Sample records for multipurpose tree species

  1. Growth of ten multipurpose tree species on acid soils in Sangmelima, Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Duguma; J. Tonye; J. Kanmegne; T. Manga; T. Enoch

    1994-01-01

    Ten multipurpose tree species were planted both in monoculture and intercropped withArachis hypogea (groundnut) in a randomized complete block with three replications. The vigrou, biomass, nutrient content, and coppicing percentage of the trees were evaluated. Intercropping with groundnuts during the establishment phase did not affect subsequent growth and development of the species.Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Calliandra calothyrsus andParaserianthes

  2. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of some multipurpose tree species in the homegardens of Barak Valley, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapasi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Traditional homegardens are an important component of the farming systems in many rural communities and have been highlighted considerably due to their sustainability and role in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the functional aspect of the homegardens, which includes the phenological behavior of the dominant tree species in such agroforestry systems, has been undermined till date, and there is a lack of adequate data on this aspect of the traditional homegardens. As a step in this direction the present study was carried out to determine the phenological behavior of important multipurpose trees in the homegardens of the village of Dargakona, Assam, northeast India. The study revealed the dominance of periodic growth deciduous species from a total of 25 tree species selected for phenological observation. The diversity of multipurpose trees in the homegardens is represented by different plant functional types with different phenological behavior which showed significant changes in their responses to inter-annual climatic variations. The diversity of tree species with different phenological behavior has implications for the temporal partitioning of resources, especially during periods of scarcity, thereby resulting in efficient utilization of resources such as water. Also the diverse phenological behavior plays an important role in regulating the food supply for the herbivore population and the year-round availability of products, and such information can be useful in the selection of species for integration into other agroforestry systems which can be sustainable in the long run. PMID:22555388

  3. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  4. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their timber and NTFP values. PMID:24061084

  5. Assessment of fodder quality of leaves of multipurpose trees in subtropical humid climate of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chander Datt; M. Datta; N. P. Singh

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of 12 species (Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia procera, Dalbergia sissoo, Gliricidia maculata, Leucaena leucocephala, Samanea saman, Azadirachta\\u000a indica, Eucalyptus hybrida, Gmelina arborea, Michelia champaca, Morus alba, and Tectona grandis) of Multipurpose trees and shrubs (MPTs) grown in the agroforestry arboretum were evaluated for their nutritional characteristics\\u000a in terms of proximate composition, cell wall constituents, total tannins, major (Ca and

  6. Fifth International Poplar Symposium: 'Poplars and willows: from research models to multipurpose trees for a bio-based society'.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Roberto; Massacci, Angelo; Mugnozza, Giuseppe Scarascia

    2011-12-01

    Carefully managed tree plantations offer an opportunity for sustainable biomass production. In recent years, the responses of the Salicaceae to environmental constraints have increasingly been investigated at different levels of biological integration, giving rise to a physiological approach to the function of trees in environmental restoration and monitoring. Significant progress has been achieved by the poplar and willow community in understanding targeted characteristics of complex tree stress responses. The Fifth International Poplar Symposium brought together experts in this area, with the main objective being to improve, coordinate and communicate existing national research on the biological and environmental dimension of multifunctional poplar and willow plantations. The secondary objective was to develop a network of research scientists and extension workers to provide scientific support for subjects interested in using fast-growing poplar and willow species for tree-related environmental projects. The ultimate goal was to build up services for the multipurpose tree plantation network on local-level management in order to obtain maximized benefits from tree crops. The purpose was also to maximize the synergy between local knowledge and global-level processes that require information on multipurpose tree crop production. PMID:22158009

  7. From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Louxin

    From Gene Trees to Species Trees II: Species Tree Inference by Minimizing Deep Coalescence Events Louxin Zhang Abstract--When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include

  8. Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees

    E-print Network

    Degnan, James

    Discordance of species trees with their most likely gene trees James H. Degnan & Noah A. Rosenberg sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees find that for any species tree topology with five or more species, there exist branch lengths for which

  9. From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From gene trees to species trees through a supertree approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

  10. From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From Gene Trees to Species Trees through a Supertree Approach Celine Scornavacca1,2, , Vincent Abstract. Gene trees are leaf-labeled trees inferred from molecular se- quences. Due to duplication events arising in genome evolution, gene trees usually have multiple copies of some labels, i.e. species

  11. Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Discordance of Species Trees with Their Most Likely Gene Trees James H. Degnan1 , Noah A. Rosenberg way in which lineages sort during speciation, gene trees may differ in topology from each other and from species trees. Surprisingly, assuming that genetic lineages follow a coalescent model of within

  12. The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  13. The inference of gene trees with species trees.

    PubMed

    Szöll?si, Gergely J; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree-species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree-species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  14. Multipurpose Dissociation Cell for Enhanced ETD of Intact Protein Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Christopher M.; Russell, Jason D.; Ledvina, Aaron R.; McAlister, Graeme C.; Westphall, Michael S.; Griep-Raming, Jens; Schwartz, Jae C.; Coon, Joshua J.; Syka, John E. P.

    2013-06-01

    We describe and characterize an improved implementation of ETD on a modified hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap instrument. Instead of performing ETD in the mass-analyzing quadrupole linear ion trap (A-QLT), the instrument collision cell was modified to enable ETD. We partitioned the collision cell into a multi-section rf ion storage and transfer device to enable injection and simultaneous separate storage of precursor and reagent ions. Application of a secondary (axial) confinement voltage to the cell end lens electrodes enables charge-sign independent trapping for ion-ion reactions. The approximately 2-fold higher quadrupole field frequency of this cell relative to that of the A-QLT enables higher reagent ion densities and correspondingly faster ETD reactions, and, with the collision cell's longer axial dimensions, larger populations of precursor ions may be reacted. The higher ion capacity of the collision cell permits the accumulation and reaction of multiple full loads of precursor ions from the A-QLT followed by FT Orbitrap m/z analysis of the ETD product ions. This extends the intra-scan dynamic range by increasing the maximum number of product ions in a single MS/MS event. For analyses of large peptide/small protein precursor cations, this reduces or eliminates the need for spectral averaging to achieve acceptable ETD product ion signal-to-noise levels. Using larger ion populations, we demonstrate improvements in protein sequence coverage and aggregate protein identifications in LC-MS/MS analysis of intact protein species as compared to the standard ETD implementation.

  15. Gene trees and species trees are not the same

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Nichols

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between species is usually represented as a bifurcating tree with the branching points representing speciation events. The ancestry of genes taken from these species can also be represented as a tree, with the branching points representing ancestral genes. The time back to the branching points, and even the branching order, can be different between the two trees. This

  16. Gene tree correction for reconciliation and species tree inference

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reconciliation is the commonly used method for inferring the evolutionary scenario for a gene family. It consists in “embedding” inferred gene trees into a known species tree, revealing the evolution of the gene family by duplications and losses. When a species tree is not known, a natural algorithmic problem is to infer a species tree from a set of gene trees, such that the corresponding reconciliation minimizes the number of duplications and/or losses. The main drawback of reconciliation is that the inferred evolutionary scenario is strongly dependent on the considered gene trees, as few misplaced leaves may lead to a completely different history, with significantly more duplications and losses. Results In this paper, we take advantage of certain gene trees’ properties in order to preprocess them for reconciliation or species tree inference. We flag certain duplication vertices of a gene tree, the “non-apparent duplication” (NAD) vertices, as resulting from the misplacement of leaves. In the case of species tree inference, we develop a polynomial-time heuristic for removing the minimum number of species leading to a set of gene trees that exhibit no NAD vertices with respect to at least one species tree. In the case of reconciliation, we consider the optimization problem of removing the minimum number of leaves or species leading to a tree without any NAD vertex. We develop a polynomial-time algorithm that is exact for two special classes of gene trees, and show a good performance on simulated data sets in the general case. PMID:23167951

  17. Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    Extracting Species Trees From Complex Gene Trees: Reconciled Trees And Vertebrate Phylogeny Roderic for nine vertebrate genes (aldolase, -feto- protein, lactate dehydrogenase, prolactin, rhodopsin with currently accepted vertebrate relationships. 2000 Academic Press INTRODUCTION ``Regarding the analysis

  18. Reconciliation with Non-Binary Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Vernot, Benjamin; Stolzer, Maureen; Goldman, Aiton

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Reconciliation extracts information from the topological incongruence between gene and species trees to infer duplications and losses in the history of a gene family. The inferred duplication-loss histories provide valuable information for a broad range of biological applications, including ortholog identification, estimating gene duplication times, and rooting and correcting gene trees. While reconciliation for binary trees is a tractable and well studied problem, there are no algorithms for reconciliation with non-binary species trees. Yet a striking proportion of species trees are non-binary. For example, 64% of branch points in the NCBI taxonomy have three or more children. When applied to non-binary species trees, current algorithms overestimate the number of duplications because they cannot distinguish between duplication and incomplete lineage sorting. We present the first algorithms for reconciling binary gene trees with non-binary species trees under a duplication-loss parsimony model. Our algorithms utilize an efficient mapping from gene to species trees to infer the minimum number of duplications in O(|VG| · (kS + hS)) time, where |VG| is the number of nodes in the gene tree, hS is the height of the species tree and kS is the size of its largest polytomy. We present a dynamic programming algorithm which also minimizes the total number of losses. Although this algorithm is exponential in the size of the largest polytomy, it performs well in practice for polytomies with outdegree of 12 or less. We also present a heuristic which estimates the minimal number of losses in polynomial time. In empirical tests, this algorithm finds an optimal loss history 99% of the time. Our algorithms have been implemented in Notung, a robust, production quality, tree-fitting program, which provides a graphical user interface for exploratory analysis and also supports automated, high-throughput analysis of large data sets. PMID:18808330

  19. From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem

    E-print Network

    Page, Roderic

    From Gene to Organismal Phylogeny: Reconciled Trees and the Gene Tree/Species Tree Problem Roderic The processes of gene duplication, loss, and lineage sorting can result in incongruence between the phylog- enies of genes and those of species. This incongruence complicates the task of inferring the latter from

  20. iGLASS: An Improvement to the GLASS Method for Estimating Species Trees from Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    iGLASS: An Improvement to the GLASS Method for Estimating Species Trees from Gene Trees ETHAN M. JEWETT and NOAH A. ROSENBERG ABSTRACT Several methods have been designed to infer species trees from gene trees while taking into account gene tree/species tree discordance. Although some of these methods

  1. Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Paola Bonizzoni

    E-print Network

    Della Vedova, Gianluca

    Reconciling a Gene Tree to a Species Tree Under the Duplication Cost Model Paola Bonizzoni Gianluca from evolutionary trees representing the relationships between distinct gene families is of great of minimum tree that reconciles a gene tree and a species tree is correct. We answer affirmatively

  2. Biomass yield and energy value of some fast-growing multipurpose trees in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Fuwape; Shadrach O. Akindele

    1997-01-01

    The above-ground biomass yield of seven-year-old trees of Gliricidia sepium, Gmelina arborea and Leucaena leucocephala grown for fuel production were assessed. The combustion properties of the fuelwood and charcoal produced from the trees (moisture content, density, percentage fixed carbon, volatile matter, micro-elemental composition and heat of combustion) were determined. There were significant differences in the above-ground biomass and the charcoal

  3. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. PMID:15701397

  4. Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees available for inferring species trees from gene trees, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch (2010 branch length estimates. Further, GLASS and STEAC have been shown to be consistent estimators of tree

  5. Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full framework for estimating species trees and species demograph- ics from genetic markers. However, practical trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computes

  6. FORAGING SUCCESS AND TREE SPECIES USE IN THE LEAST FLYCATCHER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER M. ROGERS

    .,BSTRACT.--I examined the effect of tree species morphology on foraging behavior in a hover-gleaning bird species, the Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus). Birds in four breeding territories in northern Wisconsin displayed nonsignificant differences in an index of forag- ing success (S) among four tree species of divergent morphology. However, significant vari- ation in S occurred among the three tree species common

  7. A tree species inventory over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the Corine Land Cover (CLC2000) or Global Land Cover (GLC2000). Possible applications of the inventory include emissions of VOCs and pollen, CO2 fluxes and dry deposition - in general calculations which are tree specie dependent.

  8. Impact of Tree Species on Carbon in Forest Soils

    E-print Network

    Impact of Tree Species on Carbon in Forest Soils Karna Hansson Faculty of Natural Resources at Tönnersjöheden (photo: K. Hansson) #12;Impact of Tree Species on Carbon in Forest Soils Abstract Different tree.3.2 Heterotrophic respiration and N mineralisation (Paper IV) 36 5.4 Other factors affecting carbon in forest

  9. The probability distribution of ranked gene trees on a species tree James H. Degnan a,

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    The probability distribution of ranked gene trees on a species tree James H. Degnan a, , Noah A and the sequence of coalescences for a random gene tree are considered. We derive the probability distribution reserved. 1. Introduction Recent studies have investigated the probability distribution of random gene tree

  10. A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    A Characterization of the Set of Species Trees that Produce Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees James H. Degnan, Noah A. Rosenberg, and Tanja Stadler Abstract--Ranked gene trees, which consider both the gene tree topology and the sequence in which gene lineages separate, can potentially provide a new source

  11. TREE PLANTING SITE EVALUATION FORM "SITE DICTATES SPECIES"

    E-print Network

    TREE PLANTING SITE EVALUATION FORM "SITE DICTATES SPECIES" ABOVE GROUND Utilities: Electric issue) Parking proximity: Distance from car doors __________________ Wind: Problem _________ No problem:________________________________________________ Fire hydrant: ________________________________________________ Electric

  12. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L; Bellingham, Peter J; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L M; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K; Robin, Chazdon L; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B; Clark, Deborah A; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A O; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A; Joly, Carlos A; de Jong, Bernardus H J; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F; Lawes, Michael J; Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Letcher, Susan G; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P L; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Medjibe, Vincent P; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D; Montero, Juan C; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T F; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sunderand, Terry; Suresh, H S; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L C H; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A; Webb, Campbell O; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C Yves; Yap, Sandra L; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M

    2015-06-16

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ?40,000 and ?53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ?19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ?4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  13. Tree Species Diversity in Commercially Logged Bornean Rainforest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Cannon; David R. Peart; Mark Leighton

    1998-01-01

    The effects of commercial logging on tree diversity in tropical rainforest are largely unknown. In this study, selectively logged tropical rainforest in Indo- nesian Borneo is shown to contain high tree species richness, despite severe structural damage. Plots logged 8 years before sampling contained fewer spe- cies of trees greater than 20 centimeters in diameter than did similar-sized unlogged plots.

  14. UTILIZING AIRBORNE LASER INTENSITY FOR TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. O. Ørka; E. Næsset; O. M. Bollandsås

    High-resolution datasets from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) provide information to extract the outline of single tree crowns. La- ser echoes with spatial coordinates inside these single-tree crowns give the ability of measuring biophysical properties and to clas- sify species of these single-trees. Species classification by ALS-data is based on differences in crown shape, crown density, reflec- tivity and distribution of

  15. Multipurpose Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents K-12 and college multipurpose rooms considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm,…

  16. Genome-scale coestimation of species and gene trees

    PubMed Central

    Boussau, Bastien; Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Duret, Laurent; Gouy, Manolo; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of gene trees and species trees are key to understanding major processes of genome evolution such as gene duplication and loss. Because current methods to reconstruct phylogenies fail to model the two-way dependency between gene trees and the species tree, they often misrepresent gene and species histories. We present a new probabilistic model to jointly infer rooted species and gene trees for dozens of genomes and thousands of gene families. We use simulations to show that this method accurately infers the species tree and gene trees, is robust to misspecification of the models of sequence and gene family evolution, and provides a precise historic record of gene duplications and losses throughout genome evolution. We simultaneously reconstruct the history of mammalian species and their genes based on 36 completely sequenced genomes, and use the reconstructed gene trees to infer the gene content and organization of ancestral mammalian genomes. We show that our method yields a more accurate picture of ancestral genomes than the trees available in the authoritative database Ensembl. PMID:23132911

  17. Are Temperate Canopy Spiders Tree-Species Specific?

    PubMed Central

    Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Bia?owie?a forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood. PMID:24586251

  18. Inferring optimal species trees under gene duplication and loss.

    PubMed

    Bayzid, M S; Mirarab, S; Warnow, T

    2013-01-01

    Species tree estimation from multiple markers is complicated by the fact that gene trees can differ from each other (and from the true species tree) due to several biological processes, one of which is gene duplication and loss. Local search heuristics for two NP-hard optimization problems - minimize gene duplications (MGD) and minimize gene duplications and losses (MGDL) - are popular techniques for estimating species trees in the presence of gene duplication and loss. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to solving MGD and MGDL from rooted gene trees. First, we characterize each tree in terms of its "subtree-bipartitions" (a concept we introduce). Then we show that the MGD species tree is defined by a maximum weight clique in a vertex-weighted graph that can be computed from the subtree-bipartitions of the input gene trees, and the MGDL species tree is defined by a minimum weight clique in a similarly constructed graph. We also show that these optimal cliques can be found in polynomial time in the number of vertices of the graph using a dynamic programming algorithm (similar to that of Hallett and Lagergren(1)), because of the special structure of the graphs. Finally, we show that a constrained version of these problems, where the subtree-bipartitions of the species tree are drawn from the subtree-bipartitions of the input gene trees, can be solved in time that is polynomial in the number of gene trees and taxa. We have implemented our dynamic programming algorithm in a publicly available software tool, available at http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/phylo/software/dynadup/. PMID:23424130

  19. Evidence of tree species' range shifts in a complex landscape.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Vicente J; Lintz, Heather E

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to change the distribution of species. For long-lived, sessile species such as trees, tracking the warming climate depends on seedling colonization of newly favorable areas. We compare the distribution of seedlings and mature trees for all but the rarest tree species in California, Oregon and Washington, United States of America, a large, environmentally diverse region. Across 46 species, the mean annual temperature of the range of seedlings was 0.120°C colder than that of the range of trees (95% confidence interval from 0.096 to 0.144°C). The extremes of the seedling distributions also shifted towards colder temperature than those of mature trees, but the change was less pronounced. Although the mean elevation and mean latitude of the range of seedlings was higher than and north of those of the range of mature trees, elevational and latitudinal shifts run in opposite directions for the majority of the species, reflecting the lack of a direct biological relationship between species' distributions and those variables. The broad scale, environmental diversity and variety of disturbance regimes and land uses of the study area, the large number and exhaustive sampling of tree species, and the direct causal relationship between the temperature response and a warming climate, provide strong evidence to attribute the observed shifts to climate change. PMID:25634090

  20. Evidence of Tree Species’ Range Shifts in a Complex Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Monleon, Vicente J.; Lintz, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to change the distribution of species. For long-lived, sessile species such as trees, tracking the warming climate depends on seedling colonization of newly favorable areas. We compare the distribution of seedlings and mature trees for all but the rarest tree species in California, Oregon and Washington, United States of America, a large, environmentally diverse region. Across 46 species, the mean annual temperature of the range of seedlings was 0.120°C colder than that of the range of trees (95% confidence interval from 0.096 to 0.144°C). The extremes of the seedling distributions also shifted towards colder temperature than those of mature trees, but the change was less pronounced. Although the mean elevation and mean latitude of the range of seedlings was higher than and north of those of the range of mature trees, elevational and latitudinal shifts run in opposite directions for the majority of the species, reflecting the lack of a direct biological relationship between species’ distributions and those variables. The broad scale, environmental diversity and variety of disturbance regimes and land uses of the study area, the large number and exhaustive sampling of tree species, and the direct causal relationship between the temperature response and a warming climate, provide strong evidence to attribute the observed shifts to climate change. PMID:25634090

  1. Restoration of threatened species: a noble cause for transgenic trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Merkle; G. M. Andrade; C. J. Nairn; W. A. Powell; C. A. Maynard

    2007-01-01

    Some of the first applications of transgenic trees in North America may be for the conservation or restoration of threatened\\u000a forest trees that have been devastated by fungal pathogens or insect pests. In some cases, where resistance has yet to be\\u000a found in the natural population of a tree species, incorporating genes from other organisms may offer the only hope

  2. Phenology is a major determinant of tree species range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Chuine; Elisabeth G. Beaubien

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Global warming is expected to have a major impact on plant distributions, an issue of key importance in biological conservation. However, very few models are able to predict species distribution accurately, although we know species respond individually to climate change. Here we show, using a process-based model (PHENOFIT), that tree species distributions can be predicted precisely if the biological

  3. Indirect interactions among tropical tree species through shared rodent seed predators: a novel mechanism of tree species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Ordoñez, Alejandro; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Olff, Han; Jansen, Patrick A

    2015-08-01

    The coexistence of numerous tree species in tropical forests is commonly explained by negative dependence of recruitment on the conspecific seed and tree density due to specialist natural enemies that attack seeds and seedlings ('Janzen-Connell' effects). Less known is whether guilds of shared seed predators can induce a negative dependence of recruitment on the density of different species of the same plant functional group. We studied 54 plots in tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with contrasting mature tree densities of three coexisting large seeded tree species with shared seed predators. Levels of seed predation were far better explained by incorporating seed densities of all three focal species than by conspecific seed density alone. Both positive and negative density dependencies were observed for different species combinations. Thus, indirect interactions via shared seed predators can either promote or reduce the coexistence of different plant functional groups in tropical forest. PMID:25939379

  4. Species collapse via hybridization in Darwin's tree finches.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; O'Connor, Jody A; Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Myers, Steven A; Robertson, Jeremy; Sulloway, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Species hybridization can lead to fitness costs, species collapse, and novel evolutionary trajectories in changing environments. Hybridization is predicted to be more common when environmental conditions change rapidly. Here, we test patterns of hybridization in three sympatric tree finch species (small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus, medium tree finch Camarhynchus pauper, and large tree finch: Camarhynchus psittacula) that are currently recognized on Floreana Island, Galápagos Archipelago. Genetic analysis of microsatellite data from contemporary samples showed two genetic populations and one hybrid cluster in both 2005 and 2010; hybrid individuals were derived from genetic population 1 (small morph) and genetic population 2 (large morph). Females of the large and rare species were more likely to pair with males of the small common species. Finch populations differed in morphology in 1852-1906 compared with 2005/2010. An unsupervised clustering method showed (a) support for three morphological clusters in the historical tree finch sample (1852-1906), which is consistent with current species recognition; (b) support for two or three morphological clusters in 2005 with some (19%) hybridization; and (c) support for just two morphological clusters in 2010 with frequent (41%) hybridization. We discuss these findings in relation to species demarcations of Camarhynchus tree finches on Floreana Island. PMID:24561597

  5. Computational approaches to species phylogeny inference and gene tree reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Nakhleh, Luay

    2013-12-01

    An intricate relation exists between gene trees and species phylogenies, due to evolutionary processes that act on the genes within and across the branches of the species phylogeny. From an analytical perspective, gene trees serve as character states for inferring accurate species phylogenies, and species phylogenies serve as a backdrop against which gene trees are contrasted for elucidating evolutionary processes and parameters. In a 1997 paper, Maddison discussed this relation, reviewed the signatures left by three major evolutionary processes on the gene trees, and surveyed parsimony and likelihood criteria for utilizing these signatures to elucidate computationally this relation. Here, I review progress that has been made in developing computational methods for analyses under these two criteria, and survey remaining challenges. PMID:24094331

  6. Mapping urban forest tree species using IKONOS imagery: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pu, Ruiliang

    2011-01-01

    A stepwise masking system with high-resolution IKONOS imagery was developed to identify and map urban forest tree species/groups in the City of Tampa, Florida, USA. The eight species/groups consist of sand live oak (Quercus geminata), laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), live oak (Quercus virginiana), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), pine (species group), palm (species group), camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), and red maple (Acer rubrum). The system was implemented with soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) threshold, textural information after running a low-pass filter, and brightness threshold of NIR band to separate tree canopies from non-vegetated areas from other vegetation types (e.g., grass/lawn) and to separate the tree canopies into sunlit and shadow areas. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to identify and map forest type and species. After IKONOS imagery was preprocessed, a total of nine spectral features were generated, including four spectral bands, three hue-intensity-saturation indices, one SAVI, and one texture image. The identified and mapped results were examined with independent ground survey data. The experimental results indicate that when classifying all the eight tree species/ groups with the high-resolution IKONOS image data, the identifying accuracy was very low and could not satisfy a practical application level, and when merging the eight species/groups into four major species/groups, the average accuracy is still low (average accuracy = 73%, overall accuracy = 86%, and ? = 0.76 with sunlit test samples). Such a low accuracy of identifying and mapping the urban tree species/groups is attributable to low spatial resolution IKONOS image data relative to tree crown size, to complex and variable background spectrum impact on crown spectra, and to shadow/shaded impact. The preliminary results imply that to improve the tree species identification accuracy and achieve a practical application level in urban area, multi-temporal (multi-seasonal) or hyperspectral data image data should be considered for use in the future. PMID:20140503

  7. Species Richness of the Parasitic Fungi of British Trees

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Donald R.; Levin, Donald A.

    1975-01-01

    The species richness of fungi associated with British trees is described by a significant species/area curve (r = 0.53, 0.01 > P > 0.001). Introduced tree species cannot be shown to have fewer fungal species than natives, per unit distributional range about Britain. Also, among natives and among introductions, older host taxa do not have more fungal species than do younger ones. This indicates the species richness of fungi to rapidly reach the limit set by host range, within ecological time. The slope of the species/area relationship for fungi is one-fourth that for insects; we propose that this is due to the inherently greater dispersability of fungi. Finally, the species/area regression residuals for fungi are correlated with those for insects (r = 0.65, 0.001 > P), suggesting plant defense mechanisms may be generally effective to plant parasites, be they insects or fungi. PMID:16592248

  8. Geographical Range and Local Abundance of Tree Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Haibao; Condit, Richard; Chen, Bin; Mi, Xiangcheng; Cao, Min; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Ma, Keping

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on the geographical distribution of species have utilized a few well-known taxa in Europe and North America, with little research in China and its wide range of climate and forest types. We assembled large datasets to quantify the geographic ranges of tree species in China and to test several biogeographic hypotheses: 1) whether locally abundant species tend to be geographically widespread; 2) whether species are more abundant towards their range-centers; and 3) how abundances are correlated between sites. Local abundances of 651 species were derived from four tree plots of 20–25 ha where all individuals ?1 cm in stem diameter were mapped and identified taxonomically. Range sizes of these species across China were then estimated from over 460,000 geo-referenced records; a Bayesian approach was used, allowing careful measures of error of each range estimate. The log-transformed range sizes had a bell-shaped distribution with a median of 703,000 km2, and >90% of 651 species had ranges >105 km2. There was no relationship between local abundance and range size, and no evidence for species being more abundant towards their range-centers. Finally, species’ abundances were positively correlated between sites. The widespread nature of most tree species in China suggests few are vulnerable to global extinction, and there is no indication of the double-peril that would result if rare species also had narrow ranges. PMID:24130772

  9. Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical trees species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, R.; Dalling, J.W.; Harms, K.E.; Yavitt, J.B.; Stallard, R.F.; Mirabello, M.; Hubbell, S.P.; Valencia, R.; Navarrete, H.; Vallejo, M.; Foster, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of niche vs. neutral assembly mechanisms in structuring tropical tree communities remains an important unsettled question in community ecology [Bell G (2005) Ecology 86:1757-1770]. There is ample evidence that species distributions are determined by soils and habitat factors at landscape (0.5 million individual trees of 1,400 species and 10 essential plant nutrients, we used Monte Carlo simulations of species distributions to test plant-soil associations against null expectations based on dispersal assembly. We found that the spatial distributions of 36-51% of tree species at these sites show strong associations to soil nutrient distributions. Neutral dispersal assembly cannot account for these plant-soil associations or the observed niche breadths of these species. These results indicate that belowground resource availability plays an important role in the assembly of tropical tree communities at local scales and provide the basis for future investigations on the mechanisms of resource competition among tropical tree species. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  10. Bayesian Inference of Species Trees from Multilocus Data

    PubMed Central

    Heled, Joseph; Drummond, Alexei J.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, it has been common practice for a phylogenetic analysis to use a single gene sequence from a single individual organism as a proxy for an entire species. With technological advances, it is now becoming more common to collect data sets containing multiple gene loci and multiple individuals per species. These data sets often reveal the need to directly model intraspecies polymorphism and incomplete lineage sorting in phylogenetic estimation procedures. For a single species, coalescent theory is widely used in contemporary population genetics to model intraspecific gene trees. Here, we present a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the multispecies coalescent. Our method coestimates multiple gene trees embedded in a shared species tree along with the effective population size of both extant and ancestral species. The inference is made possible by multilocus data from multiple individuals per species. Using a multiindividual data set and a series of simulations of rapid species radiations, we demonstrate the efficacy of our new method. These simulations give some insight into the behavior of the method as a function of sampled individuals, sampled loci, and sequence length. Finally, we compare our new method to both an existing method (BEST 2.2) with similar goals and the supermatrix (concatenation) method. We demonstrate that both BEST and our method have much better estimation accuracy for species tree topology than concatenation, and our method outperforms BEST in divergence time and population size estimation. PMID:19906793

  11. Models of forest dynamics based on roles of tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Acevedo; D. L. Urban; H. H. Shugart

    1996-01-01

    A linkage between the two major modeling approaches to forest dynamics, transition Markovian models and jabowa-foret type simulators, is generated by developing a compact model of forest dynamics. This patch transition model utilizes functional roles instead of species. The roles or types are based on the regeneration and mortality characteristics of tree species; specifically, the requirements of canopy gaps for

  12. Why abundant tropical tree species are phylogenetically old.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Fang, Jingyun; Pacala, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    Neutral models of species diversity predict patterns of abundance for communities in which all individuals are ecologically equivalent. These models were originally developed for Panamanian trees and successfully reproduce observed distributions of abundance. Neutral models also make macroevolutionary predictions that have rarely been evaluated or tested. Here we show that neutral models predict a humped or flat relationship between species age and population size. In contrast, ages and abundances of tree species in the Panamanian Canal watershed are found to be positively correlated, which falsifies the models. Speciation rates vary among phylogenetic lineages and are partially heritable from mother to daughter species. Variable speciation rates in an otherwise neutral model lead to a demographic advantage for species with low speciation rate. This demographic advantage results in a positive correlation between species age and abundance, as found in the Panamanian tropical forest community. PMID:24043767

  13. Why abundant tropical tree species are phylogenetically old

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaopeng; Chen, Anping; Fang, Jingyun; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Neutral models of species diversity predict patterns of abundance for communities in which all individuals are ecologically equivalent. These models were originally developed for Panamanian trees and successfully reproduce observed distributions of abundance. Neutral models also make macroevolutionary predictions that have rarely been evaluated or tested. Here we show that neutral models predict a humped or flat relationship between species age and population size. In contrast, ages and abundances of tree species in the Panamanian Canal watershed are found to be positively correlated, which falsifies the models. Speciation rates vary among phylogenetic lineages and are partially heritable from mother to daughter species. Variable speciation rates in an otherwise neutral model lead to a demographic advantage for species with low speciation rate. This demographic advantage results in a positive correlation between species age and abundance, as found in the Panamanian tropical forest community. PMID:24043767

  14. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree in Drosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Daniel A; Eisen, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequenced species Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D. melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All three possible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, though recent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sister species. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as the four other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set out to investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D. melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the past incongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D. yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespread incongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions and deletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two key speciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, the incongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supporting the same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different trees was found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes support the same tree most often in regions of low recombination and substitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on the same scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineage sorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant and robust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. We conclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster species complex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting. Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence in many comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct species tree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methods that control for and/or utilize this information will be valuable advancements for the field of comparative genomics. PMID:17132051

  15. Two Species of Endophytic Cladosporium in Pine Trees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra

    2008-01-01

    During our studies on the diverse endophytic fungi resident on conifer needles, many species of Cladosporium previously unreported in Korea were encountered. In this paper, we report on two species of Cladosporium from the needles of pine trees (Pinus spp.). Based on analyses of internal transcribed spacer gene sequence, and cultural and micromorphological characteristics, they were identified as C. oxysporum and C. sphaerospermum. Both species have not been hitherto reported in Korea. PMID:23997628

  16. Two species of endophytic cladosporium in pine trees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Yu, Seung Hun

    2008-12-01

    During our studies on the diverse endophytic fungi resident on conifer needles, many species of Cladosporium previously unreported in Korea were encountered. In this paper, we report on two species of Cladosporium from the needles of pine trees (Pinus spp.). Based on analyses of internal transcribed spacer gene sequence, and cultural and micromorphological characteristics, they were identified as C. oxysporum and C. sphaerospermum. Both species have not been hitherto reported in Korea. PMID:23997628

  17. Nutrient distribution in a Swedish tree species experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hillevi M. Eriksson; Kaj Rosen

    1994-01-01

    The influence of four tree species on the distribution of nutrients between different compartments of the ecosystem was examined.\\u000a In a randomized block (n=3) experiment in south-western Sweden, Ca, Mg and K were determined as exchangeable amounts in the\\u000a mineral soil and as total amounts in the O+A1 horizons (topsoil) and in the aboveground tree biomass. N contents were determined

  18. Oviposition preference of Anoplophora glabripennis emerging from five host tree species under field conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong-fei Yan; Xiao-juan Li; You-qing Luo; Zhi-chun Xu; Gui-fang Tian; Tie-lin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is a polyphagous woodborer of hardwood trees. In order to well understand the oviposition preference of A. glabripennis emerging from different larval host tree species, we selected five common host tree species in the field and evaluated its\\u000a oviposition preferences. The five host tree species are Acer negundo (AN), Salix matsudana f.

  19. Predicting Abundance of 80 Tree Species Following Climate Change in the Eastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad

    1998-01-01

    Projected climate warming will potentially have profound effects on the earth's biota, including a large redistribution of tree species. We developed models to evaluate potential shifts for 80 individual tree species in the eastern United States. First, environmental factors associated with current ranges of tree species were assessed using geographic information systems (GIS) in conjunction with regression tree analysis (RTA).

  20. Diagnostics of Tree Diseases Caused by Phytophthora austrocedri Species.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Vincent; Elliot, Matthew; Green, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We present methods for the detection and quantification of four Phytophthora species which are pathogenic on trees; Phytophthora ramorum, Phytophthora kernoviae, Phytophthora lateralis, and Phytophthora austrocedri. Nucleic acid extraction methods are presented for phloem tissue from trees, soil, and pure cultures on agar plates. Real-time PCR methods are presented and include primer and probe sets for each species, general advice on real-time PCR setup and data analysis. A method for sequence-based identification, useful for pure cultures, is also included. PMID:25981246

  1. Regional assessment of ozone sensitive tree species using bioindicator plants.

    PubMed

    Coulston, John W; Smith, Gretchen C; Smith, William D

    2003-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone occurs at phytotoxic levels in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Quantifying possible regional-scale impacts of ambient ozone on forest tree species is difficult and is confounded by other factors, such as moisture and light, which influence the uptake of ozone by plants. Biomonitoring provides an approach to document direct foliar injury irrespective of direct measure of ozone uptake. We used bioindicator and field plot data from the USDA Forest Service to identify tree species likely to exhibit regional-scale ozone impacts. Approximately 24% of sampled sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), 15% of sampled loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), and 12% of sampled black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees were in the highest risk category. Sweetgum and loblolly pine trees were at risk on the coastal plain of Maryland, Virginia and Delaware. Black cherry trees were at risk on the Allegheny Plateau (Pennsylvania), in the Allegheny Mountains (Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland) as well as coastal plain areas of Maryland and Virginia. Our findings indicate a need for more in-depth study of actual impacts on growth and reproduction of these three species. PMID:12691526

  2. WATER CONSUMPTION AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF SOME FOREST TREE SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. CHATURVEDI; S. C. SHARMA; RAMJI SRIVASTAVA

    1988-01-01

    Rates of water consumption and biomass production are important considerations in the choice of tree species for agroforestry systems, particularly in dry areas. This paper reports lysimeter measurements of such rates for A zadirachta indica, Prosopis juliflora, Ingadulsis and Acacia nilotica and compares them with rates previously reported for Albizia lebbek, Acacia auriculiformis, Dalbergia sisso, Pongamia pinnata, Eucalyptus hybrid and

  3. tropiTree: An NGS-Based EST-SSR Resource for 24 Tropical Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Joanne R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Cardle, Linda; Dancey, Siobhan; Morris, Jenny; Booth, Allan; Odee, David; Mwaura, Lucy; Omondi, William; Angaine, Peter; Machua, Joseph; Muchugi, Alice; Milne, Iain; Kindt, Roeland; Jamnadass, Ramni; Dawson, Ian K.

    2014-01-01

    The development of genetic tools for non-model organisms has been hampered by cost, but advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have created new opportunities. In ecological research, this raises the prospect for developing molecular markers to simultaneously study important genetic processes such as gene flow in multiple non-model plant species within complex natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Here, we report the use of bar-coded multiplexed paired-end Illumina NGS for the de novo development of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers at low cost for a range of 24 tree species. Each chosen tree species is important in complex tropical agroforestry systems where little is currently known about many genetic processes. An average of more than 5,000 EST-SSRs was identified for each of the 24 sequenced species, whereas prior to analysis 20 of the species had fewer than 100 nucleotide sequence citations. To make results available to potential users in a suitable format, we have developed an open-access, interactive online database, tropiTree (http://bioinf.hutton.ac.uk/tropiTree), which has a range of visualisation and search facilities, and which is a model for the efficient presentation and application of NGS data. PMID:25025376

  4. Improvements to a Class of Distance Matrix Methods for Inferring Species Trees from Gene Trees

    PubMed Central

    Jewett, Ethan M.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Among the methods currently available for inferring species trees from gene trees, the GLASS method of Mossel and Roch (2010), the Shallowest Divergence (SD) method of Maddison and Knowles (2006), the STEAC method of Liu et al. (2009), and a related method that we call Minimum Average Coalescence (MAC) are computationally efficient and provide branch length estimates. Further, GLASS and STEAC have been shown to be consistent estimators of tree topology under a multispecies coalescent model. However, divergence time estimates obtained with these methods are all systematically biased under the model because the pairwise interspecific gene divergence times on which they rely must be more ancient than the species divergence time. Jewett and Rosenberg (2012) derived an expression for the bias of GLASS and used it to propose an improved method that they termed iGLASS. Here, we derive the biases of SD, STEAC, and MAC, and we propose improved analogues of these methods that we call iSD, iSTEAC, and iMAC. We conduct simulations to compare the performance of these methods with their original counterparts and with GLASS and iGLASS, finding that each of them decreases the bias and mean squared error of pairwise divergence time estimates. The new methods can therefore contribute to improvements in the estimation of species trees from information on gene trees. PMID:22697239

  5. Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmermann, N.E.; Yoccoz, N.G.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Meier, E.S.; Thuiller, W.; Guisan, A.; Schmatz, D.R.; Pearman, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding niche evolution, dynamics, and the response of species to climate change requires knowledge of the determinants of the environmental niche and species range limits. Mean values of climatic variables are often used in such analyses. In contrast, the increasing frequency of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate parameters) explain and predict spatial patterns of 11 tree species in Switzerland. We find clear, although comparably small, improvement (+20% in adjusted D2, +8% and +3% in cross-validated True Skill Statistic and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve values) in models that use measures of extremes in addition to means. The primary effect of including information on climate extremes is a correction of local overprediction and underprediction. Our results demonstrate that measures of climate extremes are important for understanding the climatic limits of tree species and assessing species niche characteristics. The inclusion of climate variability likely will improve models of species range limits under future conditions, where changes in mean climate and increased variability are expected.

  6. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-28

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be valuableadvancements for the field of comparative genomics.

  7. On the Robustness to Gene Tree Estimation Error (or lack thereof) of Coalescent-Based Species Tree Methods.

    PubMed

    Roch, Sebastien; Warnow, Tandy

    2015-07-01

    The estimation of species trees using multiple loci has become increasingly common. Because different loci can have different phylogenetic histories (reflected in different gene tree topologies) for multiple biological causes, new approaches to species tree estimation have been developed that take gene tree heterogeneity into account. Among these multiple causes, incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), modeled by the multi-species coalescent, is potentially the most common cause of gene tree heterogeneity, and much of the focus of the recent literature has been on how to estimate species trees in the presence of ILS. Despite progress in developing statistically consistent techniques for estimating species trees when gene trees can differ due to ILS, there is substantial controversy in the systematics community as to whether to use the new coalescent-based methods or the traditional concatenation methods. One of the key issues that has been raised is understanding the impact of gene tree estimation error on coalescent-based methods that operate by combining gene trees. Here we explore the mathematical guarantees of coalescent-based methods when analyzing estimated rather than true gene trees. Our results provide some insight into the differences between promise of coalescent-based methods in theory and their performance in practice. PMID:25813358

  8. Conservation of tree seeds from tropical dry-lands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oblé Neya

    2006-01-01

    The tropical trees, Azadirachta indica (neem), Lannea microcarpa, Sclerocarya birrea and Khaya senegalensis, are important multipurpose species. Unfortunately, difficult seed storage behaviour limits the utilization of these species in reforestation programs and agroforestry systems. This thesis presents the results of investigations aimed at a better understanding of the seed biology, particularly focussed on the improvement of seed survival after drying

  9. Urban Tree Species Show the Same Hydraulic Response to Vapor Pressure Deficit across Varying Tree Size and Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ewers, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The functional convergence of tree transpiration has rarely been tested for tree species growing under urban conditions even though it is of significance to elucidate the relationship between functional convergence and species differences of urban trees for establishing sustainable urban forests in the context of forest water relations. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured sap flux of four urban tree species including Cedrus deodara, Zelkova schneideriana, Euonymus bungeanus and Metasequoia glyptostroboides in an urban park by using thermal dissipation probes (TDP). The concurrent microclimate conditions and soil moisture content were also measured. Our objectives were to examine 1) the influence of tree species and size on transpiration, and 2) the hydraulic control of urban trees under different environmental conditions over the transpiration in response to VPD as represented by canopy conductance. The results showed that the functional convergence between tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree canopy transpiration amount (Ec) was not reliable to predict stand transpiration and there were species differences within same DBH class. Species differed in transpiration patterns to seasonal weather progression and soil water stress as a result of varied sensitivity to water availability. Species differences were also found in their potential maximum transpiration rate and reaction to light. However, a same theoretical hydraulic relationship between Gc at VPD?=?1 kPa (Gcref) and the Gc sensitivity to VPD (?dGc/dlnVPD) across studied species as well as under contrasting soil water and Rs conditions in the urban area. Conclusions/Significance We concluded that urban trees show the same hydraulic regulation over response to VPD across varying tree size and environmental conditions and thus tree transpiration could be predicted with appropriate assessment of Gcref. PMID:23118904

  10. Population and species differences in treeline tree species germination in response to climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Kueppers; A. Faist; C. Castanha

    2009-01-01

    The ability of plant species to recruit within and beyond their current geographic ranges in response to climate warming may be constrained by population differences in response. A number of studies have highlighted the degree to which genotype and environment are strongly linked in forest trees (i.e., provenances), but few studies have examined whether these local adaptations are at all

  11. Tree diversity and the role of non-host neighbour tree species in reducing fungal pathogen infestation

    PubMed Central

    Hantsch, Lydia; Bien, Steffen; Radatz, Stine; Braun, Uwe; Auge, Harald; Bruelheide, Helge

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which plant pathogen infestation occurs in a host plant is expected to be strongly influenced by the level of species diversity among neighbouring host and non-host plant species. Since pathogen infestation can negatively affect host plant performance, it can mediate the effects of local biodiversity on ecosystem functioning. We tested the effects of tree diversity and the proportion of neighbouring host and non-host species with respect to the foliar fungal pathogens of Tilia cordata and Quercus petraea in the Kreinitz tree diversity experiment in Germany. We hypothesized that fungal pathogen richness increases while infestation decreases with increasing local tree diversity. In addition, we tested whether fungal pathogen richness and infestation are dependent on the proportion of host plant species present or on the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species. Leaves of the two target species were sampled across three consecutive years with visible foliar fungal pathogens on the leaf surface being identified macro- and microscopically. Effects of diversity among neighbouring trees were analysed: (i) for total fungal species richness and fungal infestation on host trees and (ii) for infestation by individual fungal species. We detected four and five fungal species on T. cordata and Q. petraea, respectively. High local tree diversity reduced (i) total fungal species richness and infestation of T. cordata and fungal infestation of Q. petraea and (ii) infestation by three host-specialized fungal pathogen species. These effects were brought about by local tree diversity and were independent of host species proportion. In general, host species proportion had almost no effect on fungal species richness and infestation. Strong effects associated with the proportion of particular non-host neighbouring tree species on fungal species richness and infestation were, however, recorded. Synthesis. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrated that for two common forestry tree species, foliar fungal pathogen richness and infestation depend on local biodiversity. Thus, local tree diversity can have positive impacts on ecosystem functioning in managed forests by decreasing the level of fungal pathogen infestation. PMID:25558092

  12. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

    PubMed

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely. PMID:23404439

  13. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6–5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8–10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely. PMID:23404439

  14. Tree Species Specific Soil Moisture Patterns and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbuechel, I.; Dreibrodt, J.; Guntner, A.; Blume, T.

    2014-12-01

    Land use has a major influence on the hydrologic processes that take place in soils. Soil compaction on pastures for example leads to infiltration patterns that differ considerably from the ones observable in forests. It is not clear, however, how different forest stands influence soil infiltration and soil moisture distributions. Factors that that vary amongst different stands and potentially affect soil moisture processes in forests are, amongst others, canopy density, throughfall patterns, the intensity and frequency of stem flow, litter type, root distributions and rooting depth. To investigate how different tree species influence the way soils partition, store and conduct incoming precipitation we selected 15 locations under different tree stands within the TERENO observatory in north-east Germany. The forest stands under investigation were mature oak, young pine, mature pine, young beech and mature beech. At each location we installed 30 FDR soil moisture sensors grouped into five depth profiles (monitoring soil moisture from 10 cm to 200 cm) and 5 additional near surface sensors. The profile locations within each forest stand covered most of the anticipated variability by ranging from minimum to maximum distance to the trees including locations under more and less dense canopy. Supplementary to the FDR sensors, throughfall measurements, tensiometers and groundwater data were available to observe dynamics of tree water availability, water fluxes within the soils and percolation towards the groundwater. To identify patterns in space and time we referred to the statistical methods of wavelet analysis and temporal stability analysis. Finally, we tried to link the results from these analyses to specific hydrologic processes at the different locations.

  15. The complex biogeographic history of a widespread tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Dick, Christopher W; Heuertz, Myriam

    2008-11-01

    Many tropical forest tree species have broad geographic ranges, and fossil records indicate that population disjunctions in some species were established millions of years ago. Here we relate biogeographic history to patterns of population differentiation, mutational and demographic processes in the widespread rainforest tree Symphonia globulifera using ribosomal (ITS) and chloroplast DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite (nSSR) loci. Fossil records document sweepstakes dispersal origins of Neotropical S. globulifera populations from Africa during the Miocene. Despite historical long-distance gene flow, nSSR differentiation across 13 populations from Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador (east and west of Andes) and French Guiana was pronounced (F(ST)= 0.14, R(ST)= 0.39, P < 0.001) and allele-size mutations contributed significantly (R(ST) > F(ST)) to the divergences between cis- and trans-Andean populations. Both DNA sequence and nSSR data reflect contrasting demographic histories in lower Mesoamerica and Amazonia. Amazon populations show weak phylogeographic structure and deviation from drift-mutation equilibrium indicating recent population expansion. In Mesoamerica, genetic drift was strong and contributed to marked differentiation among populations. The genetic structure of S. globulifera contains fingerprints of drift-dispersal processes and phylogeographic footprints of geological uplifts and sweepstakes dispersal. PMID:18764917

  16. Identifying species of individual trees using airborne laser scanner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Holmgren; Åsa Persson

    2004-01-01

    Individual trees can be detected using high-density airborne laser scanner data. Also, variables characterizing the detected trees such as tree height, crown area, and crown base height can be measured. The Scandinavian boreal forest mainly consists of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and deciduous trees. It is possible to separate coniferous from deciduous trees

  17. Unusual Fine Root Distributions of Two Deciduous Tree Species in Southern France: What Consequences for Modelling of Tree Root Dynamics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mulia; C. Dupraz

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of fine roots of two deciduous tree species was investigated in contrasting growing conditions in\\u000a southern France. Hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regianigra cv. NG23) and hybrid poplars (Populus euramericana cv. I214) were both cultivated with or without annual winter intercrops for 10 years on deep alluvial soils. Soil samples\\u000a for measuring the fine root distribution of both trees

  18. Do the elevational limits of deciduous tree species match their thermal

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    RESEARCH PAPER Do the elevational limits of deciduous tree species match their thermal latitudinal tree species with respect to elevation in Switzerland and latitude in Europe. We hypothesized that species would exhibit the same relative positions along elevation and latitude, which can be expected

  19. Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Ayres; Heidi Steltzer; Sarah Berg; Matthew D. Wallenstein; Breana L. Simmons; Diana H. Wall; Thomas Bell

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundPrevious studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which

  20. Tree Species Traits Influence Soil Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties in High Elevation Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Ayres; Heidi Steltzer; Sarah Berg; Matthew D. Wallenstein; Breana L. Simmons; Diana H. Wall

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce,

  1. Tree species identity and functional traits but not species richness affect interrill erosion processes in young subtropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, S.; Goebes, P.; Song, Z.; Bruelheide, H.; Härdtle, W.; Kühn, P.; Li, Y.; Scholten, T.

    2015-06-01

    Soil erosion is seriously threatening ecosystem functioning in many parts of the world. In this context, it is assumed that tree species richness and functional diversity of tree communities can play a critical role in improving ecosystem services such as erosion control. An experiment with 170 micro-scale runoff plots was conducted to investigate the influence of tree species richness and identity as well as tree functional traits on interrill erosion in a young forest ecosystem. An interrill erosion rate of 47.5 t ha-1 a-1 was calculated. This study provided evidence that different tree species affect interrill erosion, but higher tree species richness did not mitigate soil losses in young forest stands. Thus, different tree morphologies have to be considered, when assessing erosion under forest. High crown cover and leaf area index reduced soil losses in initial forest ecosystems, whereas rising tree height increased them. Even if a leaf litter cover was not present, remaining soil surface cover by stones and biological soil crusts was the most important driver for soil erosion control. Furthermore, soil organic matter had a decreasing influence on soil loss. Long-term monitoring of soil erosion under closing tree canopies is necessary and a wide range of functional tree traits should be taken into consideration in future research.

  2. Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species

    PubMed Central

    Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C.; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D.; Mikusi?ski, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000?km2, we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

  3. Tree species and mycorrhizal associations influence the magnitude of rhizosphere effects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard P; Fahey, Timothy J

    2006-05-01

    Previous research on the effects of tree species on soil processes has focused primarily on the role of leaf litter inputs. We quantified the extent to which arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree species influence soil microbial activity and nutrient availability through rhizosphere effects. Rhizosphere soil, bulk soil, and fine roots were collected from 12 monospecifc plots (six AM and six ECM tree species) planted on a common soil at the Turkey Hill Plantations in Dryden, New York. Rhizosphere effects were estimated by the percentage difference between rhizosphere and bulk soil samples for several assays. Rhizosphere effects on soil microbes and their activities were significant for ECM species but in only a few cases for AM species. In AM tree species, microbial biomass, net N mineralization, and phosphatase enzyme activity in the rhizosphere were 10-12% greater than in bulk soil. In ECM tree species, rhizosphere effects for microbial biomass, C mineralization rates, net N mineralization, and phosphatase activity were 25-30% greater than bulk soil, and significantly greater than AM rhizosphere effects. The magnitude of rhizosphere effects was negatively correlated with the degree of mycorrhizal colonization in AM tree species (r = -0.83) and with fine root biomass (r = -0.88) in ECM tree species, suggesting that different factors influence rhizosphere effects in tree species forming different mycorrhizal associations. Rhizosphere effects on net N mineralization and phosphatase activity were also much greater in soils with pH < 4.3 for both AM and ECM tree species, suggesting that soil pH and its relation to nutrient availability may also influence the magnitude of rhizosphere effects. Our results support the idea that tree roots stimulate nutrient availability in the rhizosphere, and that systematic differences between AM and ECM may result in distinctive rhizosphere effects for C, N, and P cycling between AM and ECM tree species. PMID:16761608

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from nine tree species used in an urban tree-planting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, A. J.; Helmig, D.; Baroch, C.; Daly, R.; Davis, S.

    2014-10-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions of nine urban tree species were studied to assess the air quality impacts from planting a large quantity of these trees in the City and County of Denver, Colorado, through the Mile High Million tree-planting initiative. The deciduous tree species studied were Sugar maple, Ohio buckeye, northern hackberry, Turkish hazelnut, London planetree, American basswood, Littleleaf linden, Valley Forge elm, and Japanese zelkova. These tree species were selected using the i-Tree Species Selector (itreetools.org). BVOC emissions from the selected tree species were investigated to evaluate the Species Selector data under the Colorado climate and environmental growing conditions. Individual tree species were subjected to branch enclosure experiments in which foliar emissions of BVOC were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges. The cartridge samples were analyzed for monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), and other C10-C15 BVOC using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectroscopy (GC-FID/MS). Individual compounds and their emission rates (ER) were identified. MT were observed in all tree species, exhibiting the following total MT basal emission rates (BER; with a 1-? lower bound, upper bound uncertainty window): Sugar maple, 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) ?g g-1 h-1; London planetree, 0.15 (0.02, 0.27) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.33 (0.09, 0.57) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.42 (0.26, 0.58) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.71 (0.33, 1.09) ?g g-1 h-1; Valley Forge elm, 0.96 (0.01, 1.92) ?g g-1 h-1; Turkish hazelnut, 1.30 (0.32, 2.23) ?g g-1 h-1; American basswood, 1.50 (0.40, 2.70) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 6.61 (1.76, 11.47) ?g g-1 h-1. SQT emissions were seen in five tree species with total SQT BER of: London planetree, 0.11 (0.01, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.11 (0.05, 0.16) ?g g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.13 (0.06, 0.21) ?g g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.20 (0.11, 0.30) ?g g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 0.44 (0.06, 0.83) ?g g-1 h-1. The following trees exhibited emissions of other C10-C15 volatile organic compounds (VOC): Littleleaf linden, 0.15 (0.10, 0.20) ?g g-1 h-1; Ohio buckeye, 0.39 (0.14, 0.65) ?g g-1 h-1; and Turkish hazelnut, 0.72 (0.49, 0.95) ?g g-1 h-1. All tree species studied in this experiment were confirmed to be low isoprene emitters. Compared to many other potential urban tree species, the selected trees can be considered low to moderate BVOC emitters under Colorado growing conditions, with total emission rates one-tenth to one-hundredth the rates of potential high-BVOC emitting trees. The emissions data were used to estimate the impact of this targeted tree planting on the urban BVOC flux and atmospheric VOC burden. Selecting the low-emitting tree species over known high BVOC emitters is equivalent to avoiding VOC emissions from nearly 500,000 cars from the inner city traffic.

  5. International Association for Ecology Resource Limitation, Habitat Segregation, and Species Interactions of British Tree-Hole

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    in space and time. When mosquito larvae were forced to coexist in natural tree holes at limiting densities Interactions of British Tree-Hole Mosquitoes in Nature Author(s): William E. Bradshaw and Christina M limitation, habitat segregation, and species interactions of british tree-hole mosquitoes in nature William E

  6. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (? 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. PMID:25588119

  7. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern iran forests.

    PubMed

    Bourque, Charles P-A; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR) is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i) three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii) four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii) seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content), yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ? 33% of all trees in a plot), than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species). This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently general to be applicable to the characterisation of SR in other forested regions of the world, providing plot-scale data are available for model generation. PMID:25849029

  8. Running head: Tree growth across altitude and species1 Intra-and inter-specific tree growth across a long altitudinal gradient in the Peruvian3

    E-print Network

    Clark, James S.

    elevation species had lower32 growth rates than lower elevation species, suggesting that species turn#12;1 Running head: Tree growth across altitude and species1 2 Intra- and inter-specific tree diameter growth across the altitudinal ranges of species within a single genus across26 a geographically

  9. Measuring and Modeling Interspecies Competition of Tree Species in Logged Boreal Mixed Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Plaut, J.; Gower, S. T.; Weber, J.

    2001-12-01

    Forest tree species strongly affect biogeochemical cycles, and the differences are especially pronounced between evergreen and deciduous trees. Many boreal forests are mixed stands containing evergreen and deciduous species. The balance of evergreen and deciduous species changes during succession, yet most biogeochemical field studies and process models ignore mixed stands. The objective of the study was to determine the successional trends of tree species for a boreal logging age sequence in northern Manitoba. The experimental design consisted of eight replicate plots in four different-aged stands that originated from clearcut harvests in 1935 (mature), 1971, 1983, 1990. Dominant tree species were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), jack pine (Pinus banksiana), and black spruce (Picea mariana). Six trees of each major tree species were harvested and diameter * height growth relationships were determined by analyzing radial growth of stem disks collected every 0.25 m up the stem. Trembling aspen was the dominant tree species in the younger stands (1983, 1990) while jack pine and black spruce were the dominant tree species in the older stands (1971, mature). Annual growth rings of jack pine and trembling aspen decreased with age and annual radial growth of black spruce increased with stand age. The relationship of annual radial growth with stand age for the three species is discussed in relation to canopy architecture and biogeochemical cycles.

  10. Remnant Trees Affect Species Composition but Not Structure of Tropical Second-Growth Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields. PMID:24454700

  11. Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia

    E-print Network

    Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia Sciences and Biotechnology, Murdoch University, Perth, 6150, Australia Bernard Slippers Forestry University, Perth, 6150, Australia Abstract: In this study seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae

  12. ECOLOGICAL RESPONSE SURFACES FOR NORTH AMERICAN BOREAL TREE SPECIES AND THEIR USE IN FOREST CLASSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Empirical ecological response surfaces were derived for eight dominant tree species in the boreal forest region of Canada. tepwise logistic regression was used to model species dominance as a response to five climatic predictor variables. he predictor variables (annual snowfall, ...

  13. Population and species differences in treeline tree species germination in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Faist, A.; Castanha, C.

    2009-12-01

    The ability of plant species to recruit within and beyond their current geographic ranges in response to climate warming may be constrained by population differences in response. A number of studies have highlighted the degree to which genotype and environment are strongly linked in forest trees (i.e., provenances), but few studies have examined whether these local adaptations are at all predictive of population or species response to change. We report the results of lab germination experiments using high and low elevation populations of both limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), which are important treeline species in the Rocky Mountains. Seeds collected in 2008 were germinated under two different temperature regimes (ambient and +5°C) and two different moisture regimes, and followed for 17 weeks. For both species and source elevations, warmer temperatures advanced the timing of emergence by up to 20 days, whereas the effects of moisture were less consistent. At harvest, high elevation limber pine had less root and shoot biomass, and a slightly lower root:shoot ratio, under the +5°C treatment, whereas low elevation limber pine seedling mass was not sensitive to temperature. Whether these differences persist under field conditions will be tested in a field experiment now established at Niwot Ridge, CO. The ability to accurately predict tree seedling recruitment and ultimately shifts in treeline position with climate change will improve our ability to model changes in surface albedo, water cycling and carbon cycling, all of which can generate feedbacks to regional and global climate.

  14. Species richness and resource availability: a phylogenetic analysis of insects associated with trees.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C K; Southwood, T R

    1999-07-01

    The data on the number of species of insects associated with various trees in Britain have been reanalyzed to factor out possible bias from phylogenetic effects. It was found that tree availability (range and abundance) continues to provide a good predictor (r = 0. 852) of insect-species richness, slightly better than straightforward cross-species analyses. Of the two components of tree availability, tree abundance gives a much better prediction than tree range. The species richness on trees of major taxa with similar trophic habits (Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera/Symphyta and the two suborders of the Homoptera-Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha) shows positive correlations; there is thus no evidence of competitive exclusion at this taxonomic level. PMID:10393939

  15. Regeneration of indigenous woody species under the canopies of tree plantations in Central Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FEYERA SENBETA; DEMEL TEKETAY

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis that tree plantations may foster the regeneration of native woody species, was tested through studies of understory floristic composition, height-class dis- tribution of naturally regenerated seedlings and saplings of indigenous woody species, and soil seed banks in the native and exotic tree plantations in Central Ethiopia. A total of 70 plots, having 10 x 10 m area each,

  16. Issues in species classification of trees in old growth conifer stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald G. Leckie; Sally Tinis; Trisalyn Nelson; Charles Burnett; François A. Gougeon; Ed Cloney; Dennis Paradine

    2005-01-01

    Old growth temperate conifer forest canopies are composed of assemblages of tree crowns that vary by species, height, size, and intercrown distance. The challenge this complexity presents to species classification is formidable. In this paper we describe the exploration of spectral properties of old growth tree crowns as captured on two independent acquisitions of 0.7 m ground resolution compact airborne

  17. TREE SPECIES EFFECTS ON DECOMPOSITION AND FOREST FLOOR DYNAMICS IN A COMMON GARDEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Hobbie; Peter B. Reich; Jacek Oleksyn; Megan Ogdahl; Roma Zytkowiak; Cynthia Hale; Piotr Karolewski

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous

  18. Functional traits shape ontogenetic growth trajectories of rain forest tree species

    E-print Network

    Chave, Jérôme

    of ontogenetic changes in growth rate varied widely among species. 4. The Trait-Model provided the bestFunctional traits shape ontogenetic growth trajectories of rain forest tree species Bruno He´ rault rates. Here, we use a size-dependent model of tree growth to test the extent to which of 17 functional

  19. Habitat association among Amazonian tree species: a landscape-scale approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver L. Phillips; Percy Nunez Vargas; Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo; Antonio Pena Cruz; Maria-Elena Chuspe Zans; Washington Galiano Sanchez; Markku Yli-Halla; Sam Rose

    2003-01-01

    Summary 1 Unravelling which factors affect where tropical trees grow is an important goal for ecologists and conservationists. At the landscape scale, debate is mostly focused on the degree to which the distributions of tree species are determined by soil conditions or by neutral, distance-dependent processes. Problems with spatial autocorrelation, sparse soil sampling, inclusion of species-poor sites with extreme edaphic

  20. Ambient levels of ozone reduce net photosynthesis in tree and crop species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Reich; R. G. Amundson

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the photosynthetic response of three crop and four tree species to realistic concentrations of ozone and (for tree species only) simulated acidic rain. The ozone concentrations were representative of those found in clean ambient air, in mildly to moderately polluted air such as occurs in much of the US during the summer, and in more

  1. Butt rot incidence, yield and growth pattern in a tree species experiment in southwestern Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudmund Vollbrecht; Ulf Johansson; Harry Eriksson; Jan Stenlid

    1995-01-01

    Results from a tree species experiment on a fertile site in southwestern Sweden are presented at a stand age of 40–41 years. The previous generation was a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand heavily infected by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. The initial aim of the experiment was to evaluate the susceptibility of nine tree species to attacks by root

  2. Species-environment relationships and vegetation patterns: effects of spatial scale and tree life-stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; Richard R. Bachand; Yasuhiro Onami; Dan Binkley

    1998-01-01

    Do relationships between species and environmental gradients strengthen or weaken with tree life-stage (i.e., small seedlings, large seedlings, saplings, and mature trees)? Strengthened relationships may lead to distinct forest type boundaries, or weakening connections could lead to gradual ecotones and heterogeneous forest landscapes. We quantified the changes in forest dominance (basal area of tree species by life-stage) and environmental factors

  3. Potential Changes in Tree Species Richness and Forest Community Types following Climate Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad

    2001-01-01

    Potential changes in tree species richness and forest community types were evaluated for the eastern United States according\\u000a to five scenarios of future climate change resulting from a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). DISTRIB, an empirical model that uses a regression tree analysis approach, was used to generate suitable habitat, or potential\\u000a future distributions, of 80 common tree species

  4. Characterizing Tropical Tree Species Growth Strategies: Learning from Inter-Individual Variability and Scale Invariance

    PubMed Central

    Le Bec, Jimmy; Courbaud, Benoit; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Pélissier, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tropical tree species differ in their growth strategies is critical to predict forest dynamics and assess species coexistence. Although tree growth is highly variable in tropical forests, species maximum growth is often considered as a major axis synthesizing species strategies, with fast-growing pioneer and slow-growing shade tolerant species as emblematic representatives. We used a hierarchical linear mixed model and 21-years long tree diameter increment series in a monsoon forest of the Western Ghats, India, to characterize species growth strategies and question whether maximum growth summarizes these strategies. We quantified both species responses to biotic and abiotic factors and individual tree effects unexplained by these factors. Growth responses to competition and tree size appeared highly variable among species which led to reversals in performance ranking along those two gradients. However, species-specific responses largely overlapped due to large unexplained variability resulting mostly from inter-individual growth differences consistent over time. On average one-third of the variability captured by our model was explained by covariates. This emphasizes the high dimensionality of the tree growth process, i.e. the fact that trees differ in many dimensions (genetics, life history) influencing their growth response to environmental gradients, some being unmeasured or unmeasurable. In addition, intraspecific variability increased as a power function of species maximum growth partly as a result of higher absolute responses of fast-growing species to competition and tree size. However, covariates explained on average the same proportion of intraspecific variability for slow- and fast-growing species, which showed the same range of relative responses to competition and tree size. These results reflect a scale invariance of the growth process, underlining that slow- and fast-growing species exhibit the same range of growth strategies. PMID:25756212

  5. Survival of tree seedlings on different species of decaying wood maintains tree distribution in Michigan hemlock-hardwood forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Marx; Michael B. Walters

    Summary 1. Seedlings of some tree species are strongly associated with decaying wood in the germination or establishment period. Despite recognition of this pattern in forests around the world, few studies have compared the ability of different species of decaying wood to support seedlings. 2. We measured the abundance, survival, and age distribution of seedlings of Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock),

  6. TREE SPECIES CLASSIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL TREES IN SWEDEN BY COMBINING HIGH RESOLUTION LASER DATA WITH HIGH RESOLUTION NEAR INFRARED DIGITAL IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Å. Persson; J. Holmgren; U. Söderman; H. Olsson

    The aim of this research is to make identification of tree species of individual trees more efficient through combining high resolution laser data with high resolution near-infrared images. Identification of the classes Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), and deciduous trees was chosen because these groups are the most important for forest applications in Sweden. Tree

  7. Landscape Variation in Tree Species Richness in Northern Iran Forests

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Charles P.-A.; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR) is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area’s unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i) three topographic variables generated directly from the area’s digital terrain model; (ii) four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii) seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content), yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ? 33% of all trees in a plot), than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species). This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently general to be applicable to the characterisation of SR in other forested regions of the world, providing plot-scale data are available for model generation. PMID:25849029

  8. Photosynthetic induction responses of two rainforest tree species in relation to light environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourens Poorter; Steven F. Oberbauer

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthetic induction of in situ saplings of two Costa Rican rainforest tree species wre compared in relation to their light environment, using infrared gas analysis and hemispherical photography. The species studied were Dipteryx panamensis, a climax species found in bright microsites, and Cecropia obtusifolia, a pioneer species. In the morning, when leaves were most responsive, induction time necessary to reach

  9. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management. PMID:25655130

  10. Species-specific effects on throughfall kinetic energy below 12 subtropical tree species are related to leaf traits and tree architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebes, Philipp; Seitz, Steffen; Kühn, Peter; Kröber, Wenzel; Bruelheide, Helge; Li, Ying; von Oheimb, Goddert; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion impacts environmental systems widely, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. The comprehension about the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land is broad, but erosion processes below forests are only rarely understood. Especially throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced by forests and their structure as well as their succession in many ways. Today, many forests are monoculture tree stands due to economic reasons by providing timber, fuel and pulp wood. Therefore, this study investigates the role of different monoculture forest stands on TKE that were afforestated in 2008. The main questions are: Is TKE species-specific? What are characteristic leaf traits and tree architectural parameters that induce a species-specific effect on TKE and by what extend do they contribute to a mediation of species-specific effects on TKE? We measured TKE of 12 different species in subtropical China using sand-filled splash cups during five rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf traits and tree architectural parameters were registered to link species-specific effects on TKE to vegetation parameters. Our results show that TKE is highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus mukorossi, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. The latter species can be regarded as key species for reduced erosion occurrence. This species effect is mediated by leaf habit, leaf area, leaf pinnation, leaf margin, tree ground diameter, crown base height, tree height, number of branches and LAI as biotic factors and rainfall amount as abiotic factor. Moreover, leaf habit, tree height and LA show high effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers evoking TKE differences below vegetation.

  11. Response of five temperate deciduous tree species to water stress.

    PubMed

    Ranney, T G; Whitlow, T H; Bassuk, N L

    1990-12-01

    Gas exchange, tissue water relations, and leaf/root dry weight ratios were compared among young, container-grown plants of five temperate-zone, deciduous tree species (Acer negundo L., Betula papyrifera Marsh, Malus baccata Borkh, Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions. There was a small decrease (mean reduction of 0.22 MPa across species) in the water potential at which turgor was lost (Psi(tlp)) in response to water stress. The Psi(tlp) for water-stressed plants was -1.18, -1.34, -1.61, -1.70, and -2.12 MPa for B. papyrifera, A. negundo, U. parvifolia, R. pseudoacacia, and M. baccata, respectively. Variation in Psi(tlp) resulted primarily from differences in tissue osmotic potential and not tissue elasticity. Rates of net photosynthesis declined in response to water stress. However, despite differences in Psi(tlp), there were no differences in net photosynthesis among water-stressed plants under the conditions of water stress imposed. In A. negundo and M. baccata, water use efficiency (net photosynthesis/transpiration) increased significantly in response to water stress. Comparisons among water-stressed plants showed that water use efficiency for M. baccata was greater than for B. papyrifera or U. parvifolia. There were no significant differences in water use efficiency among B. papyrifera, U. parvifolia, A. negundo, and R. pseudoacacia. Under water-stressed conditions, leaf/root dry weight ratios (an index of transpiration to absorptive capacity) ranged from 0.77 in R. pseudoacacia to 1.05 in B. papyrifera. PMID:14972935

  12. Soil magnetic susceptibility reflects soil moisture regimes and the adaptability of tree species to these regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, J.-S.; Grimley, D.A.; Xu, C.; Dawson, J.O.

    2008-01-01

    Flooded, saturated or poorly drained soils are frequently anaerobic, leading to dissolution of the strongly magnetic minerals, magnetite and maghemite, and a corresponding decrease in soil magnetic susceptibility (MS). In this study of five temperate deciduous forests in east-central Illinois, USA, mean surface soil MS was significantly higher adjacent to upland tree species (31 ?? 10-5 SI) than adjacent to floodplain or lowland tree species (17 ?? 10-5 SI), when comparing regional soils with similar parent material of loessal silt. Although the sites differ in average soil MS for each tree species, the relative order of soil MS means for associated tree species at different locations is similar. Lowland tree species, Celtis occidentalis L., Ulmus americana L., Acer saccharinum L., Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud., and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. were associated with the lowest measured soil MS mean values overall and at each site. Tree species' flood tolerance rankings increased significantly, as soil MS values declined, the published rankings having significant correlations with soil MS values for the same species groups. The three published classifications of tree species' flood tolerance were significantly correlated with associated soil MS values at all sites, but most strongly at Allerton Park, the site with the widest range of soil drainage classes and MS values. Using soil MS measurements in forests with soil parent material containing similar initial levels of strongly magnetic minerals can provide a simple, rapid and quantitative method to classify soils according to hydric regimes, including dry conditions, and associated plant composition. Soil MS values thus have the capacity to quantify the continuum of hydric tolerances of tree species and guide tree species selection for reforestation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Designing mixed species tree plantations for the tropics: balancing ecological attributes of species with landholder preferences in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30-40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop. PMID:24751720

  14. Designing Mixed Species Tree Plantations for the Tropics: Balancing Ecological Attributes of Species with Landholder Preferences in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huong; Lamb, David; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A mixed species reforestation program known as the Rainforestation Farming system was undertaken in the Philippines to develop forms of farm forestry more suitable for smallholders than the simple monocultural plantations commonly used then. In this study, we describe the subsequent changes in stand structure and floristic composition of these plantations in order to learn from the experience and develop improved prescriptions for reforestation systems likely to be attractive to smallholders. We investigated stands aged from 6 to 11 years old on three successive occasions over a 6 year period. We found the number of species originally present in the plots as trees >5 cm dbh decreased from an initial total of 76 species to 65 species at the end of study period. But, at the same time, some new species reached the size class threshold and were recruited into the canopy layer. There was a substantial decline in tree density from an estimated stocking of about 5000 trees per ha at the time of planting to 1380 trees per ha at the time of the first measurement; the density declined by a further 4.9% per year. Changes in composition and stand structure were indicated by a marked shift in the Importance Value Index of species. Over six years, shade-intolerant species became less important and the native shade-tolerant species (often Dipterocarps) increased in importance. Based on how the Rainforestation Farming plantations developed in these early years, we suggest that mixed-species plantations elsewhere in the humid tropics should be around 1000 trees per ha or less, that the proportion of fast growing (and hence early maturing) trees should be about 30–40% of this initial density and that any fruit tree component should only be planted on the plantation margin where more light and space are available for crowns to develop. PMID:24751720

  15. Water-use Comparison of the Invasive Tree Species, Melaleuca Quinquenervia, and two Native Tree Species,Taxodium Distichum and Pinus Elliottii, in Southwest Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, T. M.; Leisure, R. M.; Everham, E. M.; Bovard, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    Melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), an invasive tree species in southern Florida, is generally thought to have higher transpiration rates than the native vegetation, however little empirical data is available to support this claim. In this study, thermal dissipation probes were used to measure transpiration rates of the three species growing in a hydric ecotone in southwest Florida. Transpiration rates of melaleuca, slash pine (Pinus elliottii), and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) were compared to assess seasonal variability between the wet and dry seasons. Individually trees of both bald cypress and slash pine showed significantly higher water fluxes than melaleuca (p<0.05). However, when individual tree fluxes were scaled to the ecosystem-level, melaleuca contributed 21% of the water flux and bald cypress contributed 72% during the wet season. Melaleuca's increased contribution at the landscape-level results from higher tree densities at our study site. Following leaf senescence in the early dry season, bald cypress continues to be a significant water user at the landscape level. With higher atmospheric demands for water, bald cypress was the least conservative of the three species with respect to water use, whereas on days with low atmospheric demands for water the three species function similarly. These results do not support the hypothesis that melaleuca uses more water than the native Florida tree species, however, they suggest the density of melaleuca at the landscape-scale is important in our understanding of its role in the hydrologic cycle.

  16. Conspecific Plant-Soil Feedbacks of Temperate Tree Species in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, Kurt O.; Johnson, Daniel; Clay, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Many tree species have seedling recruitment patterns suggesting that they are affected by non-competitive distance-dependent sources of mortality. We conducted an experiment, with landscape-level replication, to identify cases of negative distance-dependent effects and whether variation in these effects corresponded with tree recruitment patterns in the southern Appalachian Mountains region. Specifically, soil was collected from 14 sites and used as inocula in a 62 day growth chamber experiment determining whether tree seedling growth was less when interacting with soil from conspecific (like) than heterospecific (other) tree species. Tests were performed on six tree species. Three of the tree species had been previously described as having greater recruitment around conspecifics (i.e. facilitator species group) compared to the other half (i.e. inhibitor species group). We were then able to determine whether variation in negative distance-dependent effects corresponded with recruitment patterns in the field. Across the six species, none were negatively affected by soil inocula from conspecific relative to heterospecific sources. Most species (four of six) were unaffected by soil source. Two species (Prunus serotina and Tsuga canadensis) had enhanced growth in pots inoculated with soil from conspecific trees vs. heterospecifics. Species varied in their susceptibility to soil pathogens, but trends across all species revealed that species classified as inhibitors were not more negatively affected by conspecific than heterospecific soil inocula or more susceptible to pathogenic effects than facilitators. Although plant-soil biota interactions may be important for individual species and sites, it may be difficult to scale these interactions over space or levels of ecological organization. Generalizing the importance of plant-soil feedbacks or other factors across regional scales may be especially problematic for hyperdiverse temperate forests where interactions may be spatially variable. PMID:22808231

  17. Urban tree species mapping using hyperspectral and lidar data fusion Michael Alonzo , Bodo Bookhagen, Dar A. Roberts

    E-print Network

    Bookhagen, Bodo

    at the individual crown object scale to map 29 common tree species in Santa Barbara, California, USA. We firstUrban tree species mapping using hyperspectral and lidar data fusion Michael Alonzo , Bodo March 2014 Accepted 23 March 2014 Available online xxxx Keywords: Data fusion Tree species

  18. REGION-BASED SEGMENTATION ON DEPTH IMAGES FROM A 3D REFERENCE SURFACE FOR TREE SPECIES RECOGNITION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the species of a single tree are the shape of the leaves, the general shape of the crown and the variationsREGION-BASED SEGMENTATION ON DEPTH IMAGES FROM A 3D REFERENCE SURFACE FOR TREE SPECIES RECOGNITION presented in this paper is to develop a method for the automatic identification of tree species using

  19. Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

    2014-12-01

    The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. PMID:25041417

  20. Tree-grass relationships in open eucalypt woodlands of northeastern Australia: influence of trees on pasture productivity, forage quality and species distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jackson; A. J. Ash

    1998-01-01

    Pasture yield, quality and species distributions were compared between zones around live and killed eucalypt trees at two\\u000a woodland sites in northeast Queensland which differed markedly in soil fertility. Trees affected pasture quality and yield\\u000a on an individual tree basis: N concentration and dry matter digestibility tended to be higher under trees than in inter-tree\\u000a areas at both sites and

  1. Grouping tree species for analysis of forest data in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Phillips; I. Yasman; T. E. Brash; P. R. van Gardingen

    2002-01-01

    The management, conservation and theoretical understanding of mixed tropical forests rely heavily on the interpretation of data collected from those forests. Data-derived quantities that are averaged over all species often hide important descriptors of the forest, whereas quantities based on individual species are difficult to interpret due to the diversity of tree species. A compromise between these two analytical approaches

  2. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

  3. SHIFTS IN RELATIVE STOCKING OF COMMON TREE SPECIES IN KENTUCKY FROM 1975 TO 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Jeffrey W. Stringer; Jeffery A. Turner

    Changes in species-specific relative stocking indicate the extent to which a species is either increasing or decreasing in a particular system. Changes in relative stocking values of common tree species in Kentucky from 1988 to 2004 were compared to values calculated for 1975 to 1988. Mean annual increase in relative stocking between 1988 and 2004 was greatest for eastern white

  4. Variation in quality parameters between and within 14 Nordic tree fruit and berry species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grete Skrede; Berit Karoline Martinsen; Anne-Berit Wold; Stein-Erik Birkeland; Kjersti Aaby

    2012-01-01

    A 3-year study was carried out to investigate quality parameters in 14 tree fruit and berry species grown in southern Norway. The species were blueberry, apple, aronia, sour cherry, sweet cherry, red raspberry, strawberry, blackcurrant, gooseberry, red currant and elderberry, harvested along with wild bilberry, cloudberry and lingonberry. Significant differences between species were identified for all quality parameters. The coefficient

  5. Variation in quality parameters between and within 14 Nordic tree fruit and berry species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grete Skrede; Berit Karoline Martinsen; Anne-Berit Wold; Stein-Erik Birkeland; Kjersti Aaby

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was carried out to investigate quality parameters in 14 tree fruit and berry species grown in southern Norway. The species were blueberry, apple, aronia, sour cherry, sweet cherry, red raspberry, strawberry, blackcurrant, gooseberry, red currant and elderberry, harvested along with wild bilberry, cloudberry and lingonberry. Significant differences between species were identified for all quality parameters. The coefficient

  6. Rapid Diversification of a Species-Rich Genus of Neotropical Rain Forest Trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Richardson; R. Toby Pennington; Terence D. Pennington; Peter M. Hollingsworth

    2001-01-01

    Species richness in the tropics has been attributed to the gradual accumulation of species over a long geological period in stable equatorial climates or, conversely, to speciation in response to late Tertiary geological events and unstable Pleistocene climates. DNA sequence data are consistent with recent diversification in Inga, a species-rich neotropical tree genus. We estimate that speciation was concentrated in

  7. Lutein epoxide cycle, light harvesting and photoprotection in species of the tropical tree genus Inga

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHIZUE MATSUBARA; G. HEINRICH KRAUSE; MARTIN SELTMANN; AURELIO VIRGO; THOMAS A. KURSAR; PETER JAHNS; KLAUS WINTER

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics and possible function of the lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle, that is, the reversible conversion of Lx to lutein (L) in the light-harvesting antennae, were investigated in leaves of tropical tree species. Photosynthetic pigments were quanti- fied in nine Inga species and species from three other genera. In Inga, Lx levels were high in shade leaves (mostly above 20 mmol

  8. Segmented canonical discriminant analysis of in situ hyperspectral data for identifying 13 urban tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiliang Pu; Desheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    A total of 458 in situ hyperspectral data were collected from 13 urban tree species in the City of Tampa, FL, USA using a spectrometer. The 13 species include 11 broadleaf and two conifer species. Three different techniques, segmented canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), segmented principal component analysis (PCA) and segmented stepwise discriminate analysis (SDA), were applied and compared for dimension

  9. Optimal Public Control of Exotic Species: Preventing the Brown Tree Snake from Invading Hawai'i

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brooks Kaiser; James Roumasset

    This paper develops a theoretical model for the efficient establishment of economic policy pertaining to invasive species, integrating prevention and control of invasive species into a single model of optimal control policy, and applies this model to the case of the Brown tree snake as a potential invader of Hawaii. The arrival of a new species to an existing ecosystem

  10. Species Divergence and Phylogenetic Variation of Ecophysiological Traits in Lianas and Trees

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Rodrigo S.; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The climbing habit is an evolutionary key innovation in plants because it is associated with enhanced clade diversification. We tested whether patterns of species divergence and variation of three ecophysiological traits that are fundamental for plant adaptation to light environments (maximum photosynthetic rate [Amax], dark respiration rate [Rd], and specific leaf area [SLA]) are consistent with this key innovation. Using data reported from four tropical forests and three temperate forests, we compared phylogenetic distance among species as well as the evolutionary rate, phylogenetic distance and phylogenetic signal of those traits in lianas and trees. Estimates of evolutionary rates showed that Rd evolved faster in lianas, while SLA evolved faster in trees. The mean phylogenetic distance was 1.2 times greater among liana species than among tree species. Likewise, estimates of phylogenetic distance indicated that lianas were less related than by chance alone (phylogenetic evenness across 63 species), and trees were more related than expected by chance (phylogenetic clustering across 71 species). Lianas showed evenness for Rd, while trees showed phylogenetic clustering for this trait. In contrast, for SLA, lianas exhibited phylogenetic clustering and trees showed phylogenetic evenness. Lianas and trees showed patterns of ecophysiological trait variation among species that were independent of phylogenetic relatedness. We found support for the expected pattern of greater species divergence in lianas, but did not find consistent patterns regarding ecophysiological trait evolution and divergence. Rd followed the species-level pattern, i.e., greater divergence/evolution in lianas compared to trees, while the opposite occurred for SLA and no pattern was detected for Amax. Rd may have driven lianas' divergence across forest environments, and might contribute to diversification in climber clades. PMID:24914958

  11. Fine root architecture, morphology, and biomass of different branch orders of two Chinese temperate tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengquan Wang; Dali Guo; Xiangrong Wang; Jiacun Gu; Li Mei

    2006-01-01

    We have limited understanding of architecture and morphology of fine root systems in large woody trees. This study investigated architecture, morphology, and biomass of different fine root branch orders of two temperate tree species from Northeastern China—Larix gmelinii Rupr and Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr —by sampling up to five fine root branch orders three times during the 2003 growing season from

  12. Catastrophic natural origin of a species-poor tree community in the world's richest forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel C. A. Pitman; Carlos E. Cerón; Carmita I. Reyes; Mark Thurber; Jorge Arellano

    2005-01-01

    Upper Amazonian tree communities are famous for their very high alpha-diversity. This paper describes an anomalous forest just 6 km south of the equator in lowland Ecuador that is structurally mature, surrounded by hyperdiverse forest, but strikingly poor in species. To investigate the anomaly, a 1-ha tree inventory and soil analysis were carried out and compared with 15 similar surveys

  13. A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae)

    E-print Network

    Schuettpelz, Eric

    A "new" tree fern species from southeastern Brazil: Cyathea myriotricha (Cyatheaceae) ROBBIN C-mail: ejs7@duke.edu Abstract. Morphological and plastid rbcL and trnG-R sequence data suggest that the fern currently recognized as Megalastrum lasiernos (Dryopteridaceae) is in fact a tree fern (Cyatheaceae

  14. SIMULATION OF OZONE EFFECTS ON EIGHT TREE SPECIES AT SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an assessment of potential effects of air pollutants on the vegetation of Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), we simulated the growth of eight important tree species using TREGRO, a mechanistic model of individual tree growth. Published TREGRO parameters for black cherry...

  15. Cellulase in Anoplophora glabripennis adults fed on original host tree species and non-original host trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-juan Li; Xiong-fei Yan; You-qing Luo; Gui-fang Tian; Yin-jie Nian; Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Cellulase activities of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) adults from two host plants (Populus simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu. and Salix matsudana Koidz) fed on three different host tree species (Acer negundo Linn., S. matsudana Koidz and P. simonii × P. pyramidliscr cv. Opera Hsu.) were investigated. Enzyme activities of endoglucanase and ?-glucosidase in the intestines of the insects were

  16. Two new species of Gliricola (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae) from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus, in Peru.

    E-print Network

    Price, Roger D.; Timm, Robert M.

    1993-06-01

    Two new species of Gliricola, G. woodmani and G. halli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), are described and illustrated for specimens from the spiny tree rat, Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Peru. Resumen--Se describe e ilustra dos nuevas...

  17. Comparison of methods for species-tree inference in the sawfly genus Neodiprion (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae).

    PubMed

    Linnen, Catherine R; Farrell, Brian D

    2008-12-01

    Conifer-feeding sawflies in the genus Neodiprion provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the origin and maintenance of barriers to reproduction, but obtaining a phylogenetic estimate for comparative studies of Neodiprion speciation has proved difficult. Specifically, nonmonophyly within and discordance between individual gene trees, both of which are common in groups that diverged recently and/or rapidly, make it impossible to infer a species tree using methods that are designed to estimate gene trees. Therefore, in this study, we estimate relationships between members of the lecontei species group using four approaches that are intended to estimate species, not gene, trees: (1) minimize deep coalescences (MDC), (2) shallowest divergences (SD), (3) Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST), and (4) a novel approach that combines concatenation with monophyly constraints (CMC). Multiple populations are sampled for most species and all four methods incorporate this intraspecific variation into estimates of interspecific relationships. We investigate the sensitivity of each method to taxonomic sampling, and, for the BEST method, we assess the impact of prior choice on species-tree inference. We also compare species-tree estimates to one another and to a morphologically based hypothesis to identify clades that are supported by multiple analyses and lines of evidence. We find that both taxonomic sampling and method choice impact species-tree estimates and that, for these data, the BEST method is strongly influenced by Theta and branch-length priors. We also find that the CMC method is the least sensitive to taxonomic sampling. Finally, although interspecific genetic variation is low due to the recent divergence of the lecontei group, our results to date suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific gene flow are the main factors complicating species-tree inference in Neodiprion. Based on these analyses, we propose a phylogenetic hypothesis for the lecontei group. Finally, our results suggest that, even for very challenging groups like Neodiprion, an underlying species-tree signal can be extracted from multi-locus data as long as intraspecific variation is adequately sampled and methods that focus on the estimation of species trees are used. PMID:19085330

  18. Species Composition, Distribution and Management of Trees in Rice Paddy Fields in Central Lao, PDR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kosaka; S. Takeda; S. Prixar; S. Sithirajvongsa; K. Xaydala

    2006-01-01

    Presence of different types of trees dispersed singly or in small groups throughout the fields is a very common feature in\\u000a the extensive rice paddies of Laos and Thailand. Factors such as land-settlement history, proximity to forest, and role of\\u000a species in the local culture are known to influence the nature and distribution of tree species so retained. The extent

  19. COMPARISON OF TREE SPECIES SENSITIVITY TO HIGH AND LOW-EXTREME HYDROCLIMATIC EVENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo G. Hidalgo; John A. Dracup; Glen M. MacDonald; Judith A. King

    2001-01-01

    We present here a six-species comparison of tree-ring growth response to extremes (below the 30th and above the 70th percentile) in temperature, precipitation, and corresponding streamflow. The species compared are Pinus edulis (PIED), Pseudot- suga menziesii (PSME), Pinus ponderosa (PIPO), Pinus flexilis (PIFL), Pinus aristata (PIAR), and Picea engelmannii (PCEN). Sensitivity was determined using contingency scores obtained by comparing tree-ring

  20. Potential redistribution of tree species habitat under five climate change scenarios in the eastern US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad

    2002-01-01

    Global climate change could have profound effects on the Earth’s biota, including large redistributions of tree species and forest types. We used DISTRIB, a deterministic regression tree analysis model, to examine environmental drivers related to current forest-species distributions and then model potential suitable habitat under five climate change scenarios associated with a doubling of atmospheric CO2. Potential shifts in suitable

  1. Effects of Tree Species Composition and Foraging Effort on the Productivity of Golden-Cheeked Warblers 

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Mike E.

    2012-07-16

    EFFECTS OF TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FORAGING EFFORT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS A Thesis by MIKE E. MARSHALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Warblers Copyright 2011 Mike E. Marshall EFFECTS OF TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND FORAGING EFFORT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLERS A Thesis by MIKE E. MARSHALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  2. [Drought resistibility of main tree species in water conservation forest of Qilian Moutains].

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongzhong; Zhou, Zefu; Zhao, Yusen

    2005-12-01

    With P-V techniques, this paper determined and analyzed the water parameters of main tree species in the water conservation forest of Qilian Moutains. The results showed that the test water parameters varied with tree species, reflecting the complicacy of the drought-resistance mechanism of trees. Among 10 parameters, /phi pi100 - phi pi0/, RCV, ROWC0 epsilon(max) could reflect most information of drought resistibility. Based on their drought resistibility, the test tree species could be classified into 4 groups, i.e., high drought resistibility (Picea crassifolia and Rhododendron thymifolium ), sub-high drought resistibility (Sabina przeualwkii, Rhododendron anthopogonoides, Rhododendron capitaturn and Rhododendron przewalskii), low drought resistibility (Populus cathyana), and inferior drought resistibility (Poentilla fruticosa, Siraea salicifolia and Betula albosinensis). The relationships between predawn leaf water potential and soil water content could be well modeled by hyperbola function, power function or exponent function. Meanwhile, the test tree species could be also grouped as high potential delay dehydration species (Betula albosinensis and Rhododendron przeualskii), sub-high potential delay dehydration species (Picea crassifolia, Rhododendron thymifolium and Rhododendron capitatum), inferior potential tolerance species (Sabina przewalskii), and low potential tolerance species (Potentilla fruticosa, Spiraea salicifolia and Rhododendron anthopogonoides), based on their drought-resistance mechanism. PMID:16515165

  3. Version 5 of Forecasts; Forecasts of Climate-Associated Shifts in Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Kumar, J.; Potter, K. M.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Version 5 of the ForeCASTS tree range shift atlas (www.geobabble.org/~hnw/global/treeranges5/climate_change/atlas.html) now predicts global shifts in the suitable ranges of 335 tree species (essentially all woody species measured in Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)) under forecasts from the Parallel Climate Model, and the Hadley Model, each under future climatic scenarios A1 and B1, each at two future dates (2050 and 2100). Version 5 includes more Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) occurrence points, uses improved heuristics for occurrence training, and recovers occurrence points that fall in water. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to quantitatively delineate 30 thousand environmentally homogeneous ecoregions across present and 8 potential future global locations at once, using global maps of 17 environmental characteristics describing temperature, precipitation, soils, topography and solar insolation. Occurrence of each tree species on FIA plots and in GBIF samples was used to identify a subset of suitable ecoregions from the full set of 30 thousand. This subset of suitable ecoregions was compared to the known current present range of the tree species. Predicted present ranges correspond well with existing ranges for all but a few of the 335 tree species. The subset of suitable ecoregions can then be tracked into the future to determine whether the suitable home range remains the same, moves, grows, shrinks, or disappears under each model/scenario combination. A quantitative niche breadth analysis allows sorting of the 17 environmental variables from the narrowest, most important, to the broadest, least restrictive environmental factors limiting each tree species. Potential tree richness maps were produced, along with a quantitative potential tree endemism map for present and future CONUS. Using a new empirical imputation method which associates sparse measurements of dependent variables with particular clustered combinations of the environmental driver variables, and then estimates values for unmeasured clusters, we interpolated FIA measurements of productivity into continuous maps showing productivity across each tree's entire present and future ranges.

  4. Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Tree Species Composition in Temperate Mountains of South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Boknam; Park, Juhan; Cho, Sungsik; Ryu, Daun; Zaw Wynn, Khine; Park, Minji; Cho, Sunhee; Yoon, Jongguk; Park, Jongyoung; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2015-04-01

    Long term studies on vegetation dynamics are important to identify changes of ecosystem-level responses to climate change. To learn how tree species composition and stand structure change across temperate mountains, the temporal and spatial variations in tree species diversity and structure were investigated using the species composition and DBH size collected over the fourteen-year period across 134 sites in Jiri and Baekoon Mountains, South Korea. The overall temporal changes over fourteen years showed significant increase in stand density, species diversity and evenness according to the indices of Shannon-Weiner diversity, Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, and Pielou's evenness, contributing to the increase of basal area and biomass growth. The change of tree species composition could be categorized into five species communities, representing gradual increase or decrease, establishment, extinction, fluctuation of species population. However, in general, the change in species composition appeared to have consistent and directional patterns of increase in the annual rate of change in the mean species traits including species richness, pole growth rate, adult growth rate, and adult stature with five common dominant species (Quercus mongolica, Quercus variabilis, Quercus serrata, Carpinus laxiflora, and Styrax japonicus). The spatial patterns of species composition appeared to have a higher stand density and species diversity along with the low latitude and high slope ecosystem. The climate change was another main driver to vary the distribution of species abundance. Overall, both temporal and spatial changes of composition in tree species community was clear and further analysis to clarify the reasons for such fast and species-specific changes is underway especially to separate the effect of successional change and climate change. Keywords species composition; climate change; temporal and spatial variation ; forest structure; temperate forest

  5. Comparison of population structures and ecology of a congeneric pair of common and rare neotropical tree species

    E-print Network

    Queensland, University of

    of Jatropha standleyi and J. chamelensis, two eco- logically similar, dioecious forest trees in order patterns with regard to commonness and rarity as it relates to range size in plant species. In British plants, animal pollinated species are less widespread than wind pollinated species, tree species are less

  6. Assessing approaches for inferring species trees from multi-copy genes.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Ruchi; Boussau, Bastien; Burleigh, J Gordon; Fernández-Baca, David

    2015-03-01

    With the availability of genomic sequence data, there is increasing interest in using genes with a possible history of duplication and loss for species tree inference. Here we assess the performance of both nonprobabilistic and probabilistic species tree inference approaches using gene duplication and loss and coalescence simulations. We evaluated the performance of gene tree parsimony (GTP) based on duplication (Only-dup), duplication and loss (Dup-loss), and deep coalescence (Deep-c) costs, the NJst distance method, the MulRF supertree method, and PHYLDOG, which jointly estimates gene trees and species tree using a hierarchical probabilistic model. We examined the effects of gene tree and species sampling, gene tree error, and duplication and loss rates on the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates. In the 10-taxon duplication and loss simulation experiments, MulRF is more accurate than the other methods when the duplication and loss rates are low, and Dup-loss is generally the most accurate when the duplication and loss rates are high. PHYLDOG performs well in 10-taxon duplication and loss simulations, but its run time is prohibitively long on larger data sets. In the larger duplication and loss simulation experiments, MulRF outperforms all other methods in experiments with at most 100 taxa; however, in the larger simulation, Dup-loss generally performs best. In all duplication and loss simulation experiments with more than 10 taxa, all methods perform better with more gene trees and fewer missing sequences, and they are all affected by gene tree error. Our results also highlight high levels of error in estimates of duplications and losses from GTP methods and demonstrate the usefulness of methods based on generic tree distances for large analyses. PMID:25540456

  7. The effects of tree species grouping in tropical rainforest modelling: Simulations with the individual-based model F ormind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Köhler; Andreas Huth

    1998-01-01

    Due to high biodiversity in tropical rainforests, tree species are aggregated into functional groups for modelling purposes. In this article the influences of two different classifications of tropical tree species into functional groups on the output of a rainforest model are analysed. The Formind model is documented. Formind simulates the tree growth of tropical rainforests. The model is individual-based and

  8. Effects of fire and selective logging on the tree species composition of lowland dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Ferry Slik; Rene W. Verburg; Paul J. a. Keßler

    2002-01-01

    Tree species composition (diameter at breast height (dbh) = 10 cm) was studied in primary, selectively logged and heavily burnt forests in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The number of trees, tree species, and the Fishers's-a diversity index were determined for the first 15 years (burnt forest) and 25 years (selectively logged forest) after disturbance. Additionally the population structure of six common

  9. Estimating Species Interactions in a Woodpecker Tree-Hole Community at the Individual, Population, and Community Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Walters

    2004-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a keystone species in the southeastern United States where it excavates tree holes in living pines trees. An understanding of the interactions among the species using the tree holes may indicate whether they affect red-cockaded woodpeckers negatively. In the Apalachicola National Forest of northern Florida, I conducted a series of experiments at the

  10. Relationships among environmental variables and distribution of tree species at high elevation in the Olympic Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Relationships among environmental variables and occurrence of tree species were investigated at Hurricane Ridge in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. A transect consisting of three plots was established down one north-and one south-facing slope in stands representing the typical elevational sequence of tree species. Tree species included subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis). Air and soil temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture were measured during three growing seasons. Snowmelt patterns, soil carbon and moisture release curves were also determined. The plots represented a wide range in soil water potential, a major determinant of tree species distribution (range of minimum values = -1.1 to -8.0 MPa for Pacific silver fir and Douglas-fir plots, respectively). Precipitation intercepted at plots depended on topographic location, storm direction and storm type. Differences in soil moisture among plots was related to soil properties, while annual differences at each plot were most often related to early season precipitation. Changes in climate due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 will likely shift tree species distributions within, but not among aspects. Change will be buffered by innate tolerance of adult trees and the inertia of soil properties.

  11. Ecological niche modeling and local knowledge predict new populations of *Gymnocladus assamicus* a critically endangered tree species

    E-print Network

    Menon, Shaily; Choudhury, Bahrul I.; Khan, M. Latif; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2010-04-16

    Gymnocladus assamicus is a critically endangered tree species endemic to northeastern India. Local inhabitants traditionally used this species for a variety of purposes. However, rapid population declines led to the species ...

  12. Photosynthesis-nitrogen relations in Amazonian tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Reich; M. B. Walters; D. S. Ellsworth; C. Uhl

    1994-01-01

    Among species, photosynthetic capacity (Amax) is usually related to leaf nitrogen content (N), but variation in the species-specific relationship is not well understood. To address this issue, we studied Amax-N relationships in 23 species in adjacent Amazonian communities differentially limited by nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and\\/or other mineral nutrients. Five species were studied in each of three late successional forest

  13. [Effects of waterlogging on the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of different tree species].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Cao, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wang-Xiang

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the waterlogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of different tree species, a simulated field experiment was conducted to study the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of one-year-old seedlings of Taxodium distichum, Carya illinoensis, and Sapium sebiferum. Three treatments were installed, i. e., CK, waterlogging, and flooding, with the treatment duration being 60 days. Under waterlogging and flooding, the relative growth of test tree species was in the order of T. distichum > C. illinoensis > S. sebiferum, indicating that T. distichum had the strongest tolerance against waterlogging and flooding, while S. sebiferum had the weakest one. Also under waterlogging and flooding, the root/crown ratio of the three tree species increased significantly, suggesting that more photosynthates were allocated in roots, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities of the tree species also had a significant increase. Among the test tree species, T. distichum had the lowest increment of LDH and ADH activities under waterlogging and flooding, but the increment could maintain at a higher level in the treatment duration, while for C. illinoensis and S. sebiferum, the increment was larger during the initial and medium period, but declined rapidly during the later period of treatment. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphohexose (HPI), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) -6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) activities of the tree species under waterlogging and flooding had a significant decrease, and the decrement was the largest for T. distichum, being 35.6% for MDH, 21.0% for HPI, and 22.7% for G6PDH - 6PGDH under flooding. It was suggested that under waterlogging and flooding, the tree species with strong waterlogging tolerance had a higher ability to maintain energy-metabolic balance, and thus, its growth could be maintained at a certain level. PMID:20560312

  14. Does deciduous tree species identity affect carbon storage in temperate soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungkunst, Hermann; Schleuß, Per; Heitkamp, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Forest soils contribute roughly 70 % to the global terrestrial soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and thus play a vital role in the global carbon cycle. It is less clear, however, whether temperate tree species identity affects SOC storage beyond the coarse differentiation between coniferous and deciduous trees. The most important driver for soil SOC storage definitely is the fine mineral fraction (clay and fine silt) because of its high sorption ability. It is difficult to disentangle any additional biotic effects since clay and silt vary considerably in nature. For experimental approaches, the process of soil carbon accumulation is too slow and, therefore, sound results cannot be expected for decades. Here we will present our success to distinguish between the effects of fine particle content (abiotic) and tree species composition (biotic) on the SOC pool in an old-growth broad-leaved forest plots along a tree diversity gradient , i.e., 1- (beech), 3- (plus ash and lime tree)- and 5-(plus maple and hornbeam) species. The particle size fractions were separated first and then the carbon concentrations of each fraction was measured. Hence, the carbon content per unit clay was not calculated, as usually done, but directly measured. As expected, the variation in SOC content was mainly explained by the variations in clay content but not entirely. We found that the carbon concentration per unit clay and fine silt in the subsoil was by 30-35% higher in mixed than in monospecific stands indicating a significant species identity or species diversity effect on C stabilization. In contrast to the subsoil, no tree species effects was identified for the topsoil. Indications are given that the mineral phase was already carbon saturated and thus left no more room for a possible biotic effect. Underlying processes must remain speculative, but we will additionally present our latest microcosm results, including isotopic signatures, to underpin the proposed deciduous tree species identity effect on initial soil carbon accumulation.

  15. How tree species-specific drought responses influence the carbon-water interaction in temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Annett; Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bugmann, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Climate-change-induced differences in soil moisture conditions will influence the carbon uptake of tree species and hence the carbon budget of ecosystems. Experimental data showed that in a mature deciduous forest tree transpiration during a prolonged drought was reduced in a species-specific manner (Leuzinger et al. 2005). We implemented such a differential drought responses using the ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS. We simulated forest ecosystems in central Europe, using mixed forests and single species stands. The model showed that one result of the species specific drought response are differences in tree species diversity in the long run. At the intra-annual scale, we showed that a reduction in ecosystem evapotranspiration at an early stage during the drought period resulted in lower water stress later on in the drought. A consequence was that drought sensitive tree species could maintain a positive carbon balance during longer drought periods. As drought periods are likely to become more frequent and/or longer in many parts of the world, projections of ecosystem responses will be sensitive to the processes investigated here, and therefore ecosystem models should be upgraded to take them into account. Leuzinger et al. (2005) Tree physiology 25: 641-650.

  16. Flowering and Fruiting Phenology of Tree Species in Mount Papandayan Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sulistyawati, Endah; Mashita, Nusa; Setiawan, Nuri Nurlaila; Choesin, Devi N; Suryana, Pipin

    2012-01-01

    Mount Papandayan Nature Reserve (MPNR) is an area highly rich in biodiversity, however deforestation has left a vast area urgently in need of reforestation. When reforestation is designed to restore some level of biodiversity, it is imperative that native tree species are used for planting. This research aimed to provide information on the flowering and fruiting phenology of native trees. Such information can be useful to plan seed collection and mass seedling production in the nursery. The observations were conducted each month during August 2009–July 2010 by recording flowering and fruiting trees along two survey track passing through the middle of the mixed forest of MPNR. Data gathered were used to construct a simple phenology calendar. During the study, there were 155 trees of 43 species found flowering or fruiting along the survey track. The peak time of flowering and fruiting was in July (13 species flowering and 19 species fruiting), while the lowest level was in October (1 species flowering and 3 species fruiting). According to the phenology calendar constructed, March to July were considered to be the appropriate time to collect seeds of native trees in Mount Papandayan. PMID:24575236

  17. Spatial Distribution and Interspecific Associations of Tree Species in a Tropical Seasonal Rain Forest of China

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Guoyu; Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Hu, Yuehua; Xie, Guishui; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern and interspecific associations of plant species may provide valuable insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain species coexistence. Point pattern analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of twenty dominant tree species, their interspecific spatial associations and changes across life stages in a 20-ha permanent plot of seasonal tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, China, to test mechanisms maintaining species coexistence. Torus-translation tests were used to quantify positive or negative associations of the species to topographic habitats. The results showed: (1) fourteen of the twenty tree species were negatively (or positively) associated with one or two of the topographic variables, which evidences that the niche contributes to the spatial pattern of these species. (2) Most saplings of the study species showed a significantly clumped distribution at small scales (0–10 m) which was lost at larger scales (10–30 m). (3) The degree of spatial clumping deceases from saplings, to poles, to adults indicates that density-dependent mortality of the offspring is ubiquitous in species. (4) It is notable that a high number of positive small-scale interactions were found among the twenty species. For saplings, 42.6% of all combinations of species pairs showed positive associations at neighborhood scales up to five meters, but only 38.4% were negative. For poles and adults, positive associations at these distances still made up 45.5% and 29.5%, respectively. In conclusion, there is considerable evidence for the presence of positive interactions among the tree species, which suggests that species herd protection may occur in our plot. In addition, niche assembly and limited dispersal (likely) contribute to the spatial patterns of tree species in the tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, China. PMID:23029394

  18. Spatial distribution and interspecific associations of tree species in a tropical seasonal rain forest of China.

    PubMed

    Lan, Guoyu; Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Hu, Yuehua; Xie, Guishui; Zhu, Hua; Cao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Studying the spatial pattern and interspecific associations of plant species may provide valuable insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain species coexistence. Point pattern analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of twenty dominant tree species, their interspecific spatial associations and changes across life stages in a 20-ha permanent plot of seasonal tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna, China, to test mechanisms maintaining species coexistence. Torus-translation tests were used to quantify positive or negative associations of the species to topographic habitats. The results showed: (1) fourteen of the twenty tree species were negatively (or positively) associated with one or two of the topographic variables, which evidences that the niche contributes to the spatial pattern of these species. (2) Most saplings of the study species showed a significantly clumped distribution at small scales (0-10 m) which was lost at larger scales (10-30 m). (3) The degree of spatial clumping deceases from saplings, to poles, to adults indicates that density-dependent mortality of the offspring is ubiquitous in species. (4) It is notable that a high number of positive small-scale interactions were found among the twenty species. For saplings, 42.6% of all combinations of species pairs showed positive associations at neighborhood scales up to five meters, but only 38.4% were negative. For poles and adults, positive associations at these distances still made up 45.5% and 29.5%, respectively. In conclusion, there is considerable evidence for the presence of positive interactions among the tree species, which suggests that species herd protection may occur in our plot. In addition, niche assembly and limited dispersal (likely) contribute to the spatial patterns of tree species in the tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, China. PMID:23029394

  19. Flavylium chromophores as species markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micaela M. Sousa; Maria J. Melo; A. Jorge Parola; J. Sérgio Seixas de Melo; Fernando Catarino; Fernando Pina; Frances E. M. Cook; Monique S. J. Simmonds; João A. Lopes

    2008-01-01

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV–vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species.

  20. A spatially interactive simulation of climate change, harvesting, wind, and tree species migration and

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    A spatially interactive simulation of climate change, harvesting, wind, and tree species migration to climate change. Our objective was to estimate the combined effects of climate change, common disturbances) to generate transient growth and decomposition parameters for 23 species. The two climate change scenarios

  1. Growth rates of selected Australian tropical rainforest tree species under controlled conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    Controlled environment treatments were applied to assess the effects of temperature on the seedling mortality and growth rates of Toona australis and Flindersia brayleyana, two tropical rainforest tree species from northeast Queensland, Australia. Past workers have assigned these two species to the same ecological niche in terms of their response to canopy disturbance and gap-phase regeneration; however, their geographic ranges

  2. Priming of Mimosa bimucronata Seeds - A Tropical Tree Species from Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. S. Brancalion; A. D. L. C. Novembre; R. R. Rodrigues; D. Tay

    Priming is a technique used to improve seed performance. Mimosa bimucronata is one of the most important tree species used for tropical green area restoration in Brazil, as it is fast growing. This species is also planted for firewood, living fence, landscaping and honey production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the priming efficiency in M. bimucronata seeds.

  3. When do species-tree and concatenated estimates disagree? An empirical analysis with higher-level scincid lizard phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Shea M; Reeder, Tod W; Wiens, John J

    2015-01-01

    Simulation studies suggest that coalescent-based species-tree methods are generally more accurate than concatenated analyses. However, these species-tree methods remain impractical for many large datasets. Thus, a critical but unresolved issue is when and why concatenated and coalescent species-tree estimates will differ. We predict such differences for branches in concatenated trees that are short, weakly supported, and have conflicting gene trees. We test these predictions in Scincidae, the largest lizard family, with data from 10 nuclear genes for 17 ingroup taxa and 44 genes for 12 taxa. We support our initial predictions, andsuggest that simply considering uncertainty in concatenated trees may sometimes encompass the differences between these methods. We also found that relaxed-clock concatenated trees can be surprisingly similar to the species-tree estimate. Remarkably, the coalescent species-tree estimates had slightly lower support values when based on many more genes (44 vs. 10) and a small (?30%) reduction in taxon sampling. Thus, taxon sampling may be more important than gene sampling when applying species-tree methods to deep phylogenetic questions. Finally, our coalescent species-tree estimates tentatively support division of Scincidae into three monophyletic subfamilies, a result otherwise found only in concatenated analyses with extensive species sampling. PMID:25315885

  4. Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) Species, Flight, and Attack on Living Eastern Cottonwood Trees.

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Coyle; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the Ã?Â?Ã?Â?rst time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.

  5. Ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) species, flight, and attack on living eastern cottonwood trees.

    PubMed

    Coyle, D R; Booth, D C; Wallace, M S

    2005-12-01

    In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation + fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids. PMID:16539132

  6. Operational Tree Species Mapping in a Diverse Tropical Forest with Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baldeck, Claire A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Martin, Robin E.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Knapp, David E.; Kellner, James R.; Wright, S. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Remote identification and mapping of canopy tree species can contribute valuable information towards our understanding of ecosystem biodiversity and function over large spatial scales. However, the extreme challenges posed by highly diverse, closed-canopy tropical forests have prevented automated remote species mapping of non-flowering tree crowns in these ecosystems. We set out to identify individuals of three focal canopy tree species amongst a diverse background of tree and liana species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, using airborne imaging spectroscopy data. First, we compared two leading single-class classification methods—binary support vector machine (SVM) and biased SVM—for their performance in identifying pixels of a single focal species. From this comparison we determined that biased SVM was more precise and created a multi-species classification model by combining the three biased SVM models. This model was applied to the imagery to identify pixels belonging to the three focal species and the prediction results were then processed to create a map of focal species crown objects. Crown-level cross-validation of the training data indicated that the multi-species classification model had pixel-level producer’s accuracies of 94–97% for the three focal species, and field validation of the predicted crown objects indicated that these had user’s accuracies of 94–100%. Our results demonstrate the ability of high spatial and spectral resolution remote sensing to accurately detect non-flowering crowns of focal species within a diverse tropical forest. We attribute the success of our model to recent classification and mapping techniques adapted to species detection in diverse closed-canopy forests, which can pave the way for remote species mapping in a wider variety of ecosystems. PMID:26153693

  7. The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic tree species: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao

    2013-01-01

    Several fast-growing and multipurpose tree species have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native tree plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume tree hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these tree plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that species of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host species. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the tree plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old tree plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota. PMID:22864803

  8. Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.

    PubMed

    Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-09-01

    During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. PMID:21910838

  9. Tree Species Composition Influences Enzyme Activities and Microbial Biomass in the Rhizosphere: A Rhizobox Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shengzuo; Liu, Dong; Tian, Ye; Deng, Shiping; Shang, Xulan

    2013-01-01

    Monoculture causes nutrient losses and leads to declines in soil fertility and biomass production over successive cultivation. The rhizosphere, a zone of usually high microbial activities and clearly distinct from bulk soil, is defined as the volume of soil around living roots and influenced by root activities. Here we investigated enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere under different tree compositions. Six treatments with poplar, willow, and alder mono- or mixed seedlings were grown in rhizoboxes. Enzyme activities associated with nitrogen cycling and microbial biomass were measured in all rhizosphere and bulk soils. Both enzyme activities and microbial biomass in the rhizosphere differed significantly tree compositions. Microbial biomass contents were more sensitive to the changes of the rhizosphere environment than enzyme activities. Tree species coexistence did not consistently increase tested enzyme activities and microbial biomass, but varied depending on the complementarities of species traits. In general, impacts of tree species and coexistence were more pronounced on microbial composition than total biomass, evidenced by differences in microbial biomass C/N ratios stratified across the rhizosphere soils. Compared to poplar clone monoculture, other tree species addition obviously increased rhizosphere urease activity, but greatly reduced rhizosphere L-asparaginase activity. Poplar growth was enhanced only when coexisted with alder. Our results suggested that a highly productive or keystone plant species in a community had greater influence over soil functions than the contribution of diversity. PMID:23637838

  10. [Mahalanobis distance based hyperspectral characteristic discrimination of leaves of different desert tree species].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai-jun; Zhang, Hui-fang; Gao, Ya-qi; Li, Xia; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Yan-fei

    2014-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of Populus euphratica, Tamarix hispida, Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicum in the lower reaches of Tarim River and Turpan Desert Botanical Garden was measured by using the HR-768 field-portable spectroradiometer. The method of continuum removal, first derivative reflectance and second derivative reflectance were used to deal with the original spectral data of four tree species. The method of Mahalanobis Distance was used to select the bands with significant differences in the original spectral data and transform spectral data to identify the different tree species. The progressive discrimination analyses were used to test the selective bands used to identify different tree species. The results showed that The Mahalanobis Distance method was an effective method in feature band extraction. The bands for identifying different tree species were most near-infrared bands. The recognition accuracy of four methods was 85%, 93.8%, 92.4% and 95.5% respectively. Spectrum transform could improve the recognition accuracy. The recognition accuracy of different research objects and different spectrum transform methods were different. The research provided evidence for desert tree species classification, monitoring biodiversity and the analysis of area in desert by using large scale remote sensing method. PMID:25881439

  11. Robinia pseudoacacia L.: A Lesser Known Tree Species for Biomass Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Grünewald; Christian Böhm; Ansgar Quinkenstein; Philipp Grundmann; Jörg Eberts; Georg von Wühlisch

    2009-01-01

    Experiments with fast-growing tree species for biomass production in Germany have been mainly focused on the growth performance\\u000a of Populus and Salix spp. Among the lesser-known species for energy plantations is Robinia pseudoacacia L. Special features of this species are its drought tolerance and its ability to fix nitrogen. Given the large share of marginal\\u000a arable land in NE-Germany and

  12. A Climate Change Atlas For 80 Forest Tree Species Of The Eastern United States

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iverson, Louis

    This is a tree species distribution atlas. It contains information for 80 species in the eastern half of the United States (east of the 100th meridian). The site contains distribution maps and tables for different climate change scenarios, life-history and disturbance attributes, ecological attributes, forest type maps, sorted lists of species importance values (by state and county) for different climate change scenarios, and more.

  13. The Influence of Tree Species Composition on Songbird Abundance and Productivity 

    E-print Network

    Long, Ashley Marie

    2014-08-08

    and productivity appeared higher in oak-juniper woodland dominated by Texas oaks than in oak-juniper woodland dominated by post oaks (Marshall et al. 2013, M. L. Morrison unpublished data). Similar to studies conducted on other songbird species (e.g., Petit... and Petit 1996), variation in food abundance across different tree species may be driving the disparity in warbler habitat selection and productivity (Marshall et al. 2013). The dominant oak species within oak-juniper woodland stands occupied by warblers...

  14. Tree species-richness and topographic complexity along the riparian edge of the Potomac River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A Everson; Douglas H. Boucher

    1998-01-01

    We studied the riparian edge of a central portion of the Potomac River in order to test the hypothesis of a positive relationship between small-scale topographic complexity of the riverbank profile and tree species-richness. A total of 153 5m-wide transects established at 530m intervals, containing 2568 trees, were measured along 97km of the river corridor between Harpers Ferry, WV and

  15. Tree species control rates of free-living nitrogen fixation in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C; Townsend, Alan R

    2008-10-01

    Tropical rain forests represent some of the most diverse ecosystems on earth, yet mechanistic links between tree species identity and ecosystem function in these forests remains poorly understood. Here, using free-living nitrogen (N) fixation as a model, we explore the idea that interspecies variation in canopy nutrient concentrations may drive significant local-scale variation in biogeochemical processes. Biological N fixation is the largest "natural" source of newly available N to terrestrial ecosystems, and estimates suggest the highest such inputs occur in tropical ecosystems. While patterns of and controls over N fixation in these systems remain poorly known, the data we do have suggest that chemical differences among tree species canopies could affect free-living N fixation rates. In a diverse lowland rain forest in Costa Rica, we established a series of vertical, canopy-to-soil profiles for six common canopy tree species, and we measured free-living N fixation rates and multiple aspects of chemistry of live canopy leaves, senesced canopy leaves, bulk leaf litter, and soil for eight individuals of each tree species. Free-living N fixation rates varied significantly among tree species for all four components, and independent of species identity, rates of N fixation ranged by orders of magnitude along the vertical profile. Our data suggest that variations in phosphorus (P) concentration drove a significant fraction of the observed species-specific variation in free-living N fixation rates within each layer of the vertical profile. Furthermore, our data suggest significant links between canopy and forest floor nutrient concentrations; canopy P was correlated with bulk leaf litter P below individual tree crowns. Thus, canopy chemistry may affect a suite of ecosystem processes not only within the canopy itself, but at and beneath the forest floor as well. PMID:18959329

  16. An empirical evaluation of two-stage species tree inference strategies using a multilocus dataset from North American pines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As it becomes increasingly possible to obtain DNA sequences of orthologous genes from diverse sets of taxa, species trees are frequently being inferred from multilocus data. However, the behavior of many methods for performing this inference has remained largely unexplored. Some methods have been proven to be consistent given certain evolutionary models, whereas others rely on criteria that, although appropriate for many parameter values, have peculiar zones of the parameter space in which they fail to converge on the correct estimate as data sets increase in size. Results Here, using North American pines, we empirically evaluate the behavior of 24 strategies for species tree inference using three alternative outgroups (72 strategies total). The data consist of 120 individuals sampled in eight ingroup species from subsection Strobus and three outgroup species from subsection Gerardianae, spanning ?47 kilobases of sequence at 121 loci. Each “strategy” for inferring species trees consists of three features: a species tree construction method, a gene tree inference method, and a choice of outgroup. We use multivariate analysis techniques such as principal components analysis and hierarchical clustering to identify tree characteristics that are robustly observed across strategies, as well as to identify groups of strategies that produce trees with similar features. We find that strategies that construct species trees using only topological information cluster together and that strategies that use additional non-topological information (e.g., branch lengths) also cluster together. Strategies that utilize more than one individual within a species to infer gene trees tend to produce estimates of species trees that contain clades present in trees estimated by other strategies. Strategies that use the minimize-deep-coalescences criterion to construct species trees tend to produce species tree estimates that contain clades that are not present in trees estimated by the Concatenation, RTC, SMRT, STAR, and STEAC methods, and that in general are more balanced than those inferred by these other strategies. Conclusions When constructing a species tree from a multilocus set of sequences, our observations provide a basis for interpreting differences in species tree estimates obtained via different approaches that have a two-stage structure in common, one step for gene tree estimation and a second step for species tree estimation. The methods explored here employ a number of distinct features of the data, and our analysis suggests that recovery of the same results from multiple methods that tend to differ in their patterns of inference can be a valuable tool for obtaining reliable estimates. PMID:24678701

  17. Phylogenetic Structure of Tree Species across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; Qian, Hong; Yu, Mingjian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating patterns of phylogenetic structure across different life stages of tree species in forests is crucial to understanding forest community assembly, and investigating forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration is necessary for understanding forest community assembly. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure of tree species across life stages from seedlings to canopy trees, as well as forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration in a forest of the subtropical region in China. We investigate changes in phylogenetic relatedness (measured as NRI) of tree species from seedlings, saplings, treelets to canopy trees; we compare the phylogenetic turnover (measured as ?NRI) between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory with that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We found that phylogenetic relatedness generally increases from seedlings through saplings and treelets up to canopy trees, and that phylogenetic relatedness does not differ between seedlings in forest understory and those in forest gaps, but phylogenetic turnover between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory is lower than that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We conclude that tree species tend to be more closely related from seedling to canopy layers, and that forest gaps alter the seedling phylogenetic turnover of the studied forest. It is likely that the increasing trend of phylogenetic clustering as tree stem size increases observed in this subtropical forest is primarily driven by abiotic filtering processes, which select a set of closely related evergreen broad-leaved tree species whose regeneration has adapted to the closed canopy environments of the subtropical forest developed under the regional monsoon climate. PMID:26098916

  18. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  19. Diversity and utilization of tree species in Meitei homegardens of Barak Valley, Assam.

    PubMed

    Devi, N Linthoingambi; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2013-03-01

    An inventory of tree diversity in traditional homegardens of Meitei community was conducted in a Bontarapur village in Cachar district of Barak Valley, Assam. Meitei homegarden locally called Ingkhol exhibits a wide diversity in size, shape, location and composition. Seventy one tree species were enumerated from 50 homegardens belonging to 60 genus and 35 families. Among the families encountered, Rutaceae was the dominant family (4 genus and 7 species) followed by Meliaceae (5 genus and 5 species), Arecaceae (4 genus and 4 species) and Moraceae (3 genus and 5 species). Total 7946 tree individuals were recorded, with the density of 831 No ha(-1) of and total basal area of 9.54 m2 ha(-1). Areco catechu was the dominant species with the maximum number of individuals. Other dominant trees include Mangifera indica, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Citrus grandis, Parkia timoriana, Syzygium cumini and Psidium guajava. Being a cash crop, the intensification of betel nut has been preferred in many homegardens. Homegardens form an important component of land use of Meitei community which fulfills the socio-cultural and economic needs of the family and helps in conserving plant diversity through utilization. PMID:24620581

  20. Forest tree species discrimination in western Himalaya using EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Rajee; Padalia, Hitendra; Kushwaha, S. P. S.

    2014-05-01

    The information acquired in the narrow bands of hyperspectral remote sensing data has potential to capture plant species spectral variability, thereby improving forest tree species mapping. This study assessed the utility of spaceborne EO-1 Hyperion data in discrimination and classification of broadleaved evergreen and conifer forest tree species in western Himalaya. The pre-processing of 242 bands of Hyperion data resulted into 160 noise-free and vertical stripe corrected reflectance bands. Of these, 29 bands were selected through step-wise exclusion of bands (Wilk's Lambda). Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms were applied to the selected bands to assess their effectiveness in classification. SVM was also applied to broadband data (Landsat TM) to compare the variation in classification accuracy. All commonly occurring six gregarious tree species, viz., white oak, brown oak, chir pine, blue pine, cedar and fir in western Himalaya could be effectively discriminated. SVM produced a better species classification (overall accuracy 82.27%, kappa statistic 0.79) than SAM (overall accuracy 74.68%, kappa statistic 0.70). It was noticed that classification accuracy achieved with Hyperion bands was significantly higher than Landsat TM bands (overall accuracy 69.62%, kappa statistic 0.65). Study demonstrated the potential utility of narrow spectral bands of Hyperion data in discriminating tree species in a hilly terrain.

  1. Negative Density Dependence Regulates Two Tree Species at Later Life Stage in a Temperate Forest

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Tiefeng; Chun, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hee Moon; Cheon, Kwangil

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that tree survival is influenced by negative density dependence (NDD) and differences among species in shade tolerance could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning, but it is still unclear how NDD affects tree species with different shade-tolerance guilds at later life stages. In this study, we analyzed the spatial patterns for trees with dbh (diameter at breast height) ?2 cm using the pair-correlation g(r) function to test for NDD in a temperate forest in South Korea after removing the effects of habitat heterogeneity. The analyses were implemented for the most abundant shade-tolerant (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and shade-intolerant (Quercus serrata) species. We found NDD existed for both species at later life stages. We also found Quercus serrata experienced greater NDD compared with Chamaecyparis obtusa. This study indicates that NDD regulates the two abundant tree species at later life stages and it is important to consider variation in species' shade tolerance in NDD study. PMID:25058660

  2. Quantifying tree mortality in a mixed species woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray tree canopies during and shortly after tree damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting trees in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for tree mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed species woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead trees had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-tree image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead tree classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of tree mortality across areas with differences in tree species composition. We found that 38% of tree crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of tree mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the tree canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas experiencing wildfire and management activity. -Our results demonstrate that unsupervised clustering of bi-temporal NDVI and RGI differences can be used to detect tree mortality resulting from numerous causes and in several forest cover types.

  3. Complementary models of tree species-soil relationships in old-growth temperate forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem level studies identify plant soil feed backs as important controls on soil nutrient availability,particularly for nitrogen and phosphorus. Although site and species specific studies of tree species soil relationships are relatively common,comparatively fewer studies consider multiple coexisting speciesin old-growth forests across a range of sites that vary underlying soil fertility. We characterized patterns in forest floor and mineral soil nutrients associated with four common tree species across eight undisturbed old-growth forests in Oregon, USA, and used two complementary conceptual models to assess tree species soil relationships. Plant soil feedbacks that could reinforce sitelevel differences in nutrient availability were assessed using the context dependent relationships model, where by relative species based differences in each soil nutrient divergedorconvergedas nutrient status changed across sites. Tree species soil relationships that did not reflect strong feedbacks were evaluated using a site independent relationships model, where by forest floor and surface mineral soil nutrient tools differed consistently by tree species across sites,without variation in deeper mineral soils. We found that theorganically cycled elements carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus exhibited context-dependent differences among species in both forest floor and mineral soil, and most of ten followed adivergence model,where by species differences were greatest at high-nutrient sites. These patterns are consistent with the oryemphasizing biotic control of these elements through plant soil feedback mechanisms. Site independent species differences were strongest for pool so if the weather able cations calcium, magnesium, potassium,as well as phosphorus, in mineral soils. Site independent species differences in forest floor nutrients we reattributable too nespecies that displayed significant greater forest floor mass accumulation. Our finding confirmed that site-independent and context-dependent tree species-soil relationships occur simultaneouslyinold-grow the temperate forests, with context-dependent relationships strongest for organically cycled elements, and site-independent relationships strongest for weather able elements with in organic cycling phases. These models provide complementary explanations for patterns of nutrient accumulation and cycling in mixed species old-growth temperate forests.

  4. BOREAS TE-4 Branch Bag Data From Boreal Tree Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Berry, Joseph A.; Fu, Wei; Fredeen, Art; Gamon, John

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-4 team collected continuous records of gas exchange under ambient conditions from intact boreal forest trees in the BOREAS NSA from 23-Jul-1996 until 14-Aug-1996. These measurements can be used to test models of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf respiration, such as SiB2 (Sellers et al., 1996) or the leaf model (Collatz et al., 1991), and programs can be obtained from the investigators. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  5. Statistical analysis of texture in trunk images for biometric identification of tree species.

    PubMed

    Bressane, Adriano; Roveda, José A F; Martins, Antônio C G

    2015-04-01

    The identification of tree species is a key step for sustainable management plans of forest resources, as well as for several other applications that are based on such surveys. However, the present available techniques are dependent on the presence of tree structures, such as flowers, fruits, and leaves, limiting the identification process to certain periods of the year. Therefore, this article introduces a study on the application of statistical parameters for texture classification of tree trunk images. For that, 540 samples from five Brazilian native deciduous species were acquired and measures of entropy, uniformity, smoothness, asymmetry (third moment), mean, and standard deviation were obtained from the presented textures. Using a decision tree, a biometric species identification system was constructed and resulted to a 0.84 average precision rate for species classification with 0.83accuracy and 0.79 agreement. Thus, it can be considered that the use of texture presented in trunk images can represent an important advance in tree identification, since the limitations of the current techniques can be overcome. PMID:25813032

  6. Effects of pioneer tree species hyperabundance on forest fragments in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tabarelli, Marcelo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Girão, Luciana C; Peres, Carlos A; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2010-12-01

    Despite many studies on fragmentation of tropical forests, the extent to which plant and animal communities are altered in small, isolated forest fragments remains obscure if not controversial. We examined the hypothesis that fragmentation alters the relative abundance of tree species with different vegetative and reproductive traits. In a fragmented landscape (670 km(2) ) of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, we categorized 4056 trees of 182 species by leafing pattern, reproductive phenology, and morphology of seeds and fruit. We calculated relative abundance of traits in 50 1-ha plots in three types of forest configurations: forest edges, small forest fragments (3.4-83.6 ha), and interior of the largest forest fragment (3500 ha, old growth). Although evergreen species were the most abundant across all configurations, forest edges and small fragments had more deciduous and semideciduous species than interior forest. Edges lacked supra-annual flowering and fruiting species and had more species and stems with drupes and small seeds than small forest fragments and forest interior areas. In an ordination of species similarity and life-history traits, the three types of configurations formed clearly segregated clusters. Furthermore, the differences in the taxonomic and functional (i.e., trait-based) composition of tree assemblages we documented were driven primarily by the higher abundance of pioneer species in the forest edge and small forest fragments. Our work provides strong evidence that long-term transitions in phenology and seed and fruit morphology of tree functional groups are occurring in fragmented tropical forests. Our results also suggest that edge-induced shifts in tree assemblages of tropical forests can be larger than previously documented. PMID:20497203

  7. Interpreting species-specific variation in tree-ring oxygen isotope ratios among three temperate forest trees.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Clark, Kenneth S; Helliker, Brent R

    2014-09-01

    Although considerable variation has been documented in tree-ring cellulose oxygen isotope ratios (?(18)O(cell)) among co-occurring species, the underlying causes are unknown. Here, we used a combination of field measurements and modelling to investigate the mechanisms behind variations in late-wood ?(18) O(cell) (?(18)O(lc)) among three co-occurring species (chestnut oak, black oak and pitch pine) in a temperate forest. For two growing seasons, we quantified among-species variation in ?(18)O(lc), as well as several variables that could potentially cause the ?(18)O(lc) variation. Data analysis based on the ?(18) O(cell) model rules out leaf water enrichment (?(18)O(lw)) and tree-ring formation period (?t), but highlights source water ?(18) O (?(18) O(sw)) as an important driver for the measured difference in ?(18)O(lc) between black and chestnut oak. However, the enriched ?(18)O(lc) in pitch pine relative to the oaks could not be sufficiently explained by consideration of the above three variables only, but rather, we show that differences in the proportion of oxygen exchange during cellulose synthesis (p(ex)) is most likely a key mechanism. Our demonstration of the relevance of some species-specific features (or lack thereof) to ?(18)O(cell) has important implications for isotope based ecophysiological/paleoclimate studies. PMID:24588709

  8. Effects of sample survey design on the accuracy of classification tree models in species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Cutler, D.R.; Zimmermann, N.E.; Geiser, L.; Moisen, G.G.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification tree models for predicting the presence of four lichen species in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by resubstitution rates were similar for each lichen species irrespective of the underlying sample survey form. Cross-validation estimates of prediction accuracies were lower than resubstitution accuracies for all species and both design types, and in all cases were closer to the true prediction accuracies based on the EVALUATION data set. We argue that greater emphasis should be placed on calculating and reporting cross-validation accuracy rates rather than simple resubstitution accuracy rates. Evaluation of the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models on the EVALUATION data set shows significantly lower prediction accuracy for the PURPOSIVE tree models relative to the DESIGN models, indicating that non-probabilistic sample surveys may generate models with limited predictive capability. These differences were consistent across all four lichen species, with 11 of the 12 possible species and sample survey type comparisons having significantly lower accuracy rates. Some differences in accuracy were as large as 50%. The classification tree structures also differed considerably both among and within the modelled species, depending on the sample survey form. Overlap in the predictor variables selected by the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models ranged from only 20% to 38%, indicating the classification trees fit the two evaluated survey forms on different sets of predictor variables. The magnitude of these differences in predictor variables throws doubt on ecological interpretation derived from prediction models based on non-probabilistic sample surveys. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Data concatenation, Bayesian concordance and coalescent-based analyses of the species tree for the rapid radiation of Triturus newts.

    PubMed

    Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Pabijan, Maciej; Babik, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships for rapid species radiations are difficult to disentangle. Here we study one such case, namely the genus Triturus, which is composed of the marbled and crested newts. We analyze data for 38 genetic markers, positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions of protein-coding genes, obtained with 454 sequencing. Our dataset includes twenty Triturus newts and represents all nine species. Bayesian analysis of population structure allocates all individuals to their respective species. The branching patterns obtained by data concatenation, Bayesian concordance analysis and coalescent-based estimations of the species tree differ from one another. The data concatenation based species tree shows high branch support but branching order is considerably affected by allele choice in the case of heterozygotes in the concatenation process. Bayesian concordance analysis expresses the conflict between individual gene trees for part of the Triturus species tree as low concordance factors. The coalescent-based species tree is relatively similar to a previously published species tree based upon morphology and full mtDNA and any conflicting internal branches are not highly supported. Our findings reflect high gene tree discordance due to incomplete lineage sorting (possibly aggravated by hybridization) in combination with low information content of the markers employed (as can be expected for relatively recent species radiations). This case study highlights the complexity of resolving rapid radiations and we acknowledge that to convincingly resolve the Triturus species tree even more genes will have to be consulted. PMID:25337997

  10. Data Concatenation, Bayesian Concordance and Coalescent-Based Analyses of the Species Tree for the Rapid Radiation of Triturus Newts

    PubMed Central

    Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W.; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J.; Pabijan, Maciej; Babik, Wieslaw

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships for rapid species radiations are difficult to disentangle. Here we study one such case, namely the genus Triturus, which is composed of the marbled and crested newts. We analyze data for 38 genetic markers, positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions of protein-coding genes, obtained with 454 sequencing. Our dataset includes twenty Triturus newts and represents all nine species. Bayesian analysis of population structure allocates all individuals to their respective species. The branching patterns obtained by data concatenation, Bayesian concordance analysis and coalescent-based estimations of the species tree differ from one another. The data concatenation based species tree shows high branch support but branching order is considerably affected by allele choice in the case of heterozygotes in the concatenation process. Bayesian concordance analysis expresses the conflict between individual gene trees for part of the Triturus species tree as low concordance factors. The coalescent-based species tree is relatively similar to a previously published species tree based upon morphology and full mtDNA and any conflicting internal branches are not highly supported. Our findings reflect high gene tree discordance due to incomplete lineage sorting (possibly aggravated by hybridization) in combination with low information content of the markers employed (as can be expected for relatively recent species radiations). This case study highlights the complexity of resolving rapid radiations and we acknowledge that to convincingly resolve the Triturus species tree even more genes will have to be consulted. PMID:25337997

  11. Prescribed fire mortality of Sierra Nevada mixed conifer tree species: effects of crown damage and forest floor combustion

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Scott L.

    Prescribed fire mortality of Sierra Nevada mixed conifer tree species: effects of crown damage char height have been used in conjunc- tion with crown damage to predict tree mortality (Peterson (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindley] Buchholz) in the southern Sierra Nevada, California. A total of 1025 trees

  12. Summary Trees of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem-succulent species with low-

    E-print Network

    Pockman, William T.

    Summary Trees of tropical semi-deciduous forests range from "drought-avoiding" stem, stem-succulent trees, stem water storage, tropical dry forest. Introduction Trees of tropical semi-deciduous) throughout the year, to "drought-tolerant" deciduous hardwood species(wood density > 0.75 g cm­3 ), which

  13. Effects of stand age and tree species on canopy transpiration and average stomatal conductance of boreal forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. EWERS; S. T. GOWER; B. BOND-LAMBERTY; C. K. WANG

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the effect of stand age and tree species com- position on canopy transpiration ( E C ) by analysing transpi- ration per unit leaf area ( E L ) and canopy stomatal conductance ( G S ) for boreal trees comprising a five stand wildfire chronosequence. A total of 196 sap flux sensors were used on 90 trees

  14. Improved method of in vitro regeneration in Leucaena leucocephala - a leguminous pulpwood tree species.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Noor M; Arha, Manish; Nookaraju, A; Gupta, Sushim K; Srivastava, Sameer; Yadav, Arun K; Kulkarni, Pallavi S; Abhilash, O U; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Singh, Somesh; Tatkare, Rajeshri; Chinnathambi, Kannan; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2009-10-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast growing multipurpose legume tree used for forage, leaf manure, paper and pulp. Lignin in Leucaena pulp adversely influences the quality of paper produced. Developing transgenic Leucaena with altered lignin by genetic engineering demands an optimized regeneration system. The present study deals with optimization of regeneration system for L. leucocephala cv. K636. Multiple shoot induction from the cotyledonary nodes of L. leucocephala was studied in response to cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) and N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) supplemented in half strength MS (½-MS) medium and also their effect on in vitro rooting of the regenerated shoots. Multiple shoots were induced from cotyledonary nodes at varied frequencies depending on the type and concentration of cytokinin used in the medium. TDZ was found to induce more number of shoots per explant than BA, with a maximum of 7 shoots at an optimum concentration of 0.23 µM. Further increase in TDZ concentration resulted in reduced shoot length and fasciation of the shoots. Liquid pulse treatment of the explants with TDZ did not improve the shoot production further but improved the subsequent rooting of the shoots that regenerated. Regenerated shoots successfully rooted on ½-MS medium supplemented with 0.54 µM ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooted shoots of Leucaena were transferred to coco-peat and hardened plantlets showed ? 90 % establishment in the green house. PMID:23572941

  15. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold, humid temperate climates than in dry, hot climates. PMID:25127455

  16. Detecting phylogenetic breakpoints and discordance from genome-wide alignments for species tree reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ané, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    With the easy acquisition of sequence data, it is now possible to obtain and align whole genomes across multiple related species or populations. In this work, I assess the performance of a statistical method to reconstruct the whole distribution of phylogenetic trees along the genome, estimate the proportion of the genome for which a given clade is true, and infer a concordance tree that summarizes the dominant vertical inheritance pattern. There are two main issues when dealing with whole-genome alignments, as opposed to multiple genes: the size of the data and the detection of recombination breakpoints. These breakpoints partition the genomic alignment into phylogenetically homogeneous loci, where sites within a given locus all share the same phylogenetic tree topology. To delimitate these loci, I describe here a method based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle, implemented with dynamic programming for computational efficiency. Simulations show that combining MDL partitioning with Bayesian concordance analysis provides an efficient and robust way to estimate both the vertical inheritance signal and the horizontal phylogenetic signal. The method performed well both in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. A high level of systematic bias was found here, highlighting the need for good individual tree building methods, which form the basis for more elaborate gene tree/species tree reconciliation methods. PMID:21362638

  17. Large variation in whole-plant water-use efficiency among tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Cernusak, Lucas A; Aranda, Jorge; Marshall, John D; Winter, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that whole-plant water-use efficiency (transpiration efficiency of carbon gain, TE(C)) varies among plant species with different photosynthetic pathways. However, less is known of such variation among tree species within the C(3) group. Here we measured the TE(C) of seven C(3) tropical tree species. Isotopic analyses (delta(13)C, delta(18)O, and delta(15)N) and elemental analyses (carbon and nitrogen) were undertaken to provide insight into sources of variation in TE(C). Plants were grown over several months in approx. 80% full sunlight in individual 38-l containers in the Republic of Panama. Soil moisture content was nonlimiting. Significant variation was observed in TE(C) among the C(3) tree species. Values ranged from 1.6 mmol C mol(-1) H(2)O for teak (Tectona grandis) to 4.0 mmol C mol(-1) H(2)O for a legume, Platymiscium pinnatum. Variation in TE(C) was correlated with both leaf N concentration, a proxy for photosynthetic capacity, and oxygen-isotope enrichment, a proxy for stomatal conductance. The TE(C) varied with C-isotope discrimination within species, but the relationship broke down among species, reflecting the existence of species-specific offsets. PMID:17204076

  18. Neither Host-specific nor Random: Vascular Epiphytes on Three Tree Species in a Panamanian Lowland Forest

    PubMed Central

    LAUBE, STEFAN; ZOTZ, GERHARD

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims A possible role of host tree identity in the structuring of vascular epiphyte communities has attracted scientific attention for decades. Specifically, it has been suggested that each host tree species has a specific subset of the local species pool according to its own set of properties, e.g. physicochemical characteristics of the bark, tree architecture, or leaf phenology patterns. • Methods A novel, quantitative approach to this question is presented, taking advantage of a complete census of the vascular epiphyte community in 0·4 ha of undisturbed lowland forest in Panama. For three locally common host-tree species (Socratea exorrhiza, Marila laxiflora, Perebea xanthochyma) null models were created of the expected epiphyte assemblages assuming that epiphyte colonization reflected random distribution of epiphytes in the forest. • Key Results In all three tree species, abundances of the majority of epiphyte species (69–81?%) were indistinguishable from random, while the remaining species were about equally over- or under-represented compared with their occurrence in the entire forest plot. Permutations based on the number of colonized trees (reflecting observed spatial patchiness) yielded similar results. Finally, a third analysis (canonical correspondence analysis) also confirmed host-specific differences in epiphyte assemblages. In spite of pronounced preferences of some epiphytes for particular host trees, no epiphyte species was restricted to a single host. • Conclusions The epiphytes on a given tree species are not simply a random sample of the local species pool, but there are no indications of host specificity either. PMID:16574691

  19. Growth of 11 Introduced Tree Species on Selected

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Silk-oak 3 Norfolk-Island-Pine 4 Redwood 6 Loblolly Pine and Slash Pine 6 Eucalyptus Species 8!. C. DC.), tropical ash (Fraxinus uhdei [Wenzig] Lingelsh.), silk-oak (Grevillea robusta A. cunn. All stands were unmanaged except for redwood. On the Australian toon, tropical ash, and silk-oak sites

  20. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    Street, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT, U.K. Keywords Amazon forests, comparative phylogeography, ecological niche that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response L. Lewis3,4 , Mark Maslin4 & Eldredge Bermingham2 1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

  1. Toward More Accurate Ancestral Protein Genotype–Phenotype Reconstructions with the Use of Species Tree-Aware Gene Trees

    PubMed Central

    Groussin, Mathieu; Hobbs, Joanne K.; Szöll?si, Gergely J.; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Arcus, Vickery L.; Gouy, Manolo

    2015-01-01

    The resurrection of ancestral proteins provides direct insight into how natural selection has shaped proteins found in nature. By tracing substitutions along a gene phylogeny, ancestral proteins can be reconstructed in silico and subsequently synthesized in vitro. This elegant strategy reveals the complex mechanisms responsible for the evolution of protein functions and structures. However, to date, all protein resurrection studies have used simplistic approaches for ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR), including the assumption that a single sequence alignment alone is sufficient to accurately reconstruct the history of the gene family. The impact of such shortcuts on conclusions about ancestral functions has not been investigated. Here, we show with simulations that utilizing information on species history using a model that accounts for the duplication, horizontal transfer, and loss (DTL) of genes statistically increases ASR accuracy. This underscores the importance of the tree topology in the inference of putative ancestors. We validate our in silico predictions using in vitro resurrection of the LeuB enzyme for the ancestor of the Firmicutes, a major and ancient bacterial phylum. With this particular protein, our experimental results demonstrate that information on the species phylogeny results in a biochemically more realistic and kinetically more stable ancestral protein. Additional resurrection experiments with different proteins are necessary to statistically quantify the impact of using species tree-aware gene trees on ancestral protein phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results suggest the need for incorporating both sequence and DTL information in future studies of protein resurrections to accurately define the genotype–phenotype space in which proteins diversify. PMID:25371435

  2. Influences of calcium availability and tree species on Ca isotope fractionation in soil and vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, B.D.; Bullen, T.D.; Mitchell, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The calcium (Ca) isotope system is potentially of great use for understanding biogeochemical processes at multiple scales in forest ecosystems, yet remains largely unexplored for this purpose. In order to further our understanding of Ca behavior in forests, we examined two nearly adjacent hardwood-dominated catchments with differing soil Ca concentrations, developed from crystalline bedrock, to determine the variability of 44Ca/ 40Ca ratios (expressed as ??44Ca) within soil and vegetation pools. For both sugar maple and American beech, the Ca isotope compositions of the measured roots and calculated bulk trees were considerably lighter than those of soil pools at these sites, suggesting that the trees were able to preferentially take up light Ca at the root-soil interface. The Ca isotope compositions of three of four root samples were among the lightest values yet reported for terrestrial materials (??44Ca ???-3.95???). Our results further indicate that Ca isotopes were fractionated along the transpiration streams of both tree species with roots having the least ??44Ca values and leaf litter the greatest. An approximately 2??? difference in ??44Ca values between roots and leaf litter of both tree species suggests a persistent fractionation mechanism along the transpiration stream, likely related to Ca binding in wood tissue coupled with internal ion exchange. Finally, our data indicate that differing tree species demand for Ca and soil Ca concentrations together may influence Ca isotope distribution within the trees. Inter-catchment differences in Ca isotope distributions in soils and trees were minor, indicating that the results of our study may have broad transferability to studies of forest ecosystems in catchments developed on crystalline substrates elsewhere. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Tree species specific soil moisture patterns and dynamics through the seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbüchel, Ingo; Dreibrodt, Janek; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Blume, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture patterns in the landscape are largely controlled by soil types (pore size distributions) and landscape position. But how strong is the influence of vegetation on patterns within a single soil type? While we would envision a clear difference in soil moisture patterns and responses between for example bare soil, a pasture and a forest, our conceptual images start to become less clear when we move on to different forest stands. Do different tree species cause different moisture patterns to emerge? Could it be possible to identify the dominant tree species of a site by classifying its soil moisture pattern? To investigate this question we analyzed data from 15 sensor clusters in the lowlands of north-eastern Germany (within the TERENO observatory) which were instrumented with soil moisture sensors (5 profiles per site), tensiometers, sap flow sensors, throughfall and stemflow gages. Data has been collected at these sites since May 2014. While the summer data has already been analyzed, the analysis of the winter data and thus the possible seasonal shifts in patterns will be carried out in the coming months. Throughout the last summer we found different dynamics of soil moisture patterns under pine trees compared to beech trees. While the soils under beech trees were more often relatively wet and more often relatively dry, the soils under pine trees showed less variability and more often average soil moisture. These differences are most likely due to differences in both throughfall patterns as well as root water uptake. Further analysis includes the use of throughfall and stemflow data as well as stable water isotope samples that were taken at different depths in the soil, in the groundwater and from the sapwood. The manifestation of tree species differences in soil moisture patterns and dynamics is likely to have implications for groundwater recharge, transit times and hydrologic partitioning.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of adaptive responses of forest tree species to the environment

    PubMed Central

    Bräutigam, Katharina; Vining, Kelly J; Lafon-Placette, Clément; Fossdal, Carl G; Mirouze, Marie; Marcos, José Gutiérrez; Fluch, Silvia; Fraga, Mario Fernández; Guevara, M Ángeles; Abarca, Dolores; Johnsen, Øystein; Maury, Stéphane; Strauss, Steven H; Campbell, Malcolm M; Rohde, Antje; Díaz-Sala, Carmen; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic variation is likely to contribute to the phenotypic plasticity and adaptative capacity of plant species, and may be especially important for long-lived organisms with complex life cycles, including forest trees. Diverse environmental stresses and hybridization/polyploidization events can create reversible heritable epigenetic marks that can be transmitted to subsequent generations as a form of molecular “memory”. Epigenetic changes might also contribute to the ability of plants to colonize or persist in variable environments. In this review, we provide an overview of recent data on epigenetic mechanisms involved in developmental processes and responses to environmental cues in plant, with a focus on forest tree species. We consider the possible role of forest tree epigenetics as a new source of adaptive traits in plant breeding, biotechnology, and ecosystem conservation under rapid climate change. PMID:23467802

  5. Leaf nitrate assimilation during leaf expansion period: comparison of temperate and boreal tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, L.; Tokuchi, N.; Kielland, K.

    2011-12-01

    We examined nitrate assimilation in several tree species to test the hypothesis that plant N acquisition is highest in early spring due to the N demands of leaf growth and the seasonal availability of soil N. Specifically, we advance the idea that trees acquire N most actively during the leaf expansion period, which serves to offset growth-dilution of foliar N. However, it has been observed that boreal species expand their leaves more rapidly than do temperate species, suggesting that they exhibit a different seasonal pattern of N acquisition than do temperate species. To examine these relationships we measured leaf nitrate reductase activity (NRA) as a proxy for nitrate assimilation, leaf expansion rates, and foliar N concentrations on three boreal tree species and three temperate tree species throughout their leaf expansion period. An evergreen species (Quercus glauca) and two deciduous species (Acer palmatum and Zelkova serrata) were investigated in temperate Japan, and three deciduous species Alnus crispa, Betula papyrifera and Populus tremuloides were chosen in a boreal forest in interior Alaska, US. The patterns of foliar N concentrations were very similar across all six species, but the mean leaf expansion period was shorter in the boreal species (about 25 days) than in temperate species (about 29 days). All temperate species showed clear peaks of leaf NRA in the middle of leaf expansion period, suggesting that leaves partly compensate for the N dilution during expansion via foliar nitrate assimilation, and that plant nitrate acquisition was effectively timed to coincide with soil N availability generally increased in early spring. By contrast, peak NRA in the boreal species were observed in different stage of leaf expansion, but as in the temperate species declined to very low levels after the leaves were fully expanded. Our results demonstrate that plant nitrate assimilation is concentrated during leaf expansion in spring and early summer, but declines to very low levels during the remaining part of the growing season. This high rate of acquisition in early spring may reflect the seasonal nature of soil nitrate dynamics as well as acquisition of N liberated over-winter in both biomes.

  6. The light environment, morphology and growth of the early successional tree species Litsea citriodora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiyuki Miyazawa; Shirasa Tatsuya; Kihachiro Kikuzawa; Kyoichi Otsuki

    2006-01-01

    The light environment and growth traits of the pioneer tree species Litsea citriodora in a recently clear-cut plantation were investigated in order to reveal the establishment process and growth of this species under annual weeding after clear-cutting. We investigated the light environments and the morphology, physiology and aboveground architecture of L. citriodora saplings in a plot that included both clear-cut

  7. Tree crown ratio models for multi-species and multi-layered stands of southeastern British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailemariam Temesgen; Valerie LeMay; Stephen J. Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of live crown length to tree height (crown ratio; CR) is often used as an important predictor variable for tree level growth equations, particularly for multi-species and multi-layered stands. Also, CR indicates tree vigour and can be an important habitat variable. Measurement of CR for each tree can be time-consuming and difficult to obtain in very dense stands

  8. The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, H S; Kowshik, T; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Preeti Sinha, K; Khan, Z U; Sun, Sheng; Xu, Jianping

    2008-12-01

    This study reports the widespread prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii in decayed wood inside trunk hollows of 14 species representing 12 families of trees and from soil near the base of various host trees from Delhi and several places in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Chandigarh Union Territory. Of the 311 trees from which samples were obtained, 64 (20.5%) were found to contain strains of the C. neoformans species complex. The number of trees positive for C. neoformans var grubii (serotypeA) was 51 (16.3%), for C. gattii (serotype B) 24 (7.7%) and for both C. neoformans and C. gattii 11 (3.5%). The overall prevalence of C. neoformans species complex in decayed wood samples was 19.9% (111/556). There was no obvious correlation between the prevalence of these two yeast species and the species of host trees. The data on prevalence of C. gattii (24%) and C. neoformans (26%) in soil around the base of some host trees indicated that soil is another important ecologic niche for these two Cryptococcus species in India. Among our sampled tree species, eight and six were recorded for the first time as hosts for C. neoformans var grubii and C. gattii, respectively. A longitudinal surveillance of 8 host tree species over 0.7 to 2.5 years indicated long term colonization of Polyalthia longifolia, Mimusops elengi and Manilkara hexandra trees by C. gattii and/or C. neoformans. The mating type was determined for 153 of the isolates, including 98 strains of serotype A and 55 of serotype B and all proved to be mating type alpha (MAT alpha). Our observations document the rapidly expanding spectrum of host tree species for C. gattii and C. neoformans and indicate that decayed woods of many tree species are potentially suitable ecological niches for both pathogens. PMID:18608895

  9. Mapping and Characterizing Selected Canopy Tree Species at the Angkor World Heritage Site in Cambodia Using Aerial Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia’s tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman’s rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  10. Alternative to Ash Trees: Commercially Available Species and Cultivars Dr. Laura G. Jull

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    . of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison Santamour (1990) established guidelines for tree planting within a city: Plant no more than 30% of a family: i.e. Aceraceae Plant no more than 20% of a genus: i.e. Acer × freemanii, Acer rubrum, Acer platanoides, Acer saccharum, etc. Plant no more than 10% of a species: i

  11. Soil-related performance variation and distributions of tree species in a Bornean rain forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SABRINA E. RUSSO; STUART J. DAVIES; DAVID A. KING; SYLVESTER TAN

    2005-01-01

    Summary 1 Spatial distributions of tropical trees often correlate with environmental variation, suggesting that ecological sorting caused by niche differentiation may be important for maintaining species diversity. 2 Four soil types have been identified in a 52-ha forest dynamics plot in Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest (ranked by increasing fertility and moisture: sandy loam, loam, fine loam, and clay). The distributions

  12. Photosynthesis and water relations of savanna tree species differing in leaf phenology 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERNESTO MEDINA; MARTA FRANCISCO

    Summary Godmania macrocarpa Hemsley, a deciduous tree characteristic of fire protected areas of the savanna region of central Venezuela, was more drought tolerant, allocated more N to leaves and had co nsistently higher photosynthetic rates than Curatella americana L., a ubiquitous species growing successfully within the grasslands of tropical American savannas. Godmania macrocarpa maintained higher leaf conductance and photosynthesized at

  13. Leaf phenology in 22 North American tree species during the 21st century

    E-print Network

    Lechowicz, Martin J.

    Leaf phenology in 22 North American tree species during the 21st century X AV I E R M O R I N *w shifts in phenology are the best documented biological response to current anthropogenic climate change and approximate, only correlating temperature records to imprecise records of phenological events. To advance our

  14. Soil-related habitat specialization in dipterocarp rain forest tree species in Borneo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER A. PALMIOTTO; STUART J. DAVIES; KRISTIINA A. VOGT; MARK S. ASHTON; DANIEL J. VOGT; PETER S. ASHTON

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1 We conducted a field experiment to test whether aggregated spatial distributions were related to soil variation in locally sympatric tree species in the rain forests of Sarawak, Malaysia. Dryobalanops aromatica , Shorea laxa , and Swintonia schwenkii are naturally aggregated on low-fertility humult ultisols, Dryobalanops lanceolata and Hopea dryobalanoides on moderate-fertility udult ultisols and Shorea balanocarpoides is found

  15. Distinct roles of savanna and forest tree species in regeneration under fire suppression in a

    E-print Network

    Fine, Paul V.A.

    Distinct roles of savanna and forest tree species in regeneration under fire suppression in a Brazilian savanna Erika L. Geiger, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gabriel Damasco, M. Haridasan, Augusto C. Franco & William A. Hoffmann Keywords Cerrado; fire; forest expansion; forest­savanna boundary; tropical savanna

  16. Responses of tree species to heat waves and extreme heat events.

    PubMed

    Teskey, Robert; Wertin, Timothy; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-07-28

    The number and intensity of heat waves has increased, and this trend is likely to continue throughout the 21st century. Often, heat waves are accompanied by drought conditions. It is projected that the global land area experiencing heat waves will double by 2020, and quadruple by 2040. Extreme heat events can impact a wide variety of tree functions. At the leaf level, photosynthesis is reduced, photooxidative stress increases, leaves abscise and the growth rate of remaining leaves decreases. In some species, stomatal conductance increases at high temperatures, which may be a mechanism for leaf cooling. At the whole plant level, heat stress can decrease growth and shift biomass allocation. When drought stress accompanies heat waves, the negative effects of heat stress are exacerbated and can lead to tree mortality. However, some species exhibit remarkable tolerance to thermal stress. Responses include changes that minimize stress on photosynthesis and reductions in dark respiration. Although there have been few studies to date, there is evidence of within-species genetic variation in thermal tolerance, which could be important to exploit in production forestry systems. Understanding the mechanisms of differing tree responses to extreme temperature events may be critically important for understanding how tree species will be affected by climate change. PMID:25065257

  17. Germination and storage of recalcitrant seeds of some tropical forest tree species

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Germination and storage of recalcitrant seeds of some tropical forest tree species F. Corbineau D-et-Marie-Curie (Paris VI), Paris, France Introduction Seeds have been termed orthodox or recalcitrant by Roberts (1973) to describe their storage behavior. Orthodox seeds tolerate dehydration down to 5-10% (dry weight basis

  18. Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia

    E-print Network

    Novel species of Celoporthe from Eucalyptus and Syzygium trees in China and Indonesia ShuaiFei Chen cumini. Three morphologically similar fungal isolates collected previously from Indonesia also were analyses showed that the Chinese isolates and those from Indonesia reside in a clade close to previously

  19. Nutritional characteristics of mineral elements in tree species of tropical rain forest, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsugiyuki Masunaga; Daisuke Kubota; Mitsuru Hotta; Toshiyuki Wakatsuki

    1997-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of mineral elements in tree species were studied in a 1 ha permanent observation plot at Mt. Gadut area near Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. The elemental composition of the 42 leaf and the 457 bark samples from the 1 ha plot was analyzed. Most of the elements, such as S, K, AI, CI, Si, B, and Sr,

  20. Occurrence and performance of the aspen blotch miner, Phyllonorycter salicifoliella , on three host-tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Auerbach; Jeffrey D. Alberts

    1992-01-01

    Larvae of the aspen blotch miner, Phyllonorycter salicifoliella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), feed within leaves of three host-tree species in north-central Minnesota, USA. Far more individuals occur on Populus tremuloides than on P. balsamifera or P. grandidentata. We tested whether this pattern of host use reflected variable performance among alternative hosts by examining survivorship, sources of mortality, pupal mass, feeding efficiency,

  1. III CHAPTER 15 Chapter III: Future ranges in European tree species

    E-print Network

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    distribution, while soil variables or inter-species competition are often considered to primarily drive climate is especially relevant to long-lived plants such as trees or shrubs, as these take many years, or they need to be run at very coarse spatial resolutions in order to cover larger areas such as Europe

  2. Photosynthetic responses to light in seedlings of selected Amazonian and Australian rainforest tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Langenheim; C. B. Osmond; A. Brooks; P. J. Ferrar

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of the Caesalpinoids Hymenaea courbaril, H. parvifolia and Copaifera venezuelana, emergent trees of Amazonian rainforest canopies, and of the Araucarian conifers Agathis microstachya and A. robusta, important elements in tropical Australian rainforests, were grown at 6% (shade) and 100% full sunlight (sun) in glasshouses. All species produced more leaves in full sunlight than in shade and leaves of sun

  3. Rapid in vitro multiplication and conservation of Garcinia indica: A tropical medicinal tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Malik; R. Chaudhury; Rajwant K. Kalia

    2005-01-01

    A simple and efficient method has been developed for rapid regeneration of plantlets via adventitious bud differentiation on mature seeds of Garcinia indica (Thouars) Choisy, a medicinally important facultative apomictic tropical tree species. High frequency direct shoot proliferation was induced in seed segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with cytokinins (BAP, kinetin and TDZ) alone and in combination

  4. FOLIAR ACCUMULATION OF ZINC IN TREE SPECIES GROWN IN PINE BARK MEDIA AMENDED WITH CRUMB RUBBER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Bush; Kris Leader; Allen Owings

    2001-01-01

    Incorporated crumb rubber (CR) increased Zn tissue levels up to nine times the normal range in tree species. There was a linear increase in Zn tissue accumulation with increasing percentages of crumb rubber for river birch (Betula nigra L.), lacebark elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), and pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch]. Pecan leaves containing high levels of Zn exhibited no

  5. Differences in volatile terpene composition between the bark and leaves of tropical tree species

    E-print Network

    Chave, Jérôme

    Differences in volatile terpene composition between the bark and leaves of tropical tree species Guiana Herbivory Optimal defense theory Secondary metabolites Wood a b s t r a c t Volatile terpenes and indirect defense against herbivores. In terpenes, both the quantity and the diver- sity of compounds appear

  6. Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America

    E-print Network

    Brown, James H.

    Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and spatial scale and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes

  7. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Böhm; Nolberto Arismendi; Luigi Ciampi

    2009-01-01

    L. Böhm, N. Arismendi, and L. Ciampi. 2009. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36 (2): 249-258. The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina

  8. Understanding Leaves in Natural Images -A Model-Based Approach for Tree Species Identification$

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of alleged progress, we carelessly dropped the knowledge of many plants, trees and herbs that used to be found in our most immediate environment. Knowing how to recognize a plant, and what uses it may provide present. Books are available to the neophyte, but when it comes to precise species identification

  9. Co-occurring species differ in tree-ring 8 18 0 trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN D. MARSHALL; ROBERT A. MONSERUD

    2006-01-01

    Summary The stable oxygen isotope ratio (? 18 O) of tree- ring cellulose is jointly determined by the ? 18 O of xylem water, the ? 18 O of atmospheric water vapor, the humidity of the atmo- sphere and perhaps by species-specific differences in leaf structure and function. Atmospheric humidity and the ? 18 Oo f water vapor vary seasonally

  10. Evaluation of native tree species for the rehabilitation of deforested areas in a Mexican cloud forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Pedraza; G. Williams-Linera

    2003-01-01

    Four native tree species (Liquidambar styraciflua, Juglans pyriformis, Podocarpus matudae, and Carpinus caroliniana) were evaluated for their suitability in rehabilitating degraded areas of Mexican cloud forest. Plant survival and growth in height and diameter were determined in three mixed-experimental plantations with different land use histories; their performance was compared with two on-farm plantations started by landowners for forest restoration. Nearby

  11. Impacts of the Brown Tree Snake: Patterns of Decline and Species Persistence in Guam's Avifauna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Wiles; Jonathan Bart; ROBERT E. BECK JR.; Celestino F. Aguon

    2003-01-01

    Predation by brown tree snakes ( Boiga irregularis ) devastated the avifauna of Guam in the Mari- ana Islands during the last half of the twentieth century, causing the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird species. Past studies have provided qualitative descriptions of the decline of na- tive forest birds but have not considered

  12. Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: I. Effects on Southeastern United States Coastal Plain Tree Species

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    Hurricanes and the Urban Forest: I. Effects on Southeastern United States Coastal Plain Tree Species Mary L. Duryea, Eliana Kampf, and Ramon C. Littell Abstract. Several hurricanes struck Florida, U of these hurricanes on the urban forest and combined these results with four other hurricanes to present an assessment

  13. ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Species Assemblage Arriving at and Emerging from Trees Colonized

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    by Ips pini in the Great Lakes Region: Partitioning by Time Since Colonization, Season, and Host Species, resource partitioning, tritrophic interactions, kairo- mones THE PINE ENGRAVER, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera of insects that arrive at and reproduce in trees colonized byI. pini, and how this assemblage is partitioned

  14. Contrasting water-uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species

    E-print Network

    Singer, Michael

    consistent phreatic water usage and suffers in drought years when water tables are suppressedContrasting water-uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA 4 COSTEL/LETG, UMR 6554, Université Rennes

  15. Winning and losing tree species of reassembly in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests.

    PubMed

    Hanberry, Brice B; Palik, Brian J; He, Hong S

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity. PMID:23613911

  16. Winning and Losing Tree Species of Reassembly in Minnesota’s Mixed and Broadleaf Forests

    PubMed Central

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Palik, Brian J.; He, Hong S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota’s mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity. PMID:23613911

  17. Temperature dependence, spatial scale, and tree species diversity in eastern Asia and North America

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiheng; Brown, James H.; Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biodiversity from poles to equator is one of the most pervasive features of nature. For 2 centuries since von Humboldt, Wallace, and Darwin, biogeographers and ecologists have investigated the environmental and historical factors that determine the latitudinal gradient of species diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recently proposed metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) aims to explain ecological patterns and processes, including geographical patterns of species richness, in terms of the effects of temperature and body size on the metabolism of organisms. Here we use 2 comparable databases of tree distributions in eastern Asia and North America to investigate the roles of environmental temperature and spatial scale in shaping geographical patterns of species diversity. We find that number of species increases exponentially with environmental temperature as predicted by the MTE, and so does the rate of spatial turnover in species composition (slope of the species-area relationship). The magnitude of temperature dependence of species richness increases with spatial scale. Moreover, the relationship between species richness and temperature is much steeper in eastern Asia than in North America: in cold climates at high latitudes there are more tree species in North America, but the reverse is true in warmer climates at lower latitudes. These patterns provide evidence that the kinetics of ecological and evolutionary processes play a major role in the latitudinal pattern of biodiversity. PMID:19628692

  18. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  19. Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimer, Carlos H.

    1990-01-01

    A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

  20. Multipurpose Compact Spectrometric Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bocarov, Viktor; Cermak, Pavel; Mamedov, Fadahat; Stekl, Ivan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2009-11-09

    A new standalone compact spectrometer was developed. The device consists of analog (peamplifier, amplifier) and digital parts. The digital part is based on the 160 MIPS Digital Signal Processor. It contains 20 Msps Flash-ADC, 1 MB RAM for spectra storage, 128 KB Flash/ROM for firmware storage, Real Time Clock and several voltage regulators providing the power for user peripherals (e.g. amplifier, temperature sensors, etc.). Spectrometer is connected with a notebook via high-speed USB 2.0 bus. The spectrometer is multipurpose device, which is planned to be used for measurements of Rn activities, energy of detected particles by CdTe pixel detector or for coincidence measurements.

  1. Root morphology and anchorage of six native tree species from a tropical montane forest and an elfin forest in Ecuador

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Root morphology and anchorage of six native tree species from a tropical montane forest in revised form 12 July 2005 Key words: aspect ratio, buttress, root architecture, root asymmetry, slope, stilt root Abstract Root architecture of tree species was investigated at two different altitudes

  2. Seedling survival and growth of native tree species in pastures: Implications for dry tropical forest rehabilitation in central Panama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather P. Griscom; P. M. S. Ashton; Graeme P. Berlyn

    2005-01-01

    Our study tested the effects of herbicide application and cattle removal on the survival and growth of three native tree species planted in pastures within a deforested, dry tropical region of Panama. We investigated whether enrichment planting may be a potential, complementing reforestation tool with natural regeneration. Three economically valuable tree species were chosen for the study; Cedrela odorata L.,

  3. Effects of Host Tree Species on Attractiveness of Tunneling Pine Engravers, Ips pini, to Conspecifics and Insect Predators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadir Erbilgin; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2000-01-01

    The effect of host tree species on the attractiveness of tunneling Ips pini to flying beetles and their insect predators in Wisconsin was investigated. Tree species influenced the flight response of both predators and prey in the same rank order. Ips pini and its major predators, Thanasimus dubius and Platysoma cylindrica, were more attracted to I. pini males boring into

  4. Species classification of individually segmented tree crowns in high-resolution aerial images using radiometric and morphologic image measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats Erikson

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method to automatically classify segmented tree crowns from high spatial resolution colour infrared aerial images as one of the four most common tree species in Sweden. The species are Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), and aspen (Populus tremula L.). The proposed method uses four different image measures,

  5. Oviposition Preference and Larval Performance of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Four Eastern North American Hardwood Tree Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Morewood; P. R. Neiner; J. R. McNeil; J. C. Sellmer; K. Hoover

    2003-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) is an invasive wood-boring cerambycid beetle that kills hardwood trees. The host range of this species is unusually broad but is not well deÞned in the available literature and may include tree species that have not been reported as hosts because they have not previously been exposed to the beetle. We evaluated oviposition by A. glabripennis offered

  6. Tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Sarah E; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Ogdahl, Megan; Zytkowiak, Roma; Hale, Cynthia; Karolewski, Piotr

    2006-09-01

    We studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (Abies alba, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, Pinus sylvestris, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, and Tilia cordata) in southwestern Poland. We used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart species effects on decomposition via leaf litter chemistry vs. effects on the decomposition environment. Decomposition rates of litter in its plot of origin were negatively correlated with litter lignin and positively correlated with mean annual soil temperature (MAT(soil)) across species. Likewise, decomposition of a common litter type across all plots was positively associated with MAT(soil), and decomposition of litter from all plots in a common plot was negatively related to litter lignin but positively related to litter Ca. Taken together, these results indicate that tree species influenced microbial decomposition primarily via differences in litter lignin (and secondarily, via differences in litter Ca), with high-lignin (and low-Ca) species decomposing most slowly, and by affecting MAT(soil), with warmer plots exhibiting more rapid decomposition. In addition to litter bag experiments, we examined forest floor dynamics in each plot by mass balance, since earthworms were a known component of these forest stands and their access to litter in litter bags was limited. Forest floor removal rates estimated from mass balance were positively related to leaf litter Ca (and unrelated to decay rates obtained using litter bags). Litter Ca, in turn, was positively related to the abundance of earthworms, particularly Lumbricus terrestris. Thus, while species influence microbially mediated decomposition primarily through differences in litter lignin, differences among species in litter Ca are most important in determining species effects on forest floor leaf litter dynamics among these 14 tree species, apparently because of the influence of litter Ca on earthworm activity. The overall influence of these tree species on leaf litter decomposition via effects on both microbial and faunal processing will only become clear when we can quantify the decay dynamics of litter that is translocated belowground by earthworms. PMID:16995629

  7. Fine root decay rates vary widely among lowland tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Raich, James W; Russell, Ann E; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar

    2009-08-01

    Prolific fine root growth coupled with small accumulations of dead fine roots indicate rapid rates of fine root production, mortality and decay in young tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica. However, published studies indicate that fine roots decay relatively slowly in tropical forests. To resolve this discrepancy, we used the intact-core technique to quantify first-year decay rates of fine roots in four single-species plantations of native tree species. We tested three hypotheses: first, that fine roots from different tree species would decay at different rates; second, that species having rapid fine root growth rates would also have rapid rates of fine root decay; and third, that differences in fine root decay among species could be explained by fine root chemistry variables previously identified as influencing decay rates. Fine roots in Virola koschnyi plantations decayed very slowly (k = 0.29 +/- 0.15 year(-1)); those of Vochysia guatemalensis decayed seven times faster (k = 2.00 +/- 0.13 year(-1)). Decay rates of the remaining two species, Hieronyma alchorneoides and Pentaclethra macroloba, were 1.36 and 1.28 year(-1), respectively. We found a positive, marginally significant correlation between fine root decay rates and the relative growth rates of live fine roots (R = 0.93, n = 4, P = 0.072). There was a highly significant negative correlation between fine root decay and fine root lignin:N (R = 0.99, P = 0.01), which supports the use of lignin:N as a decay-controlling factor within terrestrial ecosystem models. The decay rates that we observed in this single study location encompassed the entire range of fine root decay rates previously observed in moist tropical forests, and thus suggest great potential for individual tree species to alter belowground organic matter and nutrient dynamics within a biotically rich rainforest environment. PMID:19484478

  8. Impacts of the Brown Tree Snake: Patterns of Decline and Species Persistence in Guam's Avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiles, G.J.; Bart, J.; Beck, R.E., Jr.; Aguon, C.F.

    2003-01-01

    Predation by brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) devastated the avifauna of Guam in the Mariana Islands during the last half of the twentieth century, causing the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird species. Past studies have provided qualitative descriptions of the decline of native forest birds but have not considered all species or presented quantitative analyses. We analyzed two sets of survey data gathered in northern Guam between 1976 and 1998 and reviewed unpublished sources to provide a comprehensive account of the impact of brown tree snakes on the island's birds. Our results indicate that 22 species, including 17 of 18 native species, were severely affected by snakes. Twelve species were likely extirpated as breeding residents on the main island, 8 others experienced declines of ???90% throughout the island or at least in the north, and 2 were kept at reduced population levels during all or much of the study. Declines of ???90% occurred rapidly, averaging just 8.9 years along three roadside survey routes combined and 1.6 years at a 100-ha forested study site. Declines in northern Guam were also relatively synchronous and occurred from about 1976 to 1986 for most species. The most important factor predisposing a species to coexistence with brown tree snakes was its ability to nest and roost at locations where snakes were uncommon. Large clutch size and large body size were also related to longer persistence times, although large body size appeared to delay, but not prevent, extirpation. Our results draw attention to the enormous detrimental impact that brown tree snakes are likely to have upon invading new areas. Increased containment efforts on Guam are needed to prevent further colonizations, but a variety of additional management efforts would also benefit the island's remaining bird populations.

  9. TimeTree2: species divergence times on the iPhone

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Scientists, educators and the general public often need to know times of divergence between species. But they rarely can locate that information because it is buried in the scientific literature, usually in a format that is inaccessible to text search engines. We have developed a public knowledgebase that enables data-driven access to the collection of peer-reviewed publications in molecular evolution and phylogenetics that have reported estimates of time of divergence between species. Users can query the TimeTree resource by providing two names of organisms (common or scientific) that can correspond to species or groups of species. The current TimeTree web resource (TimeTree2) contains timetrees reported from molecular clock analyses in 910 published studies and 17 341 species that span the diversity of life. TimeTree2 interprets complex and hierarchical data from these studies for each user query, which can be launched using an iPhone application, in addition to the website. Published time estimates are now readily accessible to the scientific community, K–12 and college educators, and the general public, without requiring knowledge of evolutionary nomenclature. Availability: TimeTree2 is accessible from the URL http://www.timetree.org, with an iPhone app available from iTunes (http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/timetree/id372842500?mt=8) and a YouTube tutorial (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CxmshZQciwo). Contact: sbh1@psu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21622662

  10. Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

    1988-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

  11. Novel multipurpose timer for laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, W. J.; Klein, P. D.

    1969-01-01

    Multipurpose digital delay timer simultaneously controls both a buffer pump and a fraction-collector. Timing and control may be in 30-second increments for up to 15 hours. Use of glassware and scintillation vials make it economical.

  12. Rapid diversification of a species-rich genus of neotropical rain forest trees.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J E; Pennington, R T; Pennington, T D; Hollingsworth, P M

    2001-09-21

    Species richness in the tropics has been attributed to the gradual accumulation of species over a long geological period in stable equatorial climates or, conversely, to speciation in response to late Tertiary geological events and unstable Pleistocene climates. DNA sequence data are consistent with recent diversification in Inga, a species-rich neotropical tree genus. We estimate that speciation was concentrated in the past 10 million years, with many species arising as recently as 2 million years ago. This coincides with the more recent major uplifts of the Andes, the bridging of the Isthmus of Panama, and Quaternary glacial cycles. Inga may be representative of other species-rich neotropical genera with rapid growth and reproduction, which contribute substantially to species numbers in the world's most diverse flora. PMID:11567135

  13. Algorithms for exploring the space of gene tree/species tree reconciliations

    E-print Network

    Chauve, Cedric

    Drive, V5A 1S6, Burnaby (BC), Canada, cedric.chauve@sfu.ca 2 DIRO, Universit´e de Montr´eal, CP6128 can happen, that do not result immediately in the creation of new species but are essential in eukaryotic genes evolution, such as gene duplication and loss [12]. Duplication is the genomic process where

  14. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  15. Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean

    2008-11-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ?s) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ?s values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ?s (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ?s in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.

  16. Patterns and determinants of wood physical and mechanical properties across major tree species in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, JiangLing; Shi, Yue; Fang, LeQi; Liu, XingE; Ji, ChengJun

    2015-06-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of wood affect the growth and development of trees, and also act as the main criteria when determining wood usage. Our understanding on patterns and controls of wood physical and mechanical properties could provide benefits for forestry management and bases for wood application and forest tree breeding. However, current studies on wood properties mainly focus on wood density and ignore other wood physical properties. In this study, we established a comprehensive database of wood physical properties across major tree species in China. Based on this database, we explored spatial patterns and driving factors of wood properties across major tree species in China. Our results showed that (i) compared with wood density, air-dried density, tangential shrinkage coefficient and resilience provide more accuracy and higher explanation power when used as the evaluation index of wood physical properties. (ii) Among life form, climatic and edaphic variables, life form is the dominant factor shaping spatial patterns of wood physical properties, climatic factors the next, and edaphic factors have the least effects, suggesting that the effects of climatic factors on spatial variations of wood properties are indirectly induced by their effects on species distribution. PMID:25921943

  17. Tree species from different functional groups respond differently to environmental changes during establishment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo R M; van Langevelde, Frank; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T

    2014-04-01

    Savanna plant communities change considerably across time and space. The processes driving savanna plant species diversity, coexistence and turnover along environmental gradients are still unclear. Understanding how species respond differently to varying environmental conditions during the seedling stage, a critical stage for plant population dynamics, is needed to explain the current composition of plant communities and to enable us to predict their responses to future environmental changes. Here we investigate whether seedling response to changes in resource availability, and to competition with grass, varied between two functional groups of African savanna trees: species with small leaves, spines and N-fixing associations (fine-leaved species), and species with broad leaves, no spines, and lacking N-fixing associations (broad-leaved species). We show that while tree species were strongly suppressed by grass, the effect of resource availability on seedling performance varied considerably between the two functional groups. Nutrient inputs increased stem length only of broad-leaved species and only under an even watering treatment. Low light conditions benefited mostly broad-leaved species' growth. Savannas are susceptible to ongoing global environment changes. Our results suggest that an increase in woody cover is only likely to occur in savannas if grass cover is strongly suppressed (e.g. by fire or overgrazing). However, if woody cover does increase, broad-leaved species will benefit most from the resulting shaded environments, potentially leading to an expansion of the distribution of these species. Eutrophication and changes in rainfall patterns may also affect the balance between fine- and broad-leaved species. PMID:24337711

  18. Different tree species affect soil respiration spatial distribution in a subtropical forest of southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in tree and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of tree species and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. tree height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live tree C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of tree species. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different tree species planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall temporal variation. Soil respiration was related with season variation in research site. Soil temperature and soil respiration showed highly spatial variation in 16 plots. Soil temperature showed significantly exponential related with soil respiration in research site (p<0.001).However, soil respiration showed significantly negative relationship with total amount of litterfall (p<0.001), suggesting that the tree was still young and did not reach crown closure.

  19. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  20. Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial covers various aspects of trees. It explains which chemicals cause leaves to change colors, how the process of photosynthesis works, the functions of bark, roots, pollen and leaves, and the effect of trees on nearby temperature.

  1. Geological Substrates Shape Tree Species and Trait Distributions in African Moist Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fayolle, Adeline; Engelbrecht, Bettina; Freycon, Vincent; Mortier, Frédéric; Swaine, Michael; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Fauvet, Nicolas; Cornu, Guillaume; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that shape the distribution of tropical tree species at large scales is a central issue in ecology, conservation and forest management. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the importance of environmental factors relative to historical factors for tree species distributions in the semi-evergreen forests of the northern Congo basin; and to (ii) identify potential mechanisms explaining distribution patterns through a trait-based approach. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the distribution patterns of 31 common tree species in an area of more than 700,000 km2 spanning the borders of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and the Republic of Congo using forest inventory data from 56,445 0.5-ha plots. Spatial variation of environmental (climate, topography and geology) and historical factors (human disturbance) were quantified from maps and satellite records. Four key functional traits (leaf phenology, shade tolerance, wood density, and maximum growth rate) were extracted from the literature. The geological substrate was of major importance for the distribution of the focal species, while climate and past human disturbances had a significant but lesser impact. Species distribution patterns were significantly related to functional traits. Species associated with sandy soils typical of sandstone and alluvium were characterized by slow growth rates, shade tolerance, evergreen leaves, and high wood density, traits allowing persistence on resource-poor soils. In contrast, fast-growing pioneer species rarely occurred on sandy soils, except for Lophira alata. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate strong environmental filtering due to differential soil resource availability across geological substrates. Additionally, long-term human disturbances in resource-rich areas may have accentuated the observed patterns of species and trait distributions. Trait differences across geological substrates imply pronounced differences in population and ecosystem processes, and call for different conservation and management strategies. PMID:22905127

  2. Leaf and whole-tree water use relations of Australian rainforest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yoko; Laurance, Susan; Liddell, Michael; Lloyd, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change induces drought events and may therefore cause significant impact on tropical rainforests, where most plants are reliant on high water availability - potentially affecting the distribution, composition and abundance of plant species. Using an experimental approach, we are studying the effects of a simulated drought on lowland rainforest plants at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory (DRO), in tropical northern Australia. Before to build up the rainout infrastructure, we installed sap flow meters (HRM) on 62 rainforest trees. Eight tree species were selected with diverse ecological strategies including wood density values ranging from 0.34 to 0.88 g/cm3 and could be replicated within a 1ha plot: Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae), Argyrondendron peralatum (Malvaceae), Elaeocarpus angustifolius (Elaeocarpaceae), Endiandra microneura (Lauraceae), Myristica globosa (Myristicaceae), Syzygium graveolens (Myrtaceae), Normanbya normanbyi (Arecaceae), and Castanospermum australe (Fabaceae). Our preliminary results from sap flow data obtained from October 2013 to December of 2014 showed differences in the amount of water used by our trees varied in response to species, size and climate. For example Syzygium graveolens has used a maximum of 60 litres/day while Argyrondendrum peralatum used 13 litres/day. Other potential causes for differential water-use between species and the implications of our research will be discussed. We will continue to monitor sap flow during the rainfall exclusion (2014 to 2016) to determine the effects of plant physiological traits on water use strategies.

  3. How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species

    SciTech Connect

    Bassow, S.L.; Bazzaz, F.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

    1998-12-01

    Species composition of temperate forests vary with successional age and seems likely to change in response to significant global climate change. Because photosynthesis rates in co-occurring tree species can differ in their sensitivity to environmental conditions, these changes in species composition are likely to alter the carbon dynamics of temperate forests. To help improve their understanding of such atmosphere-biosphere interactions, the authors explored changes in leaf-level photosynthesis in a 60--70 yr old temperate mixed-deciduous forest in Petersham, Massachusetts (USA). Diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions differentially influenced in situ leaf-level photosynthesis rates in the canopies of four mature temperate deciduous tree species: red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The authors measured in situ photosynthesis at two heights within the canopies through a diurnal time course on 7 d over two growing seasons. They simultaneously measured a suite of environmental conditions surrounding the leaf at the time of each measurement. The authors used path analysis to examine the influence of environmental factors on in situ photosynthesis in the tree canopies.

  4. Tree species and soil nutrient profiles in old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine tree species – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy tree species (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most species-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four tree species that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.

  5. The brown tree snake, an introduced pest species in the central Pacific Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, Thomas H.; Rodda, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    The reproduction of endangered Mariana crows (Corvus kubaryi) is intensively monitored, nests are protected, and (when necessary) eggs or young are moved to the safety of lab conditions until they are less vulnerable to the threats in natural habitats. Barriers on tree trunks and judicious pruning of adjacent trees are used in attempts to exclude snakes from nest trees. Two birds unique to Guam--the Micronesian kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) and Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni)-- are maintained at captive propagation facilities on Guam and in mainland zoos. Studies of these and other species, in captivity and on nearby islands, are underway to bolster our biological understanding of their behavior, reproduction, habitat use, and population biology.

  6. Exemplifying whole-plant ozone uptake in adult forest trees of contrasting species and site conditions.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Angela J; Wieser, Gerhard; Metzger, Ursula; Löw, Markus; Wipfler, Philip; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    Whole-tree O3 uptake was exemplified for Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica and Larix decidua in stands at high and low altitude and contrasting water availability through sap flow measurement in tree trunks, intrinsically accounting for drought and boundary layer effects on O3 flux. O3 uptake of evergreen spruce per unit foliage area was enhanced by 100% at high relative to low elevation, whereas deciduous beech and larch showed similar uptake regardless of altitude. The responsiveness of the canopy conductance to water vapor and, as a consequence, O3 uptake to soil moisture and air humidity did not differ between species. Unifying findings at the whole-tree level will promote cause-effect based O3 risk assessment and modeling. PMID:16996178

  7. Environmental control of daily stem growth patterns in five temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    PubMed

    Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Tree ring analysis investigates growth processes at time horizons of several weeks to millennia, but lacks the detail of short-term fluctuation in cambial activity. This study used electronic high-precision dendrometry for analyzing the environmental factors controlling stem diameter variation and radial growth in daily resolution in five co-existing temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) with different growth and survival strategies. Daily stem radius change (SRC(d)) was primarily influenced by the atmospheric demand for water vapor (expressed either as vapor pressure deficit (D) or relative air humidity (RH)) while rainfall, soil matrix potential, temperature and radiation were only secondary factors. SRC(d) increased linearly with increasing RH and decreasing D in all species. The positive effect of a low atmospheric water vapor demand on SRC(d) was largest in June during the period of maximal radial growth rate and persisted when observation windows of 7 or 21 days instead of 1 day were used. We found a high synchronicity in the day-to-day growth rate fluctuation among the species with increment peaks corresponding to air humidity maxima, even though the mean daily radial growth rate differed fivefold among the species. The five -species also differed in the positive slope of the growth/RH relationship with the steepest increase found in Fraxinus and the lowest in Fagus. We explain the strong positive effect of high RH and low D on radial stem increment by lowered transpiration which reduces negative pressure in the conducting system and increases turgor in the stem cambium cells, thereby favoring cell division and expansion. The results suggest that mechanistic models of tree growth need to consider the atmospheric water status in addition to the known controlling environmental factors: temperature, soil moisture and precipitation. The results further have implications for sensitivity analyses of tree growth to climatic changes. PMID:22659458

  8. Xylem cavitation vulnerability influences tree species' habitat preferences in miombo woodlands.

    PubMed

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Fisher, Joshua B; Brown, Nick; Brodribb, Timothy J; Aragao, Luiz E

    2013-11-01

    Although precipitation plays a central role in structuring Africa's miombo woodlands, remarkably little is known about plant-water relations in this seasonally dry tropical forest. Therefore, in this study, we investigated xylem vulnerability to cavitation for nine principal tree species of miombo woodlands, which differ in habitat preference and leaf phenology. We measured cavitation vulnerability (?(50)), stem-area specific hydraulic conductivity (K S), leaf specific conductivity (K L), seasonal variation in predawn water potential (?(PD)) and xylem anatomical properties [mean vessel diameter, mean hydraulic diameter, mean hydraulic diameter accounting for 95 % flow, and maximum vessel length (V L)]. Results show that tree species with a narrow habitat range (mesic specialists) were more vulnerable to cavitation than species with a wide habitat range (generalists). ?(50) for mesic specialists ranged between -1.5 and -2.2 MPa and that for generalists between -2.5 and -3.6 MPa. While mesic specialists exhibited the lowest seasonal variation in ?(PD), generalists displayed significant seasonal variations in ?(PD) suggesting that the two miombo habitat groups differ in their rooting depth. We observed a strong trade-off between K S and ?(50) suggesting that tree hydraulic architecture is one of the decisive factors setting ecological boundaries for principal miombo species. While vessel diameters correlated weakly (P > 0.05) with ?(50), V L was positively and significantly correlated with ?(50). ?(PD) was significantly correlated with ?(50) further reinforcing the conclusion that tree hydraulic architecture plays a significant role in species' habitat preference in miombo woodlands. PMID:23649755

  9. Within-stand variability of leaf phenology in deciduous tree species: characterization and ecological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpierre, N.; Cecchini, S.; Dufrêne, E.; Guillemot, J.; Nicolas, M.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of phenological studies address questions relative to the spatial or temporal variability of phenological timings integrated at the forest stand (i.e. tree population) scale. Within a forest stand, the inter-individual variability of phenological timings is expected to affect a range of tree functions among which the access to light, the use of carbon and nitrogen reserves, the absorption of minerals and the sensitivity to pathogens. Hence the individual's phenological traits are likely to be strongly selected, resulting in an adaptation of the population to local conditions, as evidenced by latitudinal and altitudinal clines observed in common garden experiments. Studies dedicated to the within-stand variability of the timing of phenophases have to date been mostly designed for contrasting the behaviours of understory versus overstory species or seedlings compared to their adult conspecifics. The few published papers studying the phenological timings among adult conspecifics revealed unclear patterns. We aimed at clarifying the understanding of the within-stand variability of tree phenology of three of the main European deciduous species (Quercus petraea, Quercus robur and Fagus sylvatica) through the analysis of a unique phenological database collected over 44 (28 Oak sites, 16 Beech stands) forest stands at the tree level for 4 years over France. We show that within a forest stand, individual trees have a distinct "phenological identity" resulting in a year to year conservation of (a) the individuals' spring and autumn phenological rankings and (b) the individuals' critical temperature sums required for budburst and senescence. The individual's spring "phenological identity" affects its functioning and, ultimately, its competitive ability: big trees burst earlier. Acknowledging that Angiosperms show low genetic diversity between populations, we show that the between-site variability of critical temperature sums needed for budburst or senescence is low. We show that this between-site variability is linked to climate and geographical gradients, which suggest local adaptations of the populations' phenological traits.

  10. Predicting species' range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-09-23

    Using functional traits to explain species' range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)--indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations--explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic "no-go areas" for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

  11. Predicting species’ range limits from functional traits for the tree flora of North America

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Ulrike; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Using functional traits to explain species’ range limits is a promising approach in functional biogeography. It replaces the idiosyncrasy of species-specific climate ranges with a generic trait-based predictive framework. In addition, it has the potential to shed light on specific filter mechanisms creating large-scale vegetation patterns. However, its application to a continental flora, spanning large climate gradients, has been hampered by a lack of trait data. Here, we explore whether five key plant functional traits (seed mass, wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), maximum height, and longevity of a tree)—indicative of life history, mechanical, and physiological adaptations—explain the climate ranges of 250 North American tree species distributed from the boreal to the subtropics. Although the relationship between traits and the median climate across a species range is weak, quantile regressions revealed strong effects on range limits. Wood density and seed mass were strongly related to the lower but not upper temperature range limits of species. Maximum height affects the species range limits in both dry and humid climates, whereas SLA and longevity do not show clear relationships. These results allow the definition and delineation of climatic “no-go areas” for North American tree species based on key traits. As some of these key traits serve as important parameters in recent vegetation models, the implementation of trait-based climatic constraints has the potential to predict both range shifts and ecosystem consequences on a more functional basis. Moreover, for future trait-based vegetation models our results provide a benchmark for model evaluation. PMID:25225398

  12. Foliar temperature-respiration response functions for broad-leaved tree species in the southern Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Bolstad; Mitchell; Vose

    1999-11-01

    We measured leaf respiration in 18 eastern deciduous forest tree species to determine if there were differences in temperature-respiration response functions among species or among canopy positions. Leaf respiration rates were measured in situ and on detached branches for Acer pensylvanicum L., A. rubrum L., Betula spp. (B. alleghaniensis Britt. and B. lenta L.), Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Cornus florida L., Fraxinus spp. (primarily F. americana L.), Liriodendron tulipifera L., Magnolia fraseri Walt., Nyssa sylvatica Marsh., Oxydendrum arboreum L., Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus alba L., Q. coccinea Muenchh., Q. prinus L., Q. rubra L., Rhododendron maximum L., Robinia psuedoacacia L., and Tilia americana L. in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Dark respiration was measured on fully expanded leaves at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C with an infrared gas analyzer equipped with a temperature-controlled cuvette. Temperature-respiration response functions were fit for each leaf. There were significant differences in response functions among species and by canopy position within species. These differences were observed when respiration was expressed on a mass, nitrogen, or area basis. Cumulative nighttime leaf respiration was calculated and averaged over ten randomly selected nights for each leaf. Differences in mean cumulative nighttime respiration were statistically significant among canopy positions and species. We conclude that effects of canopy position and species on temperature-respiration response functions may need to be considered when making estimates of whole-tree or canopy respiration. PMID:10562404

  13. Influence of shade tolerance and development stage on the allometry of ten temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Tony; Schneider, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Allometry studies the change in scale between two dimensions of an organism. The metabolic theory of ecology predicts invariant allometric scaling exponents, while empirical studies evidenced inter- and intra-specific variations. This work aimed at identifying the sources of variations of the allometric exponents at both inter- and intra-specific levels using stem analysis from 9,363 trees for ten Eastern Canada species with a large shade-tolerance gradient. Specifically, the yearly allometric exponents, ?(v,DBH) [volume (v) and diameter at breast height (DBH)], ?(v,h) [v and height (h)], and ?(h,DBH) (h and DBH) were modelled as a function of tree age for each species. ?(v,DBH), and ?(h,DBH) increased with tree age and then reached a plateau ranging from 2.45 to 3.12 for ?(v,DBH), and 0.874-1.48 for ?(h,DBH). Pine species presented a local maximum. No effect of tree age on ?(v,h) was found for conifers, while it increased until a plateau ranging from 3.71 to 5.16 for broadleaves. The influence of shade tolerance on the growth trajectories was then explored. In the juvenile stage, ?(v,DBH), and ?(h,DBH) increased with shade tolerance while ?(v,h) was shade-tolerance independent. In the mature stage, ?(v,h) increased with shade tolerance, whereas ?(h,DBH) decreased and ?(v,DBH) was shade-tolerance independent. The interaction between development stage and shade tolerance for allometric exponents demonstrates the importance of the changing functional requirements of trees for resource allocation at both the inter- and intra-specific level. These results indicate the need to also integrate specific functional traits, growth strategies and allocation, in allometric theoretical frameworks. PMID:25168006

  14. Experimental evidence of large changes in terrestrial chlorine cycling following altered tree species composition.

    PubMed

    Montelius, Malin; Thiry, Yves; Marang, Laura; Ranger, Jacques; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David

    2015-04-21

    Organochlorine molecules (Clorg) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl(-)) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Clorg and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Clorg, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl(-) and Clorg after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl(-) and Clorg content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl(-) and Clorg over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl(-) and Clorg storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl(-) and Clorg in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:25811074

  15. Microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and clostridium species in living trees.

    PubMed

    Schink, B; Ward, J C; Zeikus, J G

    1981-09-01

    Wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), black poplar (Populus nigra), and American elm (Ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to 10 cells per g of wood). High activity of polygalacturonate lyase (trees were bored. A prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these wetwoods was identified as Clostridium butyricum. Pectin decomposition by C. butyricum strain 4P1 was associated with an inducible polygalacturonate lyase and pectin methylesterase, the same types of pectinolytic activity expressed in the wetwood of these trees. The pH optimum of the extracellular polygalacturonate lyase was alkaline (near pH 8.5). In vitro tests with sapwood samples from a conifer (Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) showed that tori in membranes of bordered pits are degraded by pure cultures of strain 4P1, polygalacturonate lyase enzyme preparations of strain 4P1, and mixed methanogenic cultures from the tree samples of wetwood. These results provide evidence that pectin in xylem tissue is actively degraded by C. butyricum strain 4P1 via polygalacturonate lyase activity. The importance of pectin degradation by bacteria, including Clostridium species, appears paramount in the formation and maintenance of the wetwood syndrome in certain living trees. PMID:16345848

  16. Multispecies Coalescent Analysis of the Early Diversification of Neotropical Primates: Phylogenetic Inference under Strong Gene Trees/Species Tree Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Schrago, Carlos G.; Menezes, Albert N.; Furtado, Carolina; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Seuanez, Hector N.

    2014-01-01

    Neotropical primates (NP) are presently distributed in the New World from Mexico to northern Argentina, comprising three large families, Cebidae, Atelidae, and Pitheciidae, consequently to their diversification following their separation from Old World anthropoids near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, some 40 Ma. The evolution of NP has been intensively investigated in the last decade by studies focusing on their phylogeny and timescale. However, despite major efforts, the phylogenetic relationship between these three major clades and the age of their last common ancestor are still controversial because these inferences were based on limited numbers of loci and dating analyses that did not consider the evolutionary variation associated with the distribution of gene trees within the proposed phylogenies. We show, by multispecies coalescent analyses of selected genome segments, spanning along 92,496,904 bp that the early diversification of extant NP was marked by a 2-fold increase of their effective population size and that Atelids and Cebids are more closely related respective to Pitheciids. The molecular phylogeny of NP has been difficult to solve because of population-level phenomena at the early evolution of the lineage. The association of evolutionary variation with the distribution of gene trees within proposed phylogenies is crucial for distinguishing the mean genetic divergence between species (the mean coalescent time between loci) from speciation time. This approach, based on extensive genomic data provided by new generation DNA sequencing, provides more accurate reconstructions of phylogenies and timescales for all organisms. PMID:25377940

  17. [Effects of Cunninghamia lanceolata-broadleaved tree species mixed leaf litters on active soil organic matter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-kui; Wang, Si-long; Yu, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Yan-xin

    2007-06-01

    With incubation test, this paper studied the effects of Cunninghamia lanceolata leaf litter and its mixture with the litters of main broadleaved tree species in subtropical China, such as Alnus cremastogyne, Kalopanax septemlobus and Michelia macclurei on active soil organic matter. The results showed that adding leaf litters into soil could significantly increase soil microbial biomass C and N, respiration rate and dissolved organic C, and mixed leaf litters were more effective than C. lanceolata leaf litter in increasing soil dissolved organic C. By the end of the incubation, the increment of soil microbial biomass C and N, respiration rate, and dissolved organic C in treatments C. lanceolata leaf litter and C. lanceolata-broadleaved tree species mixed leaf litters was 49% and 63%, 35% and 75%, 65% and 100%, and 66% and 108%, respectively, compared with control. The addition of leaf litters had no significant effects on soil microbial quotient and microbial biomass C/N ratio. PMID:17763716

  18. Effect of chlorine pollution on three fruit tree species at Ranoli near Baroda, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, R; Bedi, S J

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of chlorine pollution from an alkalies and chemical plant at Ranoli, near Baroda, on three tropical fruit tree species-Mangifera indica L. (mango) Manilkara hexandra Dubard. (rayan) and Syzygium cumini Skeels (Jamun). As compared to controls growing in a less polluted area, trees growing close to the plant showed reduced mean leaf area, a higher percentage of leaf area damaged, a reduction in fruit yield, chlorophyll pigments, protein and carbohydrate content, and higher accumulation of chloride in the foliar tissues. The accumulation of pollutaant, chloride, in the foliar tissues was very high in mango and jamun. Based on the degree of damage to the plants, the species studied were arranged in decreasing order of their sensitivity to chlorine pollution-mango, jamun and rayan. PMID:15092455

  19. Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen transformation patterns in forest floor profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florence Trum; Hugues Titeux; Jacques Ranger; Bruno Delvaux

    • Background\\u000a   Among forest management practices, forest tree species substitution influences biogeochemical cycles and soil interactions\\u000a rapidly (decades) and significantly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Methods\\u000a   We studied the impact of tree species on forest floor properties in 27-year-old monospecific stands of oak, beech, spruce\\u000a and Douglas-fir, grown in common garden.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • Results\\u000a   In spite of similar litterfall C-inputs (1.3–1.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1), C-stocks strongly

  20. Tree species and wood ash affect soil in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Sartori; Rattan Lal; Michael H. Ebinger; Raymond O. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Tree species and wood ash application in plantations of short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) may have important effects on the\\u000a soil productive capacity through their influence on soil organic matter (SOM) and exchangeable cations. An experiment was\\u000a conducted to assess changes in soil C and N contents and pH within the 0–50 cm depth, and exchangeable cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+)

  1. Tree species identification in mixed coniferous forest using airborne laser scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agus Suratno; Carl Seielstad; Lloyd Queen

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the capacity of relatively low density (<1 return\\/m2) airborne laser scanner data for discriminating between Douglas-fir, western larch, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine in a western North American montane forest and it evaluates the relative importance of intensity, height, and return type metrics for classifying tree species. Collectively, Exploratory Data Analysis, Pearson Correlation, ANOVA, and Linear Discriminant Analysis

  2. Nutrients limit photosynthesis in seedlings of a lowland tropical forest tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Pasquini; L. S. Santiago

    We investigated how photosynthesis by understory seedlings of the lowland tropical tree species Alseis blackiana responded to 10 years of soil nutrient fertilization with N, P and K. We ask whether nutrients are limiting to light and\\u000a CO2 acquisition in a low light understory environment. We measured foliar nutrient concentrations of N, P and K, isotopic composition\\u000a of carbon (?13C) and

  3. Temporal and spatial variability in insect grazing of the canopies of five Australian rainforest tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. LOWMAN

    1985-01-01

    Herbivory was measured monthly for 2 years on leaves of permanently rnarkecl replicate branches in the canopies of five Australian rainforesr tree species. Variability in insect grazing activities was evident with respect to several factors: I. lec~f age - young letrvc,., werc prqfc~rretl olbrr older Icc~f tiss~~e; 2. height - lectves c.loscr to grourltl Ic~,el rvere more heirr'il~ prtc;etl:

  4. Atmospheric change alters foliar quality of host trees and performance of two outbreak insect species.

    PubMed

    Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Lindroth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the independent and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) on the foliar quality of two deciduous trees species and the performance of two outbreak herbivore species. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE research site in northern Wisconsin, USA, under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO(2) and O(3). We measured the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on aspen and birch phytochemistry and on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) performance. Elevated CO(2) nominally affected foliar quality for both tree species. Elevated O(3) negatively affected aspen foliar quality, but only marginally influenced birch foliar quality. Elevated CO(2) slightly improved herbivore performance, while elevated O(3) decreased herbivore performance, and both responses were stronger on aspen than birch. Interestingly, elevated CO(2) largely offset decreased herbivore performance under elevated O(3). Nitrogen, lignin, and C:N were identified as having strong influences on herbivore performance when larvae were fed aspen, but no significant relationships were observed for insects fed birch. Our results support the notion that herbivore performance can be affected by atmospheric change through altered foliar quality, but how herbivores will respond will depend on interactions among CO(2), O(3), and tree species. An emergent finding from this study is that tree age and longevity of exposure to pollutants may influence the effects of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant-herbivore interactions, highlighting the need to continue long-term atmospheric change research. PMID:21971584

  5. Physiological responses of some tree species under roadside automobile pollution stress around city of Haridwar, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Joshi; Abhishek Swami

    2007-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the physiological response of few economically important tree species viz., Mango (Mangifera indica), Eucalyptus citriodora, Sagon (Tectona grandis) and Sal (Shorea robusta) to roadside automobile pollution during 2004–2005. By determining some physiological parameters, which included chlorophyll\\u000a a, and b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, pH and relative water content, impact of automobile exhaust on

  6. Soil fertility enhancement by planted tree-fallow species in the humid lowlands of Cameroon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kanmegne; B. Duguma; J. Henrot; N. O. Isirimah

    1999-01-01

    Four shrub\\/tree species, Alchornea cordifolia, Pennisetum purpureum, Chromolaena odorata, and Calliandra calothyrsus were\\u000a evaluated for their potential contribution to soil fertility restoration after two years fallow. Standing biomass, root distribution,\\u000a nutrient content in the biomass, decomposition and nutrient release patterns, and association with mycorrhizae were the evaluation\\u000a parameters. Alchornea and Pennisetum produced thehighest above-ground biomass, 66 t and 54 t\\/ha

  7. Applications of the crown diameter–stem diameter relationship for different species of broadleaved trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Hemery; P. S. Savill; S. N. Pryor

    2005-01-01

    There is a well known but comparatively little-studied relationship between crown diameters (K) and stem diameters (d) of trees. Between about 20 and 50cm dbh the relationship is very close to being linear, with an r2 value higher than 0.8. The investigation described in this paper was conducted to establish the relationships for 11 broadleaved species that are commonly grown

  8. Leaf litter decomposition of dominant tree species of Namdapha National Park, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atiqur Rahman Barbhuiya; Ayyanadar Arunachalam; Prabhat Chandra Nath; Mohammed Latif Khan; Kusum Arunachalam

    2008-01-01

    Rates of weight loss and nutrient (N and P) release patterns were studied in the leaf litter of the dominant tree species\\u000a (Ailanthus grandis, Altingia excelsa, Castanopsis indica, Duabanga sonneriatioides, Dysoxylum binectariferum, Mesua ferrea,\\u000a Shorea assamica, Taluma hodgsonii, Terminalia myriocarpa and Vatica lancefolia) of a tropical wet evergreen forest of northeast India. Nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization rate and decay pattern

  9. Core and Satellite Species in Degraded Habitats: an Analysis Using Malagasy Tree Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc W. Cadotte; Jon Lovett-Doust

    2007-01-01

    Core-satellite theory predicts that, via the “rescue effect”, widespread, abundant species should have reduced risk of local\\u000a extinctions. We test this hypothesis in southeastern Malagasy littoral forest using data on distribution and abundance of\\u000a trees and woody understory vegetation in tropical forest fragments along a disturbance gradient. We partition the mortality\\u000a risk into two kinds of extinction factors, separately operating

  10. Species distributions in response to individual soil nutrients and seasonal drought across a community of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard; Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Pino, Delicia; Pérez, Rolando; Turner, Benjamin L

    2013-03-26

    Tropical forest vegetation is shaped by climate and by soil, but understanding how the distributions of individual tree species respond to specific resources has been hindered by high diversity and consequent rarity. To study species over an entire community, we surveyed trees and measured soil chemistry across climatic and geological gradients in central Panama and then used a unique hierarchical model of species occurrence as a function of rainfall and soil chemistry to circumvent analytical difficulties posed by rare species. The results are a quantitative assessment of the responses of 550 tree species to eight environmental factors, providing a measure of the importance of each factor across the entire tree community. Dry-season intensity and soil phosphorus were the strongest predictors, each affecting the distribution of more than half of the species. Although we anticipated clear-cut responses to dry-season intensity, the finding that many species have pronounced associations with either high or low phosphorus reveals a previously unquantified role for this nutrient in limiting tropical tree distributions. The results provide the data necessary for understanding distributional limits of tree species and predicting future changes in forest composition. PMID:23440213

  11. Species distributions in response to individual soil nutrients and seasonal drought across a community of tropical trees

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Richard; Engelbrecht, Bettina M. J.; Pino, Delicia; Pérez, Rolando; Turner, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forest vegetation is shaped by climate and by soil, but understanding how the distributions of individual tree species respond to specific resources has been hindered by high diversity and consequent rarity. To study species over an entire community, we surveyed trees and measured soil chemistry across climatic and geological gradients in central Panama and then used a unique hierarchical model of species occurrence as a function of rainfall and soil chemistry to circumvent analytical difficulties posed by rare species. The results are a quantitative assessment of the responses of 550 tree species to eight environmental factors, providing a measure of the importance of each factor across the entire tree community. Dry-season intensity and soil phosphorus were the strongest predictors, each affecting the distribution of more than half of the species. Although we anticipated clear-cut responses to dry-season intensity, the finding that many species have pronounced associations with either high or low phosphorus reveals a previously unquantified role for this nutrient in limiting tropical tree distributions. The results provide the data necessary for understanding distributional limits of tree species and predicting future changes in forest composition. PMID:23440213

  12. Recovery performance in xylem hydraulic conductivity is correlated with cavitation resistance for temperate deciduous tree species.

    PubMed

    Ogasa, Mayumi; Miki, Naoko H; Murakami, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Woody species hydraulically vulnerable to xylem cavitation may experience daily xylem embolism. How such species cope with the possibility of accumulated embolism is unclear. In this study, we examined seven temperate woody species to assess the hypothesis that low cavitation resistance (high vulnerability to cavitation) is compensated by high recovery performance via vessel refilling. We also evaluated leaf functional and xylem structural traits. The xylem recovery index (XRI), defined as the ratio of xylem hydraulic conductivity in plants rewatered after soil drought to that in plants under moist conditions, varied among species. The xylem water potential causing 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (?50) varied among the species studied, whereas only a slight difference was detected with respect to midday xylem water potential (?min), indicating smaller hydraulic safety margins (?min?-??50) for species more vulnerable to cavitation. Cavitation resistance (|?50|) was negatively correlated with XRI across species, with cavitation-vulnerable species showing a higher performance in xylem recovery. Wood density was positively correlated with cavitation resistance and was negatively correlated with XRI. These novel results reveal that coordination exists between cavitation resistance and xylem recovery performance, in association with wood functional traits such as denser wood for cavitation-resistant xylem and less-dense but water-storable wood for refillable xylem. These findings provide insights into long-term maintenance of water transport in tree species growing under variable environmental conditions. PMID:23492871

  13. Chemical composition and fuel wood characteristics of fast growing tree species in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, S. K.; Soni, R.

    2012-04-01

    India is one of the growing economy in the world and energy is a critical input to sustain the growth of development. Country aims at security and efficiency of energy. Though fossil fuel will continue to play a dominant role in energy scenario but country is committed to global environmental well being thus stressing on environment friendly technologies. Concerns of energy security in this changing climatic situation have led to increasing support for the development of new renewable source of energy. Government though is determined to facilitate bio-energy and many projects have been established but initial after-affects more specifically on the domestic fuelwood are evident. Even the biomass power generating units are facing biomass crisis and accordingly the prices are going up. The CDM projects are supporting the viability of these units resultantly the Indian basket has a large number of biomass projects (144 out of total 506 with 28 per cent CERs). The use for fuelwood as a primary source of energy for domestic purpose by the poor people (approx. 80 per cent) and establishment of bio-energy plants may lead to deforestation to a great extent and only solution to this dilemma is to shift the wood harvest from the natural forests to energy plantations. However, there is conspicuous lack of knowledge with regards to the fuelwood characteristics of fast growing tree species for their selection for energy plantations. The calorific value of the species is important criteria for selection for fuel but it is affected by the proportions of biochemical constituents present in them. The aim of the present work was to study the biomass production, calorific value and chemical composition of different short rotation tree species. The study was done from the perspective of using the fast growing tree species for energy production at short rotation and the study concluded that short rotation tree species like Gmelina arborea, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pongamia pinnata,Terminalia arjuna, Toona ciliate, etc. have better fuelwood properties and can be considered for inclusion in the energy plantation programme to minimize pressure on the traditional forests. Key words: Short rotation tree species, bio-energy, calorific value, bio-chemicals

  14. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling

    E-print Network

    Revell, Liam

    Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: Multilocus species-level phylogeny of boas and pythons are familiar, taxonomy and evolutionary relationships within these families remain published study has produced a species-level molecular phylogeny for more than 61% of boa species or 65

  15. Chemical taxonomy of tree peony species from China based on root cortex metabolic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    He, Chunnian; Peng, Bing; Dan, Yang; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2014-11-01

    The section Moutan of the genus Paeonia consists of eight species that are confined to a small area in China. A wide range of metabolites, including monoterpenoid glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, triterpenoids, steroids, paeonols, and phenols, have been found in the species belonging to section Moutan. However, although previous studies have analyzed the metabolites found in these species, the metabolic similarities that can be used for the chemotaxonomic distinction of section Moutan species are not yet clear. In this study, HPLC-DAD-based metabolic fingerprinting was applied to the classification of eight species: Paeoniasuffruticosa, Paeoniaqiui, Paeoniaostii, Paeoniarockii, Paeoniajishanensis, Paeoniadecomposita, Paeoniadelavayi, and Paeonialudlowii. In total, of the 47 peaks that exhibited an occurrence frequency of 75% in all 23 tree peony samples, 43 of these metabolites were identified according to their retention times and UV absorption spectra, together with combined HPLC-QTOF-MS. These data were compared with reference standard compounds. The 43 isolated compounds included 17 monoterpenoid glucosides, 11 galloyl glucoses, 5 flavonoids, 6 paeonols and 4 phenols. Principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), showed a clear separation between the species based on metabolomics similarities and four groups were identified. The results exhibited good agreement with the classical classification based on the morphological characteristics and geographical distributions of the subsections Vaginatae F.C. Stern and Delavayanae F.C. Stern with the exception of P. decomposita, which was found to be a transition species between these two subsections. According to their metabolic fingerprinting characteristics, P. ostii and P. suffruticosa can be considered one species, and this result is consistent with the viewpoint of medicinal plant scientists but different from that of classical morphological processing. Significantly large variations were obtained in the metabolic profiles of P. delavayi, whereas no significant difference was found between P. delavayi and P. ludlowii. This indicates that these two species have a close genetic relationship. In conclusion, the combination of HPLC-DAD and multivariate analyses has great potential for guiding future chemotaxonomic studies to examine the potential pharmaceutical value of the effective constituents of tree peony species and appears to be able to clarify the confusion and skepticism associated with the reported morphology- and molecular phylogenetics-based taxonomy of tree peonies. PMID:25220499

  16. Soil microbial communities in a CO2-enriched and 13C-labelled treeline ecosystem with different tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hiltbrunner; Frank Hagedorn; Anja Miltner; Michael W. I. Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the responses of soil microbial communities at the alpine treeline to elevated CO2 and to gain insight into the C cycling through microbial groups under two tree species by tracking 13C signatures into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). In alpine treeline ecosystems, we exposed 30 year-old larch and pine trees growing on undisturbed

  17. Effect of tree species and crown pruning on root length and soil water content in semi-arid agroforestry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jones; F. L. Sinclair; V. L. Grime

    1998-01-01

    Soil cores were taken to estimate root length prior to transplanting and after 60 days growth of a dry season sorghum crop in an agroforestry experiment in a semi-arid region of north-east Nigeria. The experiment compared sorghum grown alone and with two tree species (Acacia nilotica subsp adstringens and Prosopis juliflora) and one management treatment (pruning of tree crowns). Data

  18. Individual tree-based species classification in high spatial resolution aerial images of forests using fuzzy sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Brandtberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an application of fuzzy set theory for classification of individual tree crowns into species groups, in high spatial resolution colour infrared aerial photographs. In this type of digital image, the trees are visible as individual objects. The number of individuals to classify might be very large in the acquired set of photographs, but the applied grade of

  19. Tree species differentiation using intensity data derived from leaf-on and leaf-off airborne laser scanner data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sooyoung Kim; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Gerard Schreuder

    2009-01-01

    Tree species identification is important for a variety of natural resource management and monitoring activities including riparian buffer characterization, wildfire risk assessment, biodiversity monitoring, and wildlife habitat assessment. Intensity data recorded for each laser point in a LIDAR system is related to the spectral reflectance of the target material and thus may be useful for differentiating materials and ultimately tree

  20. Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients of dioecious riparian trees has direct consequences on ecosystem ET, particularly along stream margins. Shifts000232. 1. Introduction [2] Plants take up and transpire large amounts of water to the extent

  1. Community structure, diversity and total biomass of tree species at Kapur dominated forests in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norafida, N. A. Nik; Nizam, M. S.; Juliana, W. A. Wan

    2013-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine the species composition, diversity and biomass of Kapur (Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn.f.) dominated forests in Peninsular Malaysia. Three forests were selected in different geographical zones, namely Bukit Bauk Virgin Jungle Reserve (BBVJR), Terengganu, Lesong Forest Reserve (LFR), Pahang and Gunung Belumut Recreational Forest (GBRF), Johor. Thirty plots of 0.1 ha (50 m × 20 m) were established with a total sampling area of 1.0 ha at each forest site. All trees with ?5 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were tagged, measured and voucher specimens were collected. Floristic composition in the study plot at BBVJR recorded 55 families, 147 genera and 336 species. In LFR, there were 52 families, 138 genera and 288 species, whereas in GBRF there were 52 families, 132 genera and 271 species. D. aromatica was the most important species in all study plots with the Importance Value Index (IVi) of 17.81%, 23.01% and 16.25% in BBVJR, LFR and GBRF, respectively. Similar trend at family level showed the Dipterocarpaceae was the most important family in each of the areas with the family Importance Value Index (FIVi) of 27.95% (BBVJR), 26.09% (LFR) and 27.16% (GBRF). Shannon diversity index (H'f) and Shannon evenness index (J'f) of trees at BBVJR was 5.02 and 0.86; LFR was 4.63 and 0.82; and GBRF was 4.82 and 0.86, respectively. Sorensen's community similarity coefficient (CCs) showed that tree communities between BBVJR, LFR and GBRF had low similarities with values of 0.3 to 0.4. The highest total biomass estimated was in LFR with a value of 739.44 t/ha, followed by BBVJR at 701.34 t/ha and GBRF at 606.29 t/ha.

  2. Seasonal trends in separability of leaf reflectance spectra for Ailanthus altissima and four other tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, Aaron

    This project investigated the spectral separability of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, and four other native species. Leaves were collected from Ailanthus and four native tree species from May 13 through August 24, 2008, and spectral reflectance factor measurements were gathered for each tree using an ASD (Boulder, Colorado) FieldSpec Pro full-range spectroradiometer. The original data covered the range from 350-2500 nm, with one reflectance measurement collected per one nm wavelength. To reduce dimensionality, the measurements were resampled to the actual resolution of the spectrometer's sensors, and regions of atmospheric absorption were removed. Continuum removal was performed on the reflectance data, resulting in a second dataset. For both the reflectance and continuum removed datasets, least angle regression (LARS) and random forest classification were used to identify a single set of optimal wavelengths across all sampled dates, a set of optimal wavelengths for each date, and the dates for which Ailanthus is most separable from other species. It was found that classification accuracy varies both with dates and bands used. Contrary to expectations that early spring would provide the best separability, the lowest classification error was observed on July 22 for the reflectance data, and on May 13, July 11 and August 1 for the continuum removed data. This suggests that July and August are also potentially good months for species differentiation. Applying continuum removal in many cases reduced classification error, although not consistently. Band selection seems to be more important for reflectance data in that it results in greater improvement in classification accuracy, and LARS appears to be an effective band selection tool. The optimal spectral bands were selected from across the spectrum, often with bands from the blue (401-431 nm), NIR (1115 nm) and SWIR (1985-1995 nm), suggesting that hyperspectral sensors with broad wavelength sensitivity are important for mapping and identification of Ailanthus.

  3. Detecting CO2 Fertilization in Tree Ring Records: Evidence from Natural Populations of Boreal Forest Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, E. A.; Thomas, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Global increases of atmospheric CO2 concentration are predicted to enhance tree growth, particularly where water limitation is important, but evidence of CO2 fertilization in Canada's forests is limited. This study examined the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on tree ring increments in south-east Yukon, west-central Manitoba and northern Ontario, sampling the dominant tree species at each site: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), white spruce (Picea glauca) and black spruce (Picea mariana), respectively. Over 50 tree cores from each site were sampled, analysed for ring-width, cross- dated and averaged, generating a ~100 y chronology for each population. We examined the residuals following a regression with climate variables for a positive trend over time, which has been interpreted in prior studies as evidence for a CO2 fertilization effect. We were only able to detect an increase in ring width residuals over time in the Manitoba white spruce population, which were located at the most water-limited site. We did further analyses to see whether CO2 fertilization was stronger or more detectable in younger trees or more water-limited years. Although we were unable to find any evidence that drier years experienced increases in relative growth as a result of increased CO2 availability, we did find stronger CO2 responses in younger trees. In conclusion, forest populations that are water-limited or young in age are more likely to benefit from global increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration, and are better able to contribute to overall boreal forest carbon sequestration.

  4. Species assemblage patterns around a dominant emergent tree are associated with drought resistance.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Sarah V; Macinnis-Ng, Catriona M O; Burns, Bruce R; Clearwater, Michael J; Schwendenmann, Luitgard

    2013-12-01

    Water availability has long been recognized as an important driver of species distribution patterns in forests. The conifer Agathis australis (D. Don) Lindl. (kauri; Araucariaceae) grows in the species-rich forests of northern New Zealand. It is accompanied by distinctive species assemblages, and during summer the soil beneath A. australis is often significantly drier than soils beneath surrounding broadleaved angiosperm canopy species. We used a shade house dry-down experiment to determine whether species that grow close to A. australis differed in drought tolerance physiology compared with species that rarely grow close to A. australis. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) was plotted against leaf water potential (?) to identify drought tolerance strategies. Seedlings of species that occur in close spatial association with A. australis (including A. australis seedlings) were most resistant to drought stress, and all displayed a drought avoidance strategy of either declining gs to maintain ? or simultaneous declines in g(s) and ?. The species not commonly occurring beneath A. australis, but abundant in the surrounding forest, were the most drought-sensitive species and succumbed relatively quickly to drought-induced mortality with rapidly declining gs and ? values. These results were confirmed with diurnal measurements of g(s) and assimilation rates throughout the day, and leaf wilting analysis. We conclude that the varied abilities of the species to survive periods of drought stress as seedlings shapes the composition of the plant communities beneath A. australis trees. Furthermore, forest diversity may be impacted by climate change as the predicted intensification of droughts in northern New Zealand is likely to select for drought-tolerant species over drought-intolerant species. PMID:24299988

  5. The relationship between tree growth patterns and likelihood of mortality: A study of two tree species in the Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, A.J.; Battles, J.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined mortality of Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) and Pinus lambertiana Dougl. (sugar pine) by developing logistic models using three growth indices obtained from tree rings: average growth, growth trend, and count of abrupt growth declines. For P. lambertiana, models with average growth, growth trend, and count of abrupt declines improved overall prediction (78.6% dead trees correctly classified, 83.7% live trees correctly classified) compared with a model with average recent growth alone (69.6% dead trees correctly classified, 67.3% live trees correctly classified). For A. concolor, counts of abrupt declines and longer time intervals improved overall classification (trees with DBH ???20 cm: 78.9% dead trees correctly classified and 76.7% live trees correctly classified vs. 64.9% dead trees correctly classified and 77.9% live trees correctly classified; trees with DBH <20 cm: 71.6% dead trees correctly classified and 71.0% live trees correctly classified vs. 67.2% dead trees correctly classified and 66.7% live trees correctly classified). In general, count of abrupt declines improved live-tree classification. External validation of A. concolor models showed that they functioned well at stands not used in model development, and the development of size-specific models demonstrated important differences in mortality risk between understory and canopy trees. Population-level mortality-risk models were developed for A. concolor and generated realistic mortality rates at two sites. Our results support the contention that a more comprehensive use of the growth record yields a more robust assessment of mortality risk. ?? 2007 NRC.

  6. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions--a multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rocker, J; Cornu, D; Kieseritzky, E; Seiler, A; Bondarchuk, O; Hänsel-Ziegler, W; Risse, T; Freund, H-J

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 × 10(11) spins/cm(2), which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology. PMID:25173280

  7. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Seiler, A.; Bondarchuk, O.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Risse, T.; Freund, H.-J.

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 × 1011 spins/cm2, which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology.

  8. Structure, composition and species diversity in an altitude-substrate matrix of rain forest tree communities on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichiro Aiba; Kanehiro Kitayama

    1999-01-01

    We studied forest structure, composition and tree species diversity of eight plots in an environmental matrix of four altitudes (700, 1700, 2700 and 3100 m) and two types of geological substrates (ultrabasic and non-ultrabasic rocks) on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. On both substrate series, forest stature, mean leaf area and tree species diversity (both =?4.8 cm and =?10 cm diameter at breast height [dbh])

  9. Size-Class Effect Contributes to Tree Species Assembly through Influencing Dispersal in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue-Hua; Kitching, Roger L.; Lan, Guo-Yu; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Sha, Li-Qing; Cao, Min

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of trees. Specifically our work examined (1) whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2) which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining species-area relationships (SARs) and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used tree species data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the species level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the species and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape species’ distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to species assembly and enhances our understanding of species coexistence. PMID:25251538

  10. Photosynthesis and water relations of savanna tree species differing in leaf phenology.

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Francisco, M

    1994-12-01

    Godmania macrocarpa Hemsley, a deciduous tree characteristic of fire protected areas of the savanna region of central Venezuela, was more drought tolerant, allocated more N to leaves and had consistently higher photosynthetic rates than Curatella americana L., a ubiquitous species growing successfully within the grasslands of tropical American savannas. Godmania macrocarpa maintained higher leaf conductance and photosynthesized at higher xylem water tensions than C. americana. As the dry season progressed, G. macrocarpa was more affected by water stress than C. americana, which may explain why G. macrocarpa shed its leaves before forming new leaves. For both species, leaf sap osmolality was strongly correlated with, but not completely accounted for by, soluble sugars. Integrated water-use efficiency, as measured by delta(13)C, was similar for both species, but young leaves were more efficient than old leaves. Water-use efficiency of adult leaves was similar in both species as a result of higher photosynthetic rates in G. macrocarpa and lower leaf conductances in C. americana. Compared to G. macrocarpa, instantaneous photosynthetic N-use efficiency was higher in C. americana despite its lower maximum photosynthetic rates. The absence of G. macrocarpa trees from open grasslands, despite their high productive capacity, is possibly the result of unfavorable conditions for germination, poor survival of seedlings, and lack of resistance against fire. PMID:14967610

  11. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that - despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees - suggesting the action of associational resistance processes - and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores. PMID:25938417

  12. [Characteristics of caloric value and nutrient content of four garden tree species].

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-ling; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the caloric value, nutrient content, and ash content in the stem, leaf, and root of four garden tree species Prunus mume Meiren, P. serrulata, Magnolia denudata and M. grandiflora were determined to explore the distribution characteristics of caloric value in different tree organs at different development stages, and related affecting factors. The results showed that the gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) in different organs of the tree species ranged from 17.02 to 21.93 kJ g(-1) and from 18.42 to 22.57 kJ g(-1), respectively. Leaf and fine root had relatively higher GCV and AFCV than stem, and AFCV had a decreasing trend with the development of stem and root. P. mume Meiren and P. serrulata had higher GCV and AFCV than M. grandiflora and M. denudate. Both GCV and AFCV of fine root were significantly correlated with its nutrient and ash contents (P <0.01). With the development of root, the correlations of GCV and AFCV with organic carbon content declined gradually, while the GCV of different organs had the strongest correlation with total nitrogen content. PMID:18593032

  13. Species delineation in the tree pathogen genus Celoporthe (Cryphonectriaceae) in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Marcele; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2013-01-01

    The genus Celoporthe was first described when C. dispersa was discovered in South Africa associated with dieback and cankers on trees in the Myrtales. Four additional species were recently described from Eucalyptus and Syzygium cumini in China as well as S. aromaticum and Eucalyptus in Indonesia. Inoculation trials have shown that all Celoporthe species, including those that have not been found on Eucalyptus species in nature, are pathogenic to Eucalyptus and they are thus potentially threatening to commercial Eucalyptus forestry. New isolates, morphologically similar to Celoporthe, have been collected from S. legatti in South Africa and S. guineense in Zambia. Multigene phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequences of the ITS region, TEF1? gene and two areas of the ?-tubulin gene revealed additional cryptic species in Celoporthe. Phylogenetic data were supported by morphological differences. These resulted in the description of two previously unknown species of Celoporthe, namely C. fontana and C. woodiana, for two of these cryptic groups, while the third group represented C. dispersa. These species all can readily infect Eucalyptus as well as several species of Syzygium, the latter of which are native to Africa. PMID:23233512

  14. Applying species-tree analyses to deep phylogenetic histories: challenges and potential suggested from a survey of empirical phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-02-01

    Coalescent-based methods for species-tree estimation are becoming a dominant approach for reconstructing species histories from multi-locus data, with most of the studies examining these methodologies focused on recently diverged species. However, deeper phylogenies, such as the datasets that comprise many Tree of Life (ToL) studies, also exhibit gene-tree discordance. This discord may also arise from the stochastic sorting of gene lineages during the speciation process (i.e., reflecting the random coalescence of gene lineages in ancestral populations). It remains unknown whether guidelines regarding methodologies and numbers of loci established by simulation studies at shallow tree depths translate into accurate species relationships for deeper phylogenetic histories. We address this knowledge gap and specifically identify the challenges and limitations of species-tree methods that account for coalescent variance for deeper phylogenies. Using simulated data with characteristics informed by empirical studies, we evaluate both the accuracy of estimated species trees and the characteristics associated with recalcitrant nodes, with a specific focus on whether coalescent variance is generally responsible for the lack of resolution. By determining the proportion of coalescent genealogies that support a particular node, we demonstrate that (1) species-tree methods account for coalescent variance at deep nodes and (2) mutational variance - not gene-tree discord arising from the coalescent - posed the primary challenge for accurate reconstruction across the tree. For example, many nodes were accurately resolved despite predicted discord from the random coalescence of gene lineages and nodes with poor support were distributed across a range of depths (i.e., they were not restricted to a particular recent divergences). Given their broad taxonomic scope and large sampling of taxa, deep level phylogenies pose several potential methodological complications including difficulties with MCMC convergence and estimation of requisite population genetic parameters for coalescent-based approaches. Despite these difficulties, the findings generally support the utility of species-tree analyses for the estimation of species relationships throughout the ToL. We discuss strategies for successful application of species-tree approaches to deep phylogenies. PMID:25450097

  15. Microsatellite primers in the foundation tree species Pinus edulis and P. monophylla (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Krohn, Andrew L.; Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Gehring, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the foundational tree species Pinus edulis to investigate population differentiation of P. edulis and hybridization among closely related species. • Methods and Results: Using a hybridization protocol, primer sets for 11 microsatellite loci were developed using megagametophyte tissue from P. edulis and scored for polymorphism in three populations of P. edulis and a single P. monophylla population. The primers amplified simple and compound di-, tri-, and pentanucleotide repeats with two to 18 alleles per locus. • Conclusions: These results demonstrate the utility of the described primers for studies of population differentiation within and among P. edulis populations as well as across putative hybrid zones where P. edulis may coexist with sister species. PMID:25202571

  16. Contrasts in growth and water sources in co-occurring Mediterranean riparian tree species: Evidence from tree ring isotopes and dendrochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, M. B.; Dufour, S.; Stella, J. C.; Piégay, H.; Johnstone, L.; Wilson, R.

    2011-12-01

    Riparian trees have growth responses to varying water sources that are more subtle than those of their upland counterparts, but differences in water use between co-occurring riparian species are not easily discerned by conventional dendrochronology. While tree ring isotopes have been developed as a useful tool for understanding past climate (temperature and precipitation) at the growth limits for particular species, relatively little research has investigated responses in tree growth in water-rich environments, where co-occurring tree species may express differential adaptation to water availability and shifting water sources. Better understanding of such subtle adaptations will improve predictions of the response of lowland riparian forests to climate changes that manifest as shifts in: regional ground water tables; the spatial/temporal distribution of precipitation; or volumes and timing of streamflow. We use an approach that combines dendrochronology and tree ring isotopes (?18O) to discern the relationships between tree growth and water sources for two contrasting, co-occurring Mediterranean riparian species-- Fraxinus excelsior and Populus nigra. We developed growth time series via two methods (one de-trended for climate) and extracted alpha-cellulose from tree rings to assess relative responses to water stress via ?18O, and we analyzed these data alongside streamflow and precipitation data for the Ain River basin in France. We find that both species exhibit decreased growth during drought years, but F. excelsior demonstrates more consistent annual growth than P. nigra. In contrast, oxygen isotopic values in P. nigra have low interannual variability compared with ?18O in F. excelsior. These differences suggest contrasting patterns of water use by these co-occurring species, wherein F. excelsior functions as an opportunist, scavenging water from the vadose zone where and when it cannot access groundwater. In contrast, the P. nigra demonstrates consistent groundwater usage (consistent with its moniker-obligate phreatophyte) and tends to struggle in drought years. These observations are consistent with ancillary data on rooting depths which show that F. excelsior maintains its roots above the gravel layer, where it can extract soil water from precipitation or overbank flooding. In contrast, P. nigra roots deeply into the phreatic zone without maintaining significant vadose zone roots, and is therefore less adaptable to rapid declines in the water table. These factors suggest, in contrast to prior work, that poplars may be more sensitive to drought than ash trees. Such dynamics in water use between such co-occurring, yet contrasting riparian trees within a riparian floodplain may indicate the response in succession and stand composition to climate changes or major anthropogenic impacts.

  17. [Distribution of fine root biomass of main planting tree species in Loess Plateau, China].

    PubMed

    Jian, Sheng-Qi; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Fang, Shu-Min; Yu, Kai

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of fine roots of Pinus tabuliformis, Populus tomentosa, Prunus armeniaca, Robinia pseudoacacia, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Caragana korshinskii was investigated by using soil core method and the fine root was defined as root with diameter less than 2 mm. The soil moisture and soil properties were measured. The results showed that in the horizontal direction, the distribution of fine root biomass of P. tabuliformis presented a conic curve, and the fine root biomass of the other species expressed logarithm correlation. Radial roots developed, the fine root biomass were concentrated within the scope of the 2-3 times crown, indicating that trees extended their roots laterally to seek water farther from the tree. In the vertical direction, the fine root biomass decreased with the increasing soil depth. Fine root biomass had significant negative correlation with soil water content and bulk density, while significant positive correlation with organic matter and total N contents. PMID:25345038

  18. Species-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and Tree Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the tree’s leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of species identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is species-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different tree species planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and tree architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These species-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA), leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD), crown base height (CBH), tree height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI) as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, tree height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, tree height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved species. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of tree species. PMID:26079260

  19. Classification of Tree Species in Overstorey Canopy of Subtropical Forest Using QuickBird Images.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chinsu; Popescu, Sorin C; Thomson, Gavin; Tsogt, Khongor; Chang, Chein-I

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a supervised classification scheme to identify 40 tree species (2 coniferous, 38 broadleaf) belonging to 22 families and 36 genera in high spatial resolution QuickBird multispectral images (HMS). Overall kappa coefficient (OKC) and species conditional kappa coefficients (SCKC) were used to evaluate classification performance in training samples and estimate accuracy and uncertainty in test samples. Baseline classification performance using HMS images and vegetation index (VI) images were evaluated with an OKC value of 0.58 and 0.48 respectively, but performance improved significantly (up to 0.99) when used in combination with an HMS spectral-spatial texture image (SpecTex). One of the 40 species had very high conditional kappa coefficient performance (SCKC ? 0.95) using 4-band HMS and 5-band VIs images, but, only five species had lower performance (0.68 ? SCKC ? 0.94) using the SpecTex images. When SpecTex images were combined with a Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI), there was a significant improvement in performance in the training samples. The same level of improvement could not be replicated in the test samples indicating that a high degree of uncertainty exists in species classification accuracy which may be due to individual tree crown density, leaf greenness (inter-canopy gaps), and noise in the background environment (intra-canopy gaps). These factors increase uncertainty in the spectral texture features and therefore represent potential problems when using pixel-based classification techniques for multi-species classification. PMID:25978466

  20. Quantifying root-reinforcement of river bank soils by four Australian tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Docker, B. B.; Hubble, T. C. T.

    2008-08-01

    The increased shear resistance of soil due to root-reinforcement by four common Australian riparian trees, Casuarina glauca, Eucalyptus amplifolia, Eucalyptus elata and Acacia floribunda, was determined in-situ with a field shear-box. Root pull-out strengths and root tensile-strengths were also measured and used to evaluate the utility of the root-reinforcement estimation models that assume simultaneous failure of all roots at the shear plane. Field shear-box results indicate that tree roots fail progressively rather than simultaneously. Shear-strengths calculated for root-reinforced soil assuming simultaneous root failure, yielded values between 50% and 215% higher than directly measured shear-strengths. The magnitude of the overestimate varies among species and probably results from differences in both the geometry of the root-system and tensile strengths of the root material. Soil blocks under A. floribunda which presents many, well-spread, highly-branched fine roots with relatively higher tensile strength, conformed most closely with root model estimates; whereas E. amplifolia, which presents a few, large, unbranched vertical roots, concentrated directly beneath the tree stem and of relatively low tensile strength, deviated furthest from model-estimated shear-strengths. These results suggest that considerable caution be exercised when applying estimates of increased shear-strength due to root-reinforcement in riverbank stability modelling. Nevertheless, increased soil shear strength provided by tree roots can be calculated by knowledge of the Root Area Ratio ( RAR) at the shear plane. At equivalent RAR values, A. floribunda demonstrated the greatest earth reinforcement potential of the four species studied.

  1. Manganese accumulation in the leaf mesophyll of four tree species: a PIXE/EDAX localization study.

    PubMed

    Fernando, D R; Bakkaus, E J; Perrier, N; Baker, A J M; Woodrow, I E; Batianoff, G N; Collins, R N

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the spatial distribution of excess manganese (Mn) in the leaves of tolerant plants. Recently, the first such study of a Mn hyperaccumulator showed that the highest localized Mn concentrations occur in the photosynthetic tissue. This is in contrast to reports based on localization of foliar accumulation of other heavy metals. Here, four tree species, Gossia bidwillii, Virotia neurophylla, Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla, which hyperaccumulate or strongly accumulate Mn, were studied. Cross-sectional foliar Mn localization was carried out in situ using proton-induced X-ray emission/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (PIXE/EDAX). All four species contained photosynthetic tissues with multiple palisade layers. These were shown to be the primary sequestration sites for Mn. Mn was not detected in the epidermal tissues. The findings of this study demonstrate a concurrence of three traits in four tree species, that is, accumulation of excess Mn in the leaves, its primary sequestration in the photosynthetic tissues, and multiple-layer palisade mesophyll. PMID:16918546

  2. Towards a species level tree of the globally diverse genus Chenopodium (Chenopodiaceae).

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Bazan, Susy; Mansion, Guilhem; Borsch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Chenopodium is a large and morphologically variable genus of annual and perennial herbs with an almost global distribution. All subgenera and most sections of Chenopodium were sampled along with other genera of Chenopodieae, Atripliceae and Axyrideae across the subfamily Chenopodioideae (Chenopodiaceae), totalling to 140 taxa. Using Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of the non-coding trnL-F (cpDNA) and nuclear ITS regions, we provide a comprehensive picture of relationships of Chenopodium sensu lato. The genus as broadly classified is highly paraphyletic within Chenopodioideae, consisting of five major clades. Compared to previous studies, the tribe Dysphanieae with three genera Dysphania, Teloxys and Suckleya (comprising the aromatic species of Chenopodium s.l.) is now shown to form one of the early branches in the tree of Chenopodioideae. We further recognize the tribe Spinacieae to include Spinacia, several species of Chenopodium, and the genera Monolepis and Scleroblitum. The Chenopodium rubrum and the Ch. murale-clades were newly discovered as distinct major lineages but their relationships within Chenopodioideae will need further evaluation. Based on our results, we suggest the delimitation of Chenopodium to include Einadia and Rhagodia because these are part of the crown group composed of species of subg. Chenopodium that appear sister to the Atripliceae. The tetraploid crops such as Ch. berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae and Ch. quinoa also belong to Chenopodium sensu stricto. Trees derived from trnL-F and ITS were incongruent within this shallow crown group clade. Possible biological causes are discussed, including allopolyploidization. PMID:22051350

  3. Positive Effects of Plant Genotypic and Species Diversity on Anti-Herbivore Defenses in a Tropical Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Mooney, Kailen A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on plant chemical defenses. PMID:25141305

  4. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Constance A.; Gould, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2–5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier. PMID:25784922

  5. On the Biogeography of Centipeda: A Species-Tree Diffusion Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nylinder, Stephan; Lemey, Philippe; De Bruyn, Mark; Suchard, Marc A.; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Walsh, Neville; Anderberg, Arne A.

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the biogeographic history of groups present in continuous arid landscapes is challenging due to the difficulties in defining discrete areas for analyses, and even more so when species largely overlap both in terms of geography and habitat preference. In this study, we use a novel approach to estimate ancestral areas for the small plant genus Centipeda. We apply continuous diffusion of geography by a relaxed random walk where each species is sampled from its extant distribution on an empirical distribution of time-calibrated species-trees. Using a distribution of previously published substitution rates of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for Asteraceae, we show how the evolution of Centipeda correlates with the temporal increase of aridity in the arid zone since the Pliocene. Geographic estimates of ancestral species show a consistent pattern of speciation of early lineages in the Lake Eyre region, with a division in more northerly and southerly groups since ?840 ka. Summarizing the geographic slices of species-trees at the time of the latest speciation event (?20 ka), indicates no presence of the genus in Australia west of the combined desert belt of the Nullabor Plain, the Great Victoria Desert, the Gibson Desert, and the Great Sandy Desert, or beyond the main continental shelf of Australia. The result indicates all western occurrences of the genus to be a result of recent dispersal rather than ancient vicariance. This study contributes to our understanding of the spatiotemporal processes shaping the flora of the arid zone, and offers a significant improvement in inference of ancestral areas for any organismal group distributed where it remains difficult to describe geography in terms of discrete areas. PMID:24335493

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in an endangered tree species, Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib (Caesalpinioideae).

    PubMed

    Pakkad, Greuk; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    Afzelia xylocarpa is listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources World list of Threatened Trees, due to overexploitation for its valuable timber and habitat loss. We isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci from A. xylocarpa using dual suppression polymerase chain reaction technique. These loci provide microsatellite markers with high polymorphism, as the number of alleles ranged from two to seven, and the estimate of gene diversity was between 0.285 and 0.795. The markers are now available for more detailed investigation of population genetic structure and gene flow among A. xylocarpa populations. PMID:21564776

  7. Selection bias in species distribution models: An econometric approach on forest trees based on structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ay, J. S.; Guillemot, J.; Doyen, L.; Leadley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global changes on species. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given species is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural species distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and species responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of species response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of applications on forest trees over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8km). We also compared the outputs of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM (i.e. Biomod ensemble modelling) in terms of bioclimatic response curves and potential distributions under current climate and climate change scenarios. The shapes of the bioclimatic response curves and the modelled species distribution maps differed markedly between SSDM and classical SDMs, with contrasted patterns according to species and spatial resolutions. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents a crucial step to account for economic constraints on tree species distributions that will help to assess the trade-offs and opportunities arising from global changes and refine adaptive management strategies.

  8. Species-Specific Effects on Throughfall Kinetic Energy in Subtropical Forest Plantations Are Related to Leaf Traits and Tree Architecture.

    PubMed

    Goebes, Philipp; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Kröber, Wenzel; Kühn, Peter; Li, Ying; Seitz, Steffen; von Oheimb, Goddert; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a key threat to many ecosystems, especially in subtropical China where high erosion rates occur. While the mechanisms that induce soil erosion on agricultural land are well understood, soil erosion processes in forests have rarely been studied. Throughfall kinetic energy (TKE) is influenced in manifold ways and often determined by the tree's leaf and architectural traits. We investigated the role of species identity in mono-specific stands on TKE by asking to what extent TKE is species-specific and which leaf and architectural traits account for variation in TKE. We measured TKE of 11 different tree species planted in monocultures in a biodiversity-ecosystem-functioning experiment in subtropical China, using sand-filled splash cups during five natural rainfall events in summer 2013. In addition, 14 leaf and tree architectural traits were measured and linked to TKE. Our results showed that TKE was highly species-specific. Highest TKE was found below Choerospondias axillaris and Sapindus saponaria, while Schima superba showed lowest TKE. These species-specific effects were mediated by leaf habit, leaf area (LA), leaf pinnation, leaf margin, stem diameter at ground level (GD), crown base height (CBH), tree height, number of branches and leaf area index (LAI) as biotic factors and throughfall as abiotic factor. Among these, leaf habit, tree height and LA showed the highest effect sizes on TKE and can be considered as major drivers of TKE. TKE was positively influenced by LA, GD, CBH, tree height, LAI, and throughfall amount while it was negatively influenced by the number of branches. TKE was lower in evergreen, simple leaved and dentate leaved than in deciduous, pinnated or entire leaved species. Our results clearly showed that soil erosion in forest plantations can be mitigated by the appropriate choice of tree species. PMID:26079260

  9. Exploiting machine learning algorithms for tree species classification in a semiarid woodland using RapidEye image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi; Cho, Moses Azong

    2013-01-01

    Classification of different tree species in semiarid areas can be challenging as a result of the change in leaf structure and orientation due to soil moisture constraints. Tree species mapping is, however, a key parameter for forest management in semiarid environments. In this study, we examined the suitability of 5-band RapidEye satellite data for the classification of five tree species in mopane woodland of Botswana using machine leaning algorithms with limited training samples.We performed classification using random forest (RF) and support vector machines (SVM) based on EnMap box. The overall accuracies for classifying the five tree species was 88.75 and 85% for both SVM and RF, respectively. We also demonstrated that the new red-edge band in the RapidEye sensor has the potential for classifying tree species in semiarid environments when integrated with other standard bands. Similarly, we observed that where there are limited training samples, SVM is preferred over RF. Finally, we demonstrated that the two accuracy measures of quantity and allocation disagreement are simpler and more helpful for the vast majority of remote sensing classification process than the kappa coefficient. Overall, high species classification can be achieved using strategically located RapidEye bands integrated with advanced processing algorithms.

  10. Bioinformatic analysis of ESTs collected by Sanger and pyrosequencing methods for a keystone forest tree species: oak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saneyoshi Ueno; Grégoire Le Provost; Valérie Léger; Christophe Klopp; Céline Noirot; Jean-Marc Frigerio; Franck Salin; Jérôme Salse; Michael Abrouk; Florent Murat; Oliver Brendel; Jérémy Derory; Pierre Abadie; Patrick Léger; Cyril Cabane; Aurélien Barré; Antoine de Daruvar; Arnaud Couloux; Patrick Wincker; Marie-Pierre Reviron; Antoine Kremer; Christophe Plomion

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few genomic resources have yet been generated

  11. Spatial structure and genetic diversity of two tropical tree species with contrasting breeding systems and different ploidy levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin K. S. Ng; S. L. Lee; C. L. Koh

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of the spatial distribution pattern, spatial genetic structure and of genetic diver- sity were carried out in two tropical tree species with contrasting breeding systems and dif- ferent ploidy levels using a 50-ha demographic plot in a lowland dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Shorea leprosula is a diploid and predominantly outcrossed species, whereas S. ovalis ssp. sericea is an

  12. Age-Specific Fecundity of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Three Tree Species Infested in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Smith; Jay Bancroft; Joseph Tropp

    2002-01-01

    The spread of Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Asian long horned bettle), in the United States is dependent on its rates of reproduction and dispersal among host-tree species. Therefore, investigations of the reproductive characteristics of A. glabripennis, including preovipo- sitional period, age speciÞc fecundity and survival, on Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), red maple (Acerrubrum L.), and black willow (Salixnigra Marshall) were

  13. POLICULTIVO COM DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES FRUTÍFERAS DE VALOR ECONÔMICO Intercropping systems of fruit tree species of economic value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Rodrigues de Paiva; Francisco José de Seixas Santos; Joquebede Bezerra Cacau; Raimundo Nonato; Martins de Souza; Antonia Regia; Abreu Sobral

    Preliminary results of an experiment carried out in the Experimental Field of Pacajus, CE, Brazil, established in September 2000, to evaluate intercropping systems of tropical fruit trees are discussed. Ten species were planted in 1.2 ha, in a way that each row had two species in alternate and divergent position in relation to the lateral lines, so that each plant

  14. Growth and photosynthesis of seedling of five bottom land tree species following nutrient enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Vaitkus, M.R.; Ciravolo, T.G.; McLeod, K.W.; Mavity, E.M.; Novak, K.L. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Land management practices are increasingly focusing on the use of native plant communities to filter wastewater. Nutrient uptake from these effluents may affect overall growth and physiology. We examined the effects of increased nutrient levels on the seedlings of five species of bottomland trees. Seedlings of Carpinus caroliniana Walter. (hornbeam), Pinus serotina Michaux (pond pine), Acer rubrum L. (red maple), Quercus michauxii Nuttall (swamp chestnut oak), and Q, nigra L. (water oak) were grown outside in full sun under six levels of nutrient enrichment. During the 3rd growing season, height, component biomass, total biomass, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area and foliar nitrogen concentrations were determined. Height and total biomass of all species increased from low to high nutrient levels, with A. rubrum and P. serotina exhibiting the highest rates of increase. Biomass and foliar nitrogen relationships suggested differing patterns of nutrient uptake and use among the species. Acer rubrum, C. caroliniana and Q. michauxii used all nitrogen taken up for growth. Pinus serotina showed an accumulation of foliar nitrogen with a rapid rate of growth. Wuercus nigra grew more slowly. The effect of nutrient level on net photosynthesis was variable and species-specific. Only W. nigra and A. rubrum showed a positive relationship. Net photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen showed no clear relationship among individual species, although a regression of all species together showed net photosynthesis to be positively correlated to foliar nitrogen. In a natural setting, the biomass response of A. rubrum and P. serotina, along with a corresponding increase height, could give seedlings of these species a competitive advantage in capturing light or tolerating floods. Differential responses may thus alter the competitive relationships of these five species in nutrient-enriched bottomland forest communities. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Variability in root production, phenology, and turnover rate among 12 temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M Luke; Adams, Thomas S; Smithwick, Erica A H; Eissenstat, David M

    2014-08-01

    The timing of fine root production and turnover strongly influences both the seasonal potential for soil resource acquisition among competing root systems and the plant fluxes of root carbon into soil pools. However, basic patterns and variability in the rates and timing or fine root production and turnover are generally unknown among perennial plants species. We address this shortfall using a heuristic model relating root phenology to turnover together with three years of minirhizotron observations of root dynamics in 12 temperate tree species grown in a common garden. We specifically investigated how the amount and the timing of root production differ among species and how they impact estimates of fine root turnover. Across the 12 species, there was wide variation in the timing of root production with some species producing a single root flush in early summer and others producing roots either more uniformly over the growing season or in multiple pulses. Additionally, the pattern and timing of root production appeared to be consistent across years for some species but varied in others. Root turnover rate was related to total root production (P < 0.001) as species with greater root production typically had faster root turnover rates. We also found that, within species, annual root production varied up to a threefold increase between years, which led to large interannual differences in turnover rate. Results from the heuristic model indicated that shifting the pattern or timing of root production can impact estimates of root turnover rates for root populations with life spans less than one year while estimates of root turnover rate for longer lived roots were unaffected by changes in root phenology. Overall, we suggest that more detailed observations of root phenology and production will improve fidelity of root turnover estimates. Future efforts should link patterns of root phenology and production with whole-plant life history traits and variation in annual and seasonal climate. PMID:25230473

  16. Species tree phylogeny and biogeography of the Neotropical genus Pradosia (Sapotaceae, Chrysophylloideae).

    PubMed

    Terra-Araujo, Mário H; de Faria, Aparecida D; Vicentini, Alberto; Nylinder, Stephan; Swenson, Ulf

    2015-06-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies in Sapotaceae have demonstrated that many genera need to be redefined to better correspond to natural groups. The Neotropical genus Pradosia is believed to be monophyletic and includes 26 recognized species. Here we reconstruct the generic phylogeny by a species-tree approach using (?)BEAST, 21 recognized species (36 accessions), sequence data from three nuclear markers (ITS, ETS, and RPB2), a relaxed lognormal clock model, and a fossil calibration. We explore the evolution of five selected morphological characters, reconstruct the evolution of habitat (white-sand vs. clayish soils) preference, as well as space and time by using a recently developed continuous diffusion model in biogeography. We find Pradosia to be monophyletic in its current circumscription and to have originated in the Amazon basin at ?47.5Ma. Selected morphological characters are useful to readily distinguish three clades. Preferences to white-sand and/or clay are somewhat important for the majority of species, but speciation has not been powered by habitat shifts. Pradosia brevipes is a relative young species (?1.3Ma) that has evolved a unique geoxylic life strategy within Pradosia and is restricted to savannahs. Molecular dating and phylogenetic pattern indicate that Pradosia reached the Brazilian Atlantic coast at least three times: at 34.4Ma (P. longipedicellata), at 11.7Ma (P. kuhlmannii), and at 3.9Ma (weakly supported node within the red-flowered clade). PMID:25797923

  17. Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis: a comparison of boreal and temperate tree species along a latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L

    2010-06-01

    Common gardens were established along a approximately 900 km latitudinal transect to examine factors limiting geographical distributions of boreal and temperate tree species in eastern North America. Boreal representatives were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), while temperate species were eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr ex. Marsh var. deltoides) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). The species were compared with respect to adjustments of leaf photosynthetic metabolism along the transect, with emphasis on temperature sensitivities of the maximum rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation (E(V)) and regeneration (E(J)). During leaf development, the average air temperature (T(growth)) differed between the coolest and warmest gardens by 12 degrees C. Evidence of photosynthetic thermal acclimation (metabolic shifts compensating for differences in T(growth)) was generally lacking in all species. Namely, neither E(V) nor E(J) was positively related to T(growth). Correspondingly, the optimum temperature (T(opt)) of ambient photosynthesis (A(sat)) did not vary significantly with T(growth). Modest variation in T(opt) was explained by the combination of E(V) plus the slope and curvature of the parabolic temperature response of mesophyll conductance (g(m)). All in all, species differed little in photosynthetic responses to climate. Furthermore, the adaptive importance of photosynthetic thermal acclimation was overshadowed by g(m)'s influence on A(sat)'s temperature response. PMID:20082671

  18. Above- and belowground interactions drive habitat segregation between two cryptic species of tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Pizano, Camila; Mangan, Scott A; Herre, Edward Allen; Eom, Ahn-Heum; Dalling, James W

    2011-01-01

    In the lowlands of central Panama, the Neotropical pioneer tree Trema micrantha (sensu lato) exists as two cryptic species: "landslide" Trema is restricted to landslides and road embankments, while "gap" Trema occurs mostly in treefall gaps. In this study, we explored the relative contributions of biotic interactions and physical factors to habitat segregation in T. micrantha. Field surveys showed that soils from landslides were significantly richer in available phosphorus and harbored distinct arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities compared to gap soils. Greenhouse experiments designed to determine the effect of these abiotic and biotic differences showed that: (1) both landslide and gap species performed better in sterilized soil from their own habitat, (2) the availability of phosphorus and nitrogen was limiting in gap and landslide soils, respectively, (3) a standardized AMF inoculum increased performance of both species, but primarily on gap soils, and (4) landslide and gap species performed better when sterilized soils were inoculated with the microbial inoculum from their own habitat. A field experiment confirmed that survival and growth of each species was highest in its corresponding habitat. This experiment also showed that browsing damage significantly decreased survival of gap Trema on landslides. We conclude that belowground interactions with soil microbes and aboveground interactions with herbivores contribute in fundamental ways to processes that may promote and reinforce adaptive speciation. PMID:21560675

  19. Contrasting responses to ectomycorrhizal inoculation in seedlings of six tropical African tree species.

    PubMed

    Diédhiou, A G; Guèye, O; Diabaté, M; Prin, Y; Duponnois, R; Dreyfus, B; Bâ, A M

    2005-12-01

    Five caesalpinioid legumes, Afzelia africana, Afzelia bella, Anthonotha macrophylla, Cryptosepalum tetraphylum and Paramacrolobium coeruleum, and one Euphorbiaceae species, Uapaca somon, with a considerable range in seed sizes, exhibited different responses to inoculation by four species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Scleroderma dictyosporum, S. verrucosum, Pisolithus sp. and one thelephoroid sp. in greenhouse conditions. Thelephoroid sp. efficiently colonized seedlings of all of the five caesalpinioid legumes except U. somon, but provided no more growth benefit than the other fungi. Thelephoroid sp. and S. dictyosporum colonized seedlings of U. somon poorly, but stimulated plant growth more than the other fungi. The relative mycorrhizal dependency (RMD) values of the caesalpinioid legumes were never higher than 50%, whilst U. somon had RMD values ranging from 84.6 to 88.6%, irrespective of the fungal species. The RMD values were negatively related to seed mass for all plant species. Potassium concentrations in leaves were more closely related than phosphorus to the stimulation of seedling biomass production by the ECM fungi. Our data support the hypothesis that African caesalpinioid legumes and euphorbe tree species with smaller seeds show higher RMD values than those with the larger seeds. PMID:16007470

  20. Mapping Regional Distribution of a Single Tree Species: Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Landenburger, Lisa; Lawrence, Rick L.; Podruzny, Shannon; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

  1. Mapping regional distribution of a single tree species: Whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landenburger, L.; Lawrence, R.L.; Podruzny, S.; Schwartz, C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate resolution satellite imagery traditionally has been thought to be inadequate for mapping vegetation at the species level. This has made comprehensive mapping of regional distributions of sensitive species, such as whitebark pine, either impractical or extremely time consuming. We sought to determine whether using a combination of moderate resolution satellite imagery (Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus), extensive stand data collected by land management agencies for other purposes, and modern statistical classification techniques (boosted classification trees) could result in successful mapping of whitebark pine. Overall classification accuracies exceeded 90%, with similar individual class accuracies. Accuracies on a localized basis varied based on elevation. Accuracies also varied among administrative units, although we were not able to determine whether these differences related to inherent spatial variations or differences in the quality of available reference data.

  2. Testing the enemies hypothesis in forest stands: the important role of tree species composition.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, Janne; Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Koricheva, Julia; Vehviläinen, Harri

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in agro-ecosystems support the enemies hypothesis, which states that predators and parasites are more efficient in controlling pest densities in polycultures than in monocultures. Few similar studies, however, have been conducted in forest ecosystems, and we do not yet have evidence as to whether the enemies hypothesis holds true in forests. In a 2-year study, we investigated whether the survival of autumnal moth ( Epirrita autumnata) larvae and pupae differs between silver birch monocultures and two-species mixtures of birch with black alder, Norway spruce and Scots pine. We placed young larvae on birch saplings and monitored their survival until the end of the larval period, when we checked whether they had been parasitized. After the larvae had pupated, pupal survival was tested in a field trial. In 2002, the larvae disappeared earlier and their overall survival was lower in birch-pine mixtures than in other stand types. In 2003, survival probability was lowest in birch-pine stands only during the first week and there were no differences between stands in overall survival. Larval parasitism was not affected by tree species composition. Pupal weight and pupal survival were likewise not affected by stand type. Among the predators, wood ants were more abundant on birches growing in birch-pine mixtures than in other stand types probably because colonies of myrmecophilic aphids were common on pines. In contrast, spider numbers did not differ between stand types. Ant exclusion by means of a glue ring around the birch trunk increased larval survival, indicating that ants are important predators of the autumnal moth larvae; differences in larval survival between stands are probably due to differential ant predation. Our results provide only partial support for the enemies hypothesis, and suggest that it is both tree species composition and species diversity which affect herbivore survival and predation. PMID:15322903

  3. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, ?(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942

  4. Determinants of stomatal sluggishness in ozone-exposed deciduous tree species.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Carriero, Giulia; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Yulong; Paoletti, Elena

    2014-05-15

    Our knowledge of ozone effects on dynamic stomatal response is still limited, especially in Asian tree species. We thus examined ozone effects on steady-state leaf gas exchange and stomatal dynamics in three common tree species of China (Ailanthus altissima, Fraxinus chinensis and Platanus orientalis). Seedlings were grown and were exposed to three levels of ozone in open-top chambers (42, 69, 100 nmol mol(-1) daylight average, from 09:00 to 18:00). At steady-state, ozone exposure induced an uncoupling of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, as the former decreased while the latter did not. Dynamic stomatal response was investigated by cutting the leaf petiole after a steady-state stomatal conductance was reached. Ozone exposure increased stomatal sluggishness, i.e., slowed stomatal response after leaf cutting, in the following order of sensitivity, F. chinensis>A. altissima>P. orientalis. A restriction of stomatal ozone flux reduced the ozone-induced sluggishness in P. orientalis. The ozone-induced impairment of stomatal control was better explained by stomatal ozone flux per net photosynthesis rather than by stomatal ozone flux only. This suggests that ozone injury to stomatal control depends both on the amount of ozone entering a leaf and on the capacity for biochemical detoxification or repair. Leaf mass per area and the density of stomata did not affect stomatal sluggishness. PMID:24631608

  5. Direct measurements of intervessel pit membrane hydraulic resistance in two angiosperm tree species.

    PubMed

    Choat, Brendan; Brodie, Tyler W; Cobb, Alexander R; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-07-01

    The hydraulic resistance of pit membranes was measured directly in earlywood vessels of Fraxinus americana and Ulmus americana. The area-specific resistance of pit membranes (r(mem)) was higher than modeled or measured values obtained previously for hardwood species, with r(mem) of 5.24 × 10(3) MPa·s·m(-1) for Fraxinus and 2.56 × 10(3) MPa·s·m(-1) for Ulmus. The calculated resistance of pit canals was three orders of magnitude below total pit resistance indicating that pit membranes contributed the majority of resistance. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that pit membranes of Ulmus were thinner and more porous than those of Fraxinus, consistent with the difference in r(mem) between the species. Measurements of average vessel diameter and length and area of wall overlap with neighboring vessels were used to partition the vascular resistance between vessel lumen and pit membrane components. Pit membrane resistance accounted for 80% of the total resistance in Fraxinus and 87% in Ulmus in 2-yr-old branch sections. However, measurements of vessel dimensions in the trunk suggest that the division of resistance between pit membrane and lumen components would be closer to co-limiting in older regions of the tree. Thus, pit membrane resistance may be of greater relative importance in small branches than in older regions of mature trees. PMID:21642164

  6. Leaves of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species as biomonitors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa; Dias, Ana P L; Esposito, Jéssica B N; Pagliuso, Josmar D

    2012-05-01

    This study extends the current knowledge regarding the use of plants for the passive accumulation of anthropogenic PAHs that are present in the atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is of major relevance because the anthropic emissions of TSP containing PAHs are significant in these regions, but their monitoring is still scarce. We compared the biomonitor efficiency of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species (Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava 'Paluma') that were growing in an intensely TSP-polluted site in Cubatão (SE Brazil), and established the species with the highest potential for alternative monitoring of PAHs. PAHs present in the TSP indicated that the region is impacted by various emission sources. L. multiflorum showed a greater efficiency for the accumulation of PAH compounds on their leaves than the tropical trees. The linear regression between the logBCF and logKoa revealed that L. multiflorum is an efficient biomonitor of the profile of light and heavy PAHs present in the particulate phase of the atmosphere during dry weather and mild temperatures. The grass should be used only for indicating the PAHs with higher molecular weight in warmer and wetter periods. PMID:22285658

  7. [Effects of elevated O3 concentration on nitrogen in greening tree species in southern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Hu, En-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Tian, Yuan; Feng, Zhao-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that rising ozone (O3) in the troposphere significantly decreased the photosynthesis and the activity of Rubisco enzyme. So it can be inferred that the N uptake and distribution within the plants could be affected by elevated O3. In this study, ten greening woody species, widely distributed in subtropical China, were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF, less than 20 nL · L(-1)) and elevated O3 (E-O3, mean concentration of 150 nL · L(-1)) in open top chambers. The results showed that E-O3 significantly reduced the leaves biomass in Liquidamba formosana by 20.9%, the stem biomass in Liriodendron chinense by 21.4%, the root biomass in L. formosana and L. chinense by 24.2% and 32.5%, respectively. E-O3 significantly affected the N concentration in the stem but not those in leaves and root. The N uptakes in the whole tree (Nlu), the leaves and the root were significantly affected by E-O3. Compared to CF, E-O3 significantly reduced the Nlu in L. chinense by 28.4% and Schima superba by 22.7% but significantly increased the Nlu in Neolitsea sericea by 15.5%. Elevated O3 concentration had no significant influence on N distribution within the plants across the selected 10 tree species. PMID:25693399

  8. Interspecific coordination and intraspecific plasticity of fine root traits in North American temperate tree species

    PubMed Central

    Tobner, Cornelia M.; Paquette, Alain; Messier, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Fine roots play an important role in nutrient and water absorption and hence overall tree performance. However, current understanding of the ecological role of belowground traits lags considerably behind those of aboveground traits. In this study, we used data on specific root length (SRL), fine root diameter (D) and branching intensity (BI) of two datasets to examine interspecific trait coordination as well as intraspecific trait variation across ontogenetic stage and soil conditions (i.e., plasticity). The first dataset included saplings of 12 North American temperate tree species grown in monocultures in a common garden experiment to examine interspecific trait coordination. The second dataset included adult and juvenile individuals of four species (present in both datasets) co-occurring in natural forests on contrasting soils (i.e., humid organic, mesic, and xeric podzolic).The three fine root traits investigated were strongly coordinated, with high SRL being related to low D and high BI. Fine root traits and aboveground life-strategies (i.e., relative growth rate) were weakly coordinated and never significant. Intraspecific responses to changes in ontogenetic stage or soil conditions were trait dependent. SRL was significantly higher in juveniles compared to adults for Abies balsamea and Acer rubrum, but did not vary with soil condition. BI did not vary significantly with either ontogeny or soil conditions, while D was generally significantly lower in juveniles and higher in humid organic soils. D also had the least total variability most of which was due to changes in the environment (plasticity). This study brings support for the emerging evidence for interspecific root trait coordination in trees. It also indicates that intraspecific responses to both ontogeny and soil conditions are trait dependent and less concerted. D appears to be a better indicator of environmental change than SRL and BI. PMID:23874347

  9. Is the extremely rare Iberian endemic plant species Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Compositae, Anthemideae) a 'living fossil'? Evidence from a multi-locus species tree reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Salvatore; Álvarez, Inés; Vargas, Pablo; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides results of multi-species coalescent species tree analyses of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear and plastid regions to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the subtribe Leucanthemopsidinae (Compositae, Anthemideae), to which besides the annual Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Degen, Hervier & É.Rev.) Vogt & Oberp., one of the rarest flowering plant species of the Iberian Peninsula, two other unispecific genera (Hymenostemma, Prolongoa), and the polyploidy complex of the genus Leucanthemopsis belong. Based on sequence information from two single- to low-copy nuclear regions (C16, D35, characterised by Chapman et al. (2007)), the multi-copy region of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, and two intergenic spacer regions of the cpDNA gene trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference methods. For the reconstruction of a multi-locus species tree we applied three different methods: (a) analysis of concatenated sequences using Bayesian inference (MrBayes), (b) a tree reconciliation approach by minimizing the number of deep coalescences (PhyloNet), and (c) a coalescent-based species-tree method in a Bayesian framework ((?)BEAST). All three species tree reconstruction methods unequivocally support the close relationship of the subtribe with the hitherto unclassified genus Phalacrocarpum, the sister-group relationship of Castrilanthemum with the three remaining genera of the subtribe, and the further sister-group relationship of the clade of Hymenostemma+Prolongoa with a monophyletic genus Leucanthemopsis. Dating of the (?)BEAST phylogeny supports the long-lasting (Early Miocene, 15-22Ma) taxonomical independence and the switch from the plesiomorphic perennial to the apomorphic annual life-form assumed for the Castrilanthemum lineage that may have occurred not earlier than in the Pliocene (3Ma) when the establishment of a Mediterranean climate with summer droughts triggered evolution towards annuality. PMID:25281923

  10. Multipurpose Scribing and Drawing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Two-part tool reconfigured for variety of jobs. Tool performs several functions useful in layout. Lines, curves, and angles made visible as either bright scribe marks or as dark pencil (or ink) marks. Multipurpose tool speeds up laying out of patterns on sheet metal, wood, plastic, or paper. Tool is carried in pocket, then quickly assembled for service as height gauge, pair of dividers, protractor, surface gauge, or square.

  11. Effect of nurse tree species on early growth of Anisoptera marginata Korth. (Dipterocarpaceae) on an Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. grassland site in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riikka Otsamo

    1998-01-01

    The effect of four nurse tree species on early growth of an indigenous dipterocarp species, Anisoptera marginata, was studied on an Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland site in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. A rationale for the study was that fast-growing nurse tree species can ameliorate site conditions in such a way that dipterocarps, which are not able to tolerate open grassland conditions,

  12. Evaluation of reforestation potential of 83 tree species planted on Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland – A case study from South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antti Otsamo; Göran Ådjers; Tjuk Samito Hadi; Jussi Kuusipalo; Risto Vuokko

    1997-01-01

    Survival and growth of 83 tree species were tested in three separate species elimination trials on Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The trial layout was randomized complete blocks design with 6–8 replications of 5-tree line plots. At the age of two years exotics, like several Acacia species (A. mangium, A. crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis, A. cincinnata, A. leptocarpa),

  13. Differential sectoriality in long-distance transport in temperate tree species: evidence from dye flow, 15 N transport, and vessel element pitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin M. Orians; Margret M. I. van Vuuren; Nancy L. Harris; Benjamin A. Babst; George S. Ellmore

    2004-01-01

    The capture of patchily distributed nutrients by tree roots has received extensive research, but the fate of those nutrients has not. We performed experiments to determine if nutrient transport within tree species is preferentially transported from specific roots to specific branches. Saplings of five species with contrasting growth requirements were examined: two Betula species ( B. papyrifera and B. lenta),

  14. Seasonal gas exchange and water relations in juveniles of two evergreen Neotropical savanna tree species with contrasting regeneration strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos García-Núñez; Aura Azócar; Fermín Rada

    2011-01-01

    Colonization dynamics of woody species into grasslands in Neotropical savannas are determined by two main factors: plant-available\\u000a moisture and fire. Considering seasonality of precipitation and high fire frequency in these ecosystems, vegetative reproduction\\u000a has been suggested as the main regeneration strategy in woody species. This study examined seasonal variations in water relations\\u000a and photosynthesis in juveniles of two tree species

  15. Stochastically driven adult–recruit associations of tree species on Barro Colorado Island

    PubMed Central

    Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial placement of recruits around adult conspecifics represents the accumulated outcome of several pattern-forming processes and mechanisms such as primary and secondary seed dispersal, habitat associations or Janzen–Connell effects. Studying the adult–recruit relationship should therefore allow the derivation of specific hypotheses on the processes shaping population and community dynamics. We analysed adult–recruit associations for 65 tree species taken from six censuses of the 50 ha neotropical forest plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. We used point pattern analysis to test, at a range of neighbourhood scales, for spatial independence between recruits and adults, to assess the strength and type of departure from independence, and its relationship with species properties. Positive associations expected to prevail due to dispersal limitation occurred only in 16% of all cases; instead a majority of species showed spatial independence (?73%). Independence described the placement of recruits around conspecific adults in good approximation, although we found weak and noisy signals of species properties related to seed dispersal. We hypothesize that spatial mechanisms with strong stochastic components such as animal seed dispersal overpower the pattern-forming effects of dispersal limitation, density dependence and habitat association, or that some of the pattern-forming processes cancel out each other. PMID:25030984

  16. Leaf respiratory acclimation to climate: comparisons among boreal and temperate tree species along a latitudinal transect.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Dylan N; Kruger, Eric L

    2011-10-01

    In common gardens along an ?900 km latitudinal transect through Wisconsin and Illinois, U.S.A., tree species typical of boreal and temperate forests were compared with respect to the nature and magnitude of leaf respiratory acclimation to contrasting climates. The boreal representatives were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), while the temperate species were eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr ex. Marsh var. deltoides) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). Assessments were conducted on seedlings grown from seed sources collected near southern and northern range boundaries, respectively. Nighttime rates of leaf dark respiration (R(d)) at common temperatures, as well as R(d)'s short-term temperature sensitivity (energy of activation, E(o)), were assessed for all species and gardens twice during a growing season. Little evidence of R(d) thermal acclimation was observed, despite a 12 °C range in average air temperature across gardens. Instead, R(d) variation at warm temperatures was linked most closely with prior leaf photosynthetic performance, while R(d) variation at cooler temperatures was most strongly related to leaf nitrogen concentration. Moreover, E(o) differences across species and gardens appeared to stem from the somewhat independent limitations on warm versus cool R(d). Based on this construct, an empirical model relying on R(d) estimates from leaf photosynthesis and nitrogen concentration explained 55% of the observed E(o) variation. PMID:21990024

  17. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Karen K; Tyree, Melvin T; Mussone, Paolo G

    2011-04-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus aucuparia over 3 months. We measured the instantaneous surface tension and followed changes over a period of 0.5-5 h using the pendant drop technique. In all three species the instantaneous surface tension was equal to or within a few percent of that of pure water. Further, in B. papyrifera and S. aucuparia the change over time following drop establishment, although significant, was very small. In P. tremuloides, however, there was a steep decline in surface tension over time that leveled off towards values 21-27% lower than that of pure water. This indicated the presence of surfactants. The values were lower for thinner distal branch segments than for proximal ones closer to the trunk. In some species it appears valid to assume that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of water. However, in branch segments of P. tremuloides close to the terminal bud and hence potentially in other species as well, it may be necessary to take into account the presence of surfactants that reduce the surface tension over time. PMID:21470981

  18. Proximate composition and mineral content of two edible species of Cnidoscolus (tree spinach).

    PubMed

    Kuti, J O; Kuti, H O

    1999-01-01

    Proximate composition and mineral content of raw and cooked leaves of two edible tree spinach species (Cnidoscolus chayamansa and C. aconitifolius), known locally as 'chaya', were determined and compared with that of a traditional green vegetable, spinach (Spinicia oleraceae). Results of the study indicated that the edible leafy parts of the two chaya species contained significantly (p<0.05) greater amounts of crude protein, crude fiber, Ca, K, Fe, ascorbic acid and beta-carotene than the spinach leaf. However, no significant (p>0.05) differences were found in nutritional composition and mineral content between the chaya species, except minor differences in the relative composition of fatty acids, protein and amino acids. Cooking of chaya leaves slightly reduced nutritional composition of both chaya species. Cooking is essential prior to consumption to inactivate the toxic hydrocyanic glycosides present in chaya leaves. Based on the results of this study, the edible chaya leaves may be good dietary sources of minerals (Ca, K and Fe) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene). PMID:10540979

  19. Predicting the Potential Future Distribution of Four Tree Species in Ohio Using Current Habitat Availability and Climatic Forcing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Schwartz; Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad

    2001-01-01

    Weinvestigated the effect of habitat loss on the ability of trees to shift in distribution across a landscape dominated by\\u000a agriculture. The potential distribution shifts of four tree species (Diospyros virginiana, Oxydendron arboreum, Pinus virginiana, Quercus falcata var. falcata) whose northern distribution limits fall in the southern third of Ohio were used to assess possible distribution shift scenarios\\u000a as a

  20. The delineation of tree crowns in Australian mixed species forests using hyperspectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bunting; Richard Lucas

    2006-01-01

    In mixed-species forests of complex structure, the delineation of tree crowns is problematic because of their varying dimensions and reflectance characteristics, the existence of several layers of canopy (including understorey), and shadowing within and between crowns. To overcome this problem, an algorithm for delineating tree crowns has been developed using eCognition Expert and hyperspectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI-2) data

  1. Effects of altitude and livestock on the regeneration of two tree line forming Polylepis species in Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Cierjacks; Nadine Katrin Rühr; Karsten Wesche; Isabell Hensen

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration is known to be limited at many temperate tree lines, but very little data is available on the impacts of altitude\\u000a and anthropogenic disturbance on regeneration patterns along tropical tree lines. The study focused on the reproductive traits\\u000a of two Polylepis species in the Páramo de Papallacta in Ecuador along an altitudinal gradient, and involved different intensities of cattle

  2. Changes in leaf morphology and anatomy with tree age and height in the broadleaved evergreen species, Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline R. England; Peter M. Attiwill

    2006-01-01

    Relatively little is known about changes in leaf attributes over the lifespan of woody plants. Knowledge of such changes may\\u000a be useful in interpreting physiological changes with age. This study investigated changes in leaf morphology and anatomy with\\u000a tree age and height in the broadleaved evergreen species, Eucalyptus regnans. Fully expanded leaves were sampled from the upper canopy of tree

  3. Leaf reflectance variation along a vertical crown gradient of two deciduous tree species in a Belgian industrial habitat.

    PubMed

    Khavaninzadeh, Ali Reza; Veroustraete, Frank; Van Wittenberghe, Shari; Verrelst, Jochem; Samson, Roeland

    2015-09-01

    The reflectometry of leaf asymmetry is a novel approach in the bio-monitoring of tree health in urban or industrial habitats. Leaf asymmetry responds to the degree of environmental pollution and reflects structural changes in a leaf due to environmental pollution. This paper describes the boundary conditions to scale up from leaf to canopy level reflectance, by describing the variability of adaxial and abaxial leaf reflectance, hence leaf asymmetry, along the crown height gradients of two tree species. Our findings open a research pathway towards bio-monitoring based on the airborne remote sensing of tree canopies and their leaf asymmetric properties. PMID:26057363

  4. Monoterpene and isoprene emissions from typical tree species in forests around Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-Taylor, P.; Ruiz-Suarez, L. G.; Rosas-Perez, I.; Hernández-Solis, J. M.; Steinbrecher, R.

    The isoprenoid emission of sacred fir ( Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham.), patula pine ( Pinus patula Schiede, Schltdl. & Cham.) and net-leaf oak ( Quercus rugosa Née) was investigated in Mexico City during the years 2002 and 2003. Chemical compound specific emission factors were obtained for different months of the year. Net-leaf oak is an isoprene emitter whereas the other tree species emit monoterpenes. ?-Pinene and linalool are the main compounds emitted from sacred fir and patula pine, respectively. In general, the emission of monoterpenes is temperature dependent, whereas ?-pinene emission of sacred fir is controlled by light and temperature like the isoprene emission of net-leaf oak. All isoprenoids show a strong seasonality which is plant species specific. Emission factors for the conifers were high in October and low in April (sacred fir: 6.07?gCg-1dwh-1 in October and 0.02?gCg-1dwh-1 in April; patula pine: 4.22?gCg-1dwh-1 in October and 1.13?gCg-1dwh-1 in June). Isoprene emission potential of net-leaf oak was very variable in the different seasons with low source strengths in July (rainy season: 1.19?gCg-1dwh-1) and November (cold/dry season: 18.50?gCg-1dwh-1) but high in May (warm/dry season: 66.27?gCg-1dwh-1). The results indicate that present biogenic emission inventories of the Mexico City area have to be revised by using the new emission factors of native tree species including the seasonal impact.

  5. Photosynthetic responses to understory shade and elevated carbon dioxide concentration in four northern hardwood tree species.

    PubMed

    Sefcik, Lesley T; Zak, Donald R; Ellsworth, David S

    2006-12-01

    Seedling responses to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and solar irradiance were measured over two growing seasons in shade-tolerant Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fagus grandifolia J.F. Ehrh. and shade-intolerant Prunus serotina, a J.F. Ehrh. and Betula papyrifera Marsh. Seedlings were exposed to a factorial combination of [CO2] (ambient and elevated (658 micromol mol-1)) and understory shade (deep and moderate) in open-top chambers placed in a forest understory. The elevated [CO(2)] treatment increased mean light-saturated net photosynthetic rate by 63% in the shade-tolerant species and 67% in the shade-intolerant species. However, when measured at the elevated [CO(2)], long-term enhancement of photosynthesis was 10% lower than the instantaneous enhancement seen in ambient-[CO(2)]-grown plants (P < 0.021). Overall, growth light environment affected long-term photosynthetic enhancement by elevated [CO(2)]: as the growth irradiance increased, proportional enhancement due to elevated [CO(2)] decreased from 97% for plants grown in deep shade to 47% for plants grown in moderate shade. Results suggest that in N-limited northern temperate forests, trees grown in deep shade may display greater photosynthetic gains from a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere than trees growing in more moderate shade, because of greater downregulation in the latter environment. If photosynthetic gains by deep-shade-grown plants in response to elevated [CO(2)] translate into improved growth and survival of shade-intolerant species, it could alter the future composition and dynamics of successional forest communities. PMID:17169898

  6. Tree species mapping in tropical forests using multi-temporal imaging spectroscopy: Wavelength adaptive spectral mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, B.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The use of imaging spectroscopy for florisic mapping of forests is complicated by the spectral similarity among co-existing species. Here we evaluated an alternative spectral unmixing strategy combining a time series of EO-1 Hyperion images and an automated feature selection in Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). The temporal analysis provided a way to incorporate species phenology while feature selection indicated the best phenological time and best spectral feature set to optimize the separability between tree species. Instead of using the same set of spectral bands throughout the image which is the standard approach in MESMA, our modified Wavelength Adaptive Spectral Mixture Analysis (WASMA) approach allowed the spectral subsets to vary on a per pixel basis. As such we were able to optimize the spectral separability between the tree species present in each pixel. The potential of the new approach for floristic mapping of tree species in Hawaiian rainforests was quantitatively assessed using both simulated and actual hyperspectral image time-series. With a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.65, WASMA provided a more accurate tree species map compared to conventional MESMA (Kappa = 0.54; p-value < 0.05. The flexible or adaptive use of band sets in WASMA provides an interesting avenue to address spectral similarities in complex vegetation canopies.

  7. Using Data From Seed-Dispersal Modelling to Manage Invasive Tree Species: The Example of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiedel, Doreen; Huth, Franka; Wagner, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Management strategies to control invasive species need information about dispersal distances to predict establishment potential. Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a North American anemochorous tree species that is invasive in many Central European floodplain forests. To predict seed-dispersal potential, the stochastic model WaldStat was used, which enables different options for directionality (isotropic and anisotropic) to be simulated. In this article, we (1) show empirical results of fructification and seed dispersal for this tree species. The model predicts approximately 250,000 seeds for one F. pennsylvanica tree. These results were used to (2) calculate species-specific dispersal distances and effects of wind direction. To consider the influence of wind on dispersal potential of the tree species, long-distance dispersal (LDD [95th percentile dispersal distance]) was calculated. Mean dispersal distances varied between 47 and 66 m. LDD values modelled along the main wind direction ranged from 60 to 150 m. Seed production, dispersal distance, and direction data were (3) incorporated into theoretical management scenarios for forest ecosystems. Finally (4), we discuss management options and the practical relevance of model scenarios in relation to the accuracy of spatial dispersal predictions. Further analyses should be focused on possible, well-adapted management concepts at stand level that could restrict the potential spread of invasive species.

  8. Using data from seed-dispersal modelling to manage invasive tree species: the example of Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, Doreen; Huth, Franka; Wagner, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Management strategies to control invasive species need information about dispersal distances to predict establishment potential. Fraxinus pennsylvanica is a North American anemochorous tree species that is invasive in many Central European floodplain forests. To predict seed-dispersal potential, the stochastic model WaldStat was used, which enables different options for directionality (isotropic and anisotropic) to be simulated. In this article, we (1) show empirical results of fructification and seed dispersal for this tree species. The model predicts approximately 250,000 seeds for one F. pennsylvanica tree. These results were used to (2) calculate species-specific dispersal distances and effects of wind direction. To consider the influence of wind on dispersal potential of the tree species, long-distance dispersal (LDD [95th percentile dispersal distance]) was calculated. Mean dispersal distances varied between 47 and 66 m. LDD values modelled along the main wind direction ranged from 60 to 150 m. Seed production, dispersal distance, and direction data were (3) incorporated into theoretical management scenarios for forest ecosystems. Finally (4), we discuss management options and the practical relevance of model scenarios in relation to the accuracy of spatial dispersal predictions. Further analyses should be focused on possible, well-adapted management concepts at stand level that could restrict the potential spread of invasive species. PMID:23974901

  9. The Exotic Legume Tree Species Acacia holosericea Alters Microbial Soil Functionalities and the Structure of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Community?

    PubMed Central

    Remigi, P.; Faye, A.; Kane, A.; Deruaz, M.; Thioulouse, J.; Cissoko, M.; Prin, Y.; Galiana, A.; Dreyfus, B.; Duponnois, R.

    2008-01-01

    The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast-growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared to the crop soil surrounding the A. holosericea plantation, this exotic tree species, associated or not with the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, induced strong modifications in soil microbial functionalities (assessed by measuring the patterns of in situ catabolic potential of microbial communities) and reduced soil resistance in response to increasing stress or disturbance (salinity, temperature, and freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles). In addition, A. holosericea strongly modified the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities. These results show clearly that exotic plants may be responsible for important changes in soil microbiota affecting the structure and functions of microbial communities. PMID:18203858

  10. The exotic legume tree species Acacia holosericea alters microbial soil functionalities and the structure of the arbuscular mycorrhizal community.

    PubMed

    Remigi, P; Faye, A; Kane, A; Deruaz, M; Thioulouse, J; Cissoko, M; Prin, Y; Galiana, A; Dreyfus, B; Duponnois, R

    2008-03-01

    The response of microbial functional diversity as well as its resistance to stress or disturbances caused by the introduction of an exotic tree species, Acacia holosericea, ectomycorrhized or not with Pisolithus albus, was examined. The results show that this ectomycorrhizal fungus promotes drastically the growth of this fast-growing tree species in field conditions after 7 years of plantation. Compared to the crop soil surrounding the A. holosericea plantation, this exotic tree species, associated or not with the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, induced strong modifications in soil microbial functionalities (assessed by measuring the patterns of in situ catabolic potential of microbial communities) and reduced soil resistance in response to increasing stress or disturbance (salinity, temperature, and freeze-thaw and wet-dry cycles). In addition, A. holosericea strongly modified the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities. These results show clearly that exotic plants may be responsible for important changes in soil microbiota affecting the structure and functions of microbial communities. PMID:18203858

  11. Minimizing the cost of translocation failure with decision-tree models that predict species' behavioral response in translocation sites.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Bull, C Michael

    2015-08-01

    The high number of failures is one reason why translocation is often not recommended. Considering how behavior changes during translocations may improve translocation success. To derive decision-tree models for species' translocation, we used data on the short-term responses of an endangered Australian skink in 5 simulated translocations with different release conditions. We used 4 different decision-tree algorithms (decision tree, decision-tree parallel, decision stump, and random forest) with 4 different criteria (gain ratio, information gain, gini index, and accuracy) to investigate how environmental and behavioral parameters may affect the success of a translocation. We assumed behavioral changes that increased dispersal away from a release site would reduce translocation success. The trees became more complex when we included all behavioral parameters as attributes, but these trees yielded more detailed information about why and how dispersal occurred. According to these complex trees, there were positive associations between some behavioral parameters, such as fight and dispersal, that showed there was a higher chance, for example, of dispersal among lizards that fought than among those that did not fight. Decision trees based on parameters related to release conditions were easier to understand and could be used by managers to make translocation decisions under different circumstances. Minimizar el Costo del Fracaso de la Reubicación con Modelos de Árboles de Decisión que Predigan la Respuesta Conductual de la Especie en los Sitios de Reubicación. PMID:25737134

  12. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M.; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Hasper, Thomas B.; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species to exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to CO2 at different temperatures (20 - 40 C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. (Reference: New Phytologist, in press)

  13. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species.

    PubMed

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E; Hasper, Thomas B; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-05-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species with those of exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to carbon dioxide (CO2 ) at different temperatures (20-40°C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. PMID:25656943

  14. Gender-specific patterns of aboveground allocation, canopy conductance and water use in a dominant riparian tree species: Acer negundo.

    PubMed

    Hultine, K R; Bush, S E; West, A G; Burtch, K G; Pataki, D E; Ehleringer, J R

    2008-09-01

    Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious tree species that dominates riparian systems at mid elevations throughout the southwest and Intermountain West of the United States. Previous studies have shown that female A. negundo trees occur at higher frequencies along stream margins, whereas males occur at higher frequencies in drier microsites. To better understand the adaptive significance of sex ratio biases and their impact on the ecohydrology of riparian ecosystems, we examined whole-plant water relations and hydraulic properties of mature male and female A. negundo trees occurring within 1 m of a perennial stream channel. We hypothesized that (1) females would have significantly greater canopy water fluxes than males (particularly during periods of seed production: May-June), and (2) xylem in females is more hydraulically efficient but more vulnerable to cavitation than xylem in males. Mean sap flux density (J(s)) during the early growing season (May and June) was 43% higher in female trees than in male trees (n = 6 and 7 trees respectively, P < 0.0001). Mean J(s) in July and August remained 17% higher in females than in males (P = 0.0009). Mean canopy stomatal conductance per unit leaf area (g(s,leaf)) in May and June was on average 140% higher in females than in males (P < 0.0001). Mean g(s,leaf) in July and August remained 69% higher in female trees than in male trees (P < 0.0001). Canopy stomatal conductance scaled to basal area was 90 and 31% higher in females relative to males during May-June and July-August, respectively (P < 0.0001 during both periods). Conversely, there were no apparent differences in either branch hydraulic conductance or branch xylem cavitation vulnerability between genders. These results improve our capacity to describe the adaptive forces that shape the spatial distribution of male and female trees in dioecious species, and their consequences for ecohydrological processes in riparian ecosystems. PMID:18595851

  15. Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two tree species in a semiarid plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang

    2014-09-01

    Responses of transpiration ( E c) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid tree species in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall E c development and recovery rate, and (2) the species responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance ( G c) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two species exhibited the same hydraulic control (-d G c/dlnVPD to G cref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low E c. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand E c. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the E c recovery. Further, the stand E c was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. E c enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (?VWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two species had different response patterns of post-rainfall E c recovery. E c recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall E c increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the species differences of E c in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes.

  16. Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two tree species in a semiarid plantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang

    2014-09-01

    Responses of transpiration (Ec) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid tree species in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall Ec development and recovery rate, and (2) the species responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance (Gc) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two species exhibited the same hydraulic control (-dG c/dlnVPD to Gcref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low Ec. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand Ec. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the Ec recovery. Further, the stand Ec was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. Ec enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (?VWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two species had different response patterns of post-rainfall Ec recovery. Ec recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall Ec increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the species differences of Ec in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes. PMID:24510059

  17. Assessing variation in bacterial composition between the rhizospheres of two mangrove tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Newton C. M.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; Pires, Ana C. C.; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C. S.; Smalla, Kornelia

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine to what extent roots from the common mangrove tree species Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa are able to impose a selective force on the composition of sediment bacterial communities in mangrove intertidal sediments using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4 hyper-variable region). The novel results showed that root systems of A. schaueriana and L. racemosa are associated with increased bacterial dominance, lower richness and compositional shifts of sediment bacterial communities. The proportion of OTUs (operational taxonomc units) belonging to the orders Rhizobiales and Vibrionales were enriched in rhizosphere samples from both plant species and sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonging to the order Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were enriched in the rhizosphere of A. schaueriana. In addition, Clostridium and Vibrio populations were more abundant in different mangrove rhizospheres. A. schaueriana and L. racemosa roots appear to be able to impose a selective force on the composition of mangrove sediment bacterial communities and this phenomenon appears to be plant species specific. Our findings provide new insights into the potential ecological roles of bacterial guilds in plant-microbe interactions and may aid rhizoengineering approaches for replanting impacted mangrove areas.

  18. Effects of tannin source and concentration from tree leaves on two species of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Earl, Julia E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation in and around freshwater ecosystems can affect aquatic organisms through the production of secondary compounds, which are retained in leaves after senescence and are biologically active. Tannins can be toxic to tadpoles, but the plant source of tannins and tannin concentration have been confounded in experimental designs in previous studies. To examine the effects of the concentration and source of tannins (tree species), we examined the effects of 4 factors on tadpole survival, growth, and development: tannin source (red oak [Quercus rubra], white oak [Quercus alba], or sugar maple [Acer saccharum]); tannin concentration (including a control); diet protein level; and tadpole species (American toad [Anaxyrus americanus] and spring peepers [Pseudacris crucifer]). Tannin source and concentration affected spring peeper survival, but American toads had uniformly high survival. Spring peepers had a lower survival rate in high tannin concentrations of oak leachate but a high survival rate in both concentrations of sugar maple leachate. These differences in survival did not correspond with changes in dissolved oxygen, and no effect of dietary protein level on tadpole performance was observed. The presence of plant leachate resulted in increased tadpole growth in both species, but the mechanism for this finding is unclear. The results of the present study show that tannin concentration and source are important factors for tadpole performance, adding further evidence that plant chemistry can affect aquatic organisms. PMID:25319714

  19. Lutein epoxide cycle, light harvesting and photoprotection in species of the tropical tree genus Inga.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, G Heinrich; Seltmann, Martin; Virgo, Aurelio; Kursar, Thomas A; Jahns, Peter; Winter, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Dynamics and possible function of the lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle, that is, the reversible conversion of Lx to lutein (L) in the light-harvesting antennae, were investigated in leaves of tropical tree species. Photosynthetic pigments were quantified in nine Inga species and species from three other genera. In Inga, Lx levels were high in shade leaves (mostly above 20 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll) and low in sun leaves. In Virola surinamensis, both sun and shade leaves exhibited very high Lx contents (about 60 mmol mol(-1) chlorophyll). In Inga marginata grown under high irradiance, Lx slowly accumulated within several days upon transfer to deep shade. When shade leaves of I. marginata were briefly exposed to the sunlight, both violaxanthin and Lx were quickly de-epoxidized. Subsequently, overnight recovery occurred only for violaxanthin, not for Lx. In such leaves, containing reduced levels of Lx and increased levels of L, chlorophyll fluorescence induction showed significantly slower reduction of the photosystem II electron acceptor, Q(A), and faster formation as well as a higher level of non-photochemical quenching. The results indicate that slow Lx accumulation in Inga leaves may improve light harvesting under limiting light, while quick de-epoxidation of Lx to L in response to excess light may enhance photoprotection. PMID:18208510

  20. Multiple evolutionary processes drive the patterns of genetic differentiation in a forest tree species complex

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca C; Steane, Dorothy A; Lavery, Martyn; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2013-01-01

    Forest trees frequently form species complexes, complicating taxonomic classification and gene pool management. This is certainly the case in Eucalyptus, and well exemplified by the Eucalyptus globulus complex. This ecologically and economically significant complex comprises four taxa (sspp. bicostata, globulus, maidenii, pseudoglobulus) that are geographically and morphologically distinct, but linked by extensive “intergrade” populations. To resolve their genetic affinities, nine microsatellites were used to genotype 1200 trees from throughout the natural range of the complex in Australia, representing 33 morphological core and intergrade populations. There was significant spatial genetic structure (FST = 0.10), but variation was continuous. High genetic diversity in southern ssp. maidenii indicates that this region is the center of origin. Genetic diversity decreases and population differentiation increases with distance from this area, suggesting that drift is a major evolutionary process. Many of the intergrade populations, along with other populations morphologically classified as ssp. pseudoglobulus or ssp. globulus, belong to a “cryptic genetic entity” that is genetically and geographically intermediate between core ssp. bicostata, ssp. maidenii, and ssp. globulus. Geography, rather than morphology, therefore, is the best predictor of overall genetic affinities within the complex and should be used to classify germplasm into management units for conservation and breeding purposes. PMID:23403692

  1. HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING TREE SPECIES ASSEMBLAGES ACROSS LARGE DOMAINS

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sudipto; McRoberts, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Spatially explicit data layers of tree species assemblages, referred to as forest types or forest type groups, are a key component in large-scale assessments of forest sustainability, biodiversity, timber biomass, carbon sinks and forest health monitoring. This paper explores the utility of coupling georeferenced national forest inventory (NFI) data with readily available and spatially complete environmental predictor variables through spatially-varying multinomial logistic regression models to predict forest type groups across large forested landscapes. These models exploit underlying spatial associations within the NFI plot array and the spatially-varying impact of predictor variables to improve the accuracy of forest type group predictions. The richness of these models incurs onerous computational burdens and we discuss dimension reducing spatial processes that retain the richness in modeling. We illustrate using NFI data from Michigan, USA, where we provide a comprehensive analysis of this large study area and demonstrate improved prediction with associated measures of uncertainty. PMID:20352037

  2. [Anatomic characterization of growth-rings in 80 potential tree species for dendrocronological studies in the Central Forest, Perú].

    PubMed

    Beltrán Gutiérrez, Lizandro Adal; Valencia Ramos, Gina Mariela

    2013-09-01

    The knowledge about the existence of annual tree rings in tropical trees, which was already found at the beginning of the last century, was ignored by many scientists for a long time. Wood samples of 80 tree species from seven different sites belonging to Satipo and Chanchamayo provinces in Central Forest, Perú. Wood slices were taken at 1.30 m height, following the Peruvian Technical Norms (NTP) 251-008, COPANT norms 30:1-019 and IAWA (1989). Results showed that 24 of the 80 tree species analyzed showed a potential for dendrocronological studies, 25 had problems for growth-rings analysis, and 31 did not have potential. The problems most frequently found were: barely visible or irregular ring growth, parenchyma bands and multiseriate rays difficult to be identified in rings growth. The "T" Student test showed that the significant variation in vessel and fiber diameters between growth zones (Early-wood and late-wood) of species with potential for dendrocronology, do have a periodic cells production, so is possible to suggest the annual formation of each growth-ring. However, those species without potential to dendrocronology may be influenced by of a lot of factors, such as biotic and abiotic conditions of environment, as well as the genetic aspect of each species. PMID:24027905

  3. RESEARCH: Shrub Propagation Techniques for Biological Control ofInvading Tree Species

    PubMed

    Meilleur; Veronneau; Bouchard

    1997-05-01

    / The use of relatively stable shrub communities to control invasionby trees could be an efficient way of reducing herbicide applications, andthus represents an environmental gain, in areas such as rights-of-way. Thequestion is how to favor the expansion of these relatively stable shrubcommunities using different propagation techniques. Three experimentaltreatments, cutting back, layering, and cutting back-layering were performedon Cornus stolonifera, Salix petiolaris, and Spiraea albaclones already located within the corridor of an electrical power line. Toestablish the efficiency of treatments, we examined the statisticaldifferences of growth traits between species and treatments.An analysis of the effects of layering shows, after the first growth season,differences for all growth traits in only one species, Spiraea alba.After the second growth season, we observed the development of new aerialstems. Layering favors horizontal expansion of shrubs over heightdevelopment. The third year after treatment, the effect of layering isreduced except for Cornus stolonifera, which continuously increases,as shown by the significant progression of the clone issued from the layereven five years after treatments. With the cutting back technique, weexpected a distinct vertical growth of the shrubs at the expense ofincreasing the crown diameter. This technique would be best associated withthe rejuvenation of clones, followed by a layering of new shoots to allow ahorizontal expansion of the shrubs. Therefore, the formation of a dense shrubcommunity by layering should be considered a valuable approach for thebiological control of undesirable trees in powerline rights-of-way.KEY WORDS: Layering; Cutting back; Right-of-way; Cornus stolonifera;Salix petiolaris; Spiraea alba; Quebec PMID:9106416

  4. Digital Representations of Tree Species Range Maps from "Atlas of United States Trees" by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (and other publications)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earth Surface Dynamics section of the USGS provides this excellent collection of graphics, depicting range maps for more than 100 common North American tree species. From Abies amabilis to Yucca brevifolia, these color maps may be viewed or downloaded (.pdf, .zip, tgz). Most of the ranges depicted here were digitized by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (USDA Forest Service) for vegetation-climate modeling studies; graphics are best viewed as downloaded files.

  5. The ecohydrology of forested peatlands: Simulating the effects of tree shading on moss evaporation and species composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, N.; Thompson, D. K.; Bombonato, L.; Turetsky, M. R.; Benscoter, B. W.; Waddington, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    Forested peatlands represent an important global carbon pool, storing 48.0 Pg of carbon within continental western Canada alone. Peatland hydrology regulates the carbon dynamics and future stability of this carbon store and provides a critical control on regional water dynamics. Drying associated with land-use change and climate change has the potential to increase tree growth, modifying the density, size, and spatial arrangement of trees. This can reduce peatland evaporation and offset the associated increase in transpiration. To determine the magnitude of this negative ecohydrological feedback, we simulated spatial variations in radiation, turbulent energy fluxes, and temperatures in peatlands with real and idealized tree densities and distributions. For a random tree distribution, an increase in tree density from 0 to 4 trees per m2 reduced available energy at the peat surface, decreasing average evaporation by 25%. At higher tree densities, feather moss species covered a larger fraction of the ground because of lower light availability. In combination with the lower energy availability, this change in moss composition reduced evaporation by ~70%. The reduction in evaporation was greater (83%) when the effects of increased canopy cover on peatland aerodynamic properties were incorporated. Additionally, we found that evaporation was dependent on the spatial arrangement of trees, with evaporation being higher when trees were clustered. Overall, our model showed that the trade-off between reduced evaporation and increased transpiration with increasing tree densities reduced landscape variation in evapotranspiration, with simulated evapotranspiration remaining approximately constant across a broad range of peatland ecosystems despite varying canopy densities.

  6. The effects of inference method, population sampling, and gene sampling on species tree inferences: an empirical study in slender salamanders (Plethodontidae: Batrachoseps).

    PubMed

    Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; Timpe, Elizabeth K

    2015-01-01

    Species tree methods are now widely used to infer the relationships among species from multilocus data sets. Many methods have been developed, which differ in whether gene and species trees are estimated simultaneously or sequentially, and in how gene trees are used to infer the species tree. While these methods perform well on simulated data, less is known about what impacts their performance on empirical data. We used a data set including five nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene for 22 species of Batrachoseps to compare the effects of method of analysis, within-species sampling and gene sampling on species tree inferences. For this data set, the choice of inference method had the largest effect on the species tree topology. Exclusion of individual loci had large effects in *BEAST and STEM, but not in MP-EST. Different loci carried the greatest leverage in these different methods, showing that the causes of their disproportionate effects differ. Even though substantial information was present in the nuclear loci, the mitochondrial gene dominated the *BEAST species tree. This leverage is inherent to the mtDNA locus and results from its high variation and lower assumed ploidy. This mtDNA leverage may be problematic when mtDNA has undergone introgression, as is likely in this data set. By contrast, the leverage of RAG1 in STEM analyses does not reflect properties inherent to the locus, but rather results from a gene tree that is strongly discordant with all others, and is best explained by introgression between distantly related species. Within-species sampling was also important, especially in *BEAST analyses, as shown by differences in tree topology across 100 subsampled data sets. Despite the sensitivity of the species tree methods to multiple factors, five species groups, the relationships among these, and some relationships within them, are generally consistently resolved for Batrachoseps. PMID:25246662

  7. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; Higuchi, P; van den Berg, E

    2010-08-01

    In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh), total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes. PMID:20730335

  8. Object based technique for delineating and mapping 15 tree species using VHR WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Yaseen T.; Habeeb, Hindav N.

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring and analyzing forests and trees are required task to manage and establish a good plan for the forest sustainability. To achieve such a task, information and data collection of the trees are requested. The fastest way and relatively low cost technique is by using satellite remote sensing. In this study, we proposed an approach to identify and map 15 tree species in the Mangish sub-district, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Image-objects (IOs) were used as the tree species mapping unit. This is achieved using the shadow index, normalized difference vegetation index and texture measurements. Four classification methods (Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance, Neural Network, and Spectral Angel Mapper) were used to classify IOs using selected IO features derived from WorldView-2 imagery. Results showed that overall accuracy was increased 5-8% using the Neural Network method compared with other methods with a Kappa coefficient of 69%. This technique gives reasonable results of various tree species classifications by means of applying the Neural Network method with IOs techniques on WorldView-2 imagery.

  9. Multi-purpose satellite bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakoda, Daniel; Agrawal, Brij N.

    1991-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Satellite bus (MPS) can be used for a number of payloads which may require different orbits, pointing accuracy, and electrical power consumption. Specifically, it was designed to accommodate the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and an EHF communication payload, both of which have a three-year life. The estimated beginning-of-life weight of the MPS bus is 150 kg. It can be launched by either the Pegasus ALV or the Taurus SSLV. Configuration requirements for the different missions are discussed.

  10. Multilocus Species Trees Show the Recent Adaptive Radiation of the Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Krzysztof M.; Wahlberg, Niklas; Neild, Andrew F. E.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2015-01-01

    Müllerian mimicry among Neotropical Heliconiini butterflies is an excellent example of natural selection, associated with the diversification of a large continental-scale radiation. Some of the processes driving the evolution of mimicry rings are likely to generate incongruent phylogenetic signals across the assemblage, and thus pose a challenge for systematics. We use a data set of 22 mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 92% of species in the tribe, obtained by Sanger sequencing and de novo assembly of short read data, to re-examine the phylogeny of Heliconiini with both supermatrix and multispecies coalescent approaches, characterize the patterns of conflicting signal, and compare the performance of various methodological approaches to reflect the heterogeneity across the data. Despite the large extent of reticulate signal and strong conflict between markers, nearly identical topologies are consistently recovered by most of the analyses, although the supermatrix approach failed to reflect the underlying variation in the history of individual loci. However, the supermatrix represents a useful approximation where multiple rare species represented by short sequences can be incorporated easily. The first comprehensive, time-calibrated phylogeny of this group is used to test the hypotheses of a diversification rate increase driven by the dramatic environmental changes in the Neotropics over the past 23 myr, or changes caused by diversity-dependent effects on the rate of diversification. We find that the rate of diversification has increased on the branch leading to the presently most species-rich genus Heliconius, but the change occurred gradually and cannot be unequivocally attributed to a specific environmental driver. Our study provides comprehensive comparison of philosophically distinct species tree reconstruction methods and provides insights into the diversification of an important insect radiation in the most biodiverse region of the planet. PMID:25634098

  11. Multipurpose Watermarking for Image Authentication and Protection

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Multipurpose Watermarking for Image Authentication and Protection Chun­Shien Lu and Hong­Yuan Mark­2­27824814 E­mail: flcs, liaog@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract We propose a novel multipurpose watermarking scheme, in which robust and fragile watermarks are simultaneously embedded, for copyright protection and content

  12. Comparison between AOT40 and ozone uptake in forest trees of different species, age and site conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Nunn, A. J.; Kozovits, A. R.; Reiter, I. M.; Heerdt, C.; Winkler, J. B.; Baumgarten, M.; Häberle, K.-H.; Grams, T. E. E.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Havranek, W. M.

    The current AOT40 concept for inferring risks in forest trees by ozone (O 3) injury is based on an accumulated external O 3 exposure rather than an internal O 3 dose or uptake rate. AOT40 assumes O 3 concentrations below 40 nl l -1 and night-time exposure to be negligible. Hence, this concept is rather inconsistent with observed forest conditions. In contrast, the flux concept of cumulative O 3 uptake (CU) into the leaves has the potential of reflecting a physiologically meaningful internal O 3 dose experienced by trees. In this paper, we relate AOT40 to cumulative O 3 uptake into European beech ( Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce ( Picea abies), European larch ( Larix decidua) and cembran pine ( Pinus cembra) trees differing in size, age and site conditions. We demonstrate that the flux concept can be extended to the tree and the stand level, making use of sap flow measurements through tree trunks. Although in both seedlings and adult trees AOT40 may show some linearity in correlations with average CU, the latter varies, at given AOT40, by 25±11% within and between species. This is because O 3 flux is primarily influenced by stomatal aperture, the latter being affected by climate, canopy position, leaf and tree age while varying between species. In particular, if weighed by detoxification capacity, we suggest, therefore, O 3 uptake related air quality indices to be promoted towards ecologically meaningful standards in forest protection, overcoming the shortcomings of exposure concepts. As O 3 injury results from the balance between O 3 uptake and detoxification in the leaf mesophyll, we conclude the flux concept in combination with measures of biochemical defence to have the capacity for predicting tree response to O 3 stress.

  13. Seedling establishment of five evergreen tree species in relation to topography, sika deer ( Cervus nippon yakushimae ) and soil surface environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riyou Tsujino; Takakazu Yumoto

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the seedling survival of five evergreen tree species over 3 years inside and outside deer-exclusion fences\\u000a in a warm temperate evergreen broad-leaved forest on Yakushima Island, Japan. Seedling survival was examined in relation to\\u000a topography, herbivory by sika deer, and the soil surface environment (i.e., soil surface wetness, light conditions, slope\\u000a inclination, and soil disturbance). The study species included

  14. The Relative Impact of Climate Change on the Extinction Risk of Tree Species in the Montane Tropical Andes

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor Garavito, Natalia; Newton, Adrian C.; Golicher, Duncan; Oldfield, Sara

    2015-01-01

    There are widespread concerns that anthropogenic climate change will become a major cause of global biodiversity loss. However, the potential impact of climate change on the extinction risk of species remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to other current threats. The objective of this research was to examine the relative impact of climate change on extinction risk of upper montane tree species in the tropical Andes, an area of high biodiversity value that is particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts. The extinction risk of 129 tree species endemic to the region was evaluated according to the IUCN Red List criteria, both with and without the potential impacts of climate change. Evaluations were supported by development of species distribution models, using three methods (generalized additive models, recursive partitioning, and support vector machines), all of which produced similarly high AUC values when averaged across all species evaluated (0.82, 0.86, and 0.88, respectively). Inclusion of climate change increased the risk of extinction of 18–20% of the tree species evaluated, depending on the climate scenario. The relative impact of climate change was further illustrated by calculating the Red List Index, an indicator that shows changes in the overall extinction risk of sets of species over time. A 15% decline in the Red List Index was obtained when climate change was included in this evaluation. While these results suggest that climate change represents a significant threat to tree species in the tropical Andes, they contradict previous suggestions that climate change will become the most important cause of biodiversity loss in coming decades. Conservation strategies should therefore focus on addressing the multiple threatening processes currently affecting biodiversity, rather than focusing primarily on potential climate change impacts. PMID:26177097

  15. Foliar Damage, Ion Content, and Mortality Rate of Five Common Roadside Tree Species Treated with Soil Applications of Magnesium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betsy A. Goodrich; William R. Jacobi

    Sensitivity to magnesium chloride (MgCl2) was assessed on five common roadside tree species by maintaining soil concentrations at 0-, 400-, 800-, or 1,600-ppm chloride\\u000a via MgCl2 solution over four growing seasons. Evaluations of growth, leaf retention, foliar damage, and ion concentrations were conducted.\\u000a Water potentials were measured on two species. Foliar chloride and magnesium concentrations were positively correlated with\\u000a foliar

  16. Influence of SOâ on 10 forest tree species with reference to relative susceptibility, leaf sulfur content, and stomatal response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Biggs; D. D. Davis; J. B. Coppolino

    1977-01-01

    Ten species of 2-3 year old tree seedlings were exposed biweekly to 2358 ..mu..g\\/m³ SOâ (0.9 ppm) for 2 hr from May to September 1977. Exposures were conducted in controlled environment chambers maintained at 22C, 75% RH, and 25 Klux light intensity, using a different set of 4 plants of each species each time. Percent foliar tissue injury was evaluated

  17. The effect of light quantity and quality during development on the photosynthetic characteristics of six Australian rainforest tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Turnbull

    1991-01-01

    Seedlings of six subtropical rainforest tree species representing early (Omalanthus populifolius, Solanum aviculare), middle (Duboisia myoporoides, Euodia micrococca) and late (Acmena ingens, Argyrodendron actinophyllum) successional stages in forest development were grown in a glasshouse, under four levels of neutral shade (60%, 15%, 5%, 1% of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in incident sunlight) and three levels of selectively filtered shade (producing

  18. Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of tree species from a semi-arid habitat

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Contrasting hydraulic architecture and function in deep and shallow roots of tree species from of tomography for vessel network analysis and the important role of 3-D xylem organization in plant hydraulic Root water uptake and hydraulic transport through xylem are critical for plant functioning and survival

  19. The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel for terrestrial carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production. For P. strobus, above- ground plant carbon harvest for biofuel would result in no net carbon sequestration as declines in soil carbon offset plant

  20. Nuclear and mtDNA Phylogenies of the Trimeresurus Complex: Implications for the Gene versus Species Tree Debate

    E-print Network

    Thorpe, Roger Stephen

    , and lamin in birds (Friesen et al., 1997). For venomous snakes, attempting to determine the species tree developing countries and treatment with anti- venom remains the only specific treatment for enveno- mation by snakes (Theakston, 1997). If venom compo- sition differs between snake taxa, then a monovalent antivenom

  1. High-Dimensional Coexistence of Temperate Tree Species: Functional Traits, Demographic Rates, Life-History Stages, and Their Physical Context

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Sean M.; Metcalf, Charlotte J. E.; Woodall, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical models indicate that trade-offs between growth and survival strategies of tree species can lead to coexistence across life history stages (ontogeny) and physical conditions experienced by individuals. There exist predicted physiological mechanisms regulating these trade-offs, such as an investment in leaf characters that may increase survival in stressful environments at the expense of investment in bole or root growth. Confirming these mechanisms, however, requires that potential environmental, ontogenetic, and trait influences are analyzed together. Here, we infer growth and mortality of tree species given size, site, and light characteristics from forest inventory data from Wisconsin to test hypotheses about growth-survival trade-offs given species functional trait values under different ontogenetic and environmental states. A series of regression analyses including traits and rates their interactions with environmental and ontogenetic stages supported the relationships between traits and vital rates expected from the expectations from tree physiology. A combined model including interactions between all variables indicated that relationships between demographic rates and functional traits supports growth-survival trade-offs and their differences across species in high-dimensional niche space. The combined model explained 65% of the variation in tree growth and supports a concept of community coexistence similar to Hutchinson's n-dimensional hypervolume and not a low-dimensional niche model or neutral model. PMID:21305020

  2. Understanding leaves in natural images A model-based approach for tree species identification q,qq

    E-print Network

    Mille, Julien

    - umphant march of alleged progress, we carelessly dropped the knowledge of many plants, trees and herbs that used to be found in our most immediate environment. Knowing how to recognize a plant, and what uses never felt so present. Books are available to the neophyte, but when it comes to pre- cise species

  3. Summary Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious tree species that dominates riparian systems at mid elevations

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    suggests that the sexes of dioecious plants have evolved specialized traits to maximize growth, survival of sex ratio biases by habitat in dioecious plants implies that sexes display strong morphologicalSummary Acer negundo Sarg. (box elder) is a dioecious tree species that dominates riparian systems

  4. Phenotypic variation in seedlings of a “keystone” tree species ( Quercus douglasii ): the interactive effects of acorn source and competitive environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Rice; D. R. Gordon; J. L. Hardison; J. M. Welker

    1993-01-01

    Blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is a deciduous tree species endemic to California that currently exhibits poor seedling survival to sapling age classes. We used common garden techniques to examine how genetic variation at regional and local scales affected phenotypic expression in traits affecting oak seedling growth and survival. Between-population variation was examined for seedlings grown from acorns collected from a

  5. Composition and reactivity of DOC in forest floor soil solutions in relation to tree species and soil type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjarne W. Strobel; HansChristianBruun Hansen; Ole K. Borggaard; Martin K. Andersen; Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen

    2001-01-01

    Metal coordinating propertiesof DOC (dissolved organic carbon), and henceits influence on heavy metal release andmineral weathering, depend on the compositionand properties of DOC. Tree species producelitter with different chemical composition anddegradability, and these differences mightinfluence the composition and reactivity of DOCin soil solutions. Accordingly, analysis ofcomposition and reactivity of DOC in soilsolution samples collected by centrifugationfrom 16 forest soil O

  6. The high cost of mutualism: effects of four species of East African ant symbionts on their myrmecophyte host tree.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Maureen L; Palmer, Todd M

    2011-05-01

    Three recent meta-analyses of protective plant-ant mutualisms report a surprisingly weak relationship between herbivore protection and measured demographic benefits to ant-plants, suggesting high tolerance for herbivory, substantial costs of ant-mediated defense, and/or benefits that are realized episodically rather than continuously. Experimental manipulations of protective ant-plant associations typically last for less than a year, yet virtually all specialized myrmecophytes are long-lived perennials for which the costs and benefits of maintaining ant symbionts could accrue at different rates over the host's lifetime. To complement long-term monitoring studies, we experimentally excluded each of four ant symbionts from their long-lived myrmecophyte host trees (Acacia drepanolobium) for 4.5 years. Ant species varied in their effectiveness against herbivores and in their effects on intermediate-term growth and reproduction, but the level of herbivore protection provided was a poor predictor of the net impact they had on host trees. Removal of the three Crematogaster species resulted in cumulative gains in host tree growth and/or reproduction over the course of the experiment, despite the fact that two of those species significantly reduce chronic herbivore damage. In contrast, although T. penzigi is a relatively poor defender, the low cost of maintaining this ant symbiont apparently eliminated negative impacts on overall tree growth and reproduction, resulting in enhanced allocation to new branch growth by the final census. Acacia drepanolobium is evidently highly tolerant of herbivory by insects and small browsers, and the costs of maintaining Crematogaster colonies exceeded the benefits received during the study. No experimental trees were killed by elephants, but elephant damage was uniquely associated with reduced tree growth, and at least one ant species (C. mimosae) strongly deterred elephant browsing. We hypothesize that rare but catastrophic damage by elephants may be more important than chronic herbivory in maintaining the costly myrmecophyte habit in this system. PMID:21661568

  7. Estimating the species tree for Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from multiple loci in the presence of reticulate evolution.

    PubMed

    Willyard, Ann; Wallace, Lisa E; Wagner, Warren L; Weller, Stephen G; Sakai, Ann K; Nepokroeff, Molly

    2011-07-01

    Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) is a monophyletic genus of 34 species, all endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, that arose from a single colonization, providing one of the best examples of adaptive radiation in Hawai'i. Species utilize a range of habitats and exhibit a variety of growth forms and transitions in breeding systems from hermaphroditism toward dimorphism or autogamy. Our study included the most thorough sampling to date: 2-5 individuals per species and 4 independent genetic partitions: eight plastid and three low-copy nuclear loci (9217bps), allowing a three-locus BEST species tree. Despite incomplete resolution at the tips, our results support monophyly for each extant species. Gene trees revealed several clear cases of cytonuclear incongruence, likely created by interspecific introgression. Conflict occurs at the divergence of section Alphaschiedea as well as at the tips. Ages inferred from a BEAST analysis allow an original colonization onto either Nihoa or Kauaì and inform some aspects of inter-island migrations. We suggest that several hard polytomies on the species tree are biologically realistic, signifying either nearly simultaneous speciation or historical introgressive hybridization. Based on inferred node ages that exceed expected coalescent times, we propose that undetected nuclear introgression may play a larger role than incomplete lineage sorting in sections Schiedea and Mononeura. PMID:21511045

  8. Herbivory As A Driver For Biogenic Methanol Flux From North American Temperate Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P.; Lerdau, M.; Mak, J.

    2007-12-01

    Ecological relationships of plants and herbivores have implications for biosphere-atmosphere interactions. For instance, plant monoterpene emission response to herbivory can significantly impact air quality /(Litvak et al. /(1999/) Ecol. Appl. 9/(4/):1147-1159/). Studies on biogenic methanol emission response to herbivory have observed significant methanol emissions directly following herbivore attack and even larger emissions 24hrs later /(Penuelas et al. /(2005/) New Phytol. 167:851-857/). We investigated gypsy moth defoliation impacts on methanol emissions in the abundant North American temperate tree species big tooth aspen Populus grandidentata. Specifically, we measured methanol emission response to herbivory on both short and long time scales at a field site in northern Michigan. Our results suggest herbivory can significantly increase methanol emissions on both short and long time scales. Unlike previous investigations, we did not observe methanol emissions 24hrs post-attack to be significantly higher than emissions detected directly following attack. When compared to mechanical wounding, herbivory did not elicit a quantitatively different methanol emission response in this species. These results suggest that herbivory in temperate forests may be an important driver for biogenic methanol flux and may therefore be helpful in improving models of methanol dynamics.

  9. Impact of season, stem diameter and intensity of debarking on survival and bark re-growth pattern of medicinal tree species, Benin, West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Delvaux; Brice Sinsin; Patrick Van Damme

    2010-01-01

    Bark is a greatly coveted non-timber forest product (NTFP). Its overexploitation from medicinal tree species threatens an essential source of medication for rural populations. Despite the relevance of bark, not much information is available on the ecological impact of bark harvesting. In Benin, West Africa, we investigated how various harvesting techniques affect the bark re-growth of 12 tree species and

  10. NH Champion Trees (in accordance with American Forests' National Register of Big Trees) Species Latin Name Nat'l

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Cheshire 671County Mountain Paper Betula papyrifera var. cordifo 220 119 63 48 32 2011 Fair Thompson Excell Walpole Cheshire 417County 187 94 83 41 2012 Good Randolph Coos 737County Birch Gray Betula'l Champ Total Points CBH (in) VH (ft) ACS (ft) Year City County Tree ID CondCo Champ Paper Betula

  11. Surface Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Tree Species are Tightly Linked in Northeastern USA Forested Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. S.; Juillerat, J.

    2008-12-01

    We measured C and N ratios in 608 surface soil horizons (primarily Oa) from ten small watersheds at seven established research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included sugar maple (Acer saccharum), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), red spruce (Picea rubens) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). In the soil, both the C (50-530 g/kg) and C/N ratio (11.6- 45.3) had a wide distribution. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were positively and linearly related to C content. For these nine watersheds, the average N (g/kg) = 6.9 + 0.030 X C (g/kg), R2 = 0.97. The C/N ratios at Cone were much higher than would be predicted from the other data and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Across all watersheds, C concentration was also positively correlated with forest floor depth (and therefore C pools). Although sugar maple dominance was negatively correlated with C/N ratio and C, better relationships were obtained by combining species. Carbon concentration of the humified surface horizon was negatively related to maple + birch dominance and positively related to conifer + beech dominance. Among nine of these ten watersheds, the average C concentration in the surface soil varied (187-441 g/kg) with a constant C/N ratio of 33. The remarkably tight relationships between C, N, and species suggest predicable patterns in C accumulation.

  12. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could facilitate the understanding of biodiversity origin and maintenance in East Asia. PMID:25540694

  13. The role of tree species and soil moisture in soil organic matter stabilization and destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J. A.; Dewey, J.; Roberts, S.; McNeal, K.; Shaman, A.

    2014-12-01

    Inputs of labile organic substrates to soils are commonly associated with elevated soil organic carbon mineralization rates; this process is known as the priming effect. Plant presence and soil conditions (i.e. water regime, nutrient status) are known to be interacting factors governing priming. In this study, we examine the role of differing species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and nuttall oak (Quercus texana B.), and moisture regimes (low and high) upon the soil priming effect in a fine textured soil. We explore whether there is depletion of original soil carbon and concurrent replacement through addition of fresh organic matter from the planted tree species. By employing a series of planted and plant-free pots in a greenhouse mesocosm study, we were able to characterize the composition of soil organic matter and its carbon with the use of CuO oxidation products (e.g. lignin, cutin/suberin biomarkers). Carbon was elevated on the low moisture samples relative to all other treatments, and the C:N ratio suggests that newly produced plant carbon replaced original soil carbon. The soil lignin content of the planted treatments was lower than the plant-free treatments suggesting that lignin present in the original soil may have been preferentially degraded by priming and not replaced. We will discuss the utility of CuO oxidation products to explore soil organic carbon dynamics and the implications of understanding the role of species and soil moisture in predicting the response of soil carbon to land use and climate change.

  14. Derivation of compatible crown width equations for some important tree species of Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia Condés; Hubert Sterba

    2005-01-01

    Crown width is an important feature in describing stand density and individual tree competition. Two different approaches to using crown width in competition measures are reported in the literature: (i) crown width of open-grown trees, assumed to describe the zone of influence, and thus the potentially available stand area attributable to an individual tree and (ii) crown width of stand-grown

  15. Impact of competitor species composition on predicting diameter growth and survival rates of Douglas-fir trees in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Felipe; Hann, D.W.; Maguire, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed conifer and hardwood stands in southwestern Oregon were studied to explore the hypothesis that competition effects on individual-tree growth and survival will differ according to the species comprising the competition measure. Likewise, it was hypothesized that competition measures should extrapolate best if crown-based surrogates are given preference over diameter-based (basal area based) surrogates. Diameter growth and probability of survival were modeled for individual Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees growing in pure stands. Alternative models expressing one-sided and two-sided competition as a function of either basal area or crown structure were then applied to other plots in which Douglas-fir was mixed with other conifers and (or) hardwood species. Crown-based variables outperformed basal area based variables as surrogates for one-sided competition in both diameter growth and survival probability, regardless of species composition. In contrast, two-sided competition was best represented by total basal area of competing trees. Surrogates reflecting differences in crown morphology among species relate more closely to the mechanics of competition for light and, hence, facilitate extrapolation to species combinations for which no observations are available.

  16. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers.

    PubMed

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-04-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F(ST) > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  17. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  18. Radial Growth of Two Dominant Montane Conifer Tree Species in Response to Climate Change in North-Central China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Mingchang; Kang, Muyi; Dong, Manyu

    2014-01-01

    North-Central China is a region in which the air temperature has clearly increased for several decades. Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii are the most dominant co-occurring tree species within the cold coniferous forest belt ranging vertically from 1800 m to 2800 m a.s.l. in this region. Based on a tree-ring analysis of 292 increment cores sampled from 146 trees at different elevations, this study aimed to examine if the radial growth of the two species in response to climate is similar, whether the responses are consistent along altitudinal gradients and which species might be favored in the future driven by the changing climate. The results indicated the following: (1) The two species grew in different rhythms at low and high elevation respectively; (2) Both species displayed inconsistent relationships between radial growth and climate data along altitudinal gradients. The correlation between radial growth and the monthly mean temperature in the spring or summer changed from negative at low elevation into positive at high elevation, whereas those between the radial growth and the total monthly precipitation displayed a change from positive into negative along the elevation gradient. These indicate the different influences of the horizontal climate and vertical mountainous climate on the radial growth of the two species; (3) The species-dependent different response to climate in radial growth appeared mainly in autumn of the previous year. The radial growth of L. principis-rupprechtii displayed negative responses both to temperature and to precipitation in the previous September, October or November, which was not observed in the radial growth of P. meyeri. (4) The radial growth of both species will tend to be increased at high elevation and limited at low elevation, and L. principis-rupprechtii might be more favored in the future, if the temperature keeps rising. PMID:25393738

  19. Remote sensing-based predictors improve distribution models of rare, early successional and broadleaf tree species in Utah

    PubMed Central

    ZIMMERMANN, N E; EDWARDS, T C; MOISEN, G G; FRESCINO, T S; BLACKARD, J A

    2007-01-01

    Compared to bioclimatic variables, remote sensing predictors are rarely used for predictive species modelling. When used, the predictors represent typically habitat classifications or filters rather than gradual spectral, surface or biophysical properties. Consequently, the full potential of remotely sensed predictors for modelling the spatial distribution of species remains unexplored. Here we analysed the partial contributions of remotely sensed and climatic predictor sets to explain and predict the distribution of 19 tree species in Utah. We also tested how these partial contributions were related to characteristics such as successional types or species traits. We developed two spatial predictor sets of remotely sensed and topo-climatic variables to explain the distribution of tree species. We used variation partitioning techniques applied to generalized linear models to explore the combined and partial predictive powers of the two predictor sets. Non-parametric tests were used to explore the relationships between the partial model contributions of both predictor sets and species characteristics. More than 60% of the variation explained by the models represented contributions by one of the two partial predictor sets alone, with topo-climatic variables outperforming the remotely sensed predictors. However, the partial models derived from only remotely sensed predictors still provided high model accuracies, indicating a significant correlation between climate and remote sensing variables. The overall accuracy of the models was high, but small sample sizes had a strong effect on cross-validated accuracies for rare species. Models of early successional and broadleaf species benefited significantly more from adding remotely sensed predictors than did late seral and needleleaf species. The core-satellite species types differed significantly with respect to overall model accuracies. Models of satellite and urban species, both with low prevalence, benefited more from use of remotely sensed predictors than did the more frequent core species. Synthesis and applications. If carefully prepared, remotely sensed variables are useful additional predictors for the spatial distribution of trees. Major improvements resulted for deciduous, early successional, satellite and rare species. The ability to improve model accuracy for species having markedly different life history strategies is a crucial step for assessing effects of global change. PMID:18642470

  20. Integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level carbon stock mapping in Kayar Khola watershed, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Yogendra K.; Hussin, Yousif Ali; Gilani, Hammad; Bronsveld, M. C.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Qamer, Faisal Mueen; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Bhattarai, Thakur; Aigong, Xu; Baniya, Chitra Bahadur

    2015-06-01

    Integration of WorldView-2 satellite image with small footprint airborne LiDAR data for estimation of tree carbon at species level has been investigated in tropical forests of Nepal. This research aims to quantify and map carbon stock for dominant tree species in Chitwan district of central Nepal. Object based image analysis and supervised nearest neighbor classification methods were deployed for tree canopy retrieval and species level classification respectively. Initially, six dominant tree species (Shorea robusta, Schima wallichii, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Terminalia tomentosa, Mallotus philippinensis and Semecarpus anacardium) were able to be identified and mapped through image classification. The result showed a 76% accuracy of segmentation and 1970.99 as best average separability. Tree canopy height model (CHM) was extracted based on LiDAR's first and last return from an entire study area. On average, a significant correlation coefficient (r) between canopy projection area (CPA) and carbon; height and carbon; and CPA and height were obtained as 0.73, 0.76 and 0.63, respectively for correctly detected trees. Carbon stock model validation results showed regression models being able to explain up to 94%, 78%, 76%, 84% and 78% of variations in carbon estimation for the following tree species: S. robusta, L. parviflora, T. tomentosa, S. wallichii and others (combination of rest tree species).

  1. Population genetic structure of the tropical tree species Aegiphila sellowiana (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Medri, C; Ruas, E A; Ruas, C F; Medri, P S; Medri, M E; Ruas, P M

    2011-01-01

    The Tibagi River, located in southern Brazil, is associated with a significant degree of environmental heterogeneity, along its 550 km extension. There is concern about the integrity of this river's ecosystem, as human interference has been increasing. Aegiphila sellowiana (Lamiaceae) is an important pioneer tree species, commonly found near rivers; the fruit is consumed by avifauna. We studied this species along three ecological gradients, comprising the upper, middle, and lower regions of the Tibagi River basin. The genetic structure of nine subpopulations of A. sellowiana distributed along these gradients was investigated using RAPDs. Moderate levels of gene diversity (ranging from 0.091 to 0.132) were identified, inferred by a traditional approach and a Bayesian model-based method. The F-statistic, G(ST) parameters and molecular variance analysis showed high genetic differentiation among the three regions (39.5 to 50.26%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed high levels of genetic variation between populations (50.26%), while lower values of genetic variation (ranging from 9.56 to 16.35%) were seen between subpopulations within the upper, middle, and lower regions of the Tibagi River basin. The validity of these results was confirmed by principal coordinate analysis. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations (r = 0.621, P = 0.0001) between the genetic and geographical distances. The differences observed in genetic variation between regions are probably due to habitat fragmentation; for conservation purposes, we recommend that at least one subpopulation from each region of the Tibagi River should be maintained. PMID:22194175

  2. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences.

    PubMed

    McCormack, John E; Maley, James M; Hird, Sarah M; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Graves, Gary R; Brumfield, Robb T

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are revolutionizing many biological disciplines but have been slow to take root in phylogeography. This is partly due to the difficulty of using NGS to sequence orthologous DNA fragments for many individuals at low cost. We explore cases of recent divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mined from the loci, we detected population differentiation in each of the four bird systems, including: a case of ecological speciation in rails (Rallus); a rapid postglacial radiation in the genus Junco; recent in situ speciation among hummingbirds (Trochilus) in Jamaica; and subspecies of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) along the Pacific coast. The number of recovered loci aligning closely to chromosomal locations on the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome was highly correlated to the size of the chromosome, suggesting that loci are randomly distributed throughout the genome. Using eight loci found in Zonotrichia and Junco lineages, we were also able to generate a species tree of these sparrow sister genera, demonstrating the potential of this method for generating data amenable to coalescent-based analysis. We discuss improvements that should enhance the method's utility for primary data generation. PMID:22063264

  3. Water storage dynamics in the main stem of subtropical tree species differing in wood density, growth rate and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Oliva Carrasco, Laureano; Bucci, Sandra J; Di Francescantonio, Débora; Lezcano, Oscar A; Campanello, Paula I; Scholz, Fabián G; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Madanes, N; Cristiano, Piedad M; Hao, Guang-You; Holbrook, N Michele; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Wood biophysical properties and the dynamics of water storage discharge and refilling were studied in the trunk of canopy tree species with diverse life history and functional traits in subtropical forests of northeast Argentina. Multiple techniques assessing capacitance and storage capacity were used simultaneously to improve our understanding of the functional significance of internal water sources in trunks of large trees. Sapwood capacitances of 10 tree species were characterized using pressure-volume relationships of sapwood samples obtained from the trunk. Frequency domain reflectometry was used to continuously monitor the volumetric water content in the main stems. Simultaneous sap flow measurements on branches and at the base of the tree trunk, as well as diurnal variations in trunk contraction and expansion, were used as additional measures of stem water storage use and refilling dynamics. All evidence indicates that tree trunk internal water storage contributes from 6 to 28% of the daily water budget of large trees depending on the species. The contribution of stored water in stems of trees to total daily transpiration was greater for deciduous species, which exhibited higher capacitance and lower sapwood density. A linear relationship across species was observed between wood density and growth rates with the higher wood density species (mostly evergreen) associated with lower growth rates and the lower wood density species (mostly deciduous) associated with higher growth rates. The large sapwood capacitance in deciduous species may help to avoid catastrophic embolism in xylem conduits. This may be a low-cost adaptation to avoid water deficits during peak water use at midday and under temporary drought periods and will contribute to higher growth rates in deciduous tree species compared with evergreen ones. Large capacitance appears to have a central role in the rapid growth patterns of deciduous species facilitating rapid canopy access as these species are less shade tolerant than evergreen species. PMID:25428825

  4. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other crops in Florida. The five most abundant thrips species collected within citrus tree canopies were: A. fasciapennis, F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, K. flavipes, and D. trifasciatus. In comparison, the following five thrips species were most abundant on vines or ground cover plants: F. bispinosa, H. gowdeyi, F. cephalica, M. abdominalis, and F. gossypiana. Fifty-eight species of vines or ground cover plants in 26 families were infested with one or more of 27 species of thrips. PMID:20233100

  5. Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Rebekah J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Kaye, Margot W. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Abrams, Marc D. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

  6. Trees, Trees, Trees!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    In these activities, students increase their awareness and knowledge of trees through research, literature and hands-on contact. The students will adopt and identify a tree of their choice, make a rubbing of the bark, draw a picture, and research about their tree. They will also write an original piece about their tree, document how it changes throughout the year, and learn the difference between deciduous and coniferous trees.

  7. Photosynthetic and growth responses of two broad-leaf tree species to irrigation with municipal landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Shrive, S.C.; McBride, R.A.; Gordon, A.M. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada)

    1994-05-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate leaf photosynthesis and stem growth responses of saplings of two broad-leaf tree species to irrigation with municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate in a northern temperate climate at Ontario, Canada. The objective was to quantify plant stresses or changes in plant productivity that could be attributed to this low technology option for the treatment and disposal of groundwater contaminated by municipal refuse. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and hybrid poplar (Populus spp. nigra x maximowiczii (NM6)) were subjected to two consecutive seasons of leachate irrigation in a three factor, RCBD split-plot field experiment. The three factors were irrigant type (MSW leachate, water), mode of application (spray, surface trickle, subsurface irrigation), and raft of application (3.5, 7.0, and 14.0 mm d{sup -1}). The main treatment plots in inch of three blocks were split into subplots planted to different tree species. In the second irrigation season, the mean seasonal photosynthesis rates increased for irrigated saplings of both species relative to rain-fed control saplings, irrespective of irrigant type. Mean seasonal photosynthesis rates for red maple increased with irrigant application rate, but were unaffected by irrigant type. The mode of irrigant application was not a significant factor in explaining plant response for either species. Direct exposure of leaves to potentially phytolaxic compounds m MSW leachate, (volatile organics, and inorganics including metals) by spraying did not induce phytotoxic symptoms in the saplings. Irrigation of a MSW leachate of relatively high ionic strength can be carried out successfully on clay soils under Ontario climatic conditions without causing significant adverse effects on saplings of these tree species. Treatment and disposal of MSW leachates in tree plantations may offer a low technology, low cost option to municipalities. 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Environmental and canopy control of leaf level gas exchange of two evergreen tree species in a semiarid rangeland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendevis, M. A.; Owens, M.; Heilman, J.; McInnes, K.

    2006-05-01

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus asheii) and plateau live oak (Quercus virginiana var fusiformis) have encroached into the historical grasslands of the Edwards Plateau of central Texas. The increased tree density may impact local water budgets because the area is the recharge zone for the Edwards Aquifer, the drinking water source for large municipalities like Austin and San Antonio. On the other hand, the trees have the capability of sequestering a greater amount of carbon than the historic grasslands. This study is a part of a larger NIGEC project examining the energy fluxes of the Oak-Juniper ecosystem. Four trees of each species were permanently marked and sampled with a leaf-level gas exchange system every 5 to 6 weeks throughout an entire year. Each tree was sampled on the northwest and southeast sides of the canopy, and at each location both sun-lit and shaded leaves were sampled. Averaged (± SE) over the entire year, live oak had significantly greater carbon assimilation rates than Ashe juniper (13.12 ± 0.6 vs. 6.47 ± 0.4 µmol CO2/m2/s, respectively). Oak trees exhibited a greater seasonal flux in carbon assimilation than juniper. Carbon assimilation was least in October 2005 for both species (2.47 and 6.46 µmol CO2/m2/s for juniper and oak, respectively) and greatest in November 2004 for juniper (13.02 µmol CO2/m2/s) and in April 2005 for oak (21.64 µmol CO2/m2/s). Sun-lit leaves also had a consistently greater assimilation rate (P<0.01) Transpirational water loss followed the same pattern with seasonal differences (P<0.0001) and canopy level (P<0.01) as critical factors. Xylem water potentials varied significantly by tree species and the month of observation. Juniper trees were initially less water stressed than the oak trees, but when precipitation was low near the end of the observation period the juniper trees showed a much larger increase in water stress. This was reflected in the higher transpiration and photosynthetic rates observed for oak trees. Juniper on the Edwards plateau maintains a lower and steadier rate of water use and carbon uptake throughout the year compared to the oak trees. The eco-hydrologic implications of this study are: 1) the consistent, low rates of gas exchange exhibited by juniper suggests a limitation of either hydraulic conductivity or photosynthetic capacity; 2) the consistently high rates exhibited by oak trees, even during dry periods, suggests a deeper rooting pattern or access to alternative sources of water in the fractured limestone substrate; and 3) gas exchange within this closed woodland was dissimilar from results in a more open woodland in an earlier study. Accurate descriptions of leaf area distribution are being collected to scale this information to the tree level for comparisons with sap flux data, and to relate gas exchange to the stand level data collected in the larger project.

  9. Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.; West, A. G.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F/M ? 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F/M ? 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost in females compared to males. If so, female Acer negundo trees would be under stronger selection to maximize resource uptake, and would therefore likely occur at greater frequencies in high resources sites (i.e., along streamsides), and increase rates of resource acquisition (i.e., water and nutrients). The spatial segregation of the sexes leads to the hypothesis that male and female individuals have varying influence on ecosystem evapotranspiration. To address this, stem sap flux was measured on mature streamside (?1 m from stream channel) and nonstreamside (>1 m from stream channel) male and female Acer negundo trees occurring in Red Butte Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah, during the 2004 growing season. Despite having similar predawn and midday water potentials, sap flux density was 76% higher in streamside female trees than in males (P < 0.0001), while sap flux density was 19% greater in nonstreamside female trees compared to males (P < 0.0001). Mean daily sap flux density of all A. negundo populations was highly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit (P < 0.0001), and was moderately correlated with mean daily photosynthetic active radiation (P = 0.0263). At the watershed scale, nonstreamside male and female A. negundo trees contributed 20 and 21% respectively to the estimated 1.7 mm d-1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation away from streamsides (estimated from scaled sap flux measurements of all dominant riparian tree species in Red Butte Canyon). Male and female A. negundo trees contributed 31 and 46% respectively of the estimated 8.0 mm d-1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation adjacent to the stream channel. Results from this investigation show that the population structure of dioecious riparian trees has direct consequences on ecosystem ET, particularly along stream margins. Shifts in population structure therefore, may have profound impacts on several ecohydrological processes including stream discharge, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem productivity.

  10. Gender specific patterns of carbon uptake and water use in a dominant riparian tree species exposed to a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Hultine, Kevin R; Burtch, Kelley G; Ehleringer, James R

    2013-11-01

    Air temperatures in the arid western United States are predicted to increase over the next century. These increases will likely impact the distribution of plant species, particularly dioecious species that show a spatial segregation of the sexes across broad resource gradients. On the basis of spatial segregation patterns, we hypothesized that temperature increases will have a greater negative impact on female plants compared with co-occurring male plants of dioecious species. This hypothesis was tested by examining the whole-plant carbon and water relations of 10-year-old female (n = 18) and male (n = 13) Acer negundo Sarg. trees grown in a common garden in Salt Lake City, UT. The trees were established from cuttings collected where the growing season temperature averaged about 6.5 °C cooler than at the common garden. During May and June, stem sap flux (Js ) was similar between genders, but averaged 25% higher in males during the warmer months of July and August. Daytime canopy stomatal conductance (gs ) per unit leaf area was 12% higher in females in May : June, but was 11% higher in males in July : August. We combined measurements of sap flux-scaled transpiration with measurements of tree allometry and ?(13) C of leaf soluble sugars to estimate whole-tree carbon assimilation (Atree ) and water use efficiency (WUE) (Atree  : Etree ). Atree was similar between genders until late August when Atree was 32% higher in male trees. Atree  : Etree was on average 7% higher in females than in males during the growing season. Patterns of Js , gs , Atree and Atree  : Etree in the present study were in contrast to those previously reported for A. negundo genders under native growing season temperatures. Results suggest that the spatial segregation of the sexes could shift under global warming such that female plants lose their dominance in high-resource habitats, and males increase their dominance in relatively lower-resource habitats. PMID:23666790

  11. Leaf litter decomposition of four different deciduous tree species - resource stoichiometry, nutrient release and microbial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, S.; Keiblinger, K. M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of microbial communities for ecosystem processes like litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. For example, fungi are thought to be key players during litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems because they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds like lignin and also dominate the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas bacteria seem to play an important role for lignin decomposition especially under anaerobic conditions. However, our knowledge about the contribution of bacteria and fungi to decomposition is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the microbial decomposer community is affected by resource stoichiometry and how changes in community composition affect litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. To this end, we collected leaf litter of four deciduous tree species (beech (Fagus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and ash tree (Fraxinus)) at four different seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in an Austrian forest (Schottenwald, 48°14'N16°15'E; MAT=9°C; soil type: dystric cambiosol; soil C:N=16) in 2010. We determined litter nutrient content (micro- and macronutrients) and extractable nutrients and assessed the microbial community by PFLA analysis to test the following hypotheses: (i) tree species affects microbial community composition, (ii) microbial community composition changes over the course of the year, and (iii) narrow litter C:nutrient ratios favour nutrient release. Our data show that litter of different tree species varied in their stoichiometry, with C:N ratios between 16 (alder) and 46 (beech) and C:P ratios between 309 (ash) and 1234 (alder). Tree species had a significant impact on microbial community composition: highest amounts of actinomycetes and protozoa were observed for alder, while arbuscular mycorrhizae were lowest for oak. Bacteria were favoured by litter with narrow C:N shortly after litterfall. During litter decomposition, microbial communities changed. An increase in fungi and actinomycetes was observed during decomposition in almost all tree species as well as a decline in gram negative bacteria. Generally our results revealed an enhancement in fungal to bacterial ratios, supporting the increasing importance of fungi towards later decomposition stages.

  12. Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Laurent; De Schrijver, An; Vesterdal, Lars; Smolander, Aino; Prescott, Cindy; Ranger, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance, physical-chemical soil properties and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used scientific publications based on experimental designs where all species grew on the same parent material and initial soil, and were similar in stage of stand development, former land use and current management. We present the current state of the art, define knowledge gaps, and briefly discuss how selection of tree species can be used to mitigate pollution or enhance accumulation of stable organic carbon in the soil. The presence of EGs generally induces a lower rate of precipitation input into the soil than DAs, resulting in drier soil conditions and lower water discharge. Soil temperature is generally not different, or slightly lower, under an EG canopy compared to a DA canopy. Chemical properties, such as soil pH, can also be significantly modified by taxonomic groups of tree species. Biomass production is usually similar or lower in DA stands than in stands of EGs. Aboveground production of dead organic matter appears to be of the same order of magnitude between tree species groups growing on the same site. Some DAs induce more rapid decomposition of litter than EGs because of the chemical properties of their tissues, higher soil moisture and favourable conditions for earthworms. Forest floors consequently tend to be thicker in EG forests compared to DA forests. Many factors, such as litter lignin content, influence litter decomposition and it is difficult to identify specific litter-quality parameters that distinguish litter decomposition rates of EGs from DAs. Although it has been suggested that DAs can result in higher accumulation of soil carbon stocks, evidence from field studies does not show any obvious trend. Further research is required to clarify if accumulation of carbon in soils (i.e. forest floor + mineral soil) is different between the two types of trees. Production of belowground dead organic matter appears to be of similar magnitude in DA and EG forests, and root decomposition rate lower under EGs than DAs. However there are some discrepancies and still are insufficient data about belowground pools and processes that require further research. Relatively larger amounts of nutrients enter the soil-plant biogeochemical cycle under the influence of EGs than DAs, but recycling of nutrients appears to be slightly enhanced by DAs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying forest ecosystem functioning is essential to predicting the consequences of the expected tree species migration under global change. This knowledge can also be used as a mitigation tool regarding carbon sequestration or management of surface waters because the type of tree species affects forest growth, carbon, water and nutrient cycling. PMID:24916992

  13. Effects of species-specific leaf characteristics and reduced water availability on fine particle capture efficiency of trees.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Janne V; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Ndam, Collins; Pasanen, Pertti; Rinnan, Åsmund; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2013-12-01

    Trees can improve air quality by capturing particles in their foliage. We determined the particle capture efficiencies of coniferous Pinus sylvestris and three broadleaved species: Betula pendula, Betula pubescens and Tilia vulgaris in a wind tunnel using NaCl particles. The importance of leaf surface structure, physiology and moderate soil drought on the particle capture efficiencies of the trees were determined. The results confirm earlier findings of more efficient particle capture by conifers compared to broadleaved plants. The particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris (0.21%) was significantly higher than those of B. pubescens, T. vulgaris and B. pendula (0.083%, 0.047%, 0.043%, respectively). The small leaf size of P. sylvestris was the major characteristic that increased particle capture. Among the broadleaved species, low leaf wettability, low stomatal density and leaf hairiness increased particle capture. Moderate soil drought tended to increase particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris. PMID:23735814

  14. [Control effects of mowing in combining with planting tree species on Chromolaena odorata in karst region of Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Tang, Sai-chun; Lü, Shi-hong; Pan, Yu-mei; Wei, Chun-qiang; Liu, Ming-chao; Pu, Gao-zhong

    2011-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2006-2008 to evaluate the control effects of three mowing frequencies in combining with planting three tree species with three densities on the Chromolaena odorata in southwestern Karst region of Guangxi. In all treatments, the relative coverage, height, density, and aboveground biomass of C. odorata were decreased by 89.7%-99.3%, 41.6% - 81.2%, 61.4% - 83.2% and 91.7% - 97.8%, respectively, and the capitulum number was significantly lesser than that in the control (P<0.05). The control effects on the growth of C. odorata were in the order of mowing frequency > tree species > planting density, and the optimal control mode was mowing twice one year and planting four plants of Delavaya yunnanensis per plot (4 m x 4 m). PMID:22007477

  15. Predicting field performance of five irrigated tree species using seedling quality assessment in Burkina Faso, West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bayala; M. Dianda; J. Wilson; S. J. Ouédraogo; K. Sanon

    2009-01-01

    Five exotic tree species (Acacia angustissima (Mil.) Kuntze, A. mangium Wild, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Alp., Leucaena hybrid (L×L), and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) were investigated to determine whether parameters of nursery seedling stock quality could be used to predict\\u000a their field performance in a plantation irrigated with treated waste-water to produce fodder and wood. Plants were grown in\\u000a the

  16. Developing conservation strategies for endemic tree species when faced with time and data constraints: Boswellia spp. on Socotra (Yemen)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio AttorreNadim; Nadim Taleb; Michele De Sanctis; Alessio Farcomeni; Alfredo Guillet; Marcello Vitale

    2011-01-01

    Many endemic tree species have important scientific, ecological and economic value but the scarcity of information about their\\u000a biological and ecological features makes it difficult to develop conservation strategies for them. A four-step approach is\\u000a presented to address this problem, based on the analysis of data collected in a limited-duration field study: (1) Data collected\\u000a are used to analyse the

  17. Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Hultine; S. E. Bush; A. G. West; J. R. Ehleringer

    2007-01-01

    Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F\\/M ~ 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F\\/M ~ 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost

  18. Ecological effects and management aspects of an exotic tree species: the case of lodgepole pine in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola Engelmark; Kjell Sjöberg; Bengt Andersson; Ola Rosvall; Göran I. Ågren; William L. Baker; Pia Barklund; Christer Björkman; Don G. Despain; Björn Elfving; Richard A. Ennos; Margareta Karlman; Magnus F. Knecht; Dennis H. Knight; Nick J. Ledgard; Åke Lindelöw; Christer Nilsson; George F. Peterken; Sverker Sörlin; Martin T. Sykes

    2001-01-01

    The North American tree Pinus contorta var. latifolia was experimentally introduced in Sweden already in the 1920s, and has been used in Swedish forestry on a large scale since the 1970s. These plantations now cover 565,000ha, mainly in the northern area.In this paper we summarize and discuss existing ecological knowledge of this species introduction. With regard to long-term sustainability we

  19. Effect of Acacia plantations on net photosynthesis, tree species composition, soil enzyme activities, and microclimate on Mt. Makiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. Lee; D. K. Lee; S. Y. Woo; P. S. Park; Y. H. Jang; E. R. G. Abraham

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation on improving ecosystem functions, we examined net photosynthetic rate (P\\u000a N), tree species composition, soil enzyme activities, and the microclimate (air and soil temperature, relative humidity) of\\u000a an area on Mt. Makiling that has been rehabilitated and protected from fire for over 12 years. After it was last burned extensively\\u000a in 1991, restoration was

  20. Uniform climate sensitivity in tree-ring stable isotopes across species and sites in a mid-latitude temperate forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl-Meier, Claudia; Zang, Christian; Büntgen, Ulf; Esper, Jan; Rothe, Andreas; Göttlein, Axel; Dirnböck, Thomas; Treydte, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    Tree-ring stable isotopes, providing insight into drought-induced eco-physiological mechanisms, are frequently used to reconstruct past changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. Their climatic response is, however, still not fully understood, particularly for data originating from non-extreme, mid-latitude environments with differing ecological conditions. Here, we assess the response of ?13C, ?18O and tree-ring width (TRW) from a temperate mountain forest in the Austrian pre-Alps to climate and specific drought events. Variations in stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce, common beech and European larch from dry, medium and moist sites are compared with records of sunshine, temperature, moisture, precipitation and cloud cover. Results indicate uniform year-to-year variations in ?13C and ?18O across sites and species, but distinct differences in TRW according to habitat and species. While the climate sensitivity of TRW is overall weak, the ?13C and ?18O chronologies contain significant signals with a maximum sensitivity to cloud cover changes (r = ?0.72 for ?18O). The coherent inter-annual isotopic variations are accompanied by substantial differences in the isotopic signatures with offsets up to ˜3‰ for ?13C, indicating species-specific physiological strategies and varying water-use efficiencies. During severe summer drought, beech and larch benefit from access to deeper and moist soils, allowing them to keep their stomata open. This strategy is accompanied by an increased water loss through transpiration, but simultaneously enables enhanced photosynthesis. Our findings indicate the potential of tree-ring stable isotopes from temperate forests to reconstruct changes in cloud cover, and to improve knowledge on basic physiological mechanisms of tree species growing in different habitats to cope with soil moisture deficits.

  1. Inferring Species Networks from Gene Trees in High-Polyploid North American and Hawaiian Violets (Viola, Violaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Marcussen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Danihelka, Ji?í; Ballard, Harvey E.; Blaxland, Kim; Brysting, Anne K.; Oxelman, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenies of allopolyploids take the shape of networks and cannot be adequately represented as bifurcating trees. Especially for high polyploids (i.e., organisms with more than six sets of nuclear chromosomes), the signatures of gene homoeolog loss, deep coalescence, and polyploidy may become confounded, with the result that gene trees may be congruent with more than one species network. Herein, we obtained the most parsimonious species network by objective comparison of competing scenarios involving polyploidization and homoeolog loss in a high-polyploid lineage of violets (Viola, Violaceae) mostly or entirely restricted to North America, Central America, or Hawaii. We amplified homoeologs of the low-copy nuclear gene, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), by single-molecule polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the chloroplast trnL-F region by conventional PCR for 51 species and subspecies. Topological incongruence among GPI homoeolog subclades, owing to deep coalescence and two instances of putative loss (or lack of detection) of homoeologs, were reconciled by applying the maximum tree topology for each subclade. The most parsimonious species network and the fossil-based calibration of the homoeolog tree favored monophyly of the high polyploids, which has resulted from allodecaploidization 9–14 Ma, involving sympatric ancestors from the extant Viola sections Chamaemelanium (diploid), Plagiostigma (paleotetraploid), and Viola (paleotetraploid). Although two of the high-polyploid lineages (Boreali-Americanae, Pedatae) remained decaploid, recurrent polyploidization with tetraploids of section Plagiostigma within the last 5 Ma has resulted in two 14-ploid lineages (Mexicanae, Nosphinium) and one 18-ploid lineage (Langsdorffianae). This implies a more complex phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of the Hawaiian violets (Nosphinium) than that previously inferred from rDNA data and illustrates the necessity of considering polyploidy in phylogenetic and biogeographic reconstruction. PMID:21918178

  2. Seabird Nutrient Subsidies Benefit Non-Nitrogen Fixing Trees and Alter Species Composition in South American Coastal Dry Forests

    PubMed Central

    Havik, Gilles; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Holmgren, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived nutrients can increase primary productivity and change species composition of terrestrial plant communities in coastal and riverine ecosystems. We hypothesized that sea nutrient subsidies have a positive effect on nitrogen assimilation and seedling survival of non-nitrogen fixing species, increasing the relative abundance of non-nitrogen fixing species close to seashore. Moreover, we proposed that herbivores can alter the effects of nutrient supplementation by preferentially feeding on high nutrient plants. We studied the effects of nutrient fertilization by seabird guano on tree recruitment and how these effects can be modulated by herbivorous lizards in the coastal dry forests of northwestern Peru. We combined field studies, experiments and stable isotope analysis to study the response of the two most common tree species in these forests, the nitrogen-fixing Prosopis pallida and the non-nitrogen-fixing Capparis scabrida. We did not find differences in herbivore pressure along the sea-inland gradient. We found that the non-nitrogen fixing C. scabrida assimilates marine-derived nitrogen and is more abundant than P. pallida closer to guano-rich soil. We conclude that the input of marine-derived nitrogen through guano deposited by seabirds feeding in the Pacific Ocean affects the two dominant tree species of the coastal dry forests of northern Peru in contrasting ways. The non-nitrogen fixing species, C. scabrida may benefit from sea nutrient subsidies by incorporating guano-derived nitrogen into its foliar tissues, whereas P. pallida, capable of atmospheric fixation, does not. PMID:24466065

  3. Control of Pest Species: Tree shelters help protect seedlings from nutria (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Boykin, R.

    1991-01-01

    Various methods of nutria preventative techniques were tested in attempts to curb the loss of seedlings due to nutria capturing. The results of testing possibly indicate that tree shelters have real potential for use in forest restoration projects on sites with moderate nutria populations. Tree shelters may even prove effective on sites with high nutria populations, as long as alternative food supplies are available.

  4. Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia* James E. Johnson, Extension Forester, Virginia Tech

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    are normally planted. White Pine (Pinus strobus) A native of the mountains of Virginia, white pine (Figure 1 pruning to produce a compact, symmetrical tree. White pine grows best on moist, well-drained sandy loam. On the average, approximately six to eight years are required to produce a 6-foot tree. White pine is the most

  5. The Influence of Recent Climate Change on Tree Height Growth Differs with Species and Spatial Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yassine Messaoud; Dorian Q. Fuller

    2011-01-01

    Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black

  6. Tree-crown biomass estimation in forest species of the Ural and of Kazakhstan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian W Hoffmann; Vladimir A Usoltsev

    2002-01-01

    Tree foliage biomass forms an essential element in forest modelling. Its measurement is costly and its relation to other measurements of standing trees have come under closer scrutiny since the introduction of the pipe model. Regressions of foliage and green shoot biomass of various levels of complexity are given, using as predictors diameter at the base of the crown (dc),

  7. Ficus elastica-The Indian rubber tree-an underutilized promising multi-use species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus elastica known as the Indian rubber tree has a white, milky latex that is a source of natural rubber was analyzed for its phytochemicals as an intermediate energy source. The tree produces a high quantity of protein and oil (24.5 and 6.1% respectively). The polyphenol content was 4.2%, and hyd...

  8. [Effects of relative abundance of Quercus mongolica acorns on five tree species seed dispersal in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Yi, Xian-Feng; Wang, De-Xiang

    2013-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in a forest farm in the Xiaoxing' an Mountains in autumn, 2009 and 2010 to study the effects of Quercus mongolica acorn quantity and rodent density on the seed dispersal of five tree species (Juglans mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Corylus mandshurica, Corylus heterophylla, and Q. mongolica). In the farm, there was an annual change in rodent density. The total capture rate of small rodents in 2009 (31.0%) was significantly higher than that in 2010 (16.7%). The acorn quantity and relative seed abundance (per capita rodent) of Quercus mongolica in 2009 (6.2 +/- 2.1 acorns x m(-2) and 20.0, respectively) were significantly lower than those in 2010 (26.7 +/- 10.2 acorns x m(-2) and 160.0, respectively). In 2009, all the seeds of the five tree species except J. mandshurica were dispersed or eaten in situ, among which, the acorns of Q. mongolica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. In 2010, the seeds of J. mandshurica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. The relative seed abundance of Q. mongolica could be the key factor determining the seed dispersal of the other tree species in the study area. PMID:24066536

  9. Ozone reactivity of biogenic volatile organic compounds emitted from the four dominant tree species at PROPHET - CABINEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmig, D.; Daly, R.; Bertman, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    A number of recent studies on biogenic volatile organic emissions (BVOC) released in the forest atmosphere have pointed out that identified emissions can not account for the entire chemical reactivity seen in the forest atmosphere. During the 2009 and 2010 Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) PROPHET site BVOC emissions and their reactivity with ozone were studied with a newly developed ozone reactivity instrument. Experiments were conducted on the tree species red oak, white pine, quaking aspen, and red maple, representing ~ 87% of the canopy leaf area index at this site. BVOC emissions were sampled from a branch bag enclosure, mixed with ozone-enriched air, and directed through a series of reaction vessels. A differential ozone monitor was used to determine the reaction rate with ozone while emissions were being purged through the reaction vessel. BVOC in the outflow of the bag enclosure were also determined with a field gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument, and by collection on adsorbent cartridges with subsequent analysis in our Boulder laboratory. Experiments were performed over several days to capture emission changes under varying ambient temperature and light conditions. The ozone reactivity showed distinct diurnal cycles and a tight correlation with leaf temperature, typically maximizing during mid day to afternoon. Furthermore, the four tree species investigated displayed a distinctly different behavior, with emissions from the one coniferous tree species (white pine) exhibiting the overall highest ozone reactivity signal.

  10. The Influence of Tree Species on Subsurface Stormflow at the Hillslope Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, G.; Weiler, M.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), two very common tree species in Central Europe, on soil water storage and runoff response to precipitation. We postulate that on the same type of soil, spruce with its shallow rooting system leads to different soil water storage and runoff responses than the deep rooting beech. To test this hypothesis, we chose a beech and a spruce stand with comparable soil type, a stagnic cambisol with a stagnic layer in about 50 cm soil depth. In each of the two stands we sprinkled a hillslope of 6 m by 10 m with intensities of 100 mm/h and 60 mm/h for one hour each. Surface and shallow interflow as well as interflow in different soil depths was collected by inserted sheet metals and gutters in 10 cm, 30 cm and 60 cm soil depth. Soil water storage responses were measured by 48 multiplexed TDR sensors at each hillslope. TDR wave-guides (20 cm long) were installed in a 45° angle in 10 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm and 70 cm soil depth. Volumetric water content was measured in 6 minute intervals. Sprinkling experiments show that even at intensities of 100 mm/h all the applied water infiltrates, independent of the vegetation cover. The deeper soil horizons respond immediately to the applied precipitation. This vertical water flux response is larger under beech. Under spruce most of the water transport happens in the topsoil layers (upper 40 cm), whereas under beech the entire soil profile down to 80 cm soil depth reacts to sprinkling. Under spruce at intensities of 100 mm/h the whole pore space is almost filled. The larger pores in the topsoil under beech stemming from higher biogenic activity and in the subsoil from more intense rooting are still far from reaching their maximum capacity. High antecedent soil water content (around field capacity) still doesn't cause infiltration excess overland flow but the time that it takes for the soil water storage to drain to its initial value is less than one hour. The hillslope at the spruce stand produces between 23% and 28% runoff. However, the beech hillslope produces roughly twice as much. These experiments show that the interactions between tree species and soil in the vadose zone lead to different pore systems and thus different responses to subsurface stormflow. Beech with its deeper rooting systems and its higher biogenic activity (lower C/N ratio) creates a very effective preferential flow path system that leads to greater amounts of subsurface stormflow. Under high antecedent soil water storage, saturation excess overland flow is more likely to occur in soils under spruce with its smaller preferential flow system.

  11. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  12. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  13. Diplodia quercivora sp. nov.: a new species of Diplodia found on declining Quercus canariensis trees in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Alves, Artur; Phillips, Alan J L

    2013-01-01

    During a study of the species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with oak decline in Tunisia, a large collection of Diplodia strains were isolated from Quercus afares, Q. canariensis and Q. suber trees showing a progressive dieback of shoots and branches, trunk canker and exudates and collar rot. Most of the isolates were identified as Diplodia corticola, while two isolates from Q. canariensis were morphologically and phylogenetically (ITS and tef1-? sequences data) distinct from all other known species of Diplodia. They are described here as Diplodia quercivora sp. nov. In addition, phylogenetic analyses showed for the first time the existence of two distinct lineages within D. corticola. In artificial inoculation experiments, D. quercivora caused necrotic lesions on bark and wood of three Mediterranean oak species, Q. ilex, Q. pubescens and Q. suber. In particular, among the oak species tested, Q. pubescens was the most susceptible. PMID:23709527

  14. Leaf gas exchange characteristics and water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies of dominant grass and tree species in a West African savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Simioni; Xavier Le Roux; Jacques Gignoux; Adrian S. Walcroft

    2004-01-01

    Whereas leaf gas exchange properties are important to assess carbon and water fluxes in ecosystems worldwide, information of this type is scarce for savanna species. In this study, gas exchange characteristics of 2 C4 grass species (Andropogon canaliculatus and Hyparrhenia diplandra) and 2 C3 tree species (Crossopteryx febrifuga and Cussonia arborea) from the West-African savanna of Lamto (Ivory Coast) were

  15. The Effects of Gaseous Ozone and Nitric Acid Deposition on two Crustose Lichen Species From Joshua Tree National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessom, Elizabeth Curie

    Lichens are dependent on atmospheric deposition for much of their water and nutrients, and due to their sensitivity to pollutants, are commonly used as bioindicators for air quality. While studies have focused on epiphytic (tree dwelling) lichens as bioindicators, virtually nothing is known about crustose (rock dwelling) lichens. The atmospheric pollutants ozone (O 3) and nitric acid (HNO3) are two major pollutants found within the Los Angeles Basin. While recent O3 research suggests it does not significantly affect lichen growth, HNO3 appears to be phytotoxic to some lichens. As both of these pollutants are deposited downwind from the L.A. basin into Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), lichen species located in the park may provide a sensitive indicator of pollution effects. This research studied two lichen species of particular interest from Joshua Tree National Park, Lobothallia praeradiosa (Nyl.) Hafellner, and Acarospora socialis H. Magn., both of which are crustose species with unknown sensitivities to O3, as well as hypothesized and unknown sensitivities to nitrogen compounds, respectively. Little research exists for either species, possibly because of the difficulty in working with crustose lichens. This research attempted to expand the background knowledge of these species by exposing them to varying levels of O3 and HNO3, to ascertain their physiological responses. Physiological measures of chlorophyll fluorescence, dark respiration, microscopic imaging, and lichen washes (as a proxy for membrane leakage), were measured throughout the exposure period. Results indicated that both species had similar sensitivities to O3 and HNO3. Both species registered physical damage during the O3 fumigation, as well as a decrease in respiration. Neither species showed major physical damage to HNO3, but both manifested a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting damage to the photosynthetic systems of the algae symbiont. These results suggest that both of these species could be used as passive bioindicators for O3, but may not be technically feasible for use as bioindicators of HNO3 pollution. Overall, this research expanded the background knowledge of these two crustose species, their possible interactions between the fungal and algal components, their susceptibilities to two different pollutants, and their potential use as passive bioindicators for atmospheric pollution.

  16. How are leaves plumbed inside a branch? Differences in leaf-to-leaf hydraulic sectoriality among six temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Orians, Colin M; Smith, Sigrid D P; Sack, Lawren

    2005-08-01

    The transport of water, sugar, and nutrients in trees is restricted to specific vascular pathways, and thus organs may be relatively isolated from one another (i.e. sectored). Strongly sectored leaf-to-leaf pathways have been shown for the transport of sugar and signal molecules within a shoot, but not previously for water transport. The hydraulic sectoriality of leaf-to-leaf pathways was determined for current year shoots of six temperate deciduous tree species (three ring-porous: Castanea dentata, Fraxinus americana, and Quercus rubra, and three diffuse-porous: Acer saccharum, Betula papyrifera, and Liriodendron tulipifera). Hydraulic sectoriality was determined using dye staining and a hydraulic method. In the dye method, leaf blades were removed and dye was forced into the most proximal petiole. For each petiole the vascular traces that were shared with the proximal petiole were counted. For other shoots, measurements were made of the leaf-area-specific hydraulic conductivity for the leaf-to-leaf pathways (k(LL)). In five out of the six species, patterns of sectoriality reflected phyllotaxy; both the sharing of vascular bundles between leaves and k(LL) were higher for orthostichous than non-orthostichous leaf pairs. For each species, leaf-to-leaf sectoriality was determined as the proportional differences between non-orthostichous versus orthostichous leaf pairs in their staining of shared vascular bundles and in their k(LL); for the six species these two indices of sectoriality were strongly correlated (R2=0.94; P <0.002). Species varied 8-fold in their k(LL)-based sectoriality, and ring-porous species were more sectored than diffuse-porous species. Differential leaf-to-leaf sectoriality has implications for species-specific co-ordination of leaf gas exchange and water relations within a branch, especially during fluctuations in irradiance and water and nutrient availability. PMID:15983007

  17. Effect of selective logging on canopy and stand structure and tree species composition in a lowland dipterocarp forest in peninsular Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinori Okuda; Mariko Suzuki; Naoki Adachi; Eng Seng Quah; Nor Azman Hussein; N Manokaran

    2003-01-01

    The authors compared tropical rain forest canopy structure and tree species composition in two forests southeast of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: a primary forest and a regenerating forest that was selectively logged in 1958. For each of the forests, the study plots were set out and all trees of ?1cm in DBH (diameter at breast height) were mapped and measured. Canopy

  18. The Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelupessy, F. I.; van Elteren, A.; de Vries, N.; McMillan, S. L. W.; Drost, N.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    2013-09-01

    We present the open source Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE), a component library for performing astrophysical simulations involving different physical domains and scales. It couples existing codes within a Python framework based on a communication layer using MPI. The interfaces are standardized for each domain and their implementation based on MPI guarantees that the whole framework is well-suited for distributed computation. It includes facilities for unit handling and data storage. Currently it includes codes for gravitational dynamics, stellar evolution, hydrodynamics and radiative transfer. Within each domain the interfaces to the codes are as similar as possible. We describe the design and implementation of AMUSE, as well as the main components and community codes currently supported and we discuss the code interactions facilitated by the framework. Additionally, we demonstrate how AMUSE can be used to resolve complex astrophysical problems by presenting example applications. http://www.amusecode.org The current version of the code is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/557/A84

  19. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    PubMed

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme forests of Amacayacu National Park, and suggest reserve's size as a key element to ensure the conservation of plant diversity at both regional and local levels. PMID:24912366

  20. Facilitation and Inhibition of Seedlings of an Invasive Tree ( Acer platanoides ) by Different Tree Species in a Mountain Ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. O. Reinhart; Fernando T. Maestre; Ragan M. Callaway

    2006-01-01

    Facilitation is known to be an important process structuring natural plant communities. However, much less is known about\\u000a its role in facilitating the invasion of ecosystems by non-native plant species. In this study we evaluated the effects of\\u000a invasive (Acer platanoides) and native (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest types on the performance of A. platanoides seedlings, and related these effects to structural

  1. Are ecologically important tree species the most useful? A case study from indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have argued that indigenous peoples preferably use the most apparent plant species, particularly for medicinal uses. However, the association between the ecological importance of a species and its usefulness remains unclear. In this paper we quantify such association for six use categories (firewood, construction, materials, food, medicines and other uses). We collected data on the uses of 58 tree species, as reported by 93 informants in 22 villages in the Tsimane’ territory (Bolivian Amazon). We calculated the ecological importance of the same species by deriving their importance value index (IVI) in 48 0.1-ha old-growth forest plots. Matching both data sets, we found a positive relation between the IVI of a species and its overall use value (UV) as well as with its UV for construction and materials. We found a negative relation between IVI and UV for species that were reportedly used for medicine and food uses, and no clear pattern for the other categories. We hypothesize that species used for construction or crafting purposes because of their physical properties are more easily substitutable than species used for medicinal or edible purposes because of their chemical properties.

  2. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was largely explained by higher conductivity of the xylem cross section area. Palms transpired a mean of 1.67 mm m-2 of water per unit crown projection area per day, whereas trees transpired only 0.30 mm m-2 per day, resulting in a 5.6 times lower transpiration rate. We conclude that changes in the water table due to land use change are predictable and highly depending on the species planted in the area with altered land use.

  3. Using Caribbean pine to establish a mixed plantation: testing effects of pine canopy removal on plantings of rain forest tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. S. Ashton; S. Gamage; I. A. U. N. Gunatilleke; C. V. S. Gunatilleke

    1998-01-01

    Our study tested the potential for establishing shade-tolerant tree species within different canopy removal treatments of an 18-year-old Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine) plantation. We investigated whether planting within a Pinus plantation can be a solution to the dispersal, weed competition, and pathogen\\/insect problems rain forest tree species have during their initial establishment on sites previously cleared of forest. The plantation

  4. [Influence of environmental factors on the distribution of tree species in the forests of south-eastern Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Castelán, José C; Islebe, Gerald A

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the distribution of tree species and environmental factors in the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, south-eastern Mexico. Our main objective was to examine how changes in microtopography and edaphic factors influence the distribution of tree species of medium and low-statured forests. We established 17 plots of 625 m2 and collected data on spatial distribution of individuals with dbh > or = 5 cm, and the following soil variables: electric conductivity (CE), cationic exchange capacity (CEC), textural class, pH, organic matter (MO), total nitrogen (Nt) and phosphorus availability (P). We used Twinspan to classify the plots and applied indirect (DCA) and direct (CCA) gradient analysis. We found 84 species and 4 433 individuals. MO, texture and CEC varied significantly (p< or =0.05) between the high and low parts. DCA and CCA indicated that the species distribution is strongly influenced by the microtopography gradient and the textural class. Using DCA and CCA exclusively on the data of the low parts, two low statured forest types were identified: one characteristic of low zones (soil slightly basic and high percentage of clay), the other surrounded by medium statured forest (soil slightly acid, high CEC, MO and clay). PMID:17354425

  5. Greater Soil Carbon Sequestration under Nitrogen-fixing Trees Compared with Eucalyptus Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigrid C. Resh; Dan Binkley; John A. Parrotta

    2002-01-01

    Forests with nitrogen-fixing trees (N–fixers) typically accumulate more carbon (C) in soils than similar forests without N–fixing\\u000a trees. This difference may develop from fundamentally different processes, with either greater accumulation of recently fixed\\u000a C or reduced decomposition of older soil C. We compared the soil C pools under N–fixers with Eucalyptus (non–N–fixers) at four tropical sites: two sites on Andisol

  6. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species. 2. Boiga irregularis, the Brown Tree Snake (Reptilia: Colubridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis (Merrem, 1802), was accidentally transported to the island of Guam shortly after World War II. Over the following two decades it spread throughout the island with little public or professional recognition of its extent or impacts. This secretive nocturnal arboreal snake occurs in all habitats on Guam, from grasslands to forests. Under the right conditions, it is capable of high rates of reproduction and population growth. The Brown Tree Snake caused the extirpation of 13 of Guam's 22 native breeding birds and contributed to the extirpation of several species of native bats and lizards. Guam's 12 forest birds were especially impacted, with 10 species eliminated and the other two severely reduced. In addition, the snake continues to substantially impact domestic poultry, pets, the island's electrical power infrastructure, and human health. To protect other vulnerable Pacific islands, the U.S. government annually spends several million dollars inspecting cargo outbound from Guam to exclude Brown Tree Snakes. Cargo destinations most at risk are in Micronesia, especially the Northern Mariana Islands, but Guam also has direct air transportation links to Hawai'i that will soon be supplemented with direct ship traffic. Ultimately, all Pacific islands are at risk but especially those obtaining cargo through Guam. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press. All rights reserved.

  7. The genus Drosophila as a model for testing tree- and character-based methods of species identification using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Amir; Markow, Therese A; Narechania, Apurva; O'Grady, Patrick M; DeSalle, Rob

    2010-11-01

    DNA barcoding has recently been proposed as a promising tool for the (1) rapid assignment of unknown samples to described species by non-expert workers and (2) a potential method of new species discovery based on degree of DNA sequence divergence. Two broad methods have been used, one based on degree of DNA sequence variation, within and between species and another requiring the recovery of species as discrete clades (monophyly) on a phylogenetic tree. An alternative method relies on the identification of a set of specific diagnostic nucleotides for a given species (characters). The genus Drosophila has long served as a model system in genetics, development, ecology and evolutionary biology. As a result of this work, species boundaries within this genus are quite well delimited, with most taxa being defined by morphological characters and also conforming to a biological species concept (e.g., partial or complete reproductive isolation has used to erect and define species). In addition, some of the species in this group have also been subjected to phylogenetic analysis, yielding cases where taxa both conform and conflict with a phylogenetic species concept. Here, we analyzed 1058 COI sequences belonging to 68 species belonging to Drosophila and its allied genus Zaprionus and with more than a single representative to assess the performance of the three DNA barcoding methods. 26% of the species could not be defined using distance methods, i.e. had a barcoding gap of ? 0, and 23% were not monophyletic. We focused then on four groups of closely-related species whose taxonomy is well-established on non-molecular basis (e.g., morphology, geography, reproductive isolation) and to which most of the problematic species belonged. We showed that characters performed better than other approaches in the case of paraphyletic species, but all methods failed in the case of polyphyletic species. For these polyphyletic species, other sources of evidence (e.g., morphology, geography, reproductive isolation) are more relevant than COI sequences, highlighting the limitation of DNA barcoding and the needs for integrative taxonomy approaches. In conclusion, DNA barcoding of Drosophila shows no reason to alter the 250 years old tradition of character-based taxonomy, and many reasons to shy away from the alternatives. PMID:20800099

  8. INDEPENDENT EFFECTS AND INTERACTIONS OF STAND DIAMETER, TREE DIAMETER, CROWN CLASS, AND AGE ON TREE GROWTH IN MIXED-SPECIES, EVEN-AGED HARDWOOD STANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Marquis

    Many studies have shown that initial tree diameter is closely correlated with subsequent tree growth. But initial tree diameter is actually a confounded variable, incorporating both competitive position (crown class) and age. A study in hardwood stands in Pennsylvania has shown that the two latter variables were more reliable predictors of tree growth than initial diameter. These two variables lack

  9. Local adaptation to drought and warming in grass and tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Kreyling; Daniel Thiel; Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is characterized by a general warming trend, combined with an increase in the occurrence of extreme events such as drought. Plant species are known to differ in their responsiveness to these factors. Below the species level, however, intraspecific variability or ecotypes may differ considerably in their performance, especially in widely distributed species, with implications for modelling future species

  10. Phytophthora niederhauserii sp. nov., a polyphagous species associated with ornamentals, fruit trees and native plants in 13 countries.

    PubMed

    Abad, Z Gloria; Abad, Jorge A; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Antonella; Faedda, Roberto; Moralejo, Eduardo; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Alvarez-Bernaola, Luis A; Bakonyi, József; Józsa, András; Herrero, Maria Luz; Burgess, Treena I; Cunnington, James H; Smith, Ian W; Balci, Yilmaz; Blomquist, Cheryl; Henricot, Béatrice; Denton, Geoffrey; Spies, Chris; Mcleod, Adele; Belbahri, Lassaad; Cooke, David; Kageyama, Koji; Uematsu, Seiji; Kurbetli, Ilker; De?irmenci, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora species first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant species in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new species. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This species was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the species with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the species and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1?, and ?-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown species. It is closely related to species in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related species being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. PMID:24871599

  11. Gas exchange, leaf structure and nitrogen in contrasting successional tree species growing in open and understory sites during a drought.

    PubMed

    Abrams, M D; Mostoller, S A

    1995-06-01

    Seasonal ecophysiology, leaf structure and nitrogen were measured in saplings of early (Populus grandidentata Michx. and Prunus serotina J.F. Ehrh.), middle (Fraxinus americana L. and Carya tomentosa Nutt.) and late (Acer rubrum L. and Cornus florida L.) successional tree species during severe drought on adjacent open and understory sites in central Pennsylvania, USA. Area-based net photosynthesis (A) and leaf conductance to water vapor diffusion (g(wv)) varied by site and species and were highest in open growing plants and early successional species at both the open and understory sites. In response to the period of maximum drought, both sunfleck and sun leaves of the early successional species exhibited smaller decreases in A than leaves of the other species. Shaded understory leaves of all species were more susceptible to drought than sun leaves and had negative midday A values during the middle and later growing season. Shaded understory leaves also displayed a reduced photosynthetic light response during the peak drought period. Sun leaves were thicker and had a greater mass per area (LMA) and nitrogen (N) content than shaded leaves, and early and middle successional species had higher N contents and concentrations than late successional species. In both sunfleck and sun leaves, seasonal A was positively related to predawn leaf Psi, g(wv), LMA and N, and was negatively related to vapor pressure deficit, midday leaf Psi and internal CO(2). Although a significant amount of plasticity occurred in all species for most gas exchange and leaf structural parameters, middle successional species exhibited the largest degree of phenotypic plasticity between open and understory plants. PMID:14965944

  12. Leaf morphology of 40 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species and relationships to functional ecophysiological traits.

    PubMed

    Kröber, W; Heklau, H; Bruelheide, H

    2015-03-01

    We explored potential of morphological and anatomical leaf traits for predicting ecophysiological key functions in subtropical trees. We asked whether the ecophysiological parameters stomatal conductance and xylem cavitation vulnerability could be predicted from microscopy leaf traits. We investigated 21 deciduous and 19 evergreen subtropical tree species, using individuals of the same age and from the same environment in the Biodiversity-Ecosystem Functioning experiment at Jiangxi (BEF-China). Information-theoretic linear model selection was used to identify the best combination of morphological and anatomical predictors for ecophysiological functions. Leaf anatomy and morphology strongly depended on leaf habit. Evergreen species tended to have thicker leaves, thicker spongy and palisade mesophyll, more palisade mesophyll layers and a thicker subepidermis. Over 50% of all evergreen species had leaves with multi-layered palisade parenchyma, while only one deciduous species (Koelreuteria bipinnata) had this. Interactions with leaf habit were also included in best multi-predictor models for stomatal conductance (gs ) and xylem cavitation vulnerability. In addition, maximum gs was positively related to log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness. Vapour pressure deficit (vpd) for maximum gs increased with the log ratio of palisade to spongy mesophyll thickness in species having leaves with papillae. In contrast, maximum specific hydraulic conductivity and xylem pressure at which 50% loss of maximum specific xylem hydraulic conductivity occurred (?50 ) were best predicted by leaf habit and density of spongy parenchyma. Evergreen species had lower ?50 values and lower maximum xylem hydraulic conductivities. As hydraulic leaf and wood characteristics were reflected in structural leaf traits, there is high potential for identifying further linkages between morphological and anatomical leaf traits and ecophysiological responses. PMID:25441614

  13. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    PubMed

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    How trees sense source-sink carbon balance remains unclear. One potential mechanism is a feedback from non-structural carbohydrates regulating photosynthesis and removing excess as waste respiration when the balance of photosynthesis against growth and metabolic activity changes. We tested this carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration using branch girdling in four tree species in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Because girdling severs phloem to stop carbohydrate export while leaving xylem intact to allow photosynthesis, we expected carbohydrates to accumulate in leaves to simulate a carbon imbalance. We varied girdling intensity by removing phloem in increments of one-quarter of the circumference (zero, one--quarter, half, three-quarters, full) and surrounded a target branch with fully girdled ones to create a gradient in leaf carbohydrate content. Light saturated photosynthesis rate was measured in situ, and foliar respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate content were measured after destructive harvest at the end of the treatment. Girdling intensity created no consistent or strong responses in leaf carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose slightly increased in all species by 3.4% per one-quarter girdle, total carbon content and leaf mass per area increased only in one species by 5.4 and 5.5% per one-quarter girdle, and starch did not change. Only full girdling lowered photosynthesis in three of four species by 59-69%, but the decrease in photosynthesis was unrelated to the increase in glucose and fructose content. Girdling did not affect respiration. The results suggest that leaf carbohydrate content remains relatively constant under carbon imbalance, and any changes are unlikely to regulate photosynthesis or respiration. Because girdling also stops the export of hormones and reactive oxygen species, girdling may induce physiological changes unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation and may not be an effective method to study carbohydrate feedback in leaves. In three species, removal of three-quarters of phloem area did not cause leaf carbohydrates to accumulate nor did it change photosynthesis or respiration, suggesting that phloem transport is flexible and transport rate per unit phloem can rapidly increase under an increase in carbohydrate supply relative to phloem area. Leaf carbohydrate content thus may be decoupled from whole plant carbon balance by phloem transport in some species, and carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration may not be as common in trees as previous girdling studies suggest. Further studies in carbohydrate regulation should avoid using girdling as girdling can decrease photosynthesis through unintended means without the tested mechanisms of accumulating leaf carbohydrates. PMID:25870320

  14. Tree canopy biodiversity in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: ecological and developmental observations of a new myxomycete species of Diachea.

    PubMed

    Keller, Harold W; Skrabal, Melissa; Eliasson, Uno H; Gaither, Thomas W

    2004-01-01

    A survey and inventory of tree canopy bio-diversity for cryptogams (myxomycetes, macrofungi, mosses, liverworts, lichens and ferns) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the discovery of an undescribed myxomycete species. This taxon is classified in the order Physarales, family Di-dymiaceae and genus Diachea. A combination of morphological characteristics distinguishes Diachea arboricola H.W. Keller & M. Skrabal sp. nov. from all other species in the genus: peridium iridescent gold to silvery gray; stalk reddish orange above and whitish below, filled with crystals; capillitial threads stiff, dichotomously branched and arising from the tip of the columella; spore ornamentation uniformly covering the entire spore surface, appearing spiny with light microscopy, with scanning electron microscopy as vertical processes with capitate, clustered, spike-like tips. This type of spore ornamentation has not been found in any other Diachea species. Diachea arboricola is known only from the tree canopy, ranging in height from roughly 3 to 21 m, on three tree species, Fraxinus americana, Juniperus virginiana and Quercus alba. Observations of plasmodial growth and fruiting body development are described based on moist chamber cultures. Tree canopy observations in situ suggest that the plasmodium of this species migrates over extensive vertical areas of tree bark. Ecological factors are discussed that include pH of bark substrata. The species description is based on abundant sporangia from 17 different collections. A key to the species of Diachea is provided to aid in the identification of this taxon. PMID:21148876

  15. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    PubMed Central

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  16. Replacement of native oak and hickory tree species by the introduced American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Rutter, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    American chestnut was introduced at West Salem, Wisconsin, about 1880 and had begun to replace native tree species in adjacent oak-hickory woodland before 1930. Chestnut is now an important canopy species over c20 ha of forested ridge extending N and S of the original plantation. A smaller area of <5 ha is dominated by chestnut in both canopy and understory. Chestnut seedlings and small saplings are more numerous along woodland edges and in recently disturbed soil, they are rare in the interior of ungrazed pasture and entirely absent from intensively grazed areas adjacent to chestnut-dominated woodland. Random sampling of recently established seedlings indicates that 1-5 seedlings/(yr.ha) became established in undisturbed woodland between 1986-1988. The general pattern of chestnut distribution indicates the importance of woodland edges in chestnut propagation and the effects of livestock grazing in excluding chestnut. Replacement of native species by chestnut appears to have occurred in 2 steps: isolated groups of trees become established at favorable locations, after which many additional chestnut stems became established in the understory. The West Salem site may not be available for study of blight-free chestnut in the future. -from Authors

  17. Some South African Rubiaceae Tree Leaf Extracts Have Antimycobacterial Activity Against Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Mycobacterium Species.

    PubMed

    Aro, Abimbola O; Dzoyem, Jean P; Hlokwe, Tiny M; Madoroba, Evelyn; Eloff, Jacobus N; McGaw, Lyndy J

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Many plant species contain antimycobacterial compounds, which may serve as template molecules for new anti-TB drugs. The Rubiaceae family is the largest family of trees in southern Africa, and preliminary evidence revealed antimycobacterial activity in several species of the genus, motivating further studies. Leaf extracts of 15 tree species from the Rubiaceae family were screened for antimycobacterial activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis and non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) using a twofold serial microdilution assay. Cytotoxicity was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against C3A liver cells and Vero kidney cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 0.04?mg/mL against M.?smegmatis and M.?tuberculosis were recorded. Activity against M.?aurum was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic M.?tuberculosis (correlation coefficient?=?0.9). Bioautography indicated at least 40 different antimycobacterial compounds in the extracts. Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and Oxyanthus speciosus had the most promising selectivity index values. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25857273

  18. Near-Surface Soil Carbon, C/N Ratio and Tree Species Are Tightly Linked across Northeastern USA Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. S.; Bailey, S. W.; Lawrence, G. B.; Shanley, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Forest soils hold large stores of carbon, with the highest concentrations in the surface horizons. In these horizons, both the total C mass and the C/N ratio may respond more rapidly to changes in tree species than lower horizons. We measured C and C/N ratios in the Oa or A horizon from twelve watersheds at eight established forested research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, Fagus grandifolia, Picea rubens and Tsuga canadensis. In 710 plots, both soil C (50-530 g kg-1) and the C/N ratio (11.6-45.3) had a wide range. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were strongly related to C content. For these eleven watersheds, the average C/N = 9.5 + 0.030 X C g kg-1, R2 = 0.97, P < 0.001. Ratios at Cone Pond were much higher than would be predicted from this equation and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Averaged by watershed, C concentration was also significantly related to C pools. Carbon concentration of the horizons sampled was negatively related to Acer saccharum + Betula alleghaniensis dominance and positively related to conifer + Fagus grandifolia dominance. The strong relationships between C, C/N ratio, and species suggest predictable patterns in C accumulation in near-surface soils.

  19. Elevated stream inorganic nitrogen impacts on a dominant riparian tree species: Results from an experimental riparian stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Jackson, T. L.; Burtch, K. G.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The release of inorganic nitrogen from intensive agricultural practices and urbanization has resulted in significant alterations of the aquatic nitrogen cycle in riparian ecosystems. Nevertheless, impacts of stream nitrogen inputs on the terrestrial nitrogen cycle and the water and carbon cycles are unclear. Information on terrestrial ecosystem responses to stream N loading is largely absent in part because of the difficulty in controlling for temporal and spatial variation in streamflow, geomorphology, climate, and vegetation. To address these issues, we constructed a dual-plot artificial stream riparian system within a 10-year-old plantation of a dominant riparian tree species, box elder (Acer negundo). The dual-plot design allowed for different concentrations of stream inorganic nitrogen between plots while controlling for ecohydrologic and geohydrologic variability. The system was used to investigate elevated inorganic stream nitrogen impacts on water use patterns, above-ground productivity, and leaf chemistry of streamside box elder trees over two consecutive growing seasons (2006 and 2007). One plot received inorganic soluble fertilizer that brought the NO3 concentration of stream water from 5 ?mol l-1 to about 100 ?mol l-1, while the second plot received no additional nitrogen. Relative stem sap flux density (Js) did not vary between plots until near the conclusion of the 2006 growing season, when trees in the fertilized plot showed a steep upswing in Js relative to trees in the control plot. Sap flux in 2007 increased consistently by 0.4% day-1 in the fertilized plot relative to the control plot over a 75-day period, before leveling off near the conclusion of the growing season. At the onset of the experiment, leaf nitrogen per unit mass and leaf nitrogen per unit area were significantly higher in the control plot, and leaf C:N ratios were lower. In 2007, however, differences in leaf chemistry disappeared, suggesting that leaf nitrogen increased in the fertilized trees relative to the control trees. Stem diameter growth in 2007 was 15% greater in the fertilized trees, although there were no differences in either canopy radial or canopy height growth throughout the experiment. Results from this investigation suggest that increases in stream inorganic nitrogen affect water use, litter quality, and productivity of dominant riparian vegetation. These effects may have important feedbacks on several ecohydrological processes.

  20. Plasticity in above- and belowground resource acquisition traits in response to single and multiple environmental factors in three tree species.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Bellingham, Peter J; Lyver, Philip O'B; Bonner, Karen I; Wardle, David A

    2013-04-01

    Functional trait plasticity is a major component of plant adjustment to environmental stresses. Here, we explore how multiple local environmental gradients in resources required by plants (light, water, and nutrients) and soil disturbance together influence the direction and amplitude of intraspecific changes in leaf and fine root traits that facilitate capture of these resources. We measured population-level analogous above- and belowground traits related to resource acquisition, i.e. "specific leaf area"-"specific root length" (SLA-SRL), and leaf and root N, P, and dry matter content (DMC), on three dominant understory tree species with contrasting carbon and nutrient economics across 15 plots in a temperate forest influenced by burrowing seabirds. We observed similar responses of the three species to the same single environmental influences, but partially species-specific responses to combinations of influences. The strength of intraspecific above- and belowground trait responses appeared unrelated to species resource acquisition strategy. Finally, most analogous leaf and root traits (SLA vs. SRL, and leaf versus root P and DMC) were controlled by contrasting environmental influences. The decoupled responses of above- and belowground traits to these multiple environmental factors together with partially species-specific adjustments suggest complex responses of plant communities to environmental changes, and potentially contrasting feedbacks of plant traits with ecosystem properties. We demonstrate that despite the growing evidence for broadly consistent resource-acquisition strategies at the whole plant level among species, plants also show partially decoupled, finely tuned strategies between above- and belowground parts at the intraspecific level in response to their environment. This decoupling within species suggests a need for many species-centred ecological theories on how plants respond to their environments (e.g. competitive/stress-tolerant/ruderal and response-effect trait frameworks) to be adapted to account for distinct plant-environment interactions among distinct individuals of the same species and parts of the same individual. PMID:23610644

  1. [Effects of light quality on the seed germination of main tree species in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Yan, Qiao-Ling

    2012-10-01

    This paper explored the effects of light quality on the seed germination of five dominant tree species (Larix kaempferi, Phellodendron amurense, Acer mono, Fraxinus mandshurica, and Pinus koraiensis) in a secondary forest ecosystem of Northeast China, based on the experiments with the seeds of the five tree species in laboratory and those of the P. koraiensis and L. kaempferi in the field. Four treatments of different light quality were designed in laboratory (taking dark as the control), and three treatments of R/FR (the ratio of red light and far red light intensity) were installed in the field. The laboratory experiment showed that light quality had less effect on the seed germination of L. kaempferi, but the seed germination rates of the other four tree species were significantly different under the treatments of different light quality. P. amurense had the highest seed germination rate under white light, whereas A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis had the highest one under the alternative irradiation with red light and far red light (R-FR-R). In consistence with the results in laboratory, the seed germination rate of P. koraiensis in the field decreased with decreasing R/FR ratio, while that of L. kaempferi was less affected. Under natural condition, the R-FR-R fluctuated with the activity of sun-fleck, and the seed germination patterns of A. mono, F. mandshurica, and P. koraiensis could be the adaptation to the sun-fleck environment in forest stand. The germination of large seeds was significantly affected by light quality. PMID:23359919

  2. Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock.

    PubMed

    Kukowski, Kelly R; Schwinning, Susanne; Schwartz, Benjamin F

    2013-04-01

    An important component of the hydrological niche involves the partitioning of water sources, but in landscapes characterized by shallow soils over fractured bedrock, root growth is highly constrained. We conducted a study to determine how physical constraints in the root zone affected the water use of three tree species that commonly coexist on the Edwards Plateau of central Texas; cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), live oak (Quercus fusiformis), and Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). The year of the study was unusually dry; minimum predawn water potentials measured in August were -8 MPa in juniper, less than -8 MPa in elm, and -5 MPa in oak. All year long, species used nearly identical water sources, based on stable isotope analysis of stem water. Sap flow velocities began to decline simultaneously in May, but the rate of decline was fastest for oak and slowest for juniper. Thus, species partitioned water by time when they could not partition water by source. Juniper lost 15-30 % of its stem hydraulic conductivity, while percent loss for oak was 70-75 %, and 90 % for elm. There was no tree mortality in the year of the study, but 2 years later, after an even more severe drought in 2011, we recorded 34, 14, 6, and 1 % mortality among oak, elm, juniper, and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana), respectively. Among the study species, mortality rates ranked in the same order as the rate of sap flow decline in 2009. Among the angiosperms, mortality rates correlated with wood density, lending further support to the hypothesis that species with more cavitation-resistant xylem are more susceptible to catastrophic hydraulic failure under acute drought. PMID:23053227

  3. Accounting for selection bias in species distribution models: An econometric approach on forested trees based on structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Jean-Sauveur; Guillemot, Joannès; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Doyen, Luc; Leadley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global change on species. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given species is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural species distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and species responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of species response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of application on forested trees over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8 km). We also compared the output of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM in term of bioclimatic response curves and potential distribution under current climate. According to the species and the spatial resolution of the calibration dataset, shapes of bioclimatic response curves the modelled species distribution maps differed markedly between the SSDM and classical SDMs. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents a crucial step to account for economic constraints on tree species distribution that will help to assess the trade-offs and opportunities arising from global change and refine adaptive management strategies.

  4. What matters for predicting spatial distributions of trees: Techniques, data, or species’ characteristics?

    E-print Network

    Guisan, A.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Elith, J.; Graham, C. H.; Phillips, S.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2007-10-01

    Data characteristics and species traits are expected to influence the accuracy with which species' distributions can be modeled and predicted. We compare 10 modeling techniques in terms of predictive power and sensitivity ...

  5. Aggregating tree species to develop diameter increment equations for tropical rainforests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome K. Vanclay

    1991-01-01

    Pairwise F-tests provided an efficient approach for aggregating large numbers of species into a manageable number of groups for developing diameter increment functions. The first stage of the two-stage procedure identified the number of groups required and the species defining these groups; the second stage aggregated all the remaining species into the most appropriate group. Although there is no guarantee

  6. Leaf lifespan as a determinant of leaf structure and function among 23 amazonian tree species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Reich; C. Uhl; M. B. Walters; D. S. Ellsworth

    1991-01-01

    The relationships between resource availability, plant succession, and species' life history traits are often considered key to understanding variation among species and communities. Leaf lifespan is one trait important in this regard. We observed that leaf lifespan varies 30-fold among 23 species from natural and disturbed communities within a 1-km radius in the northern Amazon basin, near San Carlos de

  7. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Water uptake and retention by trees affects their ability to cope with drought, as well as influences ground water recharge and stream flow. Historically, water has not often been limiting in Eastern U.S. forests. As a result, very little work has been done to understand the basics of timing of water use by vegetation in these systems. As droughts are projected to increase in length and severity in future decades, this focus is increasingly important, particularly for informing hydrologic models. We used deuterium tracer and sap flux techniques to study tree water transport on a forested ridge top with shallow soil in central Pennsylvania. Three trees of each of the species, Acer saccharum, Carya tomentosa, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubrum were accessed by tree climbing and scaffolding towers. We hypothesized that contrasting vessel size of the tree species would affect the efficiency of water transport (tracer velocity) and contrasting tree size would affect tracer storage as estimated by tracer residence times. Trees were injected with deuterated water in July 2012. Leaves were sampled 15 times over 35 days, initially daily for the first week, then at regular intervals afterwards. The tracer arrived in the canopy of the study trees between 1 and 7 days after injection, traveling at a velocity of 2 to 19 m d-1. The tracer residence time was between 7 and 33 days. Although there was variation in tracer velocity and residence time in individual trees, there were no significant differences among wood types or species (P>0.05). The general patterns in timing of water use were similar to other studies on angiosperm trees in tropical and arid ecosystems. There was no evidence of longer residence times in the larger trees. Sap flux-based estimates of sap velocity were much lower than tracer estimates, which was consistent with other studies. Levels of sap flux and midday water potential measurements suggested that the trees were water-stressed. We observed relatively rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  8. Comparative biogeography of New Zealand trees: species richness, height, leaf traits and range sizes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt S. McGlone; Sarah J. Richardson; Greg J. Jordan

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand forests grow under highly oceanic climates on an isolated southern archipelago. They experience a combination of historical and environmental factors matched nowhere else. This paper explores whether the New Zealand tree flora also differs systematically from those found in other temperate and island areas. A compilation of traits and distributions from standard floras is used to compare the

  9. Foliar Accumulation of Zinc in Tree Species Grown in Hardwood Bark Media Amended with Crumb Rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Bush; Allen Owings; Kris Leader

    2003-01-01

    Artificial nursery medium sources of uniformity and quality are becoming more difficult to locate. Alternative components such as recycled crumb rubber (CR) may have potential to be incorporated into bark or other growing media. Recycled CR is a waste product from automobile tires. Mixtures of CR and hardwood bark were evaluated in production of container?grown trees. Leaf tissue analysis revealed

  10. INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF FOUR TREE SPECIES IN ORONGORONGO VALLEY, NEW ZEALAND, AS REVEALED BY TRUNK TRAPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABDUL MOEED; M. J. MEADS

    SUMMARY: Tree trunks are important links between the forest floor and canopy, especially for flightless invertebrates that move from the forest floor to feed or breed in the canopy. Traps were used to sample invertebrates moving up and down on mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus), hinau (Elaeocarpus dentatus), hard beech (Nothofagus truncata), and kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa). In 19 months 22 696 invertebrates

  11. The effects of C, N and P additions on soil microbial activity under two remnant tree species in a tropical seasonal pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopoldo Galicia; Felipe Garc??a-Oliva

    2004-01-01

    Although the availability of soil nutrients can constraint microbial activity, little is known about the interactive effects on soil microbial activity in tropical soils of nutrient addition and plant species. To test this effect, incubation experiments were carried out to assess the effects of C, N and P addition in soil samples from under two remnant tree species (Caesalpinia eriostachys

  12. Effects of tree cutting and mowing on plant species composition and diversity of the wetland ecosystems dominated by the endangered maple, Acer pycnanthum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuyo Saeki

    2007-01-01

    Japanese red maple, Acer pycnanthum, is an endangered species that grows only in small, discrete wetland ecosystems in central Honshu, Japan. Because of its rarity and beauty, public attention and management are typically focused only on this overstory species. For example, mowing and tree cutting of understory and ground-cover plants are practices frequently applied to develop easily accessible, park-like stands.

  13. Associations between regional moisture gradient, tree species dominance, and downed wood abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Mills, J.

    2007-12-01

    Downed wood functions as a source of nurse logs, physical structure in streams, food, and carbon. Because downed wood is important in upland and aquatic habitats, an understanding of wood recruitment along a continuum from wet to dry landscapes is critical for both preservation of biodiversity and restoration of natural ecosystem structure and function. We assessed downed wood in public and private forests of Washington and Oregon by using a subset of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database including 15,842 sampled conditions. Multivariate regression trees, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to discern environmental conditions most closely associated with abundance of woody debris. Of the 16 parameters included in the analysis, rainfall, forest ownership, number of damaged standing trees, and forest elevation were most indicative of woody debris abundance. The Hemlock/spruce Group, including hemlock, spruce, cedar, and white pine, most associated with wetter soils, had significantly more downed wood than 12 other forest groups. The Ponderosa Pine Group, indicative of drier sites with higher fire frequencies, included ponderosa pine, sugar pine, and incense cedar, and had significantly less downed wood volume. Overall, the amount of woody debris in either the Spruce/hemlock Group or the Ponderosa Pine Group did not change significantly as tree age increased from 5 to 350 years. Plots within the Hemlock/spruce with greater standing tree volume also had significantly greater downed wood volume. In contrast, greater downed wood volume was not associated with greater standing tree volume in the Ponderosa Pine Group. Knowledge of linkages among environmental variables and stand characteristics are useful in development of regional forest models aimed at understanding the effects of climate change and disturbance on forest succession.

  14. Suitability of north American tree species to the gypsy moth: A summary of field and laboratory tests. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Conn