instead of differences in the presence and absence of AM fungal species. Thus, AM fungal communities are spatially distinguishable in the forest, even though all species are widespread. Soil fertility ranging between 5 and 9 Mg/ha phosphorus did not affect composition of AM fungal communities, although sporulation was more abundant in lower fertility soils. Sampling soils over seasons revealed that some AM fungal species sporulate profusely in the dry season compared to the rainy season. On one host tree species sampled at two sites with vastly different rainfall, relative abundance of spores from Acaulospora was lower and that of Glomus was relatively higher at the site with lower and more seasonal rainfall. PMID:12698349
Lovelock, Catherine E; Andersen, Kelly; Morton, Joseph B
Ecosystem level studies identify plant soil feed backs as important controls on soil nutrient availability,particularly for nitrogen and phosphorus. Although site and species specific studies of tree species soil relationships are relatively common,comparatively fewer studies consider multiple coexisting speciesin old-growth forests across a range of sites that vary underlying soil fertility. We characterized patterns in forest floor and mineral soil nutrients associated with four common tree species across eight undisturbed old-growth forests in Oregon, USA, and used two complementary conceptual models to assess tree species soil relationships. Plant soil feedbacks that could reinforce sitelevel differences in nutrient availability were assessed using the context dependent relationships model, where by relative species based differences in each soil nutrient divergedorconvergedas nutrient status changed across sites. Tree species soil relationships that did not reflect strong feedbacks were evaluated using a site independent relationships model, where by forest floor and surface mineral soil nutrient tools differed consistently by tree species across sites,without variation in deeper mineral soils. We found that theorganically cycled elements carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus exhibited context-dependent differences among species in both forest floor and mineral soil, and most of ten followed adivergence model,where by species differences were greatest at high-nutrient sites. These patterns are consistent with the oryemphasizing biotic control of these elements through plant soil feedback mechanisms. Site independent species differences were strongest for pool so if the weather able cations calcium, magnesium, potassium,as well as phosphorus, in mineral soils. Site independent species differences in forest floor nutrients we reattributable too nespecies that displayed significant greater forest floor mass accumulation. Our finding confirmed that site-independent and context-dependent tree species-soil relationships occur simultaneouslyinold-grow the temperate forests, with context-dependent relationships strongest for organically cycled elements, and site-independent relationships strongest for weather able elements with in organic cycling phases. These models provide complementary explanations for patterns of nutrient accumulation and cycling in mixed species old-growth temperate forests.
Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.
Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals.
Zytynska, Sharon E.; Fay, Michael F.; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F.
Genetic differences among tree species, their hybrids and within tree species are known to influence associated ecological communities and ecosystem processes in areas of limited species diversity. The extent to which this same phenomenon occurs based on genetic variation within a single tree species, in a diverse complex ecosystem such as a tropical forest, is unknown. The level of biodiversity and complexity of the ecosystem may reduce the impact of a single tree species on associated communities. We assessed the influence of within-species genetic variation in the tree Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) on associated epiphytic and invertebrate communities in a neotropical rainforest. We found a significant positive association between genetic distance of trees and community difference of the epiphytic plants growing on the tree, the invertebrates living among the leaf litter around the base of the tree, and the invertebrates found on the tree trunk. This means that the more genetically similar trees are host to more similar epiphyte and invertebrate communities. Our work has implications for whole ecosystem conservation management, since maintaining sufficient genetic diversity at the primary producer level will enhance species diversity of other plants and animals. PMID:21444307
Zytynska, Sharon E; Fay, Michael F; Penney, David; Preziosi, Richard F
Ecologists have historically used species-area relationships (SARs) as a tool to understand the spatial distribution of species. Recent work has extended SARs to focus on individual-level distributions to generate individual species area relationships (ISARs). The ISAR approach quantifies whether individuals of a species tend have more or less species richness surrounding them than expected by chance. By identifying richness ‘accumulators’ and ‘repellers’, respectively, the ISAR approach has been used to infer the relative importance of abiotic and biotic interactions and neutrality. A clear limitation of the SAR and ISAR approaches is that all species are treated as evolutionarily independent and that a large amount of work has now shown that local tree neighborhoods exhibit non-random phylogenetic structure given the species richness. Here, we use nine tropical and temperate forest dynamics plots to ask: (i) do ISARs change predictably across latitude?; (ii) is the phylogenetic diversity in the neighborhood of species accumulators and repellers higher or lower than that expected given the observed species richness?; and (iii) do species accumulators, repellers distributed non-randomly on the community phylogenetic tree? The results indicate no clear trend in ISARs from the temperate zone to the tropics and that the phylogenetic diversity surrounding the individuals of species is generally only non-random on very local scales. Interestingly the distribution of species accumulators and repellers was non-random on the community phylogenies suggesting the presence of phylogenetic signal in the ISAR across latitude.
Yang, Jie; Swenson, Nathan G.; Cao, Min; Chuyong, George B.; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Howe, Robert; Kenfack, David; Thomas, Duncan; Wolf, Amy; Lin, Luxiang
Stakeholders in plantation forestry are increasingly aware of the importance of the ecosystem services and non-market values associated with forests. In New Zealand, there is significant interest in establishing species other than Pinus radiata D. Don (the dominant plantation species) in the belief that alternative species are better suited to deliver these services. Significant risk is associated with this position as there is little objective data to support these views. To identify which species were likely to be planted to deliver ecosystem services, a survey was distributed to examine stakeholder perceptions. Stakeholders were asked which of 15 tree attributes contributed to the provision of five ecosystem services (amenity value, bioenergy production, carbon capture, the diversity of native habitat, and erosion control/water quality) and to identify which of 22 candidate tree species possessed those attributes. These data were combined to identify the species perceived most suitable for the delivery of each ecosystem service. Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. closely matched the stakeholder derived ideotypes associated with all five ecosystem services. Comparisons to data from growth, physiological and ecological studies demonstrated that many of the opinions held by stakeholders were inaccurate, leading to erroneous assumptions regarding the suitability of most candidate species. Stakeholder perceptions substantially influence tree species selection, and plantations established on the basis of inaccurate opinions are unlikely to deliver the desired outcomes. Attitudinal surveys associated with engagement campaigns are essential to improve stakeholder knowledge, advancing the development of fit-for-purpose forest management that provides the required ecosystem services.
Smaill, Simeon J.; Bayne, Karen M.; Coker, Graham W. R.; Paul, Thomas S. H.; Clinton, Peter W.
With the easy acquisition of sequence data, it is now possible to obtain and align whole genomes across multiple related species or populations. In this work, I assess the performance of a statistical method to reconstruct the whole distribution of phylogenetic trees along the genome, estimate the proportion of the genome for which a given clade is true, and infer a concordance tree that summarizes the dominant vertical inheritance pattern. There are two main issues when dealing with whole-genome alignments, as opposed to multiple genes: the size of the data and the detection of recombination breakpoints. These breakpoints partition the genomic alignment into phylogenetically homogeneous loci, where sites within a given locus all share the same phylogenetic tree topology. To delimitate these loci, I describe here a method based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle, implemented with dynamic programming for computational efficiency. Simulations show that combining MDL partitioning with Bayesian concordance analysis provides an efficient and robust way to estimate both the vertical inheritance signal and the horizontal phylogenetic signal. The method performed well both in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. A high level of systematic bias was found here, highlighting the need for good individual tree building methods, which form the basis for more elaborate gene tree/species tree reconciliation methods.
Previous studies pointed out that species richness and high density values within the Leguminosae in Brazilian forest fragments affected by fire could be due, at least partially, to the high incidence of root sprout- ing in this family. However, there are few studies of the factors that induce root sprouting in woody plants after disturbance. We investigated the bud formation
Adriana Hissae Hayashi; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória
Trees play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals, although the influence of different tree species on the mobilization of metals is not yet clear. This study examined effects of six tree species on fluxes of Cd, Zn, DOC, H(+) and base cations in forest floor leachates on a metal polluted site in Belgium. Forest floor leachates were sampled with zero-tension lysimeters in a 12-year-old post-agricultural forest on a sandy soil. The tree species included were silver birch (Betula pendula), oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), aspen (Populus tremula), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). We show that total Cd fluxes in forest floor leachate under aspen were slightly higher than those in the other species' leachates, yet the relative differences between the species were considerably smaller when looking at dissolved Cd fluxes. The latter was probably caused by extremely low H(+) amounts leaching from aspen's forest floor. No tree species effect was found for Zn leachate fluxes. We expected higher metal leachate fluxes under aspen as its leaf litter was significantly contaminated with Cd and Zn. We propose that the low amounts of Cd and Zn leaching under aspen's forest floor were possibly caused by high activity of soil biota, for example burrowing earthworms. Furthermore, our results reveal that Scots pine and oak were characterized by high H(+) and DOC fluxes as well as low base cation fluxes in their forest floor leachates, implying that those species might enhance metal mobilization in the soil profile and thus bear a potential risk for belowground metal dispersion. PMID:23376521
Van Nevel, Lotte; Mertens, Jan; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; De Neve, Stefaan; Tack, Filip M G; Meers, Erik; Verheyen, Kris
To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2-8.9 mg kg(-1)) than willow and poplar (5-80 mg kg(-1)), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300-6200 mg kg(-1)) and K (320-1250 mg kg(-1)), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land. PMID:22284170
Evangelou, Michael W H; Deram, Annabelle; Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer
The calcium (Ca) isotope system is potentially of great use for understanding biogeochemical processes at multiple scales in forest ecosystems, yet remains largely unexplored for this purpose. In order to further our understanding of Ca behavior in forests, we examined two nearly adjacent hardwood-dominated catchments with differing soil Ca concentrations, developed from crystalline bedrock, to determine the variability of 44Ca/ 40Ca ratios (expressed as ??44Ca) within soil and vegetation pools. For both sugar maple and American beech, the Ca isotope compositions of the measured roots and calculated bulk trees were considerably lighter than those of soil pools at these sites, suggesting that the trees were able to preferentially take up light Ca at the root-soil interface. The Ca isotope compositions of three of four root samples were among the lightest values yet reported for terrestrial materials (??44Ca ???-3.95???). Our results further indicate that Ca isotopes were fractionated along the transpiration streams of both tree species with roots having the least ??44Ca values and leaf litter the greatest. An approximately 2??? difference in ??44Ca values between roots and leaf litter of both tree species suggests a persistent fractionation mechanism along the transpiration stream, likely related to Ca binding in wood tissue coupled with internal ion exchange. Finally, our data indicate that differing tree species demand for Ca and soil Ca concentrations together may influence Ca isotope distribution within the trees. Inter-catchment differences in Ca isotope distributions in soils and trees were minor, indicating that the results of our study may have broad transferability to studies of forest ecosystems in catchments developed on crystalline substrates elsewhere. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Page, B. D.; Bullen, T. D.; Mitchell, M. J.
As a consequence of land-use change and the burning of fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are increasing and altering the dynamics of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. In a number of studies using single tree species, fine root biomass has been shown to be strongly increased by elevated CO2 . However, natural forests are often intimate mixtures of a number of co-occurring species. To investigate the interaction between tree mixture and elevated CO2 , Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were planted in areas of single species and a three species polyculture in a free-air CO2 enrichment study (BangorFACE). The trees were exposed to ambient or elevated CO2 (580 ?mol mol(-1) ) for 4 years. Fine and coarse root biomass, together with fine root turnover and fine root morphological characteristics were measured. Fine root biomass and morphology responded differentially to the elevated CO2 at different soil depths in the three species when grown in monocultures. In polyculture, a greater response to elevated CO2 was observed in coarse roots to a depth of 20 cm, and fine root area index to a depth of 30 cm. Total fine root biomass was positively affected by elevated CO2 at the end of the experiment, but not by species diversity. Our data suggest that existing biogeochemical cycling models parameterized with data from species grown in monoculture may be underestimating the belowground response to global change. PMID:23504733
Smith, Andrew R; Lukac, Martin; Bambrick, Michael; Miglietta, Franco; Godbold, Douglas L
Epigenetic variation is likely to contribute to the phenotypic plasticity and adaptative capacity of plant species, and may be especially important for long-lived organisms with complex life cycles, including forest trees. Diverse environmental stresses and hybridization/polyploidization events can create reversible heritable epigenetic marks that can be transmitted to subsequent generations as a form of molecular “memory”. Epigenetic changes might also contribute to the ability of plants to colonize or persist in variable environments. In this review, we provide an overview of recent data on epigenetic mechanisms involved in developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plant, with a focus on forest tree species. We consider the possible role of forest tree epigenetics as a new source of adaptive traits in plant breeding, biotechnology, and ecosystem conservation under rapid climate change.
Brautigam, Katharina; Vining, Kelly J; Lafon-Placette, Clement; Fossdal, Carl G; Mirouze, Marie; Marcos, Jose Gutierrez; Fluch, Silvia; Fraga, Mario Fernandez; Guevara, M Angeles; Abarca, Dolores; Johnsen, ?ystein; Maury, Stephane; Strauss, Steven H; Campbell, Malcolm M; Rohde, Antje; Diaz-Sala, Carmen; Cervera, Maria-Teresa
• Background and Aims A possible role of host tree identity in the structuring of vascular epiphyte communities has attracted scientific attention for decades. Specifically, it has been suggested that each host tree species has a specific subset of the local species pool according to its own set of properties, e.g. physicochemical characteristics of the bark, tree architecture, or leaf phenology patterns. • Methods A novel, quantitative approach to this question is presented, taking advantage of a complete census of the vascular epiphyte community in 0·4 ha of undisturbed lowland forest in Panama. For three locally common host-tree species (Socratea exorrhiza, Marila laxiflora, Perebea xanthochyma) null models were created of the expected epiphyte assemblages assuming that epiphyte colonization reflected random distribution of epiphytes in the forest. • Key Results In all three tree species, abundances of the majority of epiphyte species (69–81?%) were indistinguishable from random, while the remaining species were about equally over- or under-represented compared with their occurrence in the entire forest plot. Permutations based on the number of colonized trees (reflecting observed spatial patchiness) yielded similar results. Finally, a third analysis (canonical correspondence analysis) also confirmed host-specific differences in epiphyte assemblages. In spite of pronounced preferences of some epiphytes for particular host trees, no epiphyte species was restricted to a single host. • Conclusions The epiphytes on a given tree species are not simply a random sample of the local species pool, but there are no indications of host specificity either.
LAUBE, STEFAN; ZOTZ, GERHARD
The fine-scale spatial genetic structure of eight tropical tree species (Chrysophyllum sanguinolentum, Carapa procera, Dicorynia guianensis, Eperua grandiflora, Moronobea coccinea, Symphonia globulifera, Virola michelii, Vouacapoua americana) was studied in populations that were part of a silvicultural trial in French Guiana. The species analysed have different spatial distribution, sexual system, pollen and seed dispersal agents, flowering phenology and environmental demands. The spatial position of trees and a RAPD data set for each species were combined using a multivariate genetic distance method to estimate spatial genetic structure. A significant spatial genetic structure was found for four of the eight species. In contrast to most observations in temperate forests, where spatial structure is not usually detected at distances greater than 50 m, significant genetic structure was found at distances up to 300 m. The relationships between spatial genetic structure and life history characteristics are discussed. PMID:11737299
Degen, B; Caron, H; Bandou, E; Maggia, L; Chevallier, M H; Leveau, A; Kremer, A
Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate trees. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved tree species, compared them with the species' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all species, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among species between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those species that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated species, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across species, the specific root length (m g(-1) root) was reduced by, on average, 60% at temperatures below 7 °C. A significant correlation of minimum temperatures for root growth with the natural high elevation limits of the investigated species indicates species-specific thermal requirements for basic physiological processes. Although these limits are not necessarily directly causative for the upper distribution limit of a species, they seem to belong to a syndrome of adaptive processes for life at low temperatures. The anatomical changes at the cold limit likely hint at the mechanisms impeding meristematic activity at low temperatures. PMID:24584221
Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter
The effects of five different tree species common in the temperate zone, i.e. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis [Sichold and Zucc.] Gordon) and mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra), on soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates were investigated. Soils were sampled in spring and summer 2002 at a forest trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, where pure stands of the five tree species of the same age were growing on the same soil. Soil respiration, gross rates of N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in the organic layers than in the Ah horizons for all tree species and both sampling dates. In summer (July), the highest rates of soil respiration, gross N mineralization and gross nitrification were found in the organic layer under spruce, followed by beech > larch > oak > pine. In spring (April), these rates were also higher under spruce compared to the other tree species, but were significantly lower than in summer. For the Ah horizons no clear seasonal trend was observed for any of the processes examined. A linear relationship between soil respiration and gross N mineralization (r2=0.77), gross N mineralization and gross nitrification rates (r2=0.72), and between soil respiration and gross nitrification (r2=0.81) was found. The results obtained underline the importance of considering the effect of forest type on soil C and N transformations.
Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Pilegaard, K.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.
Leaf water potentials, osmotic properties and structural characteristics were examined in the Australian tropical rainforest tree species, Castanospermum australe. These features were compared for individuals growing in the understorey and canopy of the undisturbed forest and in an open pasture from which the forest had been cleared. Leaf water potentials during the day declined to significantly lower values in the
B. J. Myers; R. H. Robichaux; G. L. Unwin; I. E. Craig
Allometric equations were developed for mature trees of 10 deciduous species (Acer rubrum L., Betula lenta L., Carya spp., Comus florida L., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC., Quercus alba L., Quercus coccinea Muenchh., Quercus prinus L., and Quercus rubra L.) at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina, U.S.A. These equations included the following dependent variables: stem
Jonathan G. Martin; Brian D. Kloeppel; Tara L. Schaefer; Darrin L. Kimbler; Steven G. McNulty
Given that they represent the most economical option for disposing of refuse, waste landfills are widespread in urban areas. However, landfills generate air and water pollution and require restoration for landscape development. A number of unsanitary waste landfills have caused severe environmental problems in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the colonization status of different tree species on waste
Kee Dae Kim; Eun Ju Lee
We reviewed the decay patterns and lifetimes (time to reach 95% mass loss) of coarse woody debris (CWD) on the forest floor. The objectives were to identify the factors influencing the decomposition process of CWD and to provide estimates of lifetimes for CWD from Australian tree species. This information is required for greenhouse accounting of forestry activities and land use
J. MackensenA; J. BauhusB; E. WebberB
The in vitro activities of ketoconazole, econazole, miconazole, and tea tree oil against 54 Malassezia isolates were determined by agar and broth dilution methods. Ketoconazole was more active than both econazole and miconazole, which showed very similar activities. M. furfur was the least susceptible species. M. sympodialis, M. slooffiae, M. globosa, and M. obtusa showed similar susceptibilities to the four agents.
Hammer, K. A.; Carson, C. F.; Riley, T. V.
Land management practices are increasingly focusing on the use of native plant communities to filter wastewater. Nutrient uptake from these effluents may affect overall growth and physiology. We examined the effects of increased nutrient levels on the seedlings of five species of bottomland trees. Seedlings of Carpinus caroliniana Walter. (hornbeam), Pinus serotina Michaux (pond pine), Acer rubrum L. (red maple),
M. R. Vaitkus; T. G. Ciravolo; K. W. McLeod; E. M. Mavity; K. L. Novak
Based on the biomass data of 516 sampling trees, and by using non-linear error-in-variable modeling approach, the compatible models for the total biomass and the biomass of six components including aboveground part, underground part, stem, crown, branch, and foliage of 15 major tree species (or groups) in Heilongjiang Province were established, and the best models for the total biomass and components biomass were selected. The compatible models based on total biomass were developed by adopting the method of joint control different level ratio function. The heteroscedasticity of the models for total biomass was eliminated with log transformation, and the weighted regression was applied to the models for each individual component. Among the compatible biomass models established for the 15 major species (or groups) , the model for total biomass had the highest prediction precision (90% or more), followed by the models for aboveground part and stem biomass, with a precision of 87.5% or more. The prediction precision of the biomass models for other components was relatively low, but it was still greater than 80% for most test tree species. The modeling efficiency (EF) values of the total, aboveground part, and stem biomass models for all the tree species (or groups) were over 0.9, and the EF values of the underground part, crown, branch, and foliage biomass models were over 0.8. PMID:22263471
Dong, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Jia, Wei-wei; Liu, Fu-xiang; Wang, He-zhi
L. Böhm, N. Arismendi, and L. Ciampi. 2009. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36 (2): 249-258. The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina
Laura Böhm; Nolberto Arismendi; Luigi Ciampi
In order to improve the estimation of carbon stored in the French forest biomass from National Forest Inventory data, we developed six species-specific equations for estimating the total aboveground volume of trees, including merchantable volume, branches and twigs. Equations use circumference at breast height and total height as independent variables. They were built from even-aged forests of the Landes massif,
Patrick Vallet; Jean-François Dhôte; Gilles Le Moguédec; Michel Ravart; Gérôme Pignard
Tropical rain forests are known for their high biological diversity, but the effects of plant diversity on important ecosystem processes in this biome remain unclear. Interspecies differences in both the demand for nutrients and in foliar and litter nutrient concentrations could drive variations in both the pool sizes and fluxes of important belowground resources, yet our understanding of the effects and importance of aboveground heterogeneity on belowground biogeochemistry is poor, especially in the species-rich forests of the wet tropics. To investigate the effects of individual tree species on belowground biogeochemical processes, we used both field and laboratory studies to examine how carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycles vary under nine different canopy tree species – including three legume and six non-legume species – that vary in foliar nutrient concentrations in a wet tropical forest in southwestern Costa Rica. We found significant differences in belowground C, N and P cycling under different canopy tree species: total C, N and P pools in standing litter varied by species, as did total soil and microbial C and N pools. Rates of soil extracellular acid phosphatase activity also varied significantly among species and functional groups, with higher rates of phosphatase activity under legumes. In addition, across all tree species, phosphatase activity was significantly positively correlated with litter N/P ratios, suggesting a tight coupling between relative N and P inputs and resource allocation to P acquisition. Overall, our results suggest the importance of aboveground plant community composition in promoting belowground biogeochemical heterogeneity at relatively small spatial scales.
Keller, Adrienne B.; Reed, Sasha C.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.
In this article, we present equations derived for the prediction of the aboveground tree volume and phytomass for twenty-five\\u000a of the most important forest species growing in Italy. These equations result from ongoing research aiming to fill a gap in\\u000a the models available at the national scale. With regard to volume, the results are particularly important for thirteen species\\u000a or
Giovanni Tabacchi; Lucio Di Cosmo; Patrizia Gasparini
The antimicrobial activities of chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of the bark of Gymnanthes lucida, Gliricidia sepium, Lysiloma divaricata, Lysiloma tergemina and Coccolaba cozumelensis were tested against S. lutea, E. coli, S. epidermidis, L. monocytogenes, S. choleraesuis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus, S. typhimurium, P. vulgaris, V. cholerae and C. albicans. It was found that methanol extracts of the two Lysiloma species and G. sepium had antimicrobial effects against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. pumillus and V. cholerae at doses of 200 microg. The major inhibitory effect was observed with L. tergemina which showed a bacteriostatic effect on S. epidermidis at doses of 400 microg/mL. PMID:11406862
Pérez G, S; Zavala S, M A; Arias G, L; Pérez G, C; Pérez G, R M
Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems. Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set of this type is the Public Land Survey (PLS) of the United States General Land Office, which contains data on multiple tree species, sizes, and distances recorded at each survey point, located at half-mile (0.8 km) intervals on a 1-mi (1.6 km) grid. This survey method was begun in the 1790s on US federal lands extending westward from Ohio. Thus, the data have the potential of providing a view of much of the US landscape from the mid-1800s, and they have been used extensively for this purpose. However, historical data sources, such as those describing the species composition of forests, can often be limited in the detail recorded and the reliability of the data, since the information was often not originally recorded for ecological purposes. Forest trees are sometimes recorded ambiguously, using generic or obscure common names. For the PLS data of northern Wisconsin, USA, we developed a method to classify ambiguously identified tree species using logistic regression analysis, using data on trees that were clearly identified to species and a set of independent predictor variables to build the models. The models were first created on partial data sets for each species and then tested for fit against the remaining data. Validations were conducted using repeated, random subsets of the data. Model prediction accuracy ranged from 81% to 96% in differentiating congeneric species among oak, pine, ash, maple, birch, and elm. Major predictor variables were tree size, associated species, landscape classes indicative of soil type, and spatial location within the study region. Results help to clarify ambiguities formerly present in maps of historic ecosystems for the region and can be applied to PLS datasets elsewhere, as well as other sources of ambiguous historical data. Mapping the newly classified data with ecological land units provides additional information on the distribution, abundance, and associations of tree species, as well as their relationships to environmental gradients before the industrial period, and clarifies the identities of species formerly mapped only to genus. We offer some caveats on the appropriate use of data derived in this way, as well as describing their potential.
Mladenoff, D.J.; Dahir, S.E.; Nordheim, E.V.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.
Microbial nitrogen turnover processes in the soil, like ammonification, nitrification and denitrification, play an important role in the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O): (i) ammonification, because it releases nitrogen from organic material in the form of ammonium (NH4+), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification; (ii) nitrification itself (i.e. the turnover of NH4+ to nitrate, NO3-), during which nitric oxide (NO) and N2O can be released as by-products at varying ratios; (iii) denitrification, in which NO3- serves as electron acceptor and is converted to molecular nitrogen (N2) via NO and N2O as intermediates, that can also be partially lost to the atmosphere. Temperate forest soils are a substantial source of atmospheric N2O contributing up to 10% to the total atmospheric N2O budget. However, this figure is afflicted with a huge uncertainty due to a number of factors governing the soil N2O formation, consumption, release and uptake, which are not fully understood at present. To one of these factors belongs the influence of the tree species on nitrogen turnover processes in the soil and the formation of N trace gases related with them. The aim of the present work was to analyse this tree species effect for the temperate climate region. For this purpose the effect of five different temperate tree species, having the same age and growing on the same soil in direct vicinity to each other, on gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as on N2O formation was investigated. The trees (common beech, Fagus sylvatica; pedunculate oak, Quercus robur; Norway spruce, Picea abies; Japanese larch, Larix leptolepis; mountain pine, Pinus mugo) were part of a species trial in Western Jutland, Denmark, established in 1965 on a former sandy heathland. Samples from the soil under these five tree species were taken in spring and in summer 2002, respectively, differentiating between organic layer and mineral soil. The gross rates of ammonification as well of nitrification were significantly higher in the organic layer than in the mineral layer for all tree species and for both sampling dates, when expressed on a dry weight basis. In the organic layer of all tree species the gross rates of ammonification and nitrification were higher in summer than in spring. The highest gross ammonification rates were found in the organic layer under spruce, being significantly higher than in beech and larch, which in turn were higher than in oak and pine. Gross rates of nitrification were clearly higher in beech and spruce compared to oak, pine and larch. A linear relationship between gross ammonification and gross nitrification could be found in all samples. N2O formation was significantly different in the respective tree species: soil under beech showed the highest N2O formation rates of all tree species investigated, being significantly higher than in spruce and pine, which in turn were significantly higher than in oak and larch, which showed the lowest N2O formation rates. The results obtained underline the importance of considering the effect of tree species on soil nitrogen cycling and the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of N trace gases, especially with respect to forest management practices.
Brüggemann, N.; Rosenkranz, P.; Papen, H.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.
ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility.
Davis, G.A. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)
The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast- growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared
P. Remigi; A. Faye; A. Kane; M. Deruaz; J. Thioulouse; M. Cissoko; Y. Prin; A. Galiana; B. Dreyfus; R. Duponnois
We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota’s mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity.
Hanberry, Brice B.; Palik, Brian J.; He, Hong S.
The increase of biodiversity from poles to equator is one of the most pervasive features of nature. For 2 centuries since von Humboldt, Wallace, and Darwin, biogeographers and ecologists have investigated the environmental and historical factors that determine the latitudinal gradient of species diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recently proposed metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) aims to explain ecological patterns and processes, including geographical patterns of species richness, in terms of the effects of temperature and body size on the metabolism of organisms. Here we use 2 comparable databases of tree distributions in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and spatial scale in shaping geographical patterns of species diversity. We find that number of species increases exponentially with environmental temperature as predicted by the MTE, and so does the rate of spatial turnover in species composition (slope of the species-area relationship). The magnitude of temperature dependence of species richness increases with spatial scale. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes there are more tree species in North America, but the reverse is true in warmer climates at lower latitudes. These patterns provide evidence that the kinetics of ecological and evolutionary processes play a major role in the latitudinal pattern of biodiversity.
Wang, Zhiheng; Brown, James H.; Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun
We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart species effects on decomposition via leaf litter chemistry vs. effects on the decomposition environment. Decomposition rates of litter in its plot of origin were negatively correlated with litter lignin and positively correlated with mean annual soil temperature (MAT(soil)) across species. Likewise, decomposition of a common litter type across all plots was positively associated with MAT(soil), and decomposition of litter from all plots in a common plot was negatively related to litter lignin but positively related to litter Ca. Taken together, these results indicate that tree species influenced microbial decomposition primarily via differences in litter lignin (and secondarily, via differences in litter Ca), with high-lignin (and low-Ca) species decomposing most slowly, and by affecting MAT(soil), with warmer plots exhibiting more rapid decomposition. In addition to litter bag experiments, we examined forest floor dynamics in each plot by mass balance, since earthworms were a known component of these forest stands and their access to litter in litter bags was limited. Forest floor removal rates estimated from mass balance were positively related to leaf litter Ca (and unrelated to decay rates obtained using litter bags). Litter Ca, in turn, was positively related to the abundance of earthworms, particularly Lumbricus terrestris. Thus, while species influence microbially mediated decomposition primarily through differences in litter lignin, differences among species in litter Ca are most important in determining species effects on forest floor leaf litter dynamics among these 14 tree species, apparently because of the influence of litter Ca on earthworm activity. The overall influence of these tree species on leaf litter decomposition via effects on both microbial and faunal processing will only become clear when we can quantify the decay dynamics of litter that is translocated belowground by earthworms. PMID:16995629
Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Ogdahl, Megan; Zytkowiak, Roma; Hale, Cynthia; Karolewski, Piotr
Prolific fine root growth coupled with small accumulations of dead fine roots indicate rapid rates of fine root production, mortality and decay in young tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica. However, published studies indicate that fine roots decay relatively slowly in tropical forests. To resolve this discrepancy, we used the intact-core technique to quantify first-year decay rates of fine roots in four single-species plantations of native tree species. We tested three hypotheses: first, that fine roots from different tree species would decay at different rates; second, that species having rapid fine root growth rates would also have rapid rates of fine root decay; and third, that differences in fine root decay among species could be explained by fine root chemistry variables previously identified as influencing decay rates. Fine roots in Virola koschnyi plantations decayed very slowly (k = 0.29 +/- 0.15 year(-1)); those of Vochysia guatemalensis decayed seven times faster (k = 2.00 +/- 0.13 year(-1)). Decay rates of the remaining two species, Hieronyma alchorneoides and Pentaclethra macroloba, were 1.36 and 1.28 year(-1), respectively. We found a positive, marginally significant correlation between fine root decay rates and the relative growth rates of live fine roots (R = 0.93, n = 4, P = 0.072). There was a highly significant negative correlation between fine root decay and fine root lignin:N (R = 0.99, P = 0.01), which supports the use of lignin:N as a decay-controlling factor within terrestrial ecosystem models. The decay rates that we observed in this single study location encompassed the entire range of fine root decay rates previously observed in moist tropical forests, and thus suggest great potential for individual tree species to alter belowground organic matter and nutrient dynamics within a biotically rich rainforest environment. PMID:19484478
Raich, James W; Russell, Ann E; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar
Plant monocultures are commonly believed to be more susceptible to herbivore attacks than stands composed of several plant species. However, few studies have experimentally tested the effects of tree species diversity on herbivory. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of uniformly collected data on insect herbivore abundance and damage on three tree species (silver birch, black alder and sessile oak) from seven long-term forest diversity experiments in boreal and temperate forest zones. Our aim was to compare the effects of forest diversity on herbivores belonging to different feeding guilds and inhabiting different tree species. At the same time we also examined the variation in herbivore responses due to tree age and sampling period within the season, the effects of experimental design (plot size and planting density) and the stability of herbivore responses over time. Herbivore responses varied significantly both among insect feeding guilds and among host tree species. Among insect feeding guilds, only leaf miner densities were consistently lower and less variable in mixed stands as compared to tree monocultures regardless of the host tree species. The responses of other herbivores to forest diversity depended largely on host tree species. Insect herbivory on birch was significantly lower in mixtures than in birch monocultures, whereas insect herbivory on oak and alder was higher in mixtures than in oak and alder monocultures. The effects of tree species diversity were also more pronounced in older trees, in the earlier part of the season, at larger plots and at lower planting density. Overall our results demonstrate that forest diversity does not generally and uniformly reduce insect herbivory and suggest instead that insect herbivore responses to forest diversity are highly variable and strongly dependent on the host tree species and other stand characteristics as well as on the type of the herbivore. PMID:17356813
Vehviläinen, Harri; Koricheva, Julia; Ruohomäki, Kai
The responses of soil methane (CH4) net fluxes to nitrogen (N) addition in a N-fixing tree species (Acacia auriculiformis (AA)) and a non-N-fixing tree species (Eucalyptus citriodora (EU)) plantation were studied in southern China. Treatments were conducted at each plantation with three N levels (0, 50, and 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for control, medium-N, and high-N treatment, respectively, abbreviated as C, MN, and HN). From August 2010 to July 2011, CH4 flux was measured biweekly using a static chamber and gas chromatography technique. The soils of both sites acted as sink of atmospheric CH4. The CH4 uptake rate in control of the AA site (36.3 ± 3.2 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) was greater than that of the EU plantation (29.9 ± 0.9 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1). In the AA plantation, the averaged rates of CH4 uptake for the MN (28.6 ± 2.3 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) and HN treatment (23.8 ± 2.8 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) were decreased by 21% and 35%, respectively, compared to the control. However, there was no change of soil CH4 uptake between N-treated plots and the controls in the EU site. Our results indicated that there might be large difference of inhibitive effect of N deposition on soil CH4 oxidation between the AA and EU plantations. The projected increase of N deposition would weaken the capability of N-fixing tree species plantations for atmospheric CH4 sink in tropical and subtropical regions.
Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiaomin; Liu, Lei; Fu, Shenglei; Chen, Hao; Huang, Juan; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Mo, Jiangming
Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ?s) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ?s values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ?s (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ?s in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.
Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean
Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in tree and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of tree species and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. tree height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live tree C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of tree species. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different tree species planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall temporal variation. Soil respiration was related with season variation in research site. Soil temperature and soil respiration showed highly spatial variation in 16 plots. Soil temperature showed significantly exponential related with soil respiration in research site (p<0.001).However, soil respiration showed significantly negative relationship with total amount of litterfall (p<0.001), suggesting that the tree was still young and did not reach crown closure.
Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen
Natural recruitment of tree species is visible in a forest canopy gap at Coweeta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) station in the Southern Appalachians. A recent study investigated temporal variability in seedling establishment in the Appalachians in order to predict the effects of climate change on tree recruitment. Communities found at higher elevations may be in danger of regional extinction if their habitats disappear, which is predicted to occur given the current climatic trends. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Monographs (77:2) in May of 2007.
A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.
Gary D. Kronrad
Regional species–climate correlations are well documented, but little is known about the ecological processes responsible for generating these patterns. Using the data from over 690?000 individual trees I estimated five demographic rates—canopy growth, understorey growth, canopy lifespan, understorey lifespan and per capita reproduction—for 19 common eastern US tree species, within the core and the northern and southern boundaries, of the species range. Most species showed statistically significant boundary versus core differences in most rates at both boundary types. Differences in canopy and understorey growth were relatively small in magnitude but consistent among species, being lower at the northern (average ?17%) and higher at the southern (average +12%) boundaries. Differences in lifespan were larger in magnitude but highly variable among species, except for a marked trend for reduced canopy lifespan at the northern boundary (average ?49%). Differences in per capita reproduction were large and statistically significant for some species, but highly variable among species. The rate estimates were combined to calculate two performance indices: R0 (a measure of lifetime fitness in the absence of competition) was consistently lower at the northern boundary (average ?86%) whereas Z* (a measure of competitive ability in closed forest) showed no sign of a consistent boundary–core difference at either boundary.
Purves, Drew W.
The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how tree species, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each tree species. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all tree species were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric N2O. Tree species had a significant effect on CO2 and N2O releases but not on CH4 uptake. The lower net global warming potential in natural regenerated vegetation suggested that natural regenerated vegetation were more desirable plant species in reducing global warming.
Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.
Extant gars represent the remaining members of a formerly diverse assemblage of ancient ray-finned fishes and have been the subject of multiple phylogenetic analyses using morphological data. Here, we present the first hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships among living gar species based on molecular data, through the examination of gene tree heterogeneity and coalescent species tree analyses of a portion of one mitochondrial (COI) and seven nuclear (ENC1, myh6, plagl2, S7 ribosomal protein intron 1, sreb2, tbr1, and zic1) genes. Individual gene trees displayed varying degrees of resolution with regards to species-level relationships, and the gene trees inferred from COI and the S7 intron were the only two that were completely resolved. Coalescent species tree analyses of nuclear genes resulted in a well-resolved and strongly supported phylogenetic tree of living gar species, for which Bayesian posterior node support was further improved by the inclusion of the mitochondrial gene. Species-level relationships among gars inferred from our molecular data set were highly congruent with previously published morphological phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of two species, Lepisosteus osseus and L. platostomus. Re-examination of the character coding used by previous authors provided partial resolution of this topological discordance, resulting in broad concordance in the phylogenies inferred from individual genes, the coalescent species tree analysis, and morphology. The completely resolved phylogeny inferred from the molecular data set with strong Bayesian posterior support at all nodes provided insights into the potential for introgressive hybridization and patterns of allopatric speciation in the evolutionary history of living gars, as well as a solid foundation for future examinations of functional diversification and evolutionary stasis in a "living fossil" lineage. PMID:22445447
Wright, Jeremy J; David, Solomon R; Near, Thomas J
The paper deals with the management problem how to decide on tree species suitability under changing environmental conditions. It presents an algorithm that classifies the output of a range shift model for major tree species in Europe into multiple classes that can be linked to qualities characterizing the ecological niche of the species. The classes: i) Core distribution area, ii) Extended distribution area, iii) Occasional occurrence area, and iv) No occurrence area are first theoretically developed and then statistically described. The classes are interpreted from an ecological point of view using criteria like population structure, competitive strength, site spectrum and vulnerability to biotic hazards. The functioning of the algorithm is demonstrated using the example of a generalized linear model that was fitted to a pan-European dataset of presence/absence of major tree species with downscaled climate data from a General Circulation Model (GCM). Applications of the algorithm to tree species suitability classification on a European and regional level are shown. The thresholds that are used by the algorithm are precision-based and include Cohen's Kappa. A validation of the algorithm using an independent dataset of the German National Forest Inventory shows good accordance of the statistically derived classes with ecological traits for Norway spruce, while the differentiation especially between core and extended distribution for European beech that is in the centre of its natural range in this area is less accurate. We hypothesize that for species in the core of their range regional factors like forest history superimpose climatic factors. Problems of uncertainty issued from potentially applying a multitude of modelling approaches and/or climate realizations within the range shift model are discussed and a way to deal with the uncertainty by revealing the underlying attitude towards risk of the decision maker is proposed. PMID:24486469
Hanewinkel, Marc; Cullmann, Dominik A; Michiels, Hans-Gerd; Kändler, Gerald
Savanna plant communities change considerably across time and space. The processes driving savanna plant species diversity, coexistence and turnover along environmental gradients are still unclear. Understanding how species respond differently to varying environmental conditions during the seedling stage, a critical stage for plant population dynamics, is needed to explain the current composition of plant communities and to enable us to predict their responses to future environmental changes. Here we investigate whether seedling response to changes in resource availability, and to competition with grass, varied between two functional groups of African savanna trees: species with small leaves, spines and N-fixing associations (fine-leaved species), and species with broad leaves, no spines, and lacking N-fixing associations (broad-leaved species). We show that while tree species were strongly suppressed by grass, the effect of resource availability on seedling performance varied considerably between the two functional groups. Nutrient inputs increased stem length only of broad-leaved species and only under an even watering treatment. Low light conditions benefited mostly broad-leaved species' growth. Savannas are susceptible to ongoing global environment changes. Our results suggest that an increase in woody cover is only likely to occur in savannas if grass cover is strongly suppressed (e.g. by fire or overgrazing). However, if woody cover does increase, broad-leaved species will benefit most from the resulting shaded environments, potentially leading to an expansion of the distribution of these species. Eutrophication and changes in rainfall patterns may also affect the balance between fine- and broad-leaved species. PMID:24337711
Barbosa, Eduardo R M; van Langevelde, Frank; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T
Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies.
Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frederic; Swaine, Michael; Rejou-Mechain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie
Stakeholders in plantation forestry are increasingly aware of the importance of the ecosystem services and non-market values associated with forests. In New Zealand, there is significant interest in establishing species other than Pinus radiata D. Don (the dominant plantation species) in the belief that alternative species are better suited to deliver these services. Significant risk is associated with this position as there is little objective data to support these views. To identify which species were likely to be planted to deliver ecosystem services, a survey was distributed to examine stakeholder perceptions. Stakeholders were asked which of 15 tree attributes contributed to the provision of five ecosystem services (amenity value, bioenergy production, carbon capture, the diversity of native habitat, and erosion control/water quality) and to identify which of 22 candidate tree species possessed those attributes. These data were combined to identify the species perceived most suitable for the delivery of each ecosystem service. Sequoia sempervirens (D.Don) Endl. closely matched the stakeholder derived ideotypes associated with all five ecosystem services. Comparisons to data from growth, physiological and ecological studies demonstrated that many of the opinions held by stakeholders were inaccurate, leading to erroneous assumptions regarding the suitability of most candidate species. Stakeholder perceptions substantially influence tree species selection, and plantations established on the basis of inaccurate opinions are unlikely to deliver the desired outcomes. Attitudinal surveys associated with engagement campaigns are essential to improve stakeholder knowledge, advancing the development of fit-for-purpose forest management that provides the required ecosystem services. PMID:24488084
Smaill, Simeon J; Bayne, Karen M; Coker, Graham W R; Paul, Thomas S H; Clinton, Peter W
Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.
Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.
Three species of Nepenthes pitcher plants (Nepenthes rajah, Nepenthes lowii and Nepenthes macrophylla) specialize in harvesting nutrients from tree shrew excreta in their pitchers. In all three species, nectaries on the underside of the pitcher lid are the focus of the tree shrews' attention. Tree shrews are dichromats, with visual sensitivity in the blue and green wavebands. All three Nepenthes species were shown to produce visual signals, in which the underside of the pitcher lid (the area of highest nectar production) stood out in high contrast to the adjacent area on the pitcher (i.e., was brighter), in the blue and green wavebands visible to the tree shrews. N. rajah showed the tightest degree of “tuning,” notably in the green waveband. Conversely, pitchers of Nepenthes burbidgeae, a typical insectivorous species sympatric with N. rajah, did not produce a color pattern tuned to tree shrew sensitivity maxima.
Moran, Jonathan A.; Clarke, Charles; Greenwood, Melinda; Chin, Lijin
Tree ring analysis investigates growth processes at time horizons of several weeks to millennia, but lacks the detail of short-term fluctuation in cambial activity. This study used electronic high-precision dendrometry for analyzing the environmental factors controlling stem diameter variation and radial growth in daily resolution in five co-existing temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) with different growth and survival strategies. Daily stem radius change (SRC(d)) was primarily influenced by the atmospheric demand for water vapor (expressed either as vapor pressure deficit (D) or relative air humidity (RH)) while rainfall, soil matrix potential, temperature and radiation were only secondary factors. SRC(d) increased linearly with increasing RH and decreasing D in all species. The positive effect of a low atmospheric water vapor demand on SRC(d) was largest in June during the period of maximal radial growth rate and persisted when observation windows of 7 or 21 days instead of 1 day were used. We found a high synchronicity in the day-to-day growth rate fluctuation among the species with increment peaks corresponding to air humidity maxima, even though the mean daily radial growth rate differed fivefold among the species. The five -species also differed in the positive slope of the growth/RH relationship with the steepest increase found in Fraxinus and the lowest in Fagus. We explain the strong positive effect of high RH and low D on radial stem increment by lowered transpiration which reduces negative pressure in the conducting system and increases turgor in the stem cambium cells, thereby favoring cell division and expansion. The results suggest that mechanistic models of tree growth need to consider the atmospheric water status in addition to the known controlling environmental factors: temperature, soil moisture and precipitation. The results further have implications for sensitivity analyses of tree growth to climatic changes. PMID:22659458
Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph
Background The Amazonian rainforest is predicted to suffer from ongoing environmental changes. Despite the need to evaluate the impact of such changes on tree genetic diversity, we almost entirely lack genomic resources. Results In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of four tropical tree species (Carapa guianensis, Eperua falcata, Symphonia globulifera and Virola michelii) with contrasting ecological features, belonging to four widespread botanical families (respectively Meliaceae, Fabaceae, Clusiaceae and Myristicaceae). We sequenced cDNA libraries from three organs (leaves, stems, and roots) using 454 pyrosequencing. We have developed an R and bioperl-based bioinformatic procedure for de novo assembly, gene functional annotation and marker discovery. Mismatch identification takes into account single-base quality values as well as the likelihood of false variants as a function of contig depth and number of sequenced chromosomes. Between 17103 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 23390 (for Eperua falcata) contigs were assembled. Organs varied in the numbers of unigenes they apparently express, with higher number in roots. Patterns of gene expression were similar across species, with metabolism of aromatic compounds standing out as an overrepresented gene function. Transcripts corresponding to several gene functions were found to be over- or underrepresented in each organ. We identified between 4434 (for Symphonia globulifera) and 9076 (for Virola surinamensis) well-supported mismatches. The resulting overall mismatch density was comprised between 0.89 (S. globulifera) and 1.05 (V. surinamensis) mismatches/100 bp in variation-containing contigs. Conclusion The relative representation of gene functions in the four transcriptomes suggests that secondary metabolism may be particularly important in tropical trees. The differential representation of transcripts among tissues suggests differential gene expression, which opens the way to functional studies in these non-model, ecologically important species. We found substantial amounts of mismatches in the four species. These newly identified putative variants are a first step towards acquiring much needed genomic resources for tropical tree species.
This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical tree species under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical tree species, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae) and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) as light-demanding pioneer species, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae) and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) as late successional species, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi) of late successional species were similar to pioneer species. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional species in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all species in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi) was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of species. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among species of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season) under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional species in November (wet season), showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality. PMID:19197495
Souza, G M; Ribeiro, R V; Sato, A M; Oliveira, M S
The Papionina is a geographically widespread subtribe of African cercopithecid monkeys whose evolutionary history is of particular interest to anthropologists. The phylogenetic relationships among arboreal mangabeys (Lophocebus), baboons (Papio), and geladas (Theropithecus) remain unresolved. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed marked gene tree incongruence for these taxa, and several recent concatenated phylogenetic analyses of multilocus datasets have supported different phylogenetic hypotheses. To address this issue, we investigated the phylogeny of the Lophocebus + Papio + Theropithecus group using concatenation methods, as well as alternative methods that incorporate gene tree heterogeneity to estimate a 'species tree.' Our compiled DNA sequence dataset was ?56 kb pairs long and included 57 independent partitions. All analyses of concatenated alignments strongly supported a Lophocebus + Papio clade and a basal position for Theropithecus. The Bayesian concordance analysis supported the same phylogeny. A coalescent-based Bayesian method resulted in a very poorly resolved species tree. The topological agreement between concatenation and the Bayesian concordance analysis offers considerable support for a Lophocebus + Papio clade as the dominant relationship across the genome. However, the results of the Bayesian concordance analysis indicate that almost half the genome has an alternative history. As such, our results offer a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the Papio/Lophocebus/Theropithecus trichotomy, while at the same time providing evidence for a complex evolutionary history that likely includes hybridization among lineages. PMID:24161610
Guevara, Elaine E; Steiper, Michael E
Size-dependent structural patterns in the conductive bronchial tree of four species of myomorph rodents of different body weight were determined by lung casts. The lungs of the harvest mouse, Micromys minutus, body weight 5-7 g, the house mouse, Mus musculus, body weight 35-45 g, the brown rat, Rattus norvegicus, body weight 200-400 g, and the African giant pouched rat, Cricetomys gambianus, body weight 1,200-1,800 g, were inflated to 20 cm H2O, frozen, freeze-dried, hardened, and filled with silicone rubber. The casts were pruned, and branching pattern, diameter, and volume of the conductive bronchial tree were determined using a binocular magnifier. All four species have four lobes on the right lung and an undivided left lung, and the central bronchial tree on either side shows an identical monopodial branching pattern. Although the ramification of the central conductive bronchi is not size-dependent, the diameter and volume are. The diameter of the left main bronchus equals 1.24% of body length in Micromys and 0.6% in Cricetomys, and the conductive bronchial tree makes up 13% of the total lung volume in Micromys and 6% in Cricetomys. Relatively wider airways and a decline in airway resistance with declining body mass in small mammals compared to large ones result in a high ventilatory dead space, which is compensated for by a higher breathing frequency. PMID:8916429
Valerius, K P
Global climate change during the 21st century is anticipated to have consequences on potential niche viability for woody plant species. Previous research on modeling bioclimatic envelopes has allowed us to predict where to find species assemblages under future climate scenarios and hence predict loss or gain of specific habitats. However, species may not identically respond to climate change. This could
L. P. Ries; L. Hannah; J. Thorne; C. Seo; F. Davis
Field measurements of photosynthetic CO2 exchange were made on saplings of a C4 tree species, Euphorbia forbesii, and a C3 tree species, Claoxylon sandwicense, in a shaded mesic forest on Oahu, Hawaii. Both species had light responses typical of those generally found in shade plants. Light saturated photosynthetic rates were 7.15 and 4.09 µmol m2 s1 and light compensation points
Robert W. Pearcy; Howard W. Calkin
In this study, the subject of heavy metal concentration in soil, rock, sediment, surface water and groundwater, which can be caused by natural or man-posed pollution, was analyzed in the industrial park of Rasht. These concentrations were compared with the standard range of environmental data. Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants that can cause health hazards to humans, plants and microorganisms by entering food chain. This study aimed to investigate the absorption of lead by the leaves of sycamore tree species in the industrial park of Rasht. For this purpose, a sample of 32 sycamore tree species were randomly selected at a specified time, and the concentration of lead were measured using an atomic absorption device. Results showed that the amount of lead absorption by sycamore leaves is remarkable. The highest amount of lead absorption by sycamore leaves was detected at station 1 (Khazar Steel) and the lowest amount at station 2 (control station). PMID:23416882
Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Fallahchay, Mir Mozaffar; Tarighi, Fattaneh
Understanding the dynamics of tree establishment is critical to assess forests' composition, management practices, and current responses to global change. We carried out a field seedling transplant experiment to assess not only the direct effects of resources influencing recruitment of four tree species, but also their indirect and combined effects. Our analysis integrated first growing season demographic data together with estimates of mycorrhizal fungal colonization and resource availability (light, soil moisture, and soil nitrogen). Only by considering both the direct and indirect effects of resources we were able to account for most of the variability observed during seedling recruitment. Contrary to expectations, increasing light levels were not always beneficial for recruitment even in low light habitats, and soil moisture availability benefited seedling growth but not survival. In addition, mycorrhizal fungal colonization was not always favored by high light levels or by increasing soil moisture. Seedling survival for all species was lower in plots with higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, while the association with ectomycorrhizal fungi varied from beneficial to detrimental. When integrating the direct, indirect, and interactive effects of resource availability and mycorrhizal fungal colonization on tree recruitment dynamics we found that species responded in a nonlinear fashion to increasing resource levels, and we also identified thresholds, i.e., shifts in the direction of the response, along the resource gradient. Our integrated assessment considerably outperformed a null model where only direct effects of resources were accounted for. These results illustrate how the combination of direct, indirect, and combined effects of driving variables better represents the complexity of the processes determining tree species recruitment than simple resource availability mechanisms. PMID:24669730
Ibáñez, Inés; McCarthy-Neumann, Sarah
In this review, I summarized the results obtained from experimental studies on the ecophysiological responses of Japanese\\u000a forest tree species to O3, simulated acid rain and soil acidification. Based on the studies conducted in Japan, exposure to ambient levels of O3 below 100 nl·l?1 (ppb) for several months is sufficient to inhibit dry matter production and net photosynthesis of sensitive
Although fine roots might account for 50% of the annual net primary productivity in moist tropical forests, there are relatively\\u000a few studies of fine-root dynamics in this biome. We examined fine-root distributions, mass, growth and tissue N and C concentrations\\u000a for six tree species established in 16-year-old plantations in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica in a randomized-block\\u000a design (n = 4).
Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes; James W. Raich; Ann E. Russell
Tree species and wood ash application in plantations of short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) may have important effects on the\\u000a soil productive capacity through their influence on soil organic matter (SOM) and exchangeable cations. An experiment was\\u000a conducted to assess changes in soil C and N contents and pH within the 0–50 cm depth, and exchangeable cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+)
Fabio Sartori; Rattan Lal; Michael H. Ebinger; Raymond O. Miller
We used the process-based forest growth model Formind2.0 to show that recruitment limitation and the intermediate disturbance hypothesis which proposes maximum diversity in forests of intermediate disturbance intensity or frequency are both processes which impact on tropical tree species richness. Both processes influence each other and should therefore not be analyzed separately. While on a local level a rise in
Peter Köhler; Andreas Huth
A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification. PMID:24027913
Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos
India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals
Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.
In the tropics, seasonally flooded forests (SFF) harbor fewer tree species than terra firme (i.e. non-flooded) forests. The low species diversity of tropical flooded forests has been ascribed to the paucity of species with adaptations to tolerate flooding. To test the hypothesis that flooding is the only factor restricting most species from SFF, we compared plant morphological and physiological responses to flooding in 2-month old seedlings of 6 species common to SFF and 12 species common to terra firme forests. Although flooding impaired growth, total biomass, maximum root length and stomatal conductance in most species, responses varied greatly and were species-specific. For example, after 90 days, flooding reduced leaf area growth by 10-50% in all species, except in Tabebuia, a common species from non-flooded habitats. Similarly, flooding had a 5-45% negative effect on total biomass for all species, except in 1 SFF and 1 terra firme species both of which had more biomass under flooding. A principal component analysis, using the above responses to flooding, provided no evidence that SFF and terra firme species differed in their responses to flooding. Flooding also caused reductions in root growth for most species. Rooting depth and root: shoot ratios were significantly less affected by flooding in SFF than in terra firme species. Although flood tolerance is critical for survival in flooded habitats, we hypothesize that responses to post-flooding events such as drought might be equally important in seasonal habitats. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to grow roots under anoxia might be critical in predicting success in inundated habitats that also experience a strong dry season. PMID:12743794
Lopez, Omar R; Kursar, Thomas A
Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but also their growing spatial environment.
Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y. H.
The C2H4/15N2 and H2/15N2 ratios for six species of tropical leguminous trees are reported. C2H4/15N2 ratios ranged from 2.4 to 4.7; values for the H2/15N2 ratios were between 0.6 and 1.4. Relative efficiency values, based on C2H2 reduction, 15N incorporation, and H2 evolution during 15N incorporation varied between 0.68 and 0.84 for the six species. Overall, approximately 30% of the electron flow through nitrogenase was used for H2 evolution.
van Kessel, Christopher; Roskoski, Joann P.; Wood, Timothy; Montano, Jorge
Many methods for inferring species trees from gene trees have been developed when incongruence among gene trees is due to incomplete lineage sorting. A method called STAR (Liu et al, 2009), assigns values to nodes in gene trees based only on topological information and uses the average value of the most recent common ancestor node for each pair of taxa to construct a distance matrix which is then used for clustering taxa into a tree. This method is very efficient computationally, scaling linearly in the number of loci and quadratically in the number of taxa, and in simulations has shown to be highly accurate for moderate to large numbers of loci as well as robust to molecular clock violations and misestimation of gene trees from sequence data. The method is based on a particular choice of numbering nodes in the gene trees; however, other choices for numbering nodes in gene trees can also lead to consistent inference of the species tree. Here, expected values and variances for average pairwise distances and differences between average pairwise distances in the distance matrix constructed by the STAR algorithm are used to analytically evaluate efficiency of different numbering schemes that are variations on the original STAR numbering for small trees. PMID:23424131
Degnan, James H
Spring phenology of temperate forest trees is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by species-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate tree species in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive species Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in trees that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of tree phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here. PMID:24713858
Basler, David; Körner, Christian
Flooding and sedimentation are two of the dominant disturbances that influence tree species composition and succession in floodplain forests. The importance of these disturbances may be most notable during the germination and establishment phases of plant succession. Channelization of most alluvial systems in the southeastern United States has caused dramatic and systematic alterations to both hydrologic and sedimentation processes of floodplain systems. We determined the influence of these altered abiotic processes on the germination and growth of two common floodplain tree species: swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) and overcup oak (Q. lyrata Walt.). Flood durations of 0 days, 15 days, and 30 days prior to germination was a factor in germination, but the effect varied by species. For instance, ovcrcup oak, which has a higher tolerance to flooding than swamp chestnut oak, had higher germination rates in the flooded treatments (15-day x?? = 78% and 30-day x?? = 85%) compared to the non-flooded treatment (x?? = 54%). In contrast, germination rates of swamp chestnut oak were negatively affected by the 30-day flood treatment. Sediment deposition rates of 2 cm of top soil, 2 cm of sand, and 8 cm of sand also affected germination, but were secondary to flood duration. The main effect of the sediment treatment in this experiment was a reduction in above-ground height of seedlings. Our study provides evidence for the importance of both flooding and sedimentation in determining tree species composition in floodplain systems, and that tolerance levels to such stressors vary by species. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.
Pierce, A. R.; King, S. L.
Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota are the predominating archaeal group in acidic boreal forest soils. In this study, we show that the detection frequency of 1.1c crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA genes in the rhizospheres of the boreal forest trees increased following colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. This effect was very clear in the fine roots of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula pendula, the most common forest trees in Finland. The nonmycorrhizal fine roots had a clearly different composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes in comparison to the mycorrhizal fine roots. In the phylogenetic analysis, the 1.1c crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from the fine roots formed a well-defined cluster separate from the mycorrhizal ones. Alnus glutinosa differed from the other trees by having high diversity and detection levels of Crenarchaeota both on fine roots and on mycorrhizas as well as by harboring a distinct archaeal flora. The similarity of the archaeal populations in rhizospheres of the different tree species was increased upon colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus. A minority of the sequences obtained from the mycorrhizas belonged to Euryarchaeota (order Halobacteriales).
Bomberg, Malin; Timonen, Sari
Background Plant leaves, as the main photosynthetic organs and the high energy converters among primary producers in terrestrial ecosystems, have attracted significant research attention. Leaf lifespan is an adaptive characteristic formed by plants to obtain the maximum carbon in the long-term adaption process. It determines important functional and structural characteristics exhibited in the environmental adaptation of plants. However, the leaf lifespan and leaf characteristics of urban forests were not studied up to now. Methods By using statistic, linear regression methods and correlation analysis, leaf phenological characters of main tree species in urban forest of Shenyang were observed for five years to obtain the leafing phenology (including leafing start time, end time, and duration), defoliating phenology (including defoliation start time, end time, and duration), and the leaf lifespan of the main tree species. Moreover, the relationships between temperature and leafing phenology, defoliating phenology, and leaf lifespan were analyzed. Findings The timing of leafing differed greatly among species. The early leafing species would have relatively early end of leafing; the longer it took to the end of leafing would have a later time of completed leafing. The timing of defoliation among different species varied significantly, the early defoliation species would have relatively longer duration of defoliation. If the mean temperature rise for 1°C in spring, the time of leafing would experience 5 days earlier in spring. If the mean temperature decline for 1°C, the time of defoliation would experience 3 days delay in autumn. Interpretation There is significant correlation between leaf longevity and the time of leafing and defoliation. According to correlation analysis and regression analysis, there is significant correlation between temperature and leafing and defoliation phenology. Early leafing species would have a longer life span and consequently have advantage on carbon accumulation compared with later defoliation species.
Xu, Sheng; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei; He, Xingyuan; Huang, Yanqing; Wen, Hua
Riparian trees have growth responses to varying water sources that are more subtle than those of their upland counterparts, but differences in water use between co-occurring riparian species are not easily discerned by conventional dendrochronology. While tree ring isotopes have been developed as a useful tool for understanding past climate (temperature and precipitation) at the growth limits for particular species, relatively little research has investigated responses in tree growth in water-rich environments, where co-occurring tree species may express differential adaptation to water availability and shifting water sources. Better understanding of such subtle adaptations will improve predictions of the response of lowland riparian forests to climate changes that manifest as shifts in: regional ground water tables; the spatial/temporal distribution of precipitation; or volumes and timing of streamflow. We use an approach that combines dendrochronology and tree ring isotopes (?18O) to discern the relationships between tree growth and water sources for two contrasting, co-occurring Mediterranean riparian species-- Fraxinus excelsior and Populus nigra. We developed growth time series via two methods (one de-trended for climate) and extracted alpha-cellulose from tree rings to assess relative responses to water stress via ?18O, and we analyzed these data alongside streamflow and precipitation data for the Ain River basin in France. We find that both species exhibit decreased growth during drought years, but F. excelsior demonstrates more consistent annual growth than P. nigra. In contrast, oxygen isotopic values in P. nigra have low interannual variability compared with ?18O in F. excelsior. These differences suggest contrasting patterns of water use by these co-occurring species, wherein F. excelsior functions as an opportunist, scavenging water from the vadose zone where and when it cannot access groundwater. In contrast, the P. nigra demonstrates consistent groundwater usage (consistent with its moniker-obligate phreatophyte) and tends to struggle in drought years. These observations are consistent with ancillary data on rooting depths which show that F. excelsior maintains its roots above the gravel layer, where it can extract soil water from precipitation or overbank flooding. In contrast, P. nigra roots deeply into the phreatic zone without maintaining significant vadose zone roots, and is therefore less adaptable to rapid declines in the water table. These factors suggest, in contrast to prior work, that poplars may be more sensitive to drought than ash trees. Such dynamics in water use between such co-occurring, yet contrasting riparian trees within a riparian floodplain may indicate the response in succession and stand composition to climate changes or major anthropogenic impacts.
Singer, M. B.; Dufour, S.; Stella, J. C.; Piégay, H.; Johnstone, L.; Wilson, R.
Most, if not all, trees are outbreeding, highly heterozygous and undergo a long developmental period before reaching their reproductive stage. Classical breeding and cross-pollinating procedures are both unpredictable and time-consuming. In vitro androgenesis is, thus, the most prolific and desirable approach of haploid production. But various attempts to induce androgenic potential in the trees have met with rather limited success, as they ought to be extremely recalcitrant in culture. The success rate in this case is nowhere close to that achieved for some model species like Brassica and Nicotiana. Our review article intends to focus on the overview of androgenic process and all the major contributions till date on tree species with regard to this aspect. We wish to bring together in one place all the important variables used by different workers, that influence androgenic potential immensely like, stage of anther or microspore at culture, media composition, combinations and concentrations of growth regulators, and additives. This will prove to be a worthy guide to all the prospective workers in this area and in designing their experiments further. PMID:18577443
Srivastava, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Rakhi
In this paper, the stream banks nearby Qibao town and the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company were selected as the typical areas contaminated by heavy metals. The polluted status was investigated by measuring the heavy metal concentrations of the sampled soils. The results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the soils of stream banks were a little higher than the control, but obviously higher in the factory area of Shanghai Baoshan Steel Company. The growth status of the greening trees was recorded, and their heavy metal concentrations were measured by ICP. According to the research results and historic data, the excellent greening tree species mainly applied in polluted factory area were Viburnum awabuki, Lagerstroemia indica, Hibiscus mutabilis, Ligustrum lucidum and Sabina chinensis, which could grow well on contaminated soil, and accumulate high concentrations of heavy metal elements. The other tree species such as Distylium racemosum, Nerium indicum, and Photinia serrulata might be also available in greening for heavy metal pollution protection. PMID:15334971
Yang, Xuejun; Tang, Dongqin; Xu, Dongxin; Wang, Xinhua; Pan, Gaohong
The breadth of the continuum concept of strategy with respect to succession was tested on 21 tree and shrub species common in either unlogged or logged stands, respectively, in the Forest Reserve of Caparo, Venezuela, by examining morphological, physiological and population characteristics. Based on a preliminary abundance analysis, `early', `mid' and `late' successional species as well as `generalists' were distinguished. Early successional species, i.e. Ochroma lagopus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia peltata were similar in many autecological aspects, e.g. monolayered leaf arrangement, orthotropic architectural models, no adaptive reiteration, clumped distribution, but differed in gap association and distribution along a drainage gradient. Mid-successional species established themselves both in large and small gaps (> 300 m[sup2 ]; 80-300 m[sup2 ]) and showed a clumped to regular distribution pattern in logged areas; they exhibited more diverse crown and leaf characteristics than early successional species. Late successional species established themselves only in small gaps and understorey, and showed a regular spatial pattern in undisturbed areas. All late successional species displayed architectural models with plagiotropic lateral axes and showed a multilayered leaf arrangement. Adaptive reiteration was a common feature of late successional species which could be further subdivided into large, medium-sized and small trees, indicating different light requirements at maturity. Generalists were common treelet and shrub species in both disturbed and undisturbed sites where they are also capable of completing their life cycle. The light compensation point (LCP) of an individual plant was strongly influenced by its crown illuminance. Large late successional species showed the widest range of LCP values, reflecting the increasing light availability with increasing height in mature forest. On the basis of many autecological characteristics, it was found (i) that there is in fact a continuum of species strategies with respect to succession even among early and mid-successional species and (ii) that the latter group of species showed the widest breadth of autecological traits, reflecting the heterogeneous environment in which they establish and mature.
This study examined the effects of elevated CO2 on secondary metabolites for saplings of tropical trees. In the first experiment, nine species of trees were grown in the ground in open-top chambers in central Panama at ambient and elevated CO2 (about twice ambient). On average, leaf phenolic contents were 48% higher under elevated CO2. Biomass accumulation was not affected by CO2, but starch, total non-structural carbohydrates and C/N ratios all increased. In a second experiment with Ficus, an early successional species, and Virola, a late successional species, treatments were enriched for both CO2 and nutrients. For both species, nutrient fertilization increased plant growth and decreased leaf carbohydrates, C/N ratios and phenolic contents, as predicted by the carbon/nutrient balance hypothesis. Changes in leaf C/N levels were correlated with changes in phenolic contents for Virola (r=0.95, P<0.05), but not for Ficus. Thus, elevated CO2, particularly under conditions of low soil fertility, significantly increased phenolic content as well as the C/N ratio of leaves. The magnitude of the changes is sufficient to negatively affect herbivore growth, survival and fecundity, which should have impacts on plant/herbivore interactions. PMID:24599370
Coley, P; Massa, M; Lovelock, C; Winter, K
A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.
Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)
A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).
Steimer, Carlos H.
The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).
Frequent nutrient removals accompanying wood and crop harvests from rotational woodlot systems may contribute to declining\\u000a site productivity and sustainability because of soil nutrient depletion. However, selecting for nutrient-efficient tree species\\u000a may well sustain productivity under this system. To test this hypothesis, a randomized complete block experiment was adopted\\u000a to assess effects of five tree species on soil nutrients status,
Anthony A. Kimaro; Vic R. Timmer; Ancelm G. Mugasha; Shaban A. O. Chamshama; Deborah A. Kimaro
The canopy is host to a large percentage of the flora and fauna in tropical wet forests and is distinct from the forest floor\\u000a in plant richness, soil type and microclimate. In this study, we examined the influence of tree species and season on soil\\u000a nutrient cycling processes in canopy soils of four tree species common to Costa Rican wet
Catherine L. Cardelús; Michelle C. Mack; Carrie Woods; Jennie DeMarco; Kathleen K. Treseder
The physiological characteristics of the dominant tree species in the tropical rain forest mainly belonging to dipterocarps as well as the environmental conditions especially for the light in the forest were studied to establish the silvicultural system for the forest regeneration in the tropical South Asia. The flowering patterns of the dipterocarp trees are usually irregular and unpredictable, which make difficult to collect sufficient seeds for raising the seedlings. The field survey revealed the diverged features of the so-called gregarious or simultaneous flowering of various species of this group. Appropriate conditions and methods for the storage of the seeds were established according to the detailed analyses of the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seeds such as the low temperature tolerance and the moisture contents. The intensity and spectra of the light in the forest primarily determine the growth and the morphological development of the seedlings under the canopy. Based on the measurements of the diffused light at the sites in the tropical forest in the varying sunlight, the parameters such as “the steady state of the diffuse light” and “the turning point” were defined, which were useful to evaluate the light conditions in the forest. To improve the survival of the transplanted seedlings, a planting method of “the bare-root seedlings”, the seedlings easy to be handled by removal of all leaves, soil and pots, was developed. Its marked efficiency was proved with various dipterocarps and other tropical trees by the field trial in the practical scale. Tolerance of the various species to the extreme environmental conditions such as fires, acid soils and drought were examined by the experiments and the field survey, which revealed marked adaptability of Shorea roxburghii as a potential species for regeneration of the tropical forests.
Long-term surveys of entire communities of species are needed to measure fluctuations in natural populations and elucidate the mechanisms driving population dynamics and community assembly. We analysed changes in abundance of over 4000 tree species in 12 forests across the world over periods of 6-28 years. Abundance fluctuations in all forests are large and consistent with population dynamics models in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role. At some sites we identify clear environmental drivers, such as fire and drought, that could underlie these patterns, but at other sites there is a need for further research to identify drivers. In addition, cross-site comparisons showed that abundance fluctuations were smaller at species-rich sites, consistent with the idea that stable environmental conditions promote higher diversity. Much community ecology theory emphasises demographic variance and niche stabilisation; we encourage the development of theory in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role. PMID:24805976
Chisholm, Ryan A; Condit, Richard; Rahman, K Abd; Baker, Patrick J; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chen, Yu-Yun; Chuyong, George; Dattaraja, H S; Davies, Stuart; Ewango, Corneille E N; Gunatilleke, C V S; Nimal Gunatilleke, I A U; Hubbell, Stephen; Kenfack, David; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon; Lin, Yiching; Makana, Jean-Remy; Pongpattananurak, Nantachai; Pulla, Sandeep; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Sukumar, Raman; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Sun, I-Fang; Suresh, H S; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Duncan; Yap, Sandra
Photoinhibition was examined in four co-occurring Mediterranean evergreen tree species during two consecutive winters. In response to low temperatures and saturating light, Juniperus phoenicea L., Pinus halepensis Mill., Quercus coccifera L. and Q. ilex ssp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. exhibited marked chronic photoinhibition, indicated by low predawn maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (Fv/Fm). Low Fv/Fm values were correlated with high concentrations of xanthophyll cycle components (VAZ) and with the maintenance of high concentrations of zeaxanthin overnight (DPSpd). In all species, however, chronic photoinhibition was enhanced as the winter progressed in the absence of changes in DPSpd, suggesting cumulative damage toward the end of winter. Photoinhibition differed among species: P. halepensis always displayed significantly higher Fv/Fm values; and Q. coccifera had the lowest Fv/Fm values, showing a high sensitivity to the combination of high light and low temperatures. Differences among species were not fully explained by differences in the xanthophyll pool or its de-epoxidation state. Chronic photoinhibition overlapped with a dynamic photoinhibition as shown by the low values of photochemical efficiency of the open reaction centers of PSII at midday. Winter photoprotective strategies differed among species and may involve photoprotective mechanisms in addition to those associated with xanthophylls. The observed species-specific differences matched results obtained for the same species in summer; however, comparison of the two seasons suggests that the higher VAZ concentration observed in winter has an additional structural photoprotective role. PMID:15234895
Martínez-Ferri, E; Manrique, E; Valladares, F; Balaguer, L
Climate change is characterized by a general warming trend, combined with an increase in the occurrence of extreme events such as drought. Plant species are known to differ in their responsiveness to these factors. Below the species level, however, intraspecific variability or ecotypes may differ considerably in their performance, especially in widely distributed species, with implications for modelling future species distributions and adaptation to climate change. Here, we selected five provenances for each of four grass (Holcus lanatus, Arrhenatherum elatius, Alopecurus pratensis and Festuca pratensis) and one tree species (Pinus nigra) on the basis that climate of the origin was similar to future local projections for our site. Target areas were located from Spain in the southwest to Hungary in the southeast. The selected provenances were compared to local provenances in a pot experiment under warming (+1.5°C) and a single, severe drought (1000-year recurrence) in a fully factorial design. Survival, biomass production and phenology were measured as response variables. This study is part of the EVENT-experiments in Bayreuth. The results imply that local adaptation occurs mainly with respect to drought. The mean performance of at least some of the selected provenances generally surpassed the mean performance of the local provenance in each species. It seems therefore possible to select pre-adapted ecotypes as an adaptation strategy in the face of climate change. Furthermore, climate envelope models may considerably over-estimate the plasticity of species.
Kreyling, Juergen; Thiel, Daniel; Beierkuhnlein, Carl
Explaining the dramatic variation in species richness across the tree of life remains a key challenge in evolutionary biology. At the largest phylogenetic scales, the extreme heterogeneity in species richness observed among different groups of organisms is almost certainly a function of many complex and interdependent factors. However, the most fundamental expectation in macroevolutionary studies is simply that species richness in extant clades should be correlated with clade age: all things being equal, older clades will have had more time for diversity to accumulate than younger clades. Here, we test the relationship between stem clade age and species richness across 1,397 major clades of multicellular eukaryotes that collectively account for more than 1.2 million described species. We find no evidence that clade age predicts species richness at this scale. We demonstrate that this decoupling of age and richness is unlikely to result from variation in net diversification rates among clades. At the largest phylogenetic scales, contemporary patterns of species richness are inconsistent with unbounded diversity increase through time. These results imply that a fundamentally different interpretative paradigm may be needed in the study of phylogenetic diversity patterns in many groups of organisms.
The optimal foraging theory, the nutrient balance hypothesis, and the plant association theories predict that foraging decisions and resulting tree damage by large mammalian browsers may be influenced by the species richness and species composition of forest stands. This may lead to either associational susceptibility (increased damage on a focal plant in a mixed stand) or associational resistance (reduced damage in a mixed stand). Better understanding of the mechanisms and the relative importance of tree species richness and composition effects on foraging by mammalian browsers is needed to support sustainable management of forests and mammal populations. However, existing knowledge of forest diversity effects on foraging by large mammalian browsers comes largely from observational studies while experimental evidence is limited. We analysed winter browsing by moose (Alces alces L.) in a long-term, large-scale experiment in Finland, which represents a tree species richness gradient from monocultures to 2-, 3- and 5-species mixtures composed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). The intensity of browsing per plot increased with tree species richness while browsing selectivity decreased with tree species being targeted more equally in species-rich mixtures. Tree species composition of a plot was also an important determinant of intensity of browsing. The greatest browsing occurred in plots containing preferred species (pine and birch) while intermediate preference species (larch and alder) experienced associational susceptibility when growing with pine and birch compared with their monocultures or mixtures without pine and birch. In contrast, we found no evidence of associational resistance; the presence of a least preferred species (spruce) in a mixture had no significant effect on moose browsing on other tree species. We demonstrate that the presence of alternative forage species allows moose to spend longer opportunistically foraging in a plot, resulting in increased level of damage in species-rich stands and stands containing preferred tree species. Our results highlight the limitations of the optimal foraging theory in predicting browsing patterns and demonstrate the importance of associational effects within mixed stands. PMID:23363076
Milligan, Harriet T; Koricheva, Julia
The purpose of the present paper is to describe the Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS) currently being developed by the Army Research Institute, Fort Benning Field Unit. MACS represents a low-cost training/simulation alternative which can eventua...
J. E. Schroeder
Little is known about the spatial distribution of excess manganese (Mn) in the leaves of tolerant plants. Recently, the first such study of a Mn hyperaccumulator showed that the highest localized Mn concentrations occur in the photosynthetic tissue. This is in contrast to reports based on localization of foliar accumulation of other heavy metals. Here, four tree species, Gossia bidwillii, Virotia neurophylla, Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla, which hyperaccumulate or strongly accumulate Mn, were studied. Cross-sectional foliar Mn localization was carried out in situ using proton-induced X-ray emission/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (PIXE/EDAX). All four species contained photosynthetic tissues with multiple palisade layers. These were shown to be the primary sequestration sites for Mn. Mn was not detected in the epidermal tissues. The findings of this study demonstrate a concurrence of three traits in four tree species, that is, accumulation of excess Mn in the leaves, its primary sequestration in the photosynthetic tissues, and multiple-layer palisade mesophyll. PMID:16918546
Fernando, D R; Bakkaus, E J; Perrier, N; Baker, A J M; Woodrow, I E; Batianoff, G N; Collins, R N
Mango (Mangifera indica) sudden decline is an important disease in Oman, which is closely associated with infections by Ceratocystis fimbriata and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Another Ceratocystis species has also been found associated with symptoms on diseased trees. In this study, we identify that Ceratocystis based on morphology and DNA sequences. Morphological comparisons showed that the fungus from dying mango trees in Oman is similar to C. moniliformis. Both fungi have distinct hat-shaped ascospores, disc-shaped plates at the bases of the ascomatal necks and spines on the ascomatal bases. However, comparison of DNA sequences for ITS1-2, the 5.8S RNA gene, the beta-tubulin gene, and Transcription Elongation Factor (EF1-alpha) gene, confirmed that the fungus from Oman is distinct from C. moniliformis and other related species. Phylogenetically, this fungus formed one of four strongly supported sub-clades. The other sub-clades included isolates of C. bhutanensis, C. moniliformis and C. moniliformopsis, respectively. Based on morphological characteristics and differences in DNA sequences for three gene regions, we conclude that the Ceratocystis sp. from wounds on mango in Oman is a new species, for which we provide the name Ceratocystis omanensis sp. nov. PMID:16388939
Al-Subhi, Ali M; Al-Adawi, Ali O; Van Wyk, Marelize; Deadman, Michael L; Wingfield, Michael J
Chenopodium is a large and morphologically variable genus of annual and perennial herbs with an almost global distribution. All subgenera and most sections of Chenopodium were sampled along with other genera of Chenopodieae, Atripliceae and Axyrideae across the subfamily Chenopodioideae (Chenopodiaceae), totalling to 140 taxa. Using Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the non-coding trnL-F (cpDNA) and nuclear ITS regions, we provide a comprehensive picture of relationships of Chenopodium sensu lato. The genus as broadly classified is highly paraphyletic within Chenopodioideae, consisting of five major clades. Compared to previous studies, the tribe Dysphanieae with three genera Dysphania, Teloxys and Suckleya (comprising the aromatic species of Chenopodium s.l.) is now shown to form one of the early branches in the tree of Chenopodioideae. We further recognize the tribe Spinacieae to include Spinacia, several species of Chenopodium, and the genera Monolepis and Scleroblitum. The Chenopodium rubrum and the Ch. murale-clades were newly discovered as distinct major lineages but their relationships within Chenopodioideae will need further evaluation. Based on our results, we suggest the delimitation of Chenopodium to include Einadia and Rhagodia because these are part of the crown group composed of species of subg. Chenopodium that appear sister to the Atripliceae. The tetraploid crops such as Ch. berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae and Ch. quinoa also belong to Chenopodium sensu stricto. Trees derived from trnL-F and ITS were incongruent within this shallow crown group clade. Possible biological causes are discussed, including allopolyploidization. PMID:22051350
Fuentes-Bazan, Susy; Mansion, Guilhem; Borsch, Thomas
We examined the spatial distribution of maternally inherited chloroplast DNA markers over the French part of the range of Sorbus torminalis, a scattered temperate forest tree native to most of Europe. The survey by restriction analysis of polymerase-chain-reaction amplified fragments for 880 individuals distributed among 55 populations allowed the detection of 25 haplotypes. The coefficient of differentiation among populations computed on the basis of haplotype frequency (G(STc) = 0.34) was one of the lowest found in forest trees so far, and the mean within-population diversity was relatively high, indicating multiple-mother foundation events. A significant but slight geographical pattern was observed, up to distances of about 100 km. This pattern of differentiation was compared to the genetic structure of the same populations revealed by biparentally inherited markers (isoenzymes), and a new method to quantify the relative importance of seed and pollen dispersal was derived, based on isolation-by-distance models. Neither pollen- nor seed-mediated gene flow was predominant in S. torminalis, a finding that differs from those for the majority of tree species studied so far. This result was most likely due to an extinction-recolonization dynamics based on efficient seed dispersal strategies. The joint screening of 31 individuals of the related Sorbus aria and of 163 hybrid individuals shows that hybridization occurs predominantly in one direction and is rarely followed by cytoplasmic introgression. As a consequence, interspecific gene flow should not significantly affect the diversity dynamics within S. torminalis. PMID:11475048
Oddou-Muratorio, S; Petit, R J; Le Guerroue, B; Guesnet, D; Demesure, B
Reconstructing the biogeographic history of groups present in continuous arid landscapes is challenging due to the difficulties in defining discrete areas for analyses, and even more so when species largely overlap both in terms of geography and habitat preference. In this study, we use a novel approach to estimate ancestral areas for the small plant genus Centipeda. We apply continuous diffusion of geography by a relaxed random walk where each species is sampled from its extant distribution on an empirical distribution of time-calibrated species-trees. Using a distribution of previously published substitution rates of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for Asteraceae, we show how the evolution of Centipeda correlates with the temporal increase of aridity in the arid zone since the Pliocene. Geographic estimates of ancestral species show a consistent pattern of speciation of early lineages in the Lake Eyre region, with a division in more northerly and southerly groups since ?840 ka. Summarizing the geographic slices of species-trees at the time of the latest speciation event (?20 ka), indicates no presence of the genus in Australia west of the combined desert belt of the Nullabor Plain, the Great Victoria Desert, the Gibson Desert, and the Great Sandy Desert, or beyond the main continental shelf of Australia. The result indicates all western occurrences of the genus to be a result of recent dispersal rather than ancient vicariance. This study contributes to our understanding of the spatiotemporal processes shaping the flora of the arid zone, and offers a significant improvement in inference of ancestral areas for any organismal group distributed where it remains difficult to describe geography in terms of discrete areas. PMID:24335493
Nylinder, Stephan; Lemey, Philippe; De Bruyn, Mark; Suchard, Marc A; Pfeil, Bernard E; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A
In the moist tropical forest biome, which cycles carbon (C) rapidly and stores huge amounts of C, the impacts of individual species on C balances are not well known. In one of the earliest replicated experimental sites for investigating growth of native tropical trees, we examined traits of tree species in relation to their effects on forest C balances, mechanisms of influence, and consequences for C sequestration. The monodominant stands, established in abandoned pasture in 1988 at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica, contained five species in a complete randomized block design. Native species were: Hieronyma alchorneoides, Pentaclethra macroloba, Virola koschnyi, and Vochysia guatemalensis. The exotic species was Pinus patula. By 16 years, the lack of differences among species in some attributes suggested strong abiotic control in this environment, where conditions are very favorable for growth, These attributes included aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), averaging 11.7 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1) across species, and soil organic C (0-100 cm, 167 Mg C/ha). Other traits differed significantly, however, indicating some degree of biological control. In Vochysia plots, both aboveground biomass of 99 Mg C/ha, and belowground biomass of 20 Mg C/ha were 1.8 times that of Virola (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Differences among species in overstory biomass were not compensated by understory vegetation. Belowground NPP of 4.6 Mg C x ha(-1) yr(-1) in Hieronyma was 2.4 times that of Pinus (P < 0.01). Partitioning of NPP to belowground components in Hieronyma was more than double that of Pinus (P = 0.03). The canopy turnover rate in Hieronyma was 42% faster than that of Virola (P < 0.01). Carbon sequestration, highest in Vochysia (7.4 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1), P = 0.02), averaged 5.2 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1), close to the annual per capita fossil fuel use in the United States of 5.3 Mg C. Our results indicated that differences in species effects on forest C balances were related primarily to differences in growth rates, partitioning of C among biomass components, tissue turnover rates, and tissue chemistry. Inclusion of those biological attributes may be critical for robust modeling of C cycling across the moist tropical forest biome. PMID:20597292
Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W; Arrieta, Ricardo Bedoya; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar; González, Eugenio
Background Native Amazonian populations managed forest resources in numerous ways, often creating oligarchic forests dominated by useful trees. The scale and spatial distribution of forest modification beyond pre-Columbian settlements is still unknown, although recent studies propose that human impact away from rivers was minimal. We tested the hypothesis that past human management of the useful tree community decreases with distance from rivers. Methodology/Principal Findings In six sites, we inventoried trees and palms with DBH?10 cm and collected soil for charcoal analysis; we also mapped archaeological evidence around the sites. To quantify forest manipulation, we measured the relative abundance, richness and basal area of useful trees and palms. We found a strong negative exponential relationship between forest manipulation and distance to large rivers. Plots located from 10 to 20 km from a main river had 20–40% useful arboreal species, plots between 20 and 40 km had 12–23%, plots more than 40 km had less than 15%. Soil charcoal abundance was high in the two sites closest to secondary rivers, suggesting past agricultural practices. The shortest distance between archaeological evidence and plots was found in sites near rivers. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly suggest that past forest manipulation was not limited to the pre-Columbian settlements along major rivers, but extended over interfluvial areas considered to be primary forest today. The sustainable use of Amazonian forests will be most effective if it considers the degree of past landscape domestication, as human-modified landscapes concentrate useful plants for human sustainable use and management today.
Levis, Carolina; de Souza, Priscila Figueira; Schietti, Juliana; Emilio, Thaise; Pinto, Jose Luiz Purri da Veiga; Clement, Charles R.; Costa, Flavia R. C.
The study with statistic and multivariate analyses showed that the main meteorological factors affecting the growth and development rhythms of main tree species leaves in urban forest of Shenyang were > or = 5 degrees C accumulated temperature, accumulated sunshine hours, and mean temperature in the middle ten days of each phenological period. The meteorological factors needed by the tree species varied with their phenological period. Necessary low temperature and CI were required in germination period, and suitable WI and HI were needed in the growth period. The major quantitative morphological characters of 10 tree species in Shenyang urban forest were displayed in their leaf morphology and size, which decreased in the sequence of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya > Syringa oblata > Sophora japonica > Populus alba > Cornus alba > Lonicera maackii > Ligustrum obtusifolium > Fraxinus mandshurica > Prunus padus > Phellodondron amurense. As for the leaf area, it was decreased in the order of S. oblata > P. alba > P. amurense > P. padus > F. mandshurica > C. alba > L. cyrtobotrya > L. maackii > S. japonica > L. obtusifolium. The relationships of leaf length with leaf width, perimeter and area accorded with the model of y = ax(k), and the growth trend belonged to allometic type. The k value between leaf length and width of all test tree species except P. alba was lower than 1, and that between leaf length and perimeter was > 1 for P. amuresne, approximately 1 for P. alba, and < 1 for other tree species. As for the k value between leaf length and area, it was > 1 for all the tree species, with that of P. alba being 2. 1028. The increasing rate of leaf area was about 2 times higher than that of leaf length. An optimum regression assessment model of the 10 tree species leaf area was built and tested. PMID:17269315
Xu, Wenduo; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Wen, Hua
The daily construction of a sleeping platform or “nest” is a universal behavior among large-bodied hominoids. Among chimpanzees, most populations consistently select particular tree species for nesting, yet the principles that guide species preferences are poorly understood. At Semliki, Cynometra alexandri constitutes only 9.6% of all trees in the gallery forest in which the study populations ranges, but it was selected for 73.6% of the 1,844 chimpanzee night beds we sampled. To determine whether physical properties influence nesting site selection, we measured the physical characteristics of seven common tree species at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. We determined stiffness and bending strength for a sample of 326 branches from the seven most commonly used tree species. We selected test-branches with diameters typically used for nest construction. We measured internode distance, calculated mean leaf surface area (cm2) and assigned a tree architecture category to each of the seven species. C. alexandri fell at the extreme of the sample for all four variables and shared a tree architecture with only one other of the most commonly selected species. C. alexandri was the stiffest and had the greatest bending strength; it had the smallest internode distance and the smallest leaf surface area. C. alexandri and the second most commonly selected species, Cola gigantea, share a ‘Model of Koriba’ tree architecture. We conclude that chimpanzees are aware of the structural properties of C. alexandri branches and choose it because its properties afford chimpanzees sleeping platforms that are firm, stable and resilient.
Samson, David R.; Hunt, Kevin D.
Classification of different tree species in semiarid areas can be challenging as a result of the change in leaf structure and orientation due to soil moisture constraints. Tree species mapping is, however, a key parameter for forest management in semiarid environments. In this study, we examined the suitability of 5-band RapidEye satellite data for the classification of five tree species in mopane woodland of Botswana using machine leaning algorithms with limited training samples.We performed classification using random forest (RF) and support vector machines (SVM) based on EnMap box. The overall accuracies for classifying the five tree species was 88.75 and 85% for both SVM and RF, respectively. We also demonstrated that the new red-edge band in the RapidEye sensor has the potential for classifying tree species in semiarid environments when integrated with other standard bands. Similarly, we observed that where there are limited training samples, SVM is preferred over RF. Finally, we demonstrated that the two accuracy measures of quantity and allocation disagreement are simpler and more helpful for the vast majority of remote sensing classification process than the kappa coefficient. Overall, high species classification can be achieved using strategically located RapidEye bands integrated with advanced processing algorithms.
Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi; Cho, Moses Azong
We studied variations in water relations and drought response in five Himalayan tree species (Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth. (chilaune) and Castanopsis indica (Roxb.) Miq. (dhale katus) at an elevation of 1400 m, Quercus lanata Smith (banjh) and Rhododendron arboreum Smith (lali gurans) at 2020 m, and Quercus semecarpifolia Smith (khasru) at 2130 m) at Phulchowki Hill, Kathmandu, Nepal. Soil water potential at 15 (Psi(s15)) and 30 cm (Psi(s30)) depths, tree water potential at predawn (Psi(pd)) and midday (Psi(md)), and leaf conductance during the morning (g(wAM)) and afternoon (g(wPM)) were observed from December 1998 to April 2001, except during the monsoon months. There was significant variation among sites, species and months in Psi(pd), Psi(md), g(wAM) and g(wPM), and among months for all species for Psi(s15). Mean Psi(pd) and Psi(md) were lowest in Q. semecarpifolia (-0.40 and -1.18 MPa, respectively) and highest in S. wallichii (-0.20 and -0.63 MPa, respectively). The minimum Psi value for all species (-0.70 to -1.79 MPa) was observed in March 1999, after 4 months of unusually low rainfall. Some patterns of Psi(pd) were related to phenology and leaf damage. During leafing, Psi(pd) often increased. Mean g(wAM) and g(wPM) were highest in Q. semecarpifolia (172 and 190 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and lowest in C. indica (78 and 74 mmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Soil water potential (Psi) at 15 cm depth correlated with plant Psi in all species, but rarely with g(wAM) and not with g(wPM). Plant Psi declined with increasing elevation, whereas g(w) increased. As Psi(pd) declined, so did maximal g(w), but overall, g(w) was correlated with Psi(pd) only for R. arboreum. Schima wallichii maintained high Psi, with low stomatal conductance, as did Castanopsis indica, except that C. indica had low Psi during dry months. Rhododendron arboreum maintained high Psi(pd) and g(w), despite low soil Psi. Quercus lanata had low g(w) and low Psi(pd) in some months, but showed no correlation between tree Psi and g(w). Quercus semecarpifolia, which grows at the highest elevation, had low soil and plant Psi and high g(w). PMID:15059769
Poudyal, K; Jha, P K; Zobel, D B; Thapa, C B
Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.
Landenburger, Lisa; Lawrence, Rick L.; Podruzny, Shannon; Schwartz, Charles C.
Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.
Landenburger, L.; Lawrence, R. L.; Podruzny, S.; Schwartz, C. C.
Dead wood provides a huge terrestrial carbon stock and a habitat to wide-ranging organisms during its decay. Our brief review highlights that, in order to understand environmental change impacts on these functions, we need to quantify the contributions of different interacting biotic and abiotic drivers to wood decomposition. LOGLIFE is a new long-term 'common-garden' experiment to disentangle the effects of species' wood traits and site-related environmental drivers on wood decomposition dynamics and its associated diversity of microbial and invertebrate communities. This experiment is firmly rooted in pioneering experiments under the directorship of Terry Callaghan at Abisko Research Station, Sweden. LOGLIFE features two contrasting forest sites in the Netherlands, each hosting a similar set of coarse logs and branches of 10 tree species. LOGLIFE welcomes other researchers to test further questions concerning coarse wood decay that will also help to optimise forest management in view of carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22864697
Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Poorter, Lourens; van Geffen, Koert; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; van Hal, Jurgen; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sterck, Frank J; Klaassen, René K W M; Freschet, Grégoire T; van der Wal, Annemieke; Eshuis, Henk; Zuo, Juan; de Boer, Wietse; Lamers, Teun; Weemstra, Monique; Cretin, Vincent; Martin, Rozan; Ouden, Jan den; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Hefting, Mariet M
During a study of endophytic and saprotrophic fungi in the sapwood and phloem of broadleaf trees (Salix alba, Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula) fungi belonging to an anamorphic coelomycetous genus not attributable to a described taxon were detected and isolated in pure culture. The new genus, Liberomyces, with two species, L. saliciphilus and L. macrosporus, is described. Both species have subglobose conidiomata containing holoblastic sympodial conidiogenous cells. The conidiomata dehisce irregularly or by ostiole and secrete a slimy suspension of conidia. The conidia are hyaline, narrowly allantoid with a typically curved distal end. In L. macrosporus simultaneous production of synanamorph with thin filamentous conidia was observed occasionally. The genus has no known teleomorph. Related sequences in the public databases belong to endophytes of angiosperms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a position close to the Xylariales (Sordariomycetes), but family and order affiliation remained unclear. PMID:21937729
Pazoutová, Sylvie; Srutka, Petr; Holusa, Jaroslav; Chudícková, Milada; Kubátová, Alena; Kolarík, Miroslav
Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL), fine root diameter (D) and branching intensity (BI) of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e., plasticity). The first dataset included saplings of 12 North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets) co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e., humid organic, mesic, and xeric podzolic).The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e., relative growth rate) were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for Abies balsamea and Acer rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total variability most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity). This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI. PMID:23874347
Tobner, Cornelia M; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian
The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm) in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes. PMID:22886165
Magnago, Luiz F S; Martins, Sebastião V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Neri, Andreza V
Land management practices are increasingly focusing on the use of native plant communities to filter wastewater. Nutrient uptake from these effluents may affect overall growth and physiology. We examined the effects of increased nutrient levels on the seedlings of five species of bottomland trees. Seedlings of Carpinus caroliniana Walter. (hornbeam), Pinus serotina Michaux (pond pine), Acer rubrum L. (red maple), Quercus michauxii Nuttall (swamp chestnut oak), and Q, nigra L. (water oak) were grown outside in full sun under six levels of nutrient enrichment. During the 3rd growing season, height, component biomass, total biomass, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area and foliar nitrogen concentrations were determined. Height and total biomass of all species increased from low to high nutrient levels, with A. rubrum and P. serotina exhibiting the highest rates of increase. Biomass and foliar nitrogen relationships suggested differing patterns of nutrient uptake and use among the species. Acer rubrum, C. caroliniana and Q. michauxii used all nitrogen taken up for growth. Pinus serotina showed an accumulation of foliar nitrogen with a rapid rate of growth. Wuercus nigra grew more slowly. The effect of nutrient level on net photosynthesis was variable and species-specific. Only W. nigra and A. rubrum showed a positive relationship. Net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen showed no clear relationship among individual species, although a regression of all species together showed net photosynthesis to be positively correlated to foliar nitrogen. In a natural setting, the biomass response of A. rubrum and P. serotina, along with a corresponding increase height, could give seedlings of these species a competitive advantage in capturing light or tolerating floods. Differential responses may thus alter the competitive relationships of these five species in nutrient-enriched bottomland forest communities. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Vaitkus, M.R.; Ciravolo, T.G.; McLeod, K.W.; Mavity, E.M.; Novak, K.L. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))
This study extends the current knowledge regarding the use of plants for the passive accumulation of anthropogenic PAHs that are present in the atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is of major relevance because the anthropic emissions of TSP containing PAHs are significant in these regions, but their monitoring is still scarce. We compared the biomonitor efficiency of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species (Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava 'Paluma') that were growing in an intensely TSP-polluted site in Cubatão (SE Brazil), and established the species with the highest potential for alternative monitoring of PAHs. PAHs present in the TSP indicated that the region is impacted by various emission sources. L. multiflorum showed a greater efficiency for the accumulation of PAH compounds on their leaves than the tropical trees. The linear regression between the logBCF and logKoa revealed that L. multiflorum is an efficient biomonitor of the profile of light and heavy PAHs present in the particulate phase of the atmosphere during dry weather and mild temperatures. The grass should be used only for indicating the PAHs with higher molecular weight in warmer and wetter periods. PMID:22285658
Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa; Dias, Ana P L; Esposito, Jéssica B N; Pagliuso, Josmar D
Patterns of adaptive variation within plant species are best studied through common garden experiments, but these are costly and time-consuming, especially for trees that have long generation times. We explored whether genome-wide scanning technology combined with outlier marker detection could be used to detect adaptation to climate and provide an alternative to common garden experiments. As a case study, we sampled nine provenances of the widespread forest tree species, Eucalyptus tricarpa, across an aridity gradient in southeastern Australia. Using a Bayesian analysis, we identified a suite of 94 putatively adaptive (outlying) sequence-tagged markers across the genome. Population-level allele frequencies of these outlier markers were strongly correlated with temperature and moisture availability at the site of origin, and with population differences in functional traits measured in two common gardens. Using the output from a canonical analysis of principal coordinates, we devised a metric that provides a holistic measure of genomic adaptation to aridity that could be used to guide assisted migration or genetic augmentation. PMID:24750317
Steane, Dorothy A; Potts, Brad M; McLean, Elizabeth; Prober, Suzanne M; Stock, William D; Vaillancourt, René E; Byrne, Margaret
Our knowledge of ozone effects on dynamic stomatal response is still limited, especially in Asian tree species. We thus examined ozone effects on steady-state leaf gas exchange and stomatal dynamics in three common tree species of China (Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Platanus orientalis). Seedlings were grown and were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (42, 69, 100nmolmol(-1) daylight average, from 09:00 to 18:00). At steady-state, ozone exposure induced an uncoupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, as the former decreased while the latter did not. Dynamic stomatal response was investigated by cutting the leaf petiole after a steady-state stomatal conductance was reached. Ozone exposure increased stomatal sluggishness, i.e., slowed stomatal response after leaf cutting, in the following order of sensitivity, F. chinensis>A. altissima>P. orientalis. A restriction of stomatal ozone flux reduced the ozone-induced sluggishness in P. orientalis. The ozone-induced impairment of stomatal control was better explained by stomatal ozone flux per net photosynthesis rather than by stomatal ozone flux only. This suggests that ozone injury to stomatal control depends both on the amount of ozone entering a leaf and on the capacity for biochemical detoxification or repair. Leaf mass per area and the density of stomata did not affect stomatal sluggishness. PMID:24631608
Hoshika, Yasutomo; Carriero, Giulia; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Yulong; Paoletti, Elena
BACKGROUND: The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated
Saneyoshi Ueno; Grégoire Le Provost; Valérie Léger; Christophe Klopp; Céline Noirot; Jean-Marc Frigerio; Franck Salin; Jérôme Salse; Michael Abrouk; Florent Murat; Oliver Brendel; Jérémy Derory; Pierre Abadie; Patrick Léger; Cyril Cabane; Aurélien Barré; Antoine de Daruvar; Arnaud Couloux; Patrick Wincker; Marie-Pierre Reviron; Antoine Kremer; Christophe Plomion
Spatial patterns, their changes due to mortality, and intra- and interspecific competition of two codominant tree species,\\u000a Podocarpus nagi and Neolitsea aciculata, were analyzed at Mt. Mikasa, Nara City, Japan. Podocarpus nagi has a higher shade tolerance but a narrower seed dispersal range than N. aciculata. We inferred the mechanisms of spatial pattern formation and coexistence of the two species.
Satoshi Nanami; Hideyuki Kawaguchi; Takuo Yamakura
Investigations into the phylogenetics of closely related animal species are dominated by the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data. However, the near-ubiquitous use of mtDNA to infer phylogeny among closely related animal lineages is tempered by an increasing number of studies that document high rates of transfer of mtDNA genomes among closely related species through hybridization, leading to substantial discordance between phylogenies inferred from mtDNA and nuclear gene sequences. In addition, the recent development of methods that simultaneously infer a species phylogeny and estimate divergence times, while accounting for incongruence among individual gene trees, has ushered in a new era in the investigation of phylogeny among closely related species. In this study we assess if DNA sequence data sampled from a modest number of nuclear genes can resolve relationships of a species-rich clade of North American freshwater teleost fishes, the darters. We articulate and expand on a recently introduced method to infer a time-calibrated multi-species coalescent phylogeny using the computer program (*)BEAST. Our analyses result in well-resolved and strongly supported time-calibrated darter species tree. Contrary to the expectation that mtDNA will provide greater phylogenetic resolution than nuclear gene data; the darter species tree inferred exclusively from nuclear genes exhibits a higher frequency of strongly supported nodes than the mtDNA time-calibrated gene tree. PMID:23178741
Near, Thomas J; Keck, Benjamin P
Numerous studies conducted in agro-ecosystems support the enemies hypothesis, which states that predators and parasites are more efficient in controlling pest densities in polycultures than in monocultures. Few similar studies, however, have been conducted in forest ecosystems, and we do not yet have evidence as to whether the enemies hypothesis holds true in forests. In a 2-year study, we investigated whether the survival of autumnal moth ( Epirrita autumnata) larvae and pupae differs between silver birch monocultures and two-species mixtures of birch with black alder, Norway spruce and Scots pine. We placed young larvae on birch saplings and monitored their survival until the end of the larval period, when we checked whether they had been parasitized. After the larvae had pupated, pupal survival was tested in a field trial. In 2002, the larvae disappeared earlier and their overall survival was lower in birch-pine mixtures than in other stand types. In 2003, survival probability was lowest in birch-pine stands only during the first week and there were no differences between stands in overall survival. Larval parasitism was not affected by tree species composition. Pupal weight and pupal survival were likewise not affected by stand type. Among the predators, wood ants were more abundant on birches growing in birch-pine mixtures than in other stand types probably because colonies of myrmecophilic aphids were common on pines. In contrast, spider numbers did not differ between stand types. Ant exclusion by means of a glue ring around the birch trunk increased larval survival, indicating that ants are important predators of the autumnal moth larvae; differences in larval survival between stands are probably due to differential ant predation. Our results provide only partial support for the enemies hypothesis, and suggest that it is both tree species composition and species diversity which affect herbivore survival and predation. PMID:15322903
Riihimäki, Janne; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Koricheva, Julia; Vehviläinen, Harri
Afforestation of former agricultural land is a means to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effect of oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stands of different stand ages (13-17 and 40 years after afforestation, respectively) on N2O and CH4 exchange from the soil under these species and (2) identify the environmental factors responsible for the differences in gas exchange between tree species of different ages. N2O and CH4 fluxes (mean ± SE) were measured for two years at an afforested site. No species difference was documented for N2O emission (oak: 4.2 ± 0.7 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1, spruce: 4.0 ± 1 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1) but the youngest stands (1.9 ± 0.3 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1) emitted significantly less N2O than older stands (6.3 ± 1.2 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1). CH4 exchange did not differ significantly between tree species (oak: -8.9 ± 0.9, spruce: -7.7 ± 1) or stand age (young: -7.3 ± 0.9 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1, old: -9.4 ± 1 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) but interacted significantly; CH4 oxidation in the soil increased with stand age in oak and decreased with age for soils under Norway spruce. We conclude that the exchange of N2O and CH4 from the forest soil undergoes a quick and significant transition in the first four decades after planting in both oak and Norway spruce. These changes are related to (1) increased soil N availability over time as a result of less demand for N by trees in turn facilitating higher N2O production in older stands and (2) decreasing bulk density and increased gas diffusivity in the top soil over time facilitating better exchange of N2O and CH4 with the atmosphere.
Christiansen, J. R.; Gundersen, P.
One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related species, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and species tree approaches. Rodent species represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent species belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of species and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister species the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different species of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability.
Rodriguez-Prieto, Ana; Igea, Javier; Castresana, Jose
Weinvestigated the effect of habitat loss on the ability of trees to shift in distribution across a landscape dominated by\\u000a agriculture. The potential distribution shifts of four tree species (Diospyros virginiana, Oxydendron arboreum, Pinus virginiana, Quercus falcata var. falcata) whose northern distribution limits fall in the southern third of Ohio were used to assess possible distribution shift scenarios\\u000a as a
Mark W. Schwartz; Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad
Tree and annual crops in agroforestry systems compete for growth resources. The trhjective of this investigation was to partition the overall tree-crop competition into above- and helow-ground components in contour hedgerow intzrcropping systems involving six tree species (C~~llirln.tlra c:olotlryrsrrs, Uesnrotliirrrr rcmsortii, FLrrn~,irt,gia ni.acro~~li.,ylla, Gliricicbic~. SP~I~IL~I., Cassia. sl~ectc~l~ibis a~i~rl'7l).tlro7~.ir~ diricrsifolia) and mung hean (Vig71.u rc~diatci) grown at Pallekelle in the mid-country
W. A. J. M. DE; A. G. CHANDRAPALA
Juvenile leaves in high-light environments commonly appear red as a result of anthocyanin pigments, which play a photoprotective role during light-sensitive ontogenetic stages. The loss of anthocyanin during leaf development presumably corresponds to a decreased need for photoprotection, as photosynthetic maturation allows leaves to utilize higher light intensities. However, the relationship between photosynthetic development and anthocyanin decline has yet to be quantitatively described. In this study, anthocyanin concentration was measured against photopigment content, lamina thickness, anatomical development, and photosynthetic CO(2) exchange in developing leaves of three deciduous tree species. In all species, anthocyanin disappearance corresponded with development of c. 50% mature photopigment concentrations, c. 80% lamina thickness, and differentiation of the mesophyll into palisade and spongy layers. Photosynthetic gas exchange correlated positively with leaf thickness and chlorophyll content, and negatively with anthocyanin concentration. Species with more rapid photosynthetic maturation lost anthocyanin earliest in development. Chlorophyll a/b ratios increased with leaf age, and were lower than those of acyanic species, consistent with a shading effect of anthocyanin. These results suggest that anthocyanin reassimilation is linked closely with chloroplast and whole-leaf developmental processes, supporting the idea that anthocyanins protect tissues until light processing and carbon fixation have matured to balance energy capture with utilization. PMID:17688583
Hughes, Nicole M; Morley, Christianna B; Smith, William K
The spatial placement of recruits around adult conspecifics represents the accumulated outcome of several pattern-forming processes and mechanisms such as primary and secondary seed dispersal, habitat associations or Janzen-Connell effects. Studying the adult-recruit relationship should therefore allow the derivation of specific hypotheses on the processes shaping population and community dynamics. We analysed adult-recruit associations for 65 tree species taken from six censuses of the 50 ha neotropical forest plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. We used point pattern analysis to test, at a range of neighbourhood scales, for spatial independence between recruits and adults, to assess the strength and type of departure from independence, and its relationship with species properties. Positive associations expected to prevail due to dispersal limitation occurred only in 16% of all cases; instead a majority of species showed spatial independence (?73%). Independence described the placement of recruits around conspecific adults in good approximation, although we found weak and noisy signals of species properties related to seed dispersal. We hypothesize that spatial mechanisms with strong stochastic components such as animal seed dispersal overpower the pattern-forming effects of dispersal limitation, density dependence and habitat association, or that some of the pattern-forming processes cancel out each other. PMID:25030984
Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Hubbell, Stephen P
True crocodiles (Crocodylus) are the most broadly distributed, ecologically diverse, and species-rich crocodylian genus, comprising about half of extant crocodylian diversity and exhibiting a circumtropical distribution. Crocodylus traditionally has been viewed as an ancient group of morphologically conserved species that originated in Africa prior to continental breakup. In this study, these long-held notions about the temporal and geographic origin of Crocodylus are tested using DNA sequence data of 10 loci from 76 individuals representing all 23 crocodylian species. I infer a time-calibrated species tree of all Crocodylia and estimate the spatial pattern of diversification within Crocodylus. For the first time, a fully resolved phylogenetic estimate of all Crocodylia is well-supported. The results overturn traditional views of the evolution of Crocodylus by demonstrating that the true crocodiles are not "living-fossils" that originated in Africa. Rather, Crocodylus originated from an ancestor in the tropics of the Late Miocene Indo-Pacific, and rapidly radiated and dispersed around the globe during a period marked by mass extinctions of fellow crocodylians. The findings also reveal more diversity within the genus than is recognized by current taxonomy. PMID:22023592
Oaks, Jamie R
Proximate composition and mineral content of raw and cooked leaves of two edible tree spinach species (Cnidoscolus chayamansa and C. aconitifolius), known locally as 'chaya', were determined and compared with that of a traditional green vegetable, spinach (Spinicia oleraceae). Results of the study indicated that the edible leafy parts of the two chaya species contained significantly (p<0.05) greater amounts of crude protein, crude fiber, Ca, K, Fe, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene than the spinach leaf. However, no significant (p>0.05) differences were found in nutritional composition and mineral content between the chaya species, except minor differences in the relative composition of fatty acids, protein and amino acids. Cooking of chaya leaves slightly reduced nutritional composition of both chaya species. Cooking is essential prior to consumption to inactivate the toxic hydrocyanic glycosides present in chaya leaves. Based on the results of this study, the edible chaya leaves may be good dietary sources of minerals (Ca, K and Fe) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene). PMID:10540979
Kuti, J O; Kuti, H O
Seedlings of four deciduous tree species maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and lime (Tilia cordata) were exposed to de-icing salt (NaCl) either through the soil or applied to the above ground plant parts. A soil solution of 1.65 g l-1 NaCl was maintained from the start of the experiment in January 1999 until termination in June 1999. The main effects caused by salt treatment through the soil were a reduction in photosynthesis of up to 50% and the development of leaf chlorosis or necrosis covering up to 50% of the total leaf area for the most sensitive species (lime and beech); maple and horse chestnut were relatively tolerant. There was no significant correlation between Cl or Na concentration in leaves and the relative sensitivity of the species. Saturated salt solution was applied to bark, buds or leaf scars on two occasions three weeks apart during the winter season. This affected the timing of bud break with delays of up to eight days compared with the controls. In the most sensitive species the above ground salt treatments partly prevented bud break (beech) or reduced photosynthesis (lime). Uptake through the bark was most important for the development of stress effects, compared with uptake through the other above ground plant parts. PMID:11903969
Paludan-Müller, Georg; Saxe, Henrik; Pedersen, Lars Bo; Randrup, Thomas Barfoed
Afforestation of former agricultural land is a means to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of pedunculate oak and Norway Spruce of different stand ages (13-17 and 40 yr after afforestation, respectively) on N2O and CH4 exchange and identify the environmental factors responsible for the differences in gas exchange between tree species of different ages. N2O and CH4 fluxes (mean ± SE) were measured for two years at an afforested site. No species difference was documented for N2O emission (oak: 4.2 ± 0.7 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1, spruce: 4.0 ± 1 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1) but the youngest stands (1.9 ± 0.3 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1) emitted significantly less N2O than older stands (6.3 ± 1.2 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1). CH4 exchange did not differ significantly between tree species (oak: -8.9 ± 0.9, spruce: -7.7 ± 1) or stand age (young: -7.3 ± 0.9 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1, old: -9.4 ± 1 ?g CH4-C m-2 h-1) but interacted significantly; CH4 oxidation increased with age in oak and decreased with age for Norway Spruce. We conclude that the exchange of N2O and CH4 from the forest soil undergoes a quick and significant transition in the first four decades after planting in both oak and Norway Spruce related to physical changes in the top soil and availability of soil N.
Christiansen, J. R.; Gundersen, P.
Background and Aims The low-temperature range limit of tree species may be determined by their ability to produce and disperse viable seeds. Biological processes such as flowering, pollen transfer, pollen tube growth, fertilization, embryogenesis and seed maturation are expected to be affected by cold temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of seeds of nine broad-leaved tree species close to their elevational limit. Methods We studied nine, mostly widely distributed, European broad-leaved tree species in the genera Acer, Fagus, Fraxinus, Ilex, Laburnum, Quercus, Sorbus and Tilia. For each species, seeds were collected from stands close to optimal growth conditions (low elevation) and from marginal stands (highest elevation), replicated in two regions in the Swiss Alps. Measurements included seed weight, seed size, storage tissue quality, seed viability and germination success. Key Results All species examined produced a lot of viable seeds at their current high-elevation range limit during a summer ranked ‘normal’ by long-term temperature records. Low- and high-elevation seed sources showed hardly any trait differences. The concentration of non-structural carbohydrates tended to be higher at high elevation. Additionally, in one species, Sorbus aucuparia, all measured traits showed significantly higher seed quality in high-elevation seed sources. Conclusions For the broad-leaved tree taxa studied, the results are not in agreement with the hypothesis of reduced quality of seeds in trees at their high-elevation range limits. Under the current climatic conditions, seed quality does not constitute a serious constraint in the reproduction of these broad-leaved tree species at their high-elevation limit.
Kollas, C.; Vitasse, Y.; Randin, C. F.; Hoch, G.; Korner, C.
One effective approach to forest restoration in degraded tropical forestland is the so-called ‘framework species method’ which involves planting 20–30 indigenous forest tree species to re-establish a basic forest structure that catalyses the recovery of biodiversity. For the seasonally dry tropical forests of Doi Suthep-Pui National Park in northern Thailand, a provisional list of 36 potential framework species was compiled,
David Blakesley; Stephen Elliott; Cherdsak Kuarak; Puttipong Navakitbumrung; Sudarat Zangkum; Vilaiwan Anusarnsunthorn
Spatial patterns and interspecific associations of plant species in forests are important for revealing how species interact\\u000a with each other and with the environment, and hence have important implications for optimal forest management and restoration\\u000a in degraded forest ecosystems. In this paper, the O-ring statistics were used to characterize the spatial patterns and interspecific associations of eight dominant tree species
Zhong-Hua ZhangGang; Gang Hu; Jie-Dong Zhu; Dong-Hui Luo; Jian Ni
Detritus quality and quantity affect macroinvertebrate productivity and distribution in many freshwater ecosystems. This\\u000a study experimentally investigated the effects of leaf litter from Ceiba pentandra, Dipteryx panamensis, Ficus yoponensis, and Platypodium elegans on macroinvertebrate species composition, richness, and abundance in artificial water-filled tree holes in a lowland moist\\u000a forest of Panama. Species composition was similar among treatments, but species richness
Stephen P. Yanoviak
Colonization dynamics of woody species into grasslands in Neotropical savannas are determined by two main factors: plant-available\\u000a moisture and fire. Considering seasonality of precipitation and high fire frequency in these ecosystems, vegetative reproduction\\u000a has been suggested as the main regeneration strategy in woody species. This study examined seasonal variations in water relations\\u000a and photosynthesis in juveniles of two tree species
Carlos García-Núñez; Aura Azócar; Fermín Rada
Canopy disturbances such as windthrow events have obvious impacts on forest structure and composition aboveground, but changes in soil microbial communities and the consequences of these changes are less understood. We characterized the densities of a soil-borne pathogenic oomycete ( Pythium) and a common saprotrophic zygomycete ( Mortierella) in nine pairs of forest gaps created by windthrows and adjacent forest understories. We determined the levels of Pythium necessary to cause disease by performing pathogenicity experiments using two Pythium species, a range of Pythium densities, and two common tree species ( Acer rubrum and Prunus serotina) from the study sites. Three years post-disturbance, densities of Mortierella remained suppressed in soil from forest gaps compared to levels in intact forest understories while varying across sites and sampling dates. Pythium were infrequently detected likely because of soil handling effects. Expression of disease symptoms increased with increasing inoculum density for seedlings of P. serotina with each Pythium spp. having a similar effect on this species. Conversely, A. rubrum appeared resistant to the two species of Pythium. These results suggest that Pythium densities at sites where they were detected are sufficient to cause disease and possibly affect establishment of susceptible species like P. serotina. Because early seral environments have lower loads of the saprotrophic Mortierella, pathogen loads may follow a similar pattern, causing susceptible species to establish more frequently in those habitats than in late-seral forests. Forest disturbances that alter the disease landscape may provide an additional mechanism for explaining succession of temperate forests in addition to the shade-tolerance paradigm.
Reinhart, Kurt O.; Royo, Alejandro A.; Kageyama, Stacie A.; Clay, Keith
A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as species markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among species of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered species of dragon's blood and the species being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:18817913
Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A
Survival and growth of 83 tree species were tested in three separate species elimination trials on Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The trial layout was randomized complete blocks design with 6–8 replications of 5-tree line plots. At the age of two years exotics, like several Acacia species (A. mangium, A. crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis, A. cincinnata, A. leptocarpa),
Antti Otsamo; Göran Ådjers; Tjuk Samito Hadi; Jussi Kuusipalo; Risto Vuokko
The effect of four nurse tree species on early growth of an indigenous dipterocarp species, Anisoptera marginata, was studied on an Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland site in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. A rationale for the study was that fast-growing nurse tree species can ameliorate site conditions in such a way that dipterocarps, which are not able to tolerate open grassland conditions,
Several studies have evaluated the relative contribution of various host-plant attributes to the species richness of the associated insect herbivores, with and without the inclusion of the phylogeny of the host species for Northern hemisphere trees. In general these studies reached the same conclusion: tree availability (range and abundance) was a good predictor of insect species richness, although chemical attributes
Blas Lavandero; Antonieta Labra; Claudio C. Ramírez; Hermann M. Niemeyer; Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras
The use of imaging spectroscopy for florisic mapping of forests is complicated by the spectral similarity among co-existing species. Here we evaluated an alternative spectral unmixing strategy combining a time series of EO-1 Hyperion images and an automated feature selection in Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). The temporal analysis provided a way to incorporate species phenology while feature selection indicated the best phenological time and best spectral feature set to optimize the separability between tree species. Instead of using the same set of spectral bands throughout the image which is the standard approach in MESMA, our modified Wavelength Adaptive Spectral Mixture Analysis (WASMA) approach allowed the spectral subsets to vary on a per pixel basis. As such we were able to optimize the spectral separability between the tree species present in each pixel. The potential of the new approach for floristic mapping of tree species in Hawaiian rainforests was quantitatively assessed using both simulated and actual hyperspectral image time-series. With a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.65, WASMA provided a more accurate tree species map compared to conventional MESMA (Kappa = 0.54; p-value < 0.05. The flexible or adaptive use of band sets in WASMA provides an interesting avenue to address spectral similarities in complex vegetation canopies.
Somers, B.; Asner, G. P.
Management strategies to control invasive species need information about dispersal distances to predict establishment potential. Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a North American anemochorous tree species that is invasive in many Central European floodplain forests. To predict seed-dispersal potential, the stochastic model WaldStat was used, which enables different options for directionality (isotropic and anisotropic) to be simulated. In this article, we (1) show empirical results of fructification and seed dispersal for this tree species. The model predicts approximately 250,000 seeds for one F. pennsylvanica tree. These results were used to (2) calculate species-specific dispersal distances and effects of wind direction. To consider the influence of wind on dispersal potential of the tree species, long-distance dispersal (LDD [95th percentile dispersal distance]) was calculated. Mean dispersal distances varied between 47 and 66 m. LDD values modelled along the main wind direction ranged from 60 to 150 m. Seed production, dispersal distance, and direction data were (3) incorporated into theoretical management scenarios for forest ecosystems. Finally (4), we discuss management options and the practical relevance of model scenarios in relation to the accuracy of spatial dispersal predictions. Further analyses should be focused on possible, well-adapted management concepts at stand level that could restrict the potential spread of invasive species. PMID:23974901
Schmiedel, Doreen; Huth, Franka; Wagner, Sven
The cloud forests of the Dhofar mountains in Oman are one of few water limited seasonal cloud forests in the world. Because of the dry conditions (annual rainfall is only 114-252 mm depending on the location), cloud water interception by tree canopies (horizontal precipitation) is believed to play a major role for survival of the forest. Being the only green belt in the region, these ecosystems are under considerable pressure from animal feeding on tree canopies. In order to protect the Dhofar cloud forest from overgrazing and degradation a number of fenced forest enclosures have been established. Many of the originally established enclosures, however, did not survive and degraded similar to the enclosure surroundings. Our research focuses on the distribution of net precipitation (total water received below the tree canopies), as a function of throughfall, stemflow, and, horizontal precipitation within one of the few successful forest enclosures at Tawi Attair. Based on intensive measurements of throughfall, stemflow, fog, and rainfall water our work shows that the heterogeneity of net precipitation is linked to tree species and tree positioning within the enclosure. We demonstrate the contribution of both stemflow and throughfall for two different tree species, Pithicellobium dulce and Leucaenia leucacephala, as well as for different sectors within the enclosure. For stemflow results show significantly higher amounts for trees situated at the enclosure fence as well as significant differences between the two tree species. For throughfall the results were less pronounced but still show significant differences between different sectors. Generally, stemflow was considerable in all sectors, and is believed to contribute significantly to ground water recharge in this region. The work contributes to the understanding of these water limited seasonal cloud forests and to the future design of successful forest enclosures in the Dhofar mountains.
Bawain, Abdullah; Friesen, Jan; Hildebrandt, Anke
The tree species Parapiptadenia rigida, native to southern South America, is frequently used in reforestation of riverbanks in Brazil. This tree is also a source of gums, tannins and essential oils, and it has some medicinal uses. We investigated flooding tolerance and genetic diversity in two populations of P. rigida; one of them was naturally exposed to flooding. Plants derived from seeds collected from each population were submitted to variable periods of experimental waterlogging and submergence. Waterlogging promoted a decrease in biomass and structural adjustments, such as superficial roots with aerenchyma and hypertrophied lenticels, that contribute to increase atmospheric oxygen intake. Plants that were submerged had an even greater reduction in biomass and a high mortality rate (40%). The two populations varied significantly in their RAPD marker profiles, in their ability to produce aerenchyma when waterlogged and to survive when submerged, suggesting ecotypic differentiation between them. Hence, the seasonal flooding that has been challenging the tropical riparian forest appears to be genetically modifying the P. rigida populations exposed to it by selecting individuals with increased ability to live under this condition. PMID:20449813
Silva, D C G; Carvalho, M C C G; Ruas, P M; Ruas, C F; Medri, M E
Increased night-time temperatures, through their influence on dark respiration, have been implicated as a reason behind decreasing growth rates in tropical trees in the face of contemporary climate change. Seedlings of two neo-tropical tree species (Ficus insipida and Ochroma pyramidale) were grown in controlled-environment chambers at a constant daytime temperature (33°C) and a range of increasing night-time temperatures (22, 25, 28, 31°C) for between 39 d and 54 d. Temperature regimes were selected to represent a realistic baseline condition for lowland Panama, and a rise in night-time temperatures far in excess of those predicted for Central America in the coming decades. Experiments were complemented by an outdoor open-top chamber study in which night-time temperatures were elevated by 2.4°C above ambient. Increasing night-time temperatures resulted in > 2-fold increase in biomass accumulation in growth-chamber studies despite an increase in leaf-level dark respiration. Similar trends were seen in open-top chambers, in which elevated night-time temperatures resulted in stimulation of growth. These findings challenge simplistic considerations of photosynthesis-directed growth, highlighting the role of temperature-dependent night-time processes, including respiration and leaf development as drivers of plant performance in the tropics. PMID:23278464
Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus
The field of phylogenetics is changing rapidly with the application of high-throughput sequencing to non-model organisms. Cost-effective use of this technology for phylogenetic studies, which often include a relatively small portion of the genome but several taxa, requires strategies for genome partitioning and sequencing multiple individuals in parallel. In this study we estimated a multilocus phylogeny for the North American chorus frog genus Pseudacris using anonymous nuclear loci that were recently developed using a reduced representation library approach. We sequenced 27 nuclear loci and three mitochondrial loci for 44 individuals on 1/3 of an Illumina MiSeq run, obtaining 96.5% of the targeted amplicons at less than 20% of the cost of traditional Sanger sequencing. We found heterogeneity among gene trees, although four major clades (Trilling Frog, Fat Frog, crucifer, and West Coast) were consistently supported, and we resolved the relationships among these clades for the first time with strong support. We also found discordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear datasets that we attribute to mitochondrial introgression and a possible selective sweep. Bayesian concordance analysis in BUCKy and species tree analysis in (*)BEAST produced largely similar topologies, although we identify taxa that require additional investigation in order to clarify taxonomic and geographic range boundaries. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of a reduced representation library approach for marker development and parallel tagged sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq for phylogenetic studies of non-model organisms. PMID:24583020
Barrow, Lisa N; Ralicki, Hannah F; Emme, Sandra A; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty
The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban. PMID:21888233
Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma
The Earth Surface Dynamics section of the USGS provides this excellent collection of graphics, depicting range maps for more than 100 common North American tree species. From Abies amabilis to Yucca brevifolia, these color maps may be viewed or downloaded (.pdf, .zip, tgz). Most of the ranges depicted here were digitized by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (USDA Forest Service) for vegetation-climate modeling studies; graphics are best viewed as downloaded files.
– \\u000a \\u000a • The objective of this review was to summarize scientific data on the symbiotic status of exotic tree species useful in tropical\\u000a Africa, and to update reports about their growth improvement through microbial inoculations, especially ectomycorrhizal symbionts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The studies reviewed microbial symbionts associated to exotic tree species belonging to Myrtaceae, Pinaceae, Casuarinaceae and Leguminosae. In their native
Amadou M. Bâ; Abdala G. Diédhiou; Yves Prin; Antoine Galiana; Robin Duponnois
Spatially explicit data layers of tree species assemblages, referred to as forest types or forest type groups, are a key component in large-scale assessments of forest sustainability, biodiversity, timber biomass, carbon sinks and forest health monitoring. This paper explores the utility of coupling georeferenced national forest inventory (NFI) data with readily available and spatially complete environmental predictor variables through spatially-varying multinomial logistic regression models to predict forest type groups across large forested landscapes. These models exploit underlying spatial associations within the NFI plot array and the spatially-varying impact of predictor variables to improve the accuracy of forest type group predictions. The richness of these models incurs onerous computational burdens and we discuss dimension reducing spatial processes that retain the richness in modeling. We illustrate using NFI data from Michigan, USA, where we provide a comprehensive analysis of this large study area and demonstrate improved prediction with associated measures of uncertainty.
Banerjee, Sudipto; McRoberts, Ronald E.
Dynamics and possible function of the lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle, that is, the reversible conversion of Lx to lutein (L) in the light-harvesting antennae, were investigated in leaves of tropical tree species. Photosynthetic pigments were quantified in nine Inga species and species from three other genera. In Inga, Lx levels were high in shade leaves (mostly above 20 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll) and low in sun leaves. In Virola surinamensis, both sun and shade leaves exhibited very high Lx contents (about 60 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll). In Inga marginata grown under high irradiance, Lx slowly accumulated within several days upon transfer to deep shade. When shade leaves of I. marginata were briefly exposed to the sunlight, both violaxanthin and Lx were quickly de-epoxidized. Subsequently, overnight recovery occurred only for violaxanthin, not for Lx. In such leaves, containing reduced levels of Lx and increased levels of L, chlorophyll fluorescence induction showed significantly slower reduction of the photosystem II electron acceptor, Q(A), and faster formation as well as a higher level of non-photochemical quenching. The results indicate that slow Lx accumulation in Inga leaves may improve light harvesting under limiting light, while quick de-epoxidation of Lx to L in response to excess light may enhance photoprotection. PMID:18208510
Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, G Heinrich; Seltmann, Martin; Virgo, Aurelio; Kursar, Thomas A; Jahns, Peter; Winter, Klaus
Over the last 150 years, Singapore's primary forest has been reduced to less than 0.2% of its previous area, resulting in extinctions of native flora and fauna. Remaining species may be threatened by genetic erosion and inbreeding. We surveyed >95% of the remaining primary forest in Singapore and used eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity indices of 179 adults (>30 cm stem diameter), 193 saplings (>1 yr), and 1,822 seedlings (<1 yr) of the canopy tree Koompassia malaccensis (Fabaceae). We tested hypotheses relevant to the genetic consequences of habitat loss: (1) that the K. malaccensis population in Singapore experienced a genetic bottleneck and a reduction in effective population size, and (2) K. malaccensis recruits would exhibit genetic erosion and inbreeding compared to adults. Contrary to expectations, we detected neither a population bottleneck nor a reduction in effective population size, and high genetic diversity in all age classes. Genetic diversity indices among age classes were not significantly different: we detected overall high expected heterozygosity (He = 0.843-0.854), high allelic richness (R = 16.7-19.5), low inbreeding co-efficients (FIS = 0.013-0.076), and a large proportion (30.1%) of rare alleles (i.e. frequency <1%). However, spatial genetic structure (SGS) analyses showed significant differences between the adults and the recruits. We detected significantly greater SGS intensity, as well as higher relatedness in the 0-10 m distance class, for seedlings and saplings compared to the adults. Demographic factors for this population (i.e. <200 adult trees) are a cause for concern, as rare alleles could be lost due to stochastic factors. The high outcrossing rate (tm = 0.961), calculated from seedlings, may be instrumental in maintaining genetic diversity and suggests that pollination by highly mobile bee species in the genus Apis may provide resilience to acute habitat loss. PMID:24367531
Noreen, Annika M E; Webb, Edward L
The knowledge about the existence of annual tree rings in tropical trees, which was already found at the beginning of the last century, was ignored by many scientists for a long time. Wood samples of 80 tree species from seven different sites belonging to Satipo and Chanchamayo provinces in Central Forest, Perú. Wood slices were taken at 1.30 m height, following the Peruvian Technical Norms (NTP) 251-008, COPANT norms 30:1-019 and IAWA (1989). Results showed that 24 of the 80 tree species analyzed showed a potential for dendrocronological studies, 25 had problems for growth-rings analysis, and 31 did not have potential. The problems most frequently found were: barely visible or irregular ring growth, parenchyma bands and multiseriate rays difficult to be identified in rings growth. The "T" Student test showed that the significant variation in vessel and fiber diameters between growth zones (Early-wood and late-wood) of species with potential for dendrocronology, do have a periodic cells production, so is possible to suggest the annual formation of each growth-ring. However, those species without potential to dendrocronology may be influenced by of a lot of factors, such as biotic and abiotic conditions of environment, as well as the genetic aspect of each species. PMID:24027905
Beltrán Gutiérrez, Lizandro Adal; Valencia Ramos, Gina Mariela
The sooty beech scale insect (Ultracoelostoma sp.) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) exhibits a highly patchy distribution at local and regional scales. A major factor driving this common distributional phenomenon in other phloem-feeding insects is aggregation and local adaptation. The aim of this study was to determine if Ultracoelostoma was locally adapted to its natal host trees, by contrasting the establishment rates of first instar “crawlers” in reciprocal transfers to natal versus novel hosts. Although there are two closely-related species of sooty beech scale insect, the morphological characters of crawlers in this study were intermediate between those of U. assimile and U. brittini. However, all of the voucher specimens examined had consistent morphology, indicating that they belong to one species which we refer to as Ultracoelostoma sp. Reciprocal transfers of crawlers were carried out between individual red beech (Nothofagus fusca), as well as between mountain beech (N. solandri) and red beech trees, to ascertain if insects had become locally adapted to their individual host tree or to host species. In total, 480 crawlers were placed in enclosures on their natal and novel host trees, of which only 32 (6.7 %) became established. No evidence for local adaptation, either to individual host trees or to host tree species, was found. There was also no difference in crawler establishment between natal and novel hosts. However, crawlers originating from mountain beech trees had significantly higher establishment rates on both natal mountain beech and novel red beech hosts, than did crawlers originating from red beech trees. The superior ability of mountain beech crawlers to become established, even on novel red beech trees, suggests that scale insects on mountain beech trees have higher individual fitness (possibly due to maternal effects mediated by differences in host nutritional quality, defensive compounds or growth rate). This increased fitness may result in crawlers being better provisioned to search for appropriate establishment sites. The results of this study indicate that beech scale insects perform better on mountain beech at this site, although crawlers did not preferentially establish on mountain beech.
Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Didham, Raphael K.
A multi-purpose seismic transducer includes a first seismic sensor having a first transfer function. A transfer-function shaping filter is coupled to the output of the first seismic sensor. The filter is adjustable to shape the first transfer function to match a plurality of different second transfer functions.
Saproxylic beetles are highly sensitive to forest management practices that reduce the abundance and variety of dead wood. However, this diverse fauna continues to receive little attention in the southeastern United States even though this region supports some of the most diverse, productive and intensively managed forests in North America. In this replicated three-way factorial experiment, we investigated the habitat associations of saproxylic beetles on the coastal plain of South Carolina. The factors of interest were forest type (upland pine-dominated vs. bottomland hardwood), tree species (Quercus nigra L., Pinustaeda L. and Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and wood posture (standing and downed dead wood, i.e., snags and logs). Wood samples were taken at four positions along each log and snag (lower bole,middle bole, upper bole and crown) _11 months after the trees were killed and placed in rearing bags to collect emerging beetles. Overall, 33,457 specimens from 52 families and _250 species emerged. Based on an analysis of covariance, with surface area and bark coverage as covariates, saproxylic beetle species richness differed significantly between forest types as well as between wood postures. There were no significant interactions. Species richness was significantly higher in the upland pine-dominated stand than the bottomland hardwood forest, possibly due to higher light exposure and temperature in upland forests. Although L. styraciflua yielded more beetle species (152) than either Q. nigra (122) or P. taeda (125), there were no significant differences in species richness among tree species. There were also no relationships evident between relative tree abundance and observed or expected beetle species richness. Significantly more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags. However snags had a distinct fauna including several potential canopy specialists. Our results suggest that conservation practices that retain or create entire snags as opposed to high stumps or logs alone will most greatly benefit saproxylic beetles in southeastern forests.
Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James, L.
Plants can significantly affect ecosystem water balance by hydraulic redistribution (HR) from dry to wet soil layers via roots (also called hydraulic lift, HL, when the redistribution is from deep to shallow soil). However, the information on how co-occurring species in natural habitats differ in HL ability is insufficient. In a field study, we compared HL ability of four tree species (including three congeneric oak species) and two C4 bunch grass species that co-occur in subxeric habitats of fall-line sandhills in southeastern USA. Soil water potentials (psi(s)) were recorded hourly for 3 years both in large chambers that isolated roots for each species and outside the chambers. Outside of root chambers, soil drying occurred periodically in the top 25 cm and corresponded with lack of precipitation during the summer growing season. Soil moisture was continuously available at a 1 m depth. HL activity was observed in three of the tree species, with greater frequency for Pinus palustris than for Quercus laevis and Q. incana. The fourth tree species Q. margaretta did not exhibit HL activity even though it experienced a similar psi(s) gradient. For the C4 bunch grasses, Aristida stricta exhibited a small amount of HL activity, but Schizachyrium scoparium did not. The capacity for HL activity may be linked to the species ecological distribution. The four species that exhibited HL activity in this subxeric habitat are also dominant in adjacent xeric sandhill habitats, whereas the species that did not exhibit HL are scarcely found in the xeric areas. This is consistent with other studies that found greater fine root survival in dry soil for the four xeric species exhibiting HL activity. The differential ability of these species to redistribute water from the deep soil to the rapidly drying shallow soil likely has a strong effect on the water balance of sandhill plant communities, and is likely linked to their differential distribution across edaphic gradients. PMID:14689298
Espeleta, J F; West, J B; Donovan, L A
Ecological relationships of plants and herbivores have implications for biosphere-atmosphere interactions. For instance, plant monoterpene emission response to herbivory can significantly impact air quality /(Litvak et al. /(1999/) Ecol. Appl. 9/(4/):1147-1159/). Studies on biogenic methanol emission response to herbivory have observed significant methanol emissions directly following herbivore attack and even larger emissions 24hrs later /(Penuelas et al. /(2005/) New Phytol. 167:851-857/). We investigated gypsy moth defoliation impacts on methanol emissions in the abundant North American temperate tree species big tooth aspen Populus grandidentata. Specifically, we measured methanol emission response to herbivory on both short and long time scales at a field site in northern Michigan. Our results suggest herbivory can significantly increase methanol emissions on both short and long time scales. Unlike previous investigations, we did not observe methanol emissions 24hrs post-attack to be significantly higher than emissions detected directly following attack. When compared to mechanical wounding, herbivory did not elicit a quantitatively different methanol emission response in this species. These results suggest that herbivory in temperate forests may be an important driver for biogenic methanol flux and may therefore be helpful in improving models of methanol dynamics.
Oikawa, P.; Lerdau, M.; Mak, J.
Aspects of root architecture, including topology, link length, diameter and scaling relations, were analyzed in excavated coarse root systems of three field-grown fruit tree species (Strychnos cocculoides Bak., Strychnos spinosa Lam. and Vangueria infausta Burch) and the fruit-bearing shrub Grewia flava DC. We investigated the root systems using semi-automatic digitizing and computer-based 3-D reconstruction techniques. Topological analysis was carried out to investigate branching patterns as basic determinants of root architecture. New topological indices were developed and revealed significant differences among the species. The different architectural strategies can be explained in terms of cost-benefit relations and efficiency in soil resource exploration and exploitation. In addition, some well-known hypotheses about geometry and scaling, most of them previously unverified by empirical observations on root systems, were tested. For practical applications, the main emphasis is on the relationship between proximal root diameter, an easily determined parameter, and several parameters describing the size of the whole root system. We also tested the "pipe stem" theory, essentially dating back to Leonardo da Vinci, which underlies many models and which we found conformed to our measurement data with reasonable accuracy. A physiological consequence of the "constant cross-sectional area rule" may be a certain homogeneity of hydraulic architecture throughout root systems. PMID:11303642
Oppelt, A L; Kurth, W; Godbold, D L
The nutritional characteristics of mineral elements in tree species were studied in a 1 ha ecological observation plot at Mt. Gadut area near Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. The elemental composition of the 608 leaf samples from the plot was analyzed and was compared with the results of bark analyses (Masunaga et al. 1997: Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., 43, 405–418). The
Tsugiyuki Masunaga; Daisuke Kubota; Mitsuru Hotta; Toshiyuki Wakatsuki
The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb>9850 mg kg) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer
Weeradej Meeinkuirt; Phanwimol Tanhan; Prayad Pokethitiyook; Maleeya Kruatrachue; Rattanawat Chaiyarat
Blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is a deciduous tree species endemic to California that currently exhibits poor seedling survival to sapling age classes. We used common garden techniques to examine how genetic variation at regional and local scales affected phenotypic expression in traits affecting oak seedling growth and survival. Between-population variation was examined for seedlings grown from acorns collected from a
K. J. Rice; D. R. Gordon; J. L. Hardison; J. M. Welker
The age, size structure and the spatial pattern of major tree species were investigated in a temperate old-growth (ca. >300 years old) Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endlicher forest in the Akasawa Forest Reserve of Central Japan. All stems ?5cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were mapped on a 4-ha plot and analyses were made of age, size structure and
D Hoshino; N Nishimura; S Yamamoto
Current attempts to forecast how species' distributions will change in response to climate change suffer under a fundamental trade-off: between modeling many species superficially vs. few species in detail (between correlative vs. mechanistic models). The goals of this talk are two-fold: first, we present a Bayesian multilevel modeling framework, dynamic range modeling (DRM), for building process-based forecasts of many species' distributions at a time, designed to address the trade-off between detail and number of distribution forecasts. In contrast to 'species distribution modeling' or 'niche modeling', which uses only species' occurrence data and environmental data, DRMs draw upon demographic data, abundance data, trait data, occurrence data, and GIS layers of climate in a single framework to account for two processes known to influence range dynamics - demography and dispersal. The vision is to use extensive databases on plant demography, distributions, and traits - in the Botanical Information and Ecology Network, the Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIA), and the International Tree Ring Data Bank - to develop DRMs for North American trees. Second, we present preliminary results from building the core submodel of a DRM - an integral projection model (IPM) - for a sample of dominant tree species in western North America. IPMs are used to infer demographic niches - i.e., the set of environmental conditions under which population growth rate is positive - and project population dynamics through time. Based on >550,000 data points derived from FIA for nine tree species in western North America, we show IPM-based models of their current and future distributions, and discuss how IPMs can be used to forecast future forest productivity, mortality patterns, and inform efforts at assisted migration.
Evans, M. E.; Merow, C.; Record, S.; Menlove, J.; Gray, A.; Cundiff, J.; McMahon, S.; Enquist, B. J.
Dryland regions worldwide are increasingly suffering from losses of soil and biodiversity as a consequence of land degradation.\\u000a Integrated conservation, rehabilitation and community-based management of natural resources are therefore of vital importance.\\u000a Local planting efforts should focus on species performing a wide range of functions. Too often however, unsuitable tree species\\u000a are planted when both ecological suitability for the targeted
Bert Reubens; Clara Moeremans; Jean Poesen; Jan Nyssen; Sarah Tewoldeberhan; Steve Franzel; Jozef Deckers; Caleb Orwa; Bart Muys
Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not.
Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena
We measured C and N ratios in 608 surface soil horizons (primarily Oa) from ten small watersheds at seven established research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included sugar maple (Acer saccharum), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), red spruce (Picea rubens) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). In the soil, both the C (50-530 g/kg) and C/N ratio (11.6- 45.3) had a wide distribution. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were positively and linearly related to C content. For these nine watersheds, the average N (g/kg) = 6.9 + 0.030 X C (g/kg), R2 = 0.97. The C/N ratios at Cone were much higher than would be predicted from the other data and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Across all watersheds, C concentration was also positively correlated with forest floor depth (and therefore C pools). Although sugar maple dominance was negatively correlated with C/N ratio and C, better relationships were obtained by combining species. Carbon concentration of the humified surface horizon was negatively related to maple + birch dominance and positively related to conifer + beech dominance. Among nine of these ten watersheds, the average C concentration in the surface soil varied (187-441 g/kg) with a constant C/N ratio of 33. The remarkably tight relationships between C, N, and species suggest predicable patterns in C accumulation.
Ross, D. S.; Juillerat, J.
In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the
D. D. Skelly
The regeneration mode of major tree species (Chamaecyparisobtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl., Thujopsisdolabrata Sieb. et Zucc., Chamaecyparispisifera (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl., Quercusmongolica Fischer ex Turcz., Magnoliaobovata Thunb. and Betulagrossa Sieb. et Zucc.) in relation to four canopy conditions (closed evergreen conifer canopy, closed evergreen conifer canopy adjacent to canopy gap (gap-adjacent), canopy gap, and closed deciduous broad-leaved tree (DBL) species
D Hoshino; N Nishimura; S Yamamoto
There are a huge number of phylogenetic studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, these may represent gene trees that may not be congruent with the species tree. A solution to this problem is to include additional, independent, loci from the nuclear genome. At fine taxonomic levels, i.e. between populations and closely related species, previously suggested nuclear markers such as
Nicholas Giannasi; Roger S. Thorpe; Anita Malhotra
Knowledge of the manner in which genetic variation within a tree species affects associated communities and ecosystem processes across its entire range is important for understanding how geographic mosaics of genetic interactions might develop and support different communities. While numerous studies have investigated the community and ecosystem consequences of genetic variation at the hybrid cross type or genotype level within a species, none has investigated the community-level effects of intraspecific genetic variation across the geographic range of a widespread species. This is the scale at which geographic mosaics of coevolution are hypothesized to exist. Studies at this level are particularly important for foundation tree species, which typically support numerous microbial, fungal, plant, and animal communities. We studied genetic variation across eight geographical races of the forest tree Eucalyptus globulus representing its natural distribution across southeastern Australia. The study was conducted in a 15-year-old common garden trial based on families derived from single-tree open-pollinated seed collections from the wild. Neutral molecular genetic variation within E. globulus was also assessed and compared with genetic divergence in the phenotypic and community traits. Three major findings emerged. First, we found significant genetically based, hierarchical variation in associated communities corresponding to geographical races of E. globulus and families within races. Second, divergence in foliar communities at the racial level was associated with genetically based divergence in specific leaf morphological and chemical traits that have known defensive functions. Third, significant positive correlations between canopy community dissimilarity and both neutral molecular genetic and leaf quantitative genetic dissimilarity at the race level supported a genetic similarity rule. Our results argue that genetic variation within foundation tree species has the potential to be a significant driver of the geographical mosaics of variation typical of forest communities, which could have important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:19694126
Barbour, Robert C; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; De Little, David W; Jordan, Gregory J; Steane, Dorothy A; Humphreys, Jonathon R; Bailey, Joseph K; Whitham, Thomas G; Potts, Bradley M
Allometric models are necessary for estimating biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. Generalized allometric relationship exists\\u000a for many tropical trees, but species- and region-specific models are often lacking. We developed species-specific allometric\\u000a models to predict aboveground biomass for 11 native tree species of the Sudanian savanna-woodlands. Diameters at the base\\u000a and at breast height, with species means ranging respectively from 11 to
Louis SawadogoPatrice; Patrice Savadogo; Daniel Tiveau; Sidzabda Djibril Dayamba; Didier Zida; Yves Nouvellet; Per Christer Oden; Sita Guinko
The role of forests has generally been recognized in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies and policies (e.g. Kyoto Protocol within articles 3.3 and 3.4, RES-E Directive of EU, Country Biomass Action Plans etc.). Application of mitigation actions, to decrease of CO2-emissions and, as the increase of carbon(C)-stocks and appropriate GHG-accounting has been hampered due to a lack of reliable data and good statistical models for the factors influencing C-sequestration in and its release from these systems (e.g. natural and human induced disturbances). Highest uncertainties are still present for estimation of soil C-stocks, which is at the same time the second biggest C-reservoir on earth. Spruce monocultures have been a widely used management practice in central Europe during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes (e.g. submontane to lower montane elevation zone) and on heavy soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially on blowdown. As the windthrow-areas act as CO2-source, we hypothesize that conversion to natural beech and oak forests will provide sustainable wood supply and higher stability of stands against blowdown, which simultaneously provides the long-term belowground C-sequestration. This work focuses on influence of Norway spruce, Common beech and Oak stands on belowground C-dynamics (mineral soil, humus and belowground biomass) taking into consideration the increased impact of windthrows on spruce monocultures as a result of climate change. For this purpose the 300-700m altitude and pseudogley (planosols/temporally logged) soils were chosen in order to evaluate long-term impacts of the observed tree species on belowground C-dynamics and human induced disturbances on secondary spruce stands. Using the false chronosequence approach, the C-pools have been estimated for different compartments and age classes. The sampling of forest floor and surface vegetation was done using 30x30 (homogenous plots) and 50x50cm (inhomogeneous plots) frame. It was distinguished between following fractions: fine/coarse roots (> than 2mm), woody debris (dead wood, branches and seeds), living vegetation (ground vegetation and its roots), litter (leaves fresh and decomposed until the stage where the basic form can still be recognized) and humus layer (more than 30% organic matter in the fine fraction). Mineral soil was sampled down to 1m depth. The C stocks for 60 and 100cm depth were evaluated. The data enable a good overview of allocation of organic C within the belowground compartments, and its dynamics over the stand development stages for the relevant tree species of the Northern Alpine Foothills. In addition, these data enable the simulation of the long-term development of the belowground biomass and C-stocks for the three different stand types (pure spruce stands, mixed beech-spruce stands and oak stands). These results enable improvement of the statistical models in relation to site factors or stocking tree species and serve herewith further, as a valuable decision support for the innovative forest management practices and ensure the accomplishment of ecological, social and economical services of forest ecosystems.
Veselinovic, B.; Hager, H.
The aim of this study was to estimate the responses of soil microbial communities at the alpine treeline to elevated CO2 and to gain insight into the C cycling through microbial groups under two tree species by tracking 13C signatures into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). In alpine treeline ecosystems, we exposed 30 year-old larch and pine trees growing on undisturbed thick mor-type organic layers to five years of elevated CO2 (+200 ?mol CO2 mol-1) being depleted in 13C. Results showed that elevated CO2 increased soil respiration particularly under pine trees. However, we found negligible CO2 effects on the biomass and community structure of soil microorganisms, which might be due to small plant growth responses, and a comparatively small input of new plant-derived C into the thick organic layers with large C stocks. The tracing of 13C-depleted CO2 revealed that only a small portion of the microbial community actively metabolized new C (25%). The 13C label in individual PLFA indicated that mainly fungi were involved in the use of new substrate. Tree species affected soil microbial communities in the organic layer with a significantly higher ratio of fungal to bacterial fatty acids under pine than under larch trees. Under pine, fungal PLFA of the organic layer carried a stronger 13C label which strongly suggests a greater mycorrhizal activity that might also lead to the 60% greater input of new plant-derived C into soil organic matter under pine than under larch. In conclusion, our results show that significant responses of microbial communities in these treeline ecosystems if any would require more drastic and long lasting effects than five years of elevated CO2. Tree species have a major impact on the cycling of new plant C through soil microbial communities.
Hiltbrunner, David; Hagedorn, Frank; Miltner, Anja; Schmidt, Michael W. I.
The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species.
The formation of suberized and lignified barriers in the exodermis is suggested to be part of a suite of adaptations to flooded or waterlogged conditions, adjusting transport of solutes and gases in and out of roots. In this study, the composition of apoplasmic barriers in hypodermal cell walls and oxygen profiles in roots and the surrounding medium of four Amazon tree species that are subjected to long-term flooding at their habitat was analyzed. In hypodermal cell walls of the deciduous tree Crateva benthami, suberization is very weak and dominated by monoacids, 2-hydroxy acids, and ?-hydroxycarboxylic acids. This species does not show any morphological adaptations to flooding and overcomes the aquatic period in a dormant state. Hypodermal cells of Tabernaemontana juruana, a tree which is able to maintain its leaf system during the aquatic phase, are characterized by extensively suberized walls, incrusted mainly by the unsaturated C18 ?-hydroxycarboxylic acid and the ?,?-dicarboxylic acid analogon, known as typical suberin markers. Two other evergreen species, Laetia corymbulosa and Salix martiana, contained 3- to 4-fold less aliphatic suberin in the exodermis, but more than 85% of the aromatic moiety of suberin are composed of para-hydroxybenzoic acid, suggesting a function of suberin in pathogen defense. No major differences in the lignin content among the species were observed. Determination of oxygen distribution in the roots and rhizosphere of the four species revealed that radial loss of oxygen can be effectively restricted by the formation of suberized barriers but not by lignification of exodermal cell walls.
De Simone, Oliviero; Haase, Karen; Muller, Ewald; Junk, Wolfgang J.; Hartmann, Klaus; Schreiber, Lukas; Schmidt, Wolfgang
Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow. PMID:22988889
Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L
Wetland tree species are of importance for economic and restoration purposes. We describe the germination process and seedling morphology of six arboreal native species typical of Southeastern Mexico: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis and Crataeva tapia. A total of 300 seeds per species were planted in a mixture of sand, cocoa plant husk and black soil (1:1:1), and maintained in a tree nursery with 30% artificial shade, from February to November of 2007. We carried out the morphological characterization, and elaborated a key to seedlings based on: 1) germination type 2) seedling axis and 3) leaf elements. P. aquatica has cryptocotylar hypogeal germination, the others have phanerocotylar epigeal germination. Germination rates were high (>86%), except for C. barbadensis (69%). PMID:20527471
Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Vargas Simón, Georgina; Castellanos Albores, Jorge; Jong, Bernardus H J de
Methanol emissions from several deciduous tree species with predominantly mature leaves were measured under laboratory and field conditions. The emissions were modulated by temperature and light. Under constant light conditions in the laboratory, methanol emissions increased with leaf temperature, by up to 12% per degree. At constant temperatures, emissions doubled when light intensity (PAR) increased from darkness to 800 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1). A phenomenological description of light and temperature dependencies was derived from the laboratory measurements. This description was successfully applied to reproduce the diel cycle of methanol emissions from an English oak measured in the field. Labelling experiments with (13)CO(2) provided evidence that less than 10% of the emitted methanol was produced de novo by photosynthesis directly prior to emission. Hence, the light dependence of the emissions cannot be explained by instantaneous production from CO(2) fixation. Additional experiments with selective cooling of plant roots indicated that a substantial fraction of the emitted methanol may be produced in the roots or stem and transported to stomata by the transpiration stream. However, the transpiration stream cannot be considered as the main factor that determines methanol emissions by the investigated plants. PMID:18211548
Folkers, A; Hüve, K; Ammann, C; Dindorf, T; Kesselmeier, J; Kleist, E; Kuhn, U; Uerlings, R; Wildt, J
Understanding among and within population genetic variation of ecologically important plant traits provides insight into the potential evolutionary processes affecting those traits. The strength and consistency of selection driving variability in traits would be affected by plasticity in differences among genotypes across environments (G×E). We investigated population divergence, selection and environmental plasticity of foliar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in a dominant tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. Using two common garden trials we examined variation in PSMs at multiple genetic scales; among 12 populations covering the full geographic range of the species and among up to 60 families within populations. Significant genetic variation in the expression of many PSMs resides both among and within populations of E. globulus with moderate (e.g., sideroxylonal A h2op?=?0.24) to high (e.g., macrocarpal G h2op?=?0.48) narrow sense heritabilities and high coefficients of additive genetic variation estimated for some compounds. A comparison of Qst and Fst estimates suggest that variability in some of these traits may be due to selection. Importantly, there was no genetic by environment interaction in the expression of any of the quantitative chemical traits despite often significant site effects. These results provide evidence that natural selection has contributed to population divergence in PSMs in E. globulus, and identifies the formylated phloroglucinol compounds (particularly sideroxylonal) and a dominant oil, 1,8-cineole, as candidates for traits whose genetic architecture has been shaped by divergent selection. Additionally, as the genetic differences in these PSMs that influence community phenotypes is stable across environments, the role of plant genotype in structuring communities is strengthened and these genotypic differences may be relatively stable under global environmental changes.
O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Miller, Alison M.; Hamilton, Matthew G.; Williams, Dean; Glancy-Dean, Naomi; Potts, Brad M.
Recent temperature increases have elicited strong phenological shifts in temperate tree species, with subsequent effects on photosynthesis. Here, we assess the impact of advanced leaf flushing in a winter warming experiment on the current year's senescence and next year's leaf flushing dates in two common tree species: Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L. Results suggest that earlier leaf flushing translated into earlier senescence, thereby partially offsetting the lengthening of the growing season. Moreover, saplings that were warmed in winter-spring 2009-2010 still exhibited earlier leaf flushing in 2011, even though the saplings had been exposed to similar ambient conditions for almost 1 y. Interestingly, for both species similar trends were found in mature trees using a long-term series of phenological records gathered from various locations in Europe. We hypothesize that this long-term legacy effect is related to an advancement of the endormancy phase (chilling phase) in response to the earlier autumnal senescence. Given the importance of phenology in plant and ecosystem functioning, and the prediction of more frequent extremely warm winters, our observations and postulated underlying mechanisms should be tested in other species. PMID:24799708
Fu, Yongshuo S H; Campioli, Matteo; Vitasse, Yann; De Boeck, Hans J; Van den Berge, Joke; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Asard, Han; Piao, Shilong; Deckmyn, Gaby; Janssens, Ivan A
Tree architecture, growth, and mortality change with increasing tree size and associated light conditions. To date, few studies have quantified how size-dependent changes in growth and mortality rates co-vary with architectural traits, and how such size-dependent changes differ across species and possible light capture strategies. We applied a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify size-dependent changes in demographic rates and correlated demographic rates and architectural traits for 145 co-occurring Malaysian rain-forest tree species covering a wide range of tree sizes. Demographic rates were estimated using relative growth rate in stem diameter (RGR) and mortality rate as a function of stem diameter. Architectural traits examined were adult stature measured as the 95-percentile of the maximum stem diameter (upper diameter), wood density, and three tree architectural variables: tree height, foliage height, and crown width. Correlations between demographic rates and architectural traits were examined for stem diameters ranging from 1 to 47 cm. As a result, RGR and mortality varied significantly with increasing stem diameter across species. At smaller stem diameters, RGR was higher for tall trees with wide crowns, large upper diameter, and low wood density. Increased mortality was associated with low wood density at small diameters, and associated with small upper diameter and wide crowns over a wide range of stem diameters. Positive correlations between RGR and mortality were found over the whole range of stem diameters, but they were significant only at small stem diameters. Associations between architectural traits and demographic rates were strongest at small stem diameters. In the dark understory of tropical rain forests, the limiting amount of light is likely to make the interspecific difference in the effects of functional traits on demography more clear. Demographic performance is therefore tightly linked with architectural traits such as adult stature, wood density, and capacity for horizontal crown expansion. The enhancement of a demographic trade-off due to interspecific variation in functional traits in the understory helps to explain species coexistence in diverse rain forests. PMID:24669729
Iida, Yoshiko; Poorter, Lourens; Sterck, Frank; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Potts, Matthew D; Kubo, Takuya; Kohyama, Takashi S
Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to the power of 4 to 10 to the power of 6 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (is less than or equal to 0.5 U/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these trees. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the tree samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by Clostridium butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium species, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living trees. (Refs. 38).
Schink, B.; Ward, J.C.; Zeikus, J.G.
Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change.
ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A
1. Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. 2. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. 3. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. 4. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. 5. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. ?? 2007 The Authors.
Zimmermann, N. E.; Edwards, Jr. , T. C.; Moisen, G. G.; Frescino, T. S.; Blackard, J. A.
Woody detritus or dead wood is an important part of forest ecosystems and has now become a routine facet of forest monitoring and inventory. Biomass and carbon estimates of dead wood depend on knowledge of species- and decay class- specifi c density or de...
B. Fasth C. W. Woodall J. Sexton M. Yatkov M. E. Harmon
Many efforts are underway to produce broad-scale forest attribute maps by modelling forest class and structure variables collected in forest inventories as functions of satellite-based and biophysical information. Typically, variants of classification and regression trees implemented in Rulequest's?? See5 and Cubist (for binary and continuous responses, respectively) are the tools of choice in many of these applications. These tools are widely used in large remote sensing applications, but are not easily interpretable, do not have ties with survey estimation methods, and use proprietary unpublished algorithms. Consequently, three alternative modelling techniques were compared for mapping presence and basal area of 13 species located in the mountain ranges of Utah, USA. The modelling techniques compared included the widely used See5/Cubist, generalized additive models (GAMs), and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB). Model performance was evaluated using independent test data sets. Evaluation criteria for mapping species presence included specificity, sensitivity, Kappa, and area under the curve (AUC). Evaluation criteria for the continuous basal area variables included correlation and relative mean squared error. For predicting species presence (setting thresholds to maximize Kappa), SGB had higher values for the majority of the species for specificity and Kappa, while GAMs had higher values for the majority of the species for sensitivity. In evaluating resultant AUC values, GAM and/or SGB models had significantly better results than the See5 models where significant differences could be detected between models. For nine out of 13 species, basal area prediction results for all modelling techniques were poor (correlations less than 0.5 and relative mean squared errors greater than 0.8), but SGB provided the most stable predictions in these instances. SGB and Cubist performed equally well for modelling basal area for three species with moderate prediction success, while all three modelling tools produced comparably good predictions (correlation of 0.68 and relative mean squared error of 0.56) for one species. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moisen, G. G.; Freeman, E. A.; Blackard, J. A.; Frescino, T. S.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Edwards, Jr. , T. C.
Tree foliage biomass forms an essential element in forest modelling. Its measurement is costly and its relation to other measurements of standing trees have come under closer scrutiny since the introduction of the pipe model. Regressions of foliage and green shoot biomass of various levels of complexity are given, using as predictors diameter at the base of the crown (dc),
Christian W Hoffmann; Vladimir A Usoltsev
Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.
Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.
Important heavy metals such as lead and cadmium are part of the pollutants produced by cars and are spread in the urban environment by traffic flow. In order to study the amount of contamination in the trees along the streets and to determine the traffic parameters that affect the lead content in sycamore leaves in Rasht, four stations on the margins of the city streets were selected for this case study in terms of traffic volume (low or high). Traffic parameters including three high-traffic stations considering daily and monthly traffic volumes and one low-traffic station were selected. First, 32 sycamore bases were randomly chosen at the intervals of 10-15 m from the whole range of tree canopy in order to determine the absorption of lead; and then, 20 g of each sample were tested to determine the amount of lead absorption. The results of this study, on the amount of lead absorption by the sycamore tree species at three high-traffic and one control station, showed that Takhti station had the highest amount of lead absorption (37.19 ppm) compared with other three stations. Therefore, the sycamore tree species can be an appropriate one for the margins of urban streets. PMID:23406961
Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Alinejad, Farzaneh; Fallahchay, Mozaffar
Individual-tree diameter growth and mortality models were developed for the bottomland mixed-species hardwood stands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV). Data came from 5-year remeasurements of continuous forest inventory plots. Six species groups were created according to diameter structure, tree growth, mortality, recruitment and light demand of species. A 5-year basal area increment model and logistic mortality model were
Dehai Zhao; Bruce Borders; Machelle Wilson
In many tropical regions the development of informed conservation strategies is hindered by a dearth of biodiversity information. Biological collections can help to overcome this problem, by providing baseline information to guide research and conservation efforts. This study focuses on the timber trees of Angola, combining herbarium (2670 records) and bibliographic data to identify the main timber species, document biogeographic patterns and identify conservation priorities. The study recognized 18 key species, most of which are threatened or near-threatened globally, or lack formal conservation assessments. Biogeographical analysis reveals three groups of species associated with the enclave of Cabinda and northwest Angola, which occur primarily in Guineo-Congolian rainforests, and evergreen forests and woodlands. The fourth group is widespread across the country, and is mostly associated with dry forests. There is little correspondence between the spatial pattern of species groups and the ecoregions adopted by WWF, suggesting that these may not provide an adequate basis for conservation planning for Angolan timber trees. Eight of the species evaluated should be given high conservation priority since they are of global conservation concern, they have very restricted distributions in Angola, their historical collection localities are largely outside protected areas and they may be under increasing logging pressure. High conservation priority was also attributed to another three species that have a large proportion of their global range concentrated in Angola and that occur in dry forests where deforestation rates are high. Our results suggest that timber tree species in Angola may be under increasing risk, thus calling for efforts to promote their conservation and sustainable exploitation. The study also highlights the importance of studying historic herbarium collections in poorly explored regions of the tropics, though new field surveys remain a priority to update historical information.
Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueira, Rui; Duarte, Maria Cristina; Beja, Pedro; Darbyshire, Iain
Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of microbial communities for ecosystem processes like litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. For example, fungi are thought to be key players during litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems because they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds like lignin and also dominate the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas bacteria seem to play an important role for lignin decomposition especially under anaerobic conditions. However, our knowledge about the contribution of bacteria and fungi to decomposition is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the microbial decomposer community is affected by resource stoichiometry and how changes in community composition affect litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. To this end, we collected leaf litter of four deciduous tree species (beech (Fagus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and ash tree (Fraxinus)) at four different seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in an Austrian forest (Schottenwald, 48°14'N16°15'E; MAT=9°C; soil type: dystric cambiosol; soil C:N=16) in 2010. We determined litter nutrient content (micro- and macronutrients) and extractable nutrients and assessed the microbial community by PFLA analysis to test the following hypotheses: (i) tree species affects microbial community composition, (ii) microbial community composition changes over the course of the year, and (iii) narrow litter C:nutrient ratios favour nutrient release. Our data show that litter of different tree species varied in their stoichiometry, with C:N ratios between 16 (alder) and 46 (beech) and C:P ratios between 309 (ash) and 1234 (alder). Tree species had a significant impact on microbial community composition: highest amounts of actinomycetes and protozoa were observed for alder, while arbuscular mycorrhizae were lowest for oak. Bacteria were favoured by litter with narrow C:N shortly after litterfall. During litter decomposition, microbial communities changed. An increase in fungi and actinomycetes was observed during decomposition in almost all tree species as well as a decline in gram negative bacteria. Generally our results revealed an enhancement in fungal to bacterial ratios, supporting the increasing importance of fungi towards later decomposition stages.
Leitner, S.; Keiblinger, K. M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.
Bursaphelenchus rainulfi isolated from dead pine trees in Zhejiang, China, is described and illustrated. It also provided some molecular characters of the Chinese population, including the PCR-RFLP and sequences of ITS region and D2-D3 expansion region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Both the morphological characters and ITS-RFLP patterns match with the original description. The phylogenetic trees based on the 13 sequences of D2-D3 expansion region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of Bursaphelenchus species were constructed, respectively, with the results showing the similar clades. The phylogenetic relationship based on the molecular data is similar to that with morphological characters. This is the first report of the species on pine wood in eastern China.
Jiang, Li-qin; Li, Xu-qing; Zheng, Jing-wu
Bursaphelenchus rainulfi isolated from dead pine trees in Zhejiang, China, is described and illustrated. It also provided some molecular characters of the Chinese population, including the PCR-RFLP and sequences of ITS region and D2-D3 expansion region of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Both the morphological characters and ITS-RFLP patterns match with the original description. The phylogenetic trees based on the 13 sequences of D2-D3 expansion region of the LSU rRNA gene and ITS region of Bursaphelenchus species were constructed, respectively, with the results showing the similar clades. The phylogenetic relationship based on the molecular data is similar to that with morphological characters. This is the first report of the species on pine wood in eastern China. PMID:17542063
Jiang, Li-qin; Li, Xu-qing; Zheng, Jing-wu
Trees can improve air quality by capturing particles in their foliage. We determined the particle capture efficiencies of coniferous Pinus sylvestris and three broadleaved species: Betula pendula, Betula pubescens and Tilia vulgaris in a wind tunnel using NaCl particles. The importance of leaf surface structure, physiology and moderate soil drought on the particle capture efficiencies of the trees were determined. The results confirm earlier findings of more efficient particle capture by conifers compared to broadleaved plants. The particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris (0.21%) was significantly higher than those of B. pubescens, T. vulgaris and B. pendula (0.083%, 0.047%, 0.043%, respectively). The small leaf size of P. sylvestris was the major characteristic that increased particle capture. Among the broadleaved species, low leaf wettability, low stomatal density and leaf hairiness increased particle capture. Moderate soil drought tended to increase particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris. PMID:23735814
Räsänen, Janne V; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Ndam, Collins; Pasanen, Pertti; Rinnan, Åsmund; Kivimäenpää, Minna
A field experiment was conducted in 2006-2008 to evaluate the control effects of three mowing frequencies in combining with planting three tree species with three densities on the Chromolaena odorata in southwestern Karst region of Guangxi. In all treatments, the relative coverage, height, density, and aboveground biomass of C. odorata were decreased by 89.7%-99.3%, 41.6% - 81.2%, 61.4% - 83.2% and 91.7% - 97.8%, respectively, and the capitulum number was significantly lesser than that in the control (P<0.05). The control effects on the growth of C. odorata were in the order of mowing frequency > tree species > planting density, and the optimal control mode was mowing twice one year and planting four plants of Delavaya yunnanensis per plot (4 m x 4 m). PMID:22007477
Tang, Sai-chun; Lü, Shi-hong; Pan, Yu-mei; Wei, Chun-qiang; Liu, Ming-chao; Pu, Gao-zhong
Climate change mitigation actions under the Kyoto Protocol apply among other decreases of CO2-emissions and/or increases of carbon (C) stocks. As soils represent the second biggest C-reservoir on Earth, an exact estimation of the stocks and reliable knowledge on C-dynamics in forest soils is of high importance. Anyhow, here, the accurate GHG-accounting, emission reductions and increase in C stocks is hampered due to lack of reliable data and solid statistical methods for the factors which influence C-sequestration in and its release from these systems. In spite of good progress in the scientific research, these factors are numerous and diverse in their interactions. This work focuses on influence of the economically relevant tree species - Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus spp. - and light conditions on forest floor and mineral soil C and N dynamics in forest soils. Spruce monocultures have been widely used management practices in central European forests during the past century. Such stands are in lower altitudes and on heavy and water logged soils unstable and prone to disturbances, especially to windthrows. We hypothesize that windthrow areas loose C & N and that the establishment of the previous nutrient stocks is, if at all, only possible to be reached over the longer periods of time. We research also how the increased OM depletion affects the change of C & N stocks in forest floor vs. mineral soil. Conversion of such secondary spruce monocultures to site adequate beech and oak forests may enable higher stocks allocated predominantly as stable organic carbon and as plant available nitrogen. For this purpose sites at 300-700 m altitude with planosols were chosen in the region of the Northern Alpine Foothills. A false chronosequence approach was used in order to evaluate the impacts of the tree species and change in light conditions on dynamic of C & N in the forest floor and mineral soil, over the period 0-100 (for oak 120 y.) years. The C- and N-pools were estimated for different compartments over the available age classes. The sampling of humus and surface vegetation was done using 30x30 and 50x50 cm frame. It was distinguished between following fractions: fine/coarse roots (> than 2 mm), woody debris (dead wood, branches, cones and acorns), living vegetation (ground vegetation and its roots), litter (leaves fresh and decomposed coarse organic layer) and humus (more than 30% of fine organic matter). C and N stocks in mineral soil were assessed for the 10, 30 and 60 cm depth. Furthermore, the influence of solar radiation on humus and mineral soil C and N was evaluated using the GSF (global site factor) estimated with hemispherical photography. The photographs were taken on each sampling point using the 180_ viewing angle looking upward into the canopy. As expected, the solar energy strongly influences the occurrence of herbaceous layer in spruce and oak stands. Furthermore, beech and oak chronosequences display positive (although not strong) correlation between the light factor and C & N accumulation in the humus fractions. In the beech chronosequence, good correlation with light conditions in stands is only found in the sum of all forest floor compartments (litter, woody debris and humus). On the contrary, with exception of spruce (r = 0.391** for the 10 cm depth) no significant correlation was found with the mineral soil C for the three observed depths. depths.
Veselinovic, Bojana; Hager, Herbert
We compared various aspects of the seed biology of eight non-pioneer tree species from a tropical seasonal rain forest in\\u000a Xishuangbanna, SW China, that differ in time of dispersal, size and fresh seed moisture content (MC). Seeds were tested for\\u000a germination under laboratory conditions after dehydration to different moisture levels and under 3.5, 10 and 30% solar irradiances\\u000a in neutral-shade
Yang Yu; Jerry M. Baskin; Carol C. Baskin; Yong Tang; Min Cao
Litterfall, forest-floor litter biomass and nutrients, short-term litter decomposition and the effects of leaf mulches on initial growth of maize were studied for four indigenous tree species with agroforestry potential:Stryphnodendron microstachyum Poepp. et Endl.(S. excelsum), Vochysia ferruginea Mart,Vochysia guatemalensis Donn. Sm. (V. hondurensis) andHyeronima alchorneoides (O), growing in a young experimental plantation in the Atlantic humid lowlands of Costa Rica.
F. Montagnini; K. Ramstad; F. Sancho
Drought stress is one of the most important factors in limiting the survival and growth of plants in the harsh karst habitats\\u000a of southwestern China, especially at the seedling establishment stage. The ecophysiological response to drought stress of\\u000a native plants with different growth forms is useful for re-vegetation programs. Two shrub and four tree species were studied,\\u000a including Pyracantha fortuneana
Chang-Cheng Liu; Yu-Guo Liu; Ke Guo; Guo-Qing Li; Yuan-Run Zheng; Li-Fei Yu; Rui Yang
The objective of the current study was to develop a methodology for the identification of tree species in an urban environment by using Quickbird multispectral data, AISA hyperspectral data, AISA Eagle hyperspectral data and Leica ALS50 LiDAR data. For this research, object-oriented classification was performed using eCognition Professional. The classifications were performed on each of the images available with and
Ramanathan Sugumaran; Matthew Voss
The inference of phylogenies of closely related species is obstructed by phenomena such as porous species boundaries and deep coalescence, and is often exacerbated by low levels of nucleotide variation among most loci surveyed in phylogenetic studies. We investigated the utility of twenty-one nuclear loci that had a range of 5-40 (median of 14) variable sites per locus to estimate the phylogeny of the genus Cichla, a group of 15 Neotropical cichlid fishes that began to diverge in the early to mid Miocene. We found that under a concatenated approach, the least variable loci, while contributing less to the overall phylogenetic signal (posterior node support), nevertheless provided information that increased support for the final tree. Moreover, this was not a result of misdirection by mutational noise, as the inference from all data was far superior to those from reduced datasets (those with more variable loci) in terms of the relative precision of posterior tree space. Phylogenetic methods that allowed each locus to have a separate genealogy, including Bayesian concordance analysis and a multispecies coalescent model, provided phylogenies that were also compatible with the concatenated tree in terms of the eight recently delimited species of Cichla, albeit with somewhat diminished support for some branches. In contrast, described species that still regularly exchange genes showed unstable relationships among analyses: not a surprising result from analyses that assume that gene tree heterogeneity results from incomplete lineage sorting and not gene flow. Importantly, we also observed that the confidence intervals for node ages in the coalescent analyses were quite wide, and likely susceptible to influence of the prior on node density (e.g. birth-death). PMID:23939135
Willis, Stuart C; Farias, Izeni P; Ortí, Guillermo
1. Growth of seedlings of 15 rain-forest tree species was compared under controlled conditions, at six different light levels (3, 6, 12, 25, 50 and 100aylight). 2. Most plant variables showed strong ontogenetic changes; they were highly dependent on the biomass of the plant. 3. Growth rate was highest at intermediate light levels (25-50€above which it declined. Most plant variables
The phylogenies of allopolyploids take the shape of networks and cannot be adequately represented as bifurcating trees. Especially for high polyploids (i.e., organisms with more than six sets of nuclear chromosomes), the signatures of gene homoeolog loss, deep coalescence, and polyploidy may become confounded, with the result that gene trees may be congruent with more than one species network. Herein, we obtained the most parsimonious species network by objective comparison of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and homoeolog loss in a high-polyploid lineage of violets (Viola, Violaceae) mostly or entirely restricted to North America, Central America, or Hawaii. We amplified homoeologs of the low-copy nuclear gene, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), by single-molecule polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the chloroplast trnL-F region by conventional PCR for 51 species and subspecies. Topological incongruence among GPI homoeolog subclades, owing to deep coalescence and two instances of putative loss (or lack of detection) of homoeologs, were reconciled by applying the maximum tree topology for each subclade. The most parsimonious species network and the fossil-based calibration of the homoeolog tree favored monophyly of the high polyploids, which has resulted from allodecaploidization 9-14 Ma, involving sympatric ancestors from the extant Viola sections Chamaemelanium (diploid), Plagiostigma (paleotetraploid), and Viola (paleotetraploid). Although two of the high-polyploid lineages (Boreali-Americanae, Pedatae) remained decaploid, recurrent polyploidization with tetraploids of section Plagiostigma within the last 5 Ma has resulted in two 14-ploid lineages (Mexicanae, Nosphinium) and one 18-ploid lineage (Langsdorffianae). This implies a more complex phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of the Hawaiian violets (Nosphinium) than that previously inferred from rDNA data and illustrates the necessity of considering polyploidy in phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstruction. PMID:21918178
Marcussen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Danihelka, Jirí; Ballard, Harvey E; Blaxland, Kim; Brysting, Anne K; Oxelman, Bengt
The phylogenies of allopolyploids take the shape of networks and cannot be adequately represented as bifurcating trees. Especially for high polyploids (i.e., organisms with more than six sets of nuclear chromosomes), the signatures of gene homoeolog loss, deep coalescence, and polyploidy may become confounded, with the result that gene trees may be congruent with more than one species network. Herein, we obtained the most parsimonious species network by objective comparison of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and homoeolog loss in a high-polyploid lineage of violets (Viola, Violaceae) mostly or entirely restricted to North America, Central America, or Hawaii. We amplified homoeologs of the low-copy nuclear gene, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), by single-molecule polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the chloroplast trnL-F region by conventional PCR for 51 species and subspecies. Topological incongruence among GPI homoeolog subclades, owing to deep coalescence and two instances of putative loss (or lack of detection) of homoeologs, were reconciled by applying the maximum tree topology for each subclade. The most parsimonious species network and the fossil-based calibration of the homoeolog tree favored monophyly of the high polyploids, which has resulted from allodecaploidization 9–14 Ma, involving sympatric ancestors from the extant Viola sections Chamaemelanium (diploid), Plagiostigma (paleotetraploid), and Viola (paleotetraploid). Although two of the high-polyploid lineages (Boreali-Americanae, Pedatae) remained decaploid, recurrent polyploidization with tetraploids of section Plagiostigma within the last 5 Ma has resulted in two 14-ploid lineages (Mexicanae, Nosphinium) and one 18-ploid lineage (Langsdorffianae). This implies a more complex phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of the Hawaiian violets (Nosphinium) than that previously inferred from rDNA data and illustrates the necessity of considering polyploidy in phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstruction.
Marcussen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Danihelka, Jiri; Ballard, Harvey E.; Blaxland, Kim; Brysting, Anne K.; Oxelman, Bengt
Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100
Childers, Carl C; Nakahara, Sueo
A number of recent studies on biogenic volatile organic emissions (BVOC) released in the forest atmosphere have pointed out that identified emissions can not account for the entire chemical reactivity seen in the forest atmosphere. During the 2009 and 2010 Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) PROPHET site BVOC emissions and their reactivity with ozone were studied with a newly developed ozone reactivity instrument. Experiments were conducted on the tree species red oak, white pine, quaking aspen, and red maple, representing ~ 87% of the canopy leaf area index at this site. BVOC emissions were sampled from a branch bag enclosure, mixed with ozone-enriched air, and directed through a series of reaction vessels. A differential ozone monitor was used to determine the reaction rate with ozone while emissions were being purged through the reaction vessel. BVOC in the outflow of the bag enclosure were also determined with a field gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument, and by collection on adsorbent cartridges with subsequent analysis in our Boulder laboratory. Experiments were performed over several days to capture emission changes under varying ambient temperature and light conditions. The ozone reactivity showed distinct diurnal cycles and a tight correlation with leaf temperature, typically maximizing during mid day to afternoon. Furthermore, the four tree species investigated displayed a distinctly different behavior, with emissions from the one coniferous tree species (white pine) exhibiting the overall highest ozone reactivity signal.
Helmig, D.; Daly, R.; Bertman, S. B.
Background Tropical trees undergo severe stress through seasonal drought and flooding, and the ability of these species to respond may be a major factor in their survival in tropical ecosystems, particularly in relation to global climate change. Aquaporins are involved in the regulation of water flow and have been shown to be involved in drought response; they may therefore play a major adaptive role in these species. We describe genetic diversity in the PIP sub-family of the widespread gene family of Aquaporins in five Neotropical tree species covering four botanical families. Results PIP Aquaporin subfamily genes were isolated, and their DNA sequence polymorphisms characterised in natural populations. Sequence data were analysed with statistical tests of standard neutral equilibrium and demographic scenarios simulated to compare with the observed results. Chloroplast SSRs were also used to test demographic transitions. Most gene fragments are highly polymorphic and display signatures of balancing selection or bottlenecks; chloroplast SSR markers have significant statistics that do not conform to expectations for population bottlenecks. Although not incompatible with a purely demographic scenario, the combination of all tests tends to favour a selective interpretation of extant gene diversity. Conclusions Tropical tree PIP genes may generally undergo balancing selection, which may maintain high levels of genetic diversity at these loci. Genetic variation at PIP genes may represent a response to variable environmental conditions.
Morphological and nutritional characteristics of four multi-purpose trees, Cassia siamea,Adenanthera pavonina , Peltophorum pterocarpum and Albizia lebbeck were compared for 6 month old seedlings grown in open nursery conditions. Survival and subsequent growth of these four species at 2 years after transplanting at the Biomass Research Centre, Madurai, a semi-arid region in southern India, were studied. Among the four species,
Kailash Paliwal; D. Kannan
Background The movement patterns of wild animals depend crucially on the spatial and temporal availability of resources in their habitat. To date, most attempts to model this relationship were forced to rely on simplified assumptions about the spatiotemporal distribution of food resources. Here we demonstrate how advances in statistics permit the combination of sparse ground sampling with remote sensing imagery to generate biological relevant, spatially and temporally explicit distributions of food resources. We illustrate our procedure by creating a detailed simulation model of fruit production patterns for Dipteryx oleifera, a keystone tree species, on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Methodology and Principal Findings Aerial photographs providing GPS positions for large, canopy trees, the complete census of a 50-ha and 25-ha area, diameter at breast height data from haphazardly sampled trees and long-term phenology data from six trees were used to fit 1) a point process model of tree spatial distribution and 2) a generalized linear mixed-effect model of temporal variation of fruit production. The fitted parameters from these models are then used to create a stochastic simulation model which incorporates spatio-temporal variations of D. oleifera fruit availability on BCI. Conclusions and Significance We present a framework that can provide a statistical characterization of the habitat that can be included in agent-based models of animal movements. When environmental heterogeneity cannot be exhaustively mapped, this approach can be a powerful alternative. The results of our model on the spatio-temporal variation in D. oleifera fruit availability will be used to understand behavioral and movement patterns of several species on BCI.
Scarpino, Samuel V.; Jansen, Patrick A.; Garzon-Lopez, Carol X.; Winkelhagen, Annemarie J. S.; Bohlman, Stephanie A.; Walsh, Peter D.
We have identified cDNA encoding a functional growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a, ghrelin receptor) in two species of anuran amphibian, the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). Deduced receptor protein for bullfrog and Japanese tree frog (tree frog) was comprised of 374- and 371-amino acids, respectively. The two receptors shared 86% identity, and are grouped to the clade of the tetrapod homologs by phylogenetic analysis. In functional analyses, ghrelin and GHS-R1a agonists increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in GHS-R1a-transfected-HEK293 cell, but ligand selectivity of ghrelin with Ser3 and Thr3 was not observed between the two receptors. Bullfrog GHS-R1a mRNA was mainly expressed in the brain, stomach, and testis. In the brain, the gene expression was detected in the diencephalon and mesencephalon, but not in the pituitary. Tree frog GHS-R1a mRNA was predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and ovary, but not detected in the pituitary. In bullfrog stomach but not the brain, GHS-R1a mRNA expression increased after 10 days of fasting. For tree frog, GHS-R1a mRNA expression was increased in the brain, stomach and ventral skin by 10 days of fasting, and in the stomach and ventral skin by a dehydration treatment. Intracerebroventricular injection of ghrelin in dehydrated tree frog did not affect water absorption from the ventral skin. These results suggest that ghrelin is involved in energy homeostasis and possibly in osmoregulation in frogs.
Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Yasushi; Konno, Norifumi; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Uchiyama, Minoru; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyazato, Mikiya
We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR?×?Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil. PMID:21470980
Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei
A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.
Qasem, Jamal R.
Eucalyptus and Acacia are two tree genera that are commonly used in industrial plantations and as components of agroforestry\\u000a systems in southeast Asia. These fast-growing trees are mostly grown in monocultures. However, questions are now being raised\\u000a about the long-term sustainability of their growth as well as their effects on site quality. Losses of N and P from the site
P. K. Khanna
Forests with nitrogen-fixing trees (N–fixers) typically accumulate more carbon (C) in soils than similar forests without N–fixing\\u000a trees. This difference may develop from fundamentally different processes, with either greater accumulation of recently fixed\\u000a C or reduced decomposition of older soil C. We compared the soil C pools under N–fixers with Eucalyptus (non–N–fixers) at four tropical sites: two sites on Andisol
Sigrid C. Resh; Dan Binkley; John A. Parrotta
In this work we investigate the mating system of four populations of the endangered tropical tree species Caryocar brasiliense, using genetic data from 10 microsatellite loci. Eight to 10 open-pollinated progeny arrays of 16 individuals, together with their mother tree, were sampled per population. Mating system parameters were estimated under the mixed mating model, implemented by the software MLTR. The
Rosane Garcia Collevatti; Dario Grattapaglia; John Duvall Hay
Tecomella undulata is an important agro-forestry tree in the western parts of India, which has been included in the list of endangered plant species due to over ex- ploitation. There is an urgent need to formulate appro- priate conservation and breeding strategies to save this versatile tree. Quantification of genetic diversity in the existing populations of T. undulata prevalent in
B. S. Bhau; M. S. Negi; S. K. Jindal; M. Singh; M. Lakshmikumaran
Despite the increased expansion into areas away from floodplains and the resulting increase in experimental timber tree management by small landholders, basic ecological knowledge about managing native tree species in secondary forests on terra firme sites in the Amazon basin is sparse. I examine the use of stand thinning as a technique for aiding the active reintroduction of a diverse
Eric M. Wiener
The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme forests of Amacayacu National Park, and suggest reserve's size as a key element to ensure the conservation of plant diversity at both regional and local levels. PMID:24912366
Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque
Quantifying ecosystem services and species diversity at multiple spatial scales is central to the sustainable management of global natural resources. Many attempts to quantify ecosystem services and species diversity have focused on single services or taxonomic groups, used proxy relationships rather than primary data, and/or failed to adequately assess broad spatial extents with a grain size fine enough to link with individual human decisions and local knowledge. It is thus important to establish objective, repeatable monitoring tools from the parcel to the landscape scale to meet management and policy needs, and to assist with targeting areas for conservation where high collective ecosystem service values (i.e. "hotspots") occur. To meet this need, we combined detailed field observations with LiDAR-derived ecosystem structural variables and statistical modeling techniques to map continuous surfaces of aboveground carbon, bird species richness, and tree diversity across a ~20,000 ha north Idaho case study landscape. Plot-level values of carbon (range: 0-584 Mg/ha), bird species richness (range: 0-23 species/0.04 ha), and tree species variety (range: 0-6 species/0.04 ha) were extrapolated across the landscape using imputation enabled by LiDAR-based relationships. Each quantity was then transformed to normalized values ranging from 0 to 1 to enable the three quantities to be combined for hotspot identification. We found that the scale of analysis strongly affected the magnitude of hotspots containing high carbon and biodiversity values: the maximum hotspot value decreased by 32% when grain size was increased from 100m to 1500m. In addition, we found that preferentially weighting one ecosystem property relative to the others (a situation common to many management scenarios) changed the location and magnitude of hotspots across the landscape. Our results indicate that LiDAR-derived ecosystem structure provides information that is useful for mapping numerous ecosystem properties at scales that are relevant to both ecological and management contexts.
Vierling, L. A.; Finch, S.; Vierling, K. T.; Strand, E. K.; Hudak, A. T.; Vogeler, J.; Martinuzzi, S.; Eitel, J.; Falkowski, M. J.
Long-distance seed dispersal (LDD) is considered a crucial determinant of tree distributions, but its effects depend on demographic processes that enable seeds to establish into adults and that remain poorly understood at large spatial scales. We estimated rates of seed arrival, germination, and survival and growth for a canopy tree species (Miliusa horsfieldii), in a landscape ranging from evergreen forest, where the species' abundance is high, to deciduous forest, where it is extremely low. We then used an individual-based model (IBM) to predict sapling establishment and to compare the relative importance of seed arrival and establishment in explaining the observed distribution of seedlings. Individuals in deciduous forest, far from the source population, experienced multiple benefits (e.g., increased germination rate and seedling survival and growth) from being in a habitat where conspecifics were almost absent. The net effect of these spatial differences in demographic processes was significantly higher estimated sapling establishment probabilities for seeds dispersed long distances into deciduous forest. Despite the high rate of establishment in this habitat, Miliusa is rare in the deciduous forest because the arrival of seeds at long distances from the source population is extremely low. Across the entire landscape, the spatial pattern of seed arrival is much more important than the spatial pattern of establis