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Sample records for multisystemic therapy mst

  1. The effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy (MST): a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Stouwe, Trudy; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; van der Laan, Peter H

    2014-08-01

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is a well-established intervention for juvenile delinquents and/or adolescents showing social, emotional and behavioral problems. A multilevel meta-analysis of k=22 studies, containing 332 effect sizes, consisting of N=4066 juveniles, was conducted to examine the effectiveness of MST. Small but significant treatment effects were found on delinquency (primary outcome) and psychopathology, substance use, family factors, out-of-home placement and peer factors, whereas no significant treatment effect was found for skills and cognitions. Moderator analyses showed that study characteristics (country where the research was conducted, efficacy versus effectiveness, and study quality), treatment characteristics (single versus multiple control treatments and duration of MST treatment), sample characteristics (target population, age, gender and ethnicity) and outcome characteristics (non-specific versus violent/non-violent offending, correction for pretreatment differences, and informant type) moderated the effectiveness of MST. MST seems most effective with juveniles under the age of 15, with severe starting conditions. Furthermore, the effectiveness of MST may be improved when treatment for older juveniles is focused more on peer relationships and risks and protective factors in the school domain. PMID:25047448

  2. Transportability of Multisystemic Therapy to Community Settings: Can a Program Sustain Outcomes without MST Services Oversight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Boydston, Julianne M.; Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multisystemic therapy (MST) has been shown to be effective in treating delinquent behavior in youth. However, some community agencies with MST programs are unable to afford the ongoing costs of licensure and quality assurance oversight provided by MST services. Objective: The present study utilized retrospective archival analyses of…

  3. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-07-01

    Externalizing problems are multidetermined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who are at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research have established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. This article presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as 2 adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  4. Multisystemic Therapy for Externalizing Youth

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Randall, Jeff; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Externalizing problems are multi-determined and related to individual, family, peer, school, and community risk factors. Multisystemic therapy (MST) was originally developed to address these risk factors among youth with serious conduct problems who were at-risk for out-of-home placement. Several decades of research has established MST as an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with serious clinical problems, including serious offending, delinquency, substance abuse, and parental physical abuse and neglect. Further, research points to the importance of maintaining high treatment fidelity through systematic quality assurance procedures to replicate positive clinical outcomes. This paper presents an overview of the clinical procedures and evidence base of MST for externalizing problems as well as two adaptations: MST for Substance Abuse and MST for Child Abuse and Neglect. PMID:26092742

  5. Inside Multisystemic Therapy: Therapist, Supervisory, and Program Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Brown, Tamara L.; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights key features of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), a treatment designed to empower caregivers with the skills and resources needed to address behavioral problems and to teach coping skills to youth. The supervisory, consultation, and program practices that support therapist implementation of MST in community-based settings are…

  6. Serious Emotional Disturbance in Children and Adolescents: Multisystemic Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    Originally developed to treat antisocial behavior, multisystemic therapy (MST) has emerged as a leading evidence-based treatment for serious emotional disturbance in children and adolescents. This manual presents the MST approach to working with this challenging population. Delineated are ways to develop and implement collaborative interventions…

  7. Multisystemic Therapy: An Empirically Supported, Home-Based Family Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Woodford, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is a well-validated, evidenced-based treatment for serious clinical problems presented by adolescents and their families. This article is an introduction to the MST approach and outlines key clinical features, describes the theoretical underpinnings, and discusses the empirical support for MST's effectiveness with a…

  8. Mediators of Change for Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, Jason E.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; McCart, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The mediators of favorable multisystemic therapy (MST) outcomes achieved at 12 months postrecruitment were examined within the context of a randomized effectiveness trial with 127 juvenile sexual offenders and their caregivers. Outcome measures assessed youth delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and deviant sexual interest/risk…

  9. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  10. Biosocial processes predicting multisystemic therapy treatment response.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stacy R; Brennan, Patricia A; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Foster, Sharon L; Brock, Rebecca L; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2013-02-01

    This study examined biological (testosterone) and social (deviant peer affiliation) factors early in treatment as predictors of treatment outcome among adolescent boys receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST) in community settings. Outcome variables included changes in youth aggression and delinquency as reported by the primary caregiver. Testosterone and deviant peer affiliation were assessed at treatment onset; and outcome variables (aggression and delinquency) were assessed at treatment onset, mid-treatment and end-of-treatment. Participants were 112 adolescent boys (M age=15.42, SD=1.31) and their caregivers. Growth curve analyses revealed that the combination of high testosterone and high deviant peer affiliation early in treatment were significantly associated with less of a decline in aggression and delinquency over the course of treatment. Results provide novel evidence for the role of testosterone in the prediction of future externalizing behaviors. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23247043

  11. What Works for Whom? Gender Differences in Intake Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes Following Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Hagen, Kristine Amlund

    2009-01-01

    Aims of the study: We investigated whether girls and boys had similar referral symptoms and background characteristics at intake to Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and whether adolescent girls with serious behavior problems benefited as much from MST treatment as did boys. We also examined gender differences in rate of co-morbidity at intake and…

  12. An Independent Effectiveness Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Justice Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Bender, Monica B.; Kishna, Maureen A.; Mitchell, Clare C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of an evidence-based practice, multisystemic therapy (MST), conducted in a real-world mental health setting with juvenile justice involved youth and their families. Importantly, this is the first randomized clinical trial of MST with juvenile offenders in the United States conducted without direct oversight by…

  13. Multisystemic Therapy for Child Non-Externalizing Psychological and Health Problems: A Preliminary Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, Heather T.; White, Rachel S.; Nadorff, Michael R.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors,…

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Multisystemic Therapy and a Statutory Therapeutic Intervention for Young Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Stephen; Baruch, Geoffrey; Hickey, Nicole; Fonagy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is more effective in reducing youth offending and out-of-home placement in a large, ethnically diverse, urban U.K. sample than an equally comprehensive management protocol; and to determine whether MST leads to broader improvements in youth sociality and in mediators believed to be…

  15. Multisystemic Therapy Effects on Attempted Suicide by Youths Presenting Psychiatric Emergencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.; Edwards, James

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) in reducing attempted suicide among predominantly African American youths referred for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Youths presenting psychiatric emergencies were randomly assigned to MST or hospitalization. Indices of attempted suicide, suicidal ideation,…

  16. Mediators of Change for Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Chapman, Jason E.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; McCart, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The mediators of favorable multisystemic therapy (MST) outcomes achieved at 12 months post recruitment were examined within the context of a randomized effectiveness trial with 127 juvenile sexual offenders and their families. Outcome measures assessed youth delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and deviant sexual interest/risk behaviors; and hypothesized mediators included measures of parenting and peer relations. Data were collected at pretreatment, 6 months post recruitment, and 12 months post recruitment. Consistent with the MST theory of change and the small extant literature in this area of research, analyses showed that favorable MST effects on youth antisocial behavior and deviant sexual interest/risk behaviors were mediated by increased caregiver follow-through on discipline practices as well as decreased caregiver disapproval of and concern about the youth's bad friends during the follow-up. These findings have important implications for the community-based treatment of juvenile sexual offenders. PMID:19485587

  17. Multisystemic Therapy(®) : Clinical Overview, Outcomes, and Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Schaeffer, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is an evidence-based treatment originally developed for youth with serious antisocial behavior who are at high risk for out-of-home placement and their families; and subsequently adapted to address other challenging clinical problems experience by youths and their families. The social-ecological theoretical framework of MST is presented as well as its home-based model of treatment delivery, defining clinical intervention strategies, and ongoing quality assurance/quality improvement system. With more than 100 peer-reviewed outcome and implementation journal articles published as of January 2016, the majority by independent investigators, MST is one of the most extensively evaluated family based treatments. Outcome research has yielded almost uniformly favorable results for youths and families, and implementation research has demonstrated the importance of treatment and program fidelity in achieving such outcomes. PMID:27370172

  18. Economic impact of multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the economics of multisystemic therapy for problem sexual behaviors (MST-PSB), a family-based treatment that has shown promise with juvenile sexual offenders. We evaluated the cost and benefits of MST-PSB versus usual community services using arrest data obtained in an 8.9-year follow-up from a randomized clinical trial with 48 juvenile sexual offenders, who averaged 22.9 years of age at follow-up (Borduin, Schaeffer, & Heiblum, 2009). The net benefit of MST-PSB over usual community services was calculated in terms of (a) the value to taxpayers, which was based on measures of criminal justice system expenses (e.g., police and sheriff's offices, court processing, community supervision); and (b) the value to crime victims, which was based on measures of both tangible (e.g., property damage and loss, health care, lost productivity) and intangible (e.g., pain, suffering, reduced quality of life) losses. Lower rates of posttreatment arrests in the MST-PSB versus usual community services conditions were associated with lasting reductions in expenses for both taxpayers and crime victims, with an estimated total benefit of $343,455 per MST-PSB participant. Stated differently, every dollar spent on MST-PSB recovered $48.81 in savings to taxpayers and crime victims over the 8.9-year follow-up. These findings demonstrate that a family-based treatment such as MST-PSB can produce lasting economic benefits with juvenile sexual offenders. Policymakers and public service agencies should consider these findings when making decisions about interventions for this challenging clinical population. PMID:26075740

  19. A Current Review of Multisystemic Therapy: A Social-Ecological Approach to the Treatment of Conduct Problems among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpell, Jody V.; Andrews, Jac

    2006-01-01

    A current empirical review of the treatment efficacy of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for adolescent conduct problems (CP) was conducted. Conclusions based on this review suggest that MST can be a very powerful alternative to the usual legal and social service approaches (e.g. justice system, day treatment programs) used in the treatment of…

  20. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Effects on Youth Social Ecology and Criminal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borduin, Charles M.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Heiblum, Naamith

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) versus usual community services (UCS) for 48 juvenile sexual offenders at high risk of committing additional serious crimes. Results from multiagent assessment batteries conducted before and after treatment showed that MST was more effective than UCS in improving key…

  1. Social context, parental monitoring, and multisystemic therapy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Brittany A; Winiarski, D Anne; Brennan, Patricia A; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Whitmore, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) and other evidence-based treatments targeting juvenile delinquency have been well substantiated in the literature. Although these treatments have been demonstrated to be effective overall at reducing juvenile delinquency, it is well known that they do not benefit all treated youth. Research has yet to examine the potential influence of contextual factors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood characteristics, on treatment outcomes, particularly as they influence parental monitoring, which is often a focus of interventions targeting juvenile delinquency. A primary goal of these treatments is to help parents develop the requisite skills to adequately monitor and discipline their children; however, this goal may be compromised by contextual factors affecting parental effectiveness and, ultimately, treatment efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the role of SES and neighborhood factors in moderating the effects of parental monitoring across treatment. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we analyzed these contextual and family predictors of response to MST treatment within a sample of 185 youth (65.4% male) ages 12-18 (M = 15.35; SD = 1.28). Neighborhood factors interacted with parental monitoring, such that monitoring predicted decreases in externalizing behavior only for youth residing in better neighborhoods. In contrast, SES was unrelated to changes in externalizing behaviors in response to MST. Taken together, these results demonstrate a need for further understanding the potential role of the youth's larger social context in predicting MST outcomes. PMID:25365153

  2. Social Context, Parental Monitoring, and Multisystemic Therapy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Brittany; Winiarski, D Anne; Brennan, Patricia A.; Foster, Sharon L.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Whitmore, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and other evidence-based treatments targeting juvenile delinquency have been well substantiated in the literature. While these treatments have been demonstrated to be effective overall at reducing juvenile delinquency, it is well known that they do not benefit all treated youth. Research has yet to examine the potential influence of contextual factors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and neighborhood characteristics, on treatment outcomes, particularly as they influence parental monitoring, which is often a focus of interventions targeting juvenile delinquency. A primary goal of these treatments is to help parents develop the requisite skills to adequately monitor and discipline their children; however, this goal may be compromised by contextual factors affecting parental effectiveness and, ultimately, treatment efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the role of SES and neighborhood factors in moderating the effects of parental monitoring across treatment. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we analyzed these contextual and family predictors of response to MST treatment within a sample of 185 youth (65.4% male) ages 12-18 (M=15.35; SD=1.28). Neighborhood factors interacted with parental monitoring, such that monitoring predicted decreases in externalizing behavior only for youth residing in better neighborhoods. In contrast, SES was unrelated to changes in externalizing behaviors in response to MST. Taken together, these results demonstrate a need for further understanding the potential role of the youth’s larger social context in predicting MST outcomes. PMID:25365153

  3. A Randomized Trial of Multisystemic Therapy With Hawaii's Felix Class Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Lee, Terry G.; Kruesi, Markus J. P.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2005-01-01

    Examined 6-month post-recruitment clinical and placement outcomes for 31 youths with serious emotional disturbance (SED) at imminent risk of out-of-home placement in the Hawaii Continuum of Care (COC). Youths were randomly assigned to multisystemic therapy (MST) adapted for SED populations or to Hawaii's existing COC services. Assessments were…

  4. Within-Intervention Change: Mediators of Intervention Effects during Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekovic, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J.; Manders, Willeke A.; Prins, Pier J. M.; van der Laan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that improvements in parental sense of competence during multisystemic therapy (MST) lead to positive changes in parenting, which in turn lead to a decrease of adolescent externalizing problems. Mediational models were tested separately for 3 dimensions of parenting (positive discipline, inept…

  5. Multisystemic therapy for young offenders: families' experiences of therapeutic processes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Andrea; Pistrang, Nancy; Casdagli, Lucy; Baruch, Geoffrey; Butler, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) has been found to be effective in reducing youth antisocial behavior, but little is known about the process and impact of MST from the perspective of families themselves. This qualitative study explored parents' and young people's experiences of MST, focusing on aspects of the intervention that promoted or limited change. Thirty-seven semistructured interviews were conducted with a consecutive sample of 21 families (21 parent interviews, 16 young people) who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of MST for young offenders in the United Kingdom. Thematic analysis yielded 10 themes, organized into two domains: (a) engagement in MST and initial processes of change captures the central importance of the therapeutic relationship and the MST engagement model in families' positive experiences of MST; and (b) outcomes are complex reflects the range of positive outcomes reported (notably increased parental confidence and skills, improved family relationships, a return to education, and greater reflection and aspiration on the part of the young person) and mixed behavior outcomes. Even when the young person had reoffended, respondents indicated a range of other benefits for the family. The findings support the MST theory of change as well as point to some outcomes not usually measured in MST outcome studies. They also suggest some adaptations that may increase the impact of the intervention, including more attention to the influence of deviant peers, and ongoing support for families struggling to maintain strategies beyond the prescribed treatment period. PMID:22329390

  6. Long-Term Follow-Up to a Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the long-term criminal activity of 176 youths who had participated in either multisystemic therapy (MST) or individual therapy (IT) in a randomized clinical trial (C. M. Borduin et al., 1995). Arrest and incarceration data were obtained on average 13.7 (range = 10.2-15.9) years later when participants were on…

  7. Effects of Multisystemic Therapy through Midlife: A 21.9-Year Follow-Up to a Randomized Clinical Trial with Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Aaron M.; Borduin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although current evidence suggests that the positive effects of multisystemic therapy (MST) on serious crime reach as far as young adulthood, the longer term impact of MST on criminal and noncriminal outcomes in midlife has not been evaluated. In the present study, the authors examined a broad range of criminal and civil court outcomes…

  8. Multisystemic Therapy for Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Type I Diabetes: Stability of Treatment Effects in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Deborah A.; Templin, Thomas; Naar-King, Sylvie; Frey, Maureen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Cakan, Nedim

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to determine whether multisystemic therapy (MST), an intensive, home-based psychotherapy, improved regimen adherence, metabolic control, and rates of hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among adolescents with chronically poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes 6 months after the completion of…

  9. An Independent Randomized Clinical Trial of Multisystemic Therapy with Non-Court-Referred Adolescents with Serious Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Harris, Vicki; Catron, Tom; Ngo, Victoria K.; Caron, Annalise; Gallop, Robert; Guth, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective Adolescent conduct problems exact serious social as well as personal costs, and effective treatments are essential. One of the most widely disseminated and effective programs for the treatment of serious conduct problems in adolescents is Multisystemic Therapy (MST). However, most evaluations of MST have involved the developers of MST. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an independent evaluation of MST, with non-court-referred adolescents with conduct problems. Method Participants were 164 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years who were recruited from self-contained behavior intervention classrooms in public schools. Adolescents and their families were randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual. Outcome measures assessed conduct problems, school functioning, and court records of criminal behavior. Participants were followed for 18 months after baseline using parent, adolescent, and teacher reports; arrest data were collected for 2.5 years post-baseline. Results Two of four primary outcome measures focused on externalizing problems showed significant treatment effects favoring MST. Several secondary and intervention targets pertaining to family functioning and parent psychopathology showed positive effects of MST, and no negative effects were identified. Conclusions Results provide some further support for the effectiveness of MST, although smaller effect sizes than previous studies also suggest the complexity of successful dissemination, particularly to non-court-referred populations. PMID:23937347

  10. Multisystemic Therapy Improves the Patient-Provider Relationship in Families of Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Insulin Dependent Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A; Chen, Xinguang; Naar, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Moltz, Kathleen

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if multisystemic therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥8 %) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767

  11. A randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders: effects on youth social ecology and criminal activity.

    PubMed

    Borduin, Charles M; Schaeffer, Cindy M; Heiblum, Naamith

    2009-02-01

    A randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of multisystemic therapy (MST) versus usual community services (UCS) for 48 juvenile sexual offenders at high risk of committing additional serious crimes. Results from multiagent assessment batteries conducted before and after treatment showed that MST was more effective than UCS in improving key family, peer, and academic correlates of juvenile sexual offending and in ameliorating adjustment problems in individual family members. Moreover, results from an 8.9-year follow-up of rearrest and incarceration data (obtained when participants were on average 22.9 years of age) showed that MST participants had lower recidivism rates than did UCS participants for sexual (8% vs. 46%, respectively) and nonsexual (29% vs. 58%, respectively) crimes. In addition, MST participants had 70% fewer arrests for all crimes and spent 80% fewer days confined in detention facilities than did their counterparts who received UCS. The clinical and policy implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19170451

  12. Multisystemic Therapy Improves the Patient-Provider Relationship in Families of Adolescents with Poorly Controlled Insulin Dependent Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Ellis, Deborah A.; Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Moltz, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive, home and community-based family treatment, significantly improved patient-provider relationships in families where youth had chronic poor glycemic control. Methods One hundred forty-six adolescents with type 1 or 2 diabetes in chronic poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to MST or a telephone support condition. Caregiver perceptions of their relationship with the diabetes multidisciplinary medical team were assessed at baseline and treatment termination with the Measure of Process of Care-20. Results At treatment termination, MST families reported significant improvement on the Coordinated and Comprehensive Care scale and marginally significant improvement on the Respectful and Supportive Care scale. Improvements on the Enabling and Partnership and Providing Specific Information scales were not significant. Conclusions Results suggest MST improves the ability of the families and the diabetes treatment providers to work together. PMID:25940767

  13. The influence of parental factors on therapist adherence in multi-systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mesha L; Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Gallop, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Therapist treatment adherence has received a great deal of attention in recent years, in part because of its relation to treatment outcomes. Although certain therapist behaviors have been found to be associated with treatment outcomes, little is known about client factors impacting on therapists' ability to adhere to treatment protocols. In this study, we evaluated effects of parental beliefs, psychopathology, and interaction styles on therapists' adherence to Multi-systemic Therapy (MST) principles. Eighty-two parents participating in a clinical trial of MST completed baseline measures assessing psychopathology, family functioning, and treatment expectations. Analyses indicated that parental perceptions of therapist adherence were established within the first 4 weeks of treatment, and that parental psychopathology, motivation, expectations, and child rearing practices were related to parental ratings of therapist adherence. Results were essentially unchanged when controlling for parental positive response style. Clinical and research implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20369379

  14. The Influence of Parental Factors on Therapist Adherence in Multi-systemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Mesha; Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Gallop, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapist treatment adherence has received a great deal of attention in recent years, in part because of its relation to treatment outcomes. Although certain therapist behaviors have been found to be associated with treatment outcomes, little is known about client factors impacting on therapists’ ability to adhere to treatment protocols. In this study, we evaluated effects of parental beliefs, psychopathology, and interaction styles on therapists’ adherence to Multi-systemic Therapy (MST) principles. Eighty-two parents participating in a clinical trial of MST completed baseline measures assessing psychopathology, family functioning, and treatment expectations. Analyses indicated that parental perceptions of therapist adherence were established within the first 4 weeks of treatment, and that parental psychopathology, motivation, expectations, and child rearing practices were related to parental ratings of therapist adherence. Results were essentially unchanged when controlling for parental positive response style. Clinical and research implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20369379

  15. Predicting early positive change in multisystemic therapy with youth exhibiting antisocial behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Kristine; Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    This study examined individual and family characteristics that predicted early positive change in the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Families (n = 185; 65% male; average youth age 15 years) receiving MST in community settings completed assessments at the outset of treatment and 6-12 weeks into treatment. Early positive changes in youth antisocial behavior were assessed using the caregiver report on the Child Behavior Checklist Externalizing Behaviors subscale and youth report on the Self-Report Delinquency Scale. Overall, families showed significant positive changes by 6-12 weeks into treatment; these early changes were maintained into midtreatment 6-12 weeks later. Families who exhibited clinically significant gains early in treatment were more likely to terminate treatment successfully compared with those who did not show these gains. Low youth internalizing behaviors and absence of youth drug use predicted early positive changes in MST. High levels of parental monitoring and low levels of affiliation with deviant peers (mechanisms known to be associated with MST success) were also associated with early positive change. PMID:24866967

  16. Test of "Facilitation" vs. "Proximal Process" Moderator Models for the Effects of Multisystemic Therapy on Adolescents with Severe Conduct Problem.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan S; Tran, Nam T; Gallop, Robert; Ngo, Victoria K

    2015-07-01

    The present study identified moderators of Multisystemic Therapy's (MST) effects on adolescent conduct problems, considering facilitation and proximal process moderation models. The sample included 164 adolescents (mean age = 14.6 years; 83% male) randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual; parent, youth, and teacher reports of adolescent functioning were obtained. A number of significant moderators were identified. Proximal process moderation patterns were identified (e.g., families with parents with lower levels of adaptive child discipline skills gained more from MST), but the majority of significant interactions showed a facilitation moderation pattern with, for instance, higher levels of adaptive functioning in families and parents appearing to facilitate MST (i.e., greater benefits from MST were found for these families). This facilitation pattern may reflect such families being more capable of and/or more motivated to use the resources provided by MST. It is suggested that factors consistently identified as facilitation moderators may serve as useful foci for MST's strength-based levers of change approach. Other implications of these findings for individualized treatment also are discussed. PMID:25387903

  17. Multisystemic therapy for child non-externalizing psychological and health problems: a preliminary review.

    PubMed

    Pane, Heather T; White, Rachel S; Nadorff, Michael R; Grills-Taquechel, Amie; Stanley, Melinda A

    2013-03-01

    Multisystemic therapy (MST) is effective for decreasing or preventing delinquency and other externalizing behaviors and increasing prosocial or adaptive behaviors. The purpose of this project was to review the literature examining the efficacy of MST for other child psychological and health problems reflecting non-externalizing behaviors, specifically difficulties related to child maltreatment, serious psychiatric illness [Serious psychiatric illness was defined throughout the current review paper as the "presence of symptoms of suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, psychosis, or threat of harm to self or others due to mental illness severe enough to warrant psychiatric hospitalization based on the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC, 1996) level of care placement criteria for psychiatric illness" (Henggeler et al. in J Am Acad Child Psy 38:1331-1345, p. 1332, 1999b). Additionally, youth with "serious emotional disturbance (SED)" defined as internalizing and/or externalizing problems severe enough to qualify for mental health services in public school who were "currently in or at imminent risk of a costly out-of-home placement" (Rowland et al. in J Emot Behav Disord 13:13-23, pp. 13-14, 2005) were also included in the serious psychiatric illness category.], and health problems (i.e., obesity and treatment adherence for diabetes). PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases; Clinicaltrials.gov; DARE; Web of Knowledge; and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched; and MST developers were queried to ensure identification of all relevant articles. Of 242 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria for review. These were combined in a narrative synthesis and critiqued in the context of review questions. Study quality ratings were all above mean scores reported in prior reviews. Mixed support was

  18. Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Henggeler, Scott W; Borduin, Charles M; Schewe, Paul A; McCart, Michael R; Chapman, Jason E; Saldana, Lisa

    2009-02-01

    Despite the serious and costly problems presented by juvenile sexual offenders, rigorous tests of promising interventions have rarely been conducted. This study presents a community-based effectiveness trial comparing multisystemic therapy (MST) adapted for juvenile sexual offenders with services that are typical of those provided to juvenile sexual offenders in the United States. Youth were randomized to MST (n = 67) or treatment as usual for juvenile sexual offenders (TAU-JSO; n = 60). Outcomes through 12 months postrecruitment were assessed for problem sexual behavior, delinquency, substance use, mental health functioning, and out-of-home placements. Relative to youth who received TAU-JSO, youth in the MST condition evidenced significant reductions in sexual behavior problems, delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and out-of-home placements. The findings suggest that family- and community-based interventions, especially those with an established evidence-base in treating adolescent antisocial behavior, hold considerable promise in meeting the clinical needs of juvenile sexual offenders. PMID:19203163

  19. Multisystemic Therapy for Juvenile Sexual Offenders: 1-Year Results from a Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; McCart, Michael R.; Chapman, Jason E.; Saldana, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the serious and costly problems presented by juvenile sexual offenders, rigorous tests of promising interventions have rarely been conducted. This study presents a community-based effectiveness trial comparing multisystemic therapy (MST) adapted for juvenile sexual offenders with services that are typical of those provided to juvenile sexual offenders in the U.S. Youth were randomized to MST (n = 67) or treatment as usual for juvenile sexual offenders (TAU-JSO; n = 60). Outcomes through 12 months post recruitment were assessed for problem sexual behavior, delinquency, substance use, mental health functioning, and out-of-home placements. Relative to youth who received TAU-JSO, youth in the MST condition evidenced significant reductions in sexual behavior problems, delinquency, substance use, externalizing symptoms, and out-of-home placements. The findings suggest that family- and community-based interventions, especially those with an established evidence-base in treating adolescent antisocial behavior, hold considerable promise in meeting the clinical needs of juvenile sexual offenders. PMID:19203163

  20. Multisystemic therapy for adolescents with poorly controlled type I diabetes: Stability of treatment effects in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Deborah A; Templin, Thomas; Naar-King, Sylvie; Frey, Maureen A; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Podolski, Cheryl-Lynn; Cakan, Nedim

    2007-02-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to determine whether multisystemic therapy (MST), an intensive, home-based psychotherapy, improved regimen adherence, metabolic control, and rates of hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among adolescents with chronically poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes 6 months after the completion of treatment. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 127 adolescents and their families. Mean participant age was 13.2 years. Sixty-three percent of participants were African American, and 51% were female. Data were collected at baseline, treatment termination, and 6-month follow-up. Changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), frequency of blood glucose testing (BGT), and rate of DKA admissions were assessed. In intent-to-treat analyses, a main effect of MST on DKA admissions was found at both treatment termination and follow-up. Improvements in BGT were moderated by family composition; only 2-parent MST families maintained improvements at follow-up. Improvements in HbA1c for the MST group at treatment termination were lost at follow-up. Results show that intensive, home-based psychotherapy created stable reductions in serious lapses in adherence, as indexed by episodes of DKA, among youth with poorly controlled diabetes. PMID:17295576

  1. MST with Conduct Disordered Youth in Sweden: Costs and Benefits after 2 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the costs and benefits associated with multisystemic therapy (MST) for conduct disordered youth, 2 years following intake. Methods: The study employed a secondary analysis of 156 youth enrolled in a randomized trial assessing the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes of MST. Results: MST cost…

  2. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetime stress, current episodic stress, and daily hassles. Morning and afternoon cortisol samples were collected to examine whether the relationship between stress and treatment outcome depended on the youth’s biological stress levels. Regression analyses indicated that awakening cortisol levels moderated the relationship between daily hassles and externalizing behaviors at post-treatment. More specifically, higher levels of daily hassles predicted worse outcomes only among adolescents with high levels of morning cortisol. In addition, lifetime stressors and afternoon measures of cortisol interacted to predict changes in caretaker reports of externalizing problems and youth arrests following treatment; lifetime stressors were positively associated with externalizing behavior when adolescents had low levels of afternoon cortisol. Implications for theory and future directions for evidence-based treatment are discussed. PMID:22350278

  3. Toward Evidence-Based Transport of Evidence-Based Treatments: MST as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the journey toward evidence-based transport and implementation in usual care settings of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for youth with drug abuse and behavioral problems (Henggeler, Schoenwald, Borduin, Rowland, & Cunningham, 1998). Research and experience informing the design of the MST transport strategy, progress in…

  4. Contributions to the Study of Violence and Trauma: Multisystemic Therapy, Exposure Therapy, Attachment Styles, and Therapy Process Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The prevention of future violence through engaging violent adolescents in multisystemic therapy and the treatment of trauma with exposure therapy are two of the most important scientific advances in the field of interpersonal violence in the past 20 years. A particularly significant methodological innovation is the development of reliable and…

  5. Changes in Maternal Depression Are Associated with MST Outcomes for Adolescents with Co-Occurring Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimbos, Teresa; Granic, Isabela

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of Multisystemic therapy (MST) in treating adolescent aggression has been established, however, not all youth and their families benefit from MST. One reason for this treatment variability could be the failure to distinguish between different aggressive subtypes with different risk factors, developmental prognoses and treatment needs.…

  6. A review of "music and movement" therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N

    2013-01-01

    The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

  7. Contributions to the study of violence and trauma: multisystemic therapy, exposure therapy, attachment styles, and therapy process research.

    PubMed

    Carr, Alan

    2005-04-01

    The prevention of future violence through engaging violent adolescents in multisystemic therapy and the treatment of trauma with exposure therapy are two of the most important scientific advances in the field of interpersonal violence in the past 20 years. A particularly significant methodological innovation is the development of reliable and valid measures of childhood and adult attachment because attachment deficits and their remediation are central to understanding and treating perpetrators of violence. In the coming decades, we need to refine existing treatment programs to make them effective for cases currently classified as treatment resistant. This will involve psychotherapy process research on the interaction between therapeutic mechanisms of change and unique personal vulnerabilities of treatment-resistant cases. PMID:15722497

  8. Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice: The Effective Nationwide Transport of MST Programs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Terje; Christensen, Bernadette; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Holth, Per

    2008-01-01

    The successful nationwide transport and evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) programs in Norway is described. This description is provided within the context of the nation's movement towards the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) during the past decade, the conduct of a multisite randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness…

  9. Common and Specific Factors Approaches to Home-Based Treatment: I-FAST and MST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mo Yee; Greene, Gilbert J.; Fraser, J. Scott; Edwards, Shivani G.; Grove, David; Solovey, Andrew D.; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the treatment outcomes of integrated families and systems treatment (I-FAST), a moderated common factors approach, in reference to multisystemic therapy (MST), an established specific factor approach, for treating at risk children and adolescents and their families in an intensive community-based setting. Method:…

  10. Therapist behavior as a predictor of black and white caregiver responsiveness in multisystemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Foster, Sharon L; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Warner, Sarah E; McCoy, Deborah Moyer; Barr, Tiffany S; Henggeler, Scott W

    2009-10-01

    This study examined whether (a) therapist behaviors thought to enhance family treatment predicted caregiver in-session responses, and (b) caregiver race, racial match between caregiver and therapist, and family financial hardship moderated the relationships between therapist and caregiver behavior. Observers coded caregiver and therapist behavior during one session of multisystemic therapy for substance abusing adolescents. Therapist teaching, focusing on strengths, making reinforcing statements, problem solving, and dealing with practical family needs predicted caregiver engagement and/or positive response, regardless of race, racial match, or financial hardship. Caregiver race, financial hardship, and therapist-caregiver racial match occasionally moderated the relationship between other therapist and caregiver behaviors. Findings suggest both commonalities and differences in how therapist behavior may function to engage caregivers in family treatment, depending on diversity-related factors. PMID:19803599

  11. Ethnic Similarity, Therapist Adherence, and Long-Term Multisystemic Therapy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jason E.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated relations among ethnic similarity in caregiver-therapist pairs of youth participating in Multisystemic Therapy, therapist adherence, and youth long-term behavioral and criminal outcomes. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across provider organizations in 45 sites. Relations were found, independently, and in the presence of ethnic similarity, between adherence and reductions in youth Externalizing and Internalizing behavior problems 1-year post-treatment and youth criminal charges 4 years post-treatment. Relations between ethnic similarity and outcomes were found only for reductions in youth Externalizing behavior problems and not when adherence was included in the model. Adherence ratings were higher, however, in ethnically similar caregiver-therapist pairs, and evidence was found that this increased adherence predicted slightly better outcomes for youth. Implications for future research and clinical practice are considered. PMID:24999302

  12. Taking Effective Treatments to Scale: Organizational Effects on Outcomes of Multisystemic Therapy for Youths with Co-Occurring Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henry, David B.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective multisite study examined organizational climate and structure effects on the behavior and functioning of delinquent youths with and without co-occurring substance use treated with an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy). Participants were 1,979 youths treated by 429 therapists…

  13. Test of “Facilitation” vs. “Proximal Process” Moderator Models for the Effects of Multisystemic Therapy on Adolescents with Severe Conduct Problem

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan S.; Tran, Nam T.; Gallop, Robert; Ngo, Victoria K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study identified moderators of Multisystemic Therapy’s (MST) effects on adolescent conduct problems, considering “facilitation” and “proximal process” moderation models. The sample included 164 adolescents (mean age=14.6 years; 83% male) randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual; parent, youth, and teacher reports of adolescent functioning were obtained. A number of significant moderators were identified. Proximal process moderation patterns were identified (e.g., families with parents with lower levels of adaptive child discipline skills gained more from MST), but the majority of significant interactions showed a facilitation moderation pattern with, for instance, higher levels of adaptive functioning in families and parents appearing to facilitate MST (i.e., greater benefits from MST were found for these families). This facilitation pattern may reflect such families being more capable of and/or more motivated to use the resources provided by MST. It is suggested that factors consistently identified as facilitation moderators may serve as useful foci for MST’s strength-based levers of change approach. Other implications of these findings for individualized treatment also are discussed. PMID:25387903

  14. Randomized Trial of MST and ARC in a Two-Level Evidence-Based Treatment Implementation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Dukes, Denzel; Armstrong, Kevin S.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A randomized trial assessed the effectiveness of a 2-level strategy for implementing evidence-based mental health treatments for delinquent youth. Method: A 2 x 2 design encompassing 14 rural Appalachian counties included 2 factors: (a) the random assignment of delinquent youth within each county to a multisystemic therapy (MST) program…

  15. Implementation of Evidence-Based Models in Social Work Practice: Practitioners' Perspectives on an MST Trial in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustle, Lars-Henry; Hansson, Kjell; Sundell, Knut; Andree-Lofholm, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    The implementation of new treatment methods in social work practice is warranted. Moreover, little is known about professionals' attitudes toward the introduction of evidence-based practices into their communities. Therefore, this article reports on the implementation of a Swedish research project that evaluated Multisystemic Therapy (MST). All…

  16. A review of “music and movement” therapies for children with autism: embodied interventions for multisystem development

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2013-01-01

    The rising incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has led to a surge in the number of children needing autism interventions. This paper is a call to clinicians to diversify autism interventions and to promote the use of embodied music-based approaches to facilitate multisystem development. Approximately 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all alternative treatment strategies in schools involve music-based activities. Musical training impacts various forms of development including communication, social-emotional, and motor development in children with ASDs and other developmental disorders as well as typically developing children. In this review, we will highlight the multisystem impairments of ASDs, explain why music and movement therapies are a powerful clinical tool, as well as describe mechanisms and offer evidence in support of music therapies for children with ASDs. We will support our claims by reviewing results from brain imaging studies reporting on music therapy effects in children with autism. We will also discuss the critical elements and the different types of music therapy approaches commonly used in pediatric neurological populations including autism. We provide strong arguments for the use of music and movement interventions as a multisystem treatment tool for children with ASDs. Finally, we also make recommendations for assessment and treatment of children with ASDs, and provide directions for future research. PMID:23576962

  17. Dissemination and effectiveness of multisystemic treatment in New Zealand: a benchmarking study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Nicola M; Ronan, Kevin R; Heiblum, Naamith; Crellin, Kylie

    2009-04-01

    The transportability of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for the treatment of juvenile offenders in a community-based context was examined in the current study. Results of this New Zealand study showed that significant pre- to posttreatment improvements occurred on most indicators of ultimate (i.e., offending behavior) and instrumental (i.e., youth compliance, family relations) treatment outcomes. Reductions in offending frequency and severity continued to improve across the 6- and 12-month follow-up intervals. In comparison to benchmarked studies, the current study demonstrated a more successful treatment completion rate. Additionally, overall treatment effect sizes were found to be clinically equivalent with the results of previous MST outcome studies with juvenile offenders and significantly greater than the effect sizes found in the control conditions. The findings of this evaluation add to the growing body of evidence that supports MST as an effective treatment for antisocial youth. PMID:19364207

  18. Evaluation of multisystemic therapy pilot services in the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for clinically effective and cost-effective methods to manage antisocial and criminal behaviour in adolescents. Youth conduct disorder is increasingly prevalent in the UK and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. Quantitative systematic reviews carried out for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have identified multisystemic therapy, an intensive, multimodal, home-based, family intervention for youth with serious antisocial behaviour, as one of the most promising interventions for reducing antisocial or offending behaviour and improving individual and family functioning. Previous international trials of multisystemic therapy have yielded mixed outcomes, and it is questionable to what extent positive US findings can be generalised to a wider UK mental health and juvenile justice context. This paper describes the protocol for the Systemic Therapy for At Risk Teens (START) trial, a multicentre UK-wide randomised controlled trial of multisystemic therapy in antisocial adolescents at high risk of out-of-home placement. Methods/Design The trial is being conducted at 10 sites across the UK. Seven hundred participants and their families will be recruited and randomised on a 1:1 basis to multisystemic therapy or management as usual. Treatments are offered over a period of 3 to 5 months, with follow-up to 18 months post-randomisation. The primary outcome is out-of-home placement at 18 months. Secondary outcomes include offending rates, total service and criminal justice sector costs, and participant well-being and educational outcomes. Data will be gathered from police computer records, the National Pupil Database, and interview and self-report measures administered to adolescents, parents and teachers. Outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis, using a logistic regression with random effects for the primary outcome and Cox regressions and linear mixed-effects models for secondary outcomes

  19. Taking Effective Treatments to Scale: Organizational Effects on Outcomes of Multisystemic Therapy for Youth with Co-occurring Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Henry, David B.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective multi-site study examined organizational climate and structure effects on the behavior and functioning of delinquent youth with and without co-occurring substance treated with an evidence-based treatment for serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy). Participants were 1979 youth treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Results of Mixed Effects Regression Models showed some aspects of climate and structure had no effects, some had similar effects, and some had slightly differential and sometimes counter-intuitive effects on the outcomes of these youth. Implications are considered for research to increase the array and availability of effective treatments for youth with co-occurring substance use across service sectors. PMID:22844190

  20. Outcomes from Wraparound and Multisystemic Therapy in a Center for Mental Health Services System-of-Care Demonstration Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Leyla Faw; Mustillo, Sarah A.; Burns, Barbara J.; Stephens, Robert L.; Baxter, Beth; Edwards, Dan; DeKraai, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study examined outcomes for 320 youth in a Center for Mental Health Services system-of-care demonstration site. Youth received wraparound-only (n = 213), MST-only (n = 54), or wraparound + MST (n = 53). Participants were 12 years old on average and mostly White (90%), and 75% were Medicaid-eligible. Service use and functional and clinical…

  1. Two-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Effectiveness Trial Evaluating MST for Juveniles Who Sexually Offend

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; McCart, Michael R.; Borduin, Charles M.; Schewe, Paul A.; Armstrong, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Building on prior efficacy trials (i.e., university based, graduate students as therapists), the primary purpose of this study was to determine whether favorable 12-month outcomes obtained in a randomized effectiveness trial (i.e., implemented by practitioners in a community mental health center) of multisystemic therapy (MST) with juveniles who had sexually offended (JSO) were sustained through a second year of follow-up. Method JSO (n = 124 male youth) and their families were randomly assigned to MST, which was family based and delivered by community-based practitioners, or to treatment as usual (TAU), which was primarily group-based cognitive-behavioral interventions delivered by professionals within the juvenile justice system. Youth averaged 14.7 (SD = 1.7) years of age at referral, were primarily African American (54%), and 30% were Hispanic. All youth had been diverted or adjudicated for a sexual offense. Analyses examined whether MST effects reported previously at 1-year follow-up for problem sexual behaviors, delinquency, substance use, and out-of-home placement were sustained through a second year of follow-up. In addition, arrest records were examined from baseline through 2-year follow-up. Results During the second year of follow-up, MST treatment effects were sustained for three of four measures of youth problem sexual behavior, self-reported delinquency, and out-of-home placements. The base rate for sexual offense rearrests was too low to conduct statistical analyses, and a between-groups difference did not emerge for other criminal arrests. Conclusions For the most part, the 2-year follow-up findings from this effectiveness study are consistent with favorable MST long-term results with JSO in efficacy research. In contrast with many MST trials, however, decreases in rearrests were not observed. PMID:24188082

  2. Multisystemic Treatment of Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents. Treatment Manuals for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Borduin, Charles M.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    Antisocial behavior can be reduced if services focus on changing the known determinants of behavior problems in the natural environments in which children and families live. The development of multisystemic treatment (MST) gives mental health professionals a powerful new tool for confronting antisocial behavior in children and adolescents,…

  3. Intensified and prolonged therapy comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone improves outcome in patients with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of the Japan Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Study Group-02 Protocol Study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akira; Shioda, Yoko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Kudo, Kazuko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Kazuo; Yasui, Masahiro; Koga, Yuhki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Horibe, Keizo; Bessho, Fumio; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    The JLSG-96 study reported very low mortality rates for children newly diagnosed with multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The JLSG-02 study was performed to further improve the prognosis from 2002 to 2009. The present study compared the therapeutic results of these two studies in terms of multisystem disease. All patients were treated with 6 weeks of the Induction A regimen, comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone, followed by maintenance therapy. Poor responders to Induction A were switched to Induction B. JLSG-02 has been revised from JLSG-96 in the following respects: prednisolone dosage during Induction A increased; duration of maintenance therapy extended from 24 to 48 weeks; cyclosporine introduced to Induction B for progressive disease. One hundred forty-seven children with multisystem LCH were evaluated. Of these, 84 were positive for risk of organ involvement (RO) and 63 were RO-negative. At the 6-week point, 76.2 % of RO+ and 93.7 % of RO- patients responded to Induction A. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 46.2 % [95 % confidence (CI), 35.5-56.9] for RO+ and 69.7 % (58.4-81.1) for RO-, which was significantly superior to that in JLSG-96 [26.8 % (13.3-40.4) and 38.9 % (16.4-61.4), respectively]. The intensified induction and prolonged maintenance regimens in JLSG-02 improved EFS in patients with multisystem LCH. PMID:27040279

  4. Collaboration in Family Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Elena Hontoria; McCart, Michael R.; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes and illustrates the collaboration strategies used by several family therapies. The strategies used within multisystemic therapy (MST) are emphasized because it has demonstrated high rates of treatment completion and favorable outcomes in multiple clinical trials. Many of the collaboration strategies in family work are common to other forms of evidence-based psychotherapy (e.g., reflective listening, empathy, reframing, and displays of authenticity and flexibility); however, some strategies are unique to family systems treatments, such as the identification of strengths across multiple systems in the youth’s social ecology and the maintenance of a family (versus a child) focus during treatment. A case example illustrates collaboration and engagement in the context of MST. PMID:23616297

  5. Differentiating skin-limited and multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Simko, Stephen J.; Garmezy, Benjamin; Abhyankar, Harshal; Lupo, Philip J.; Chakraborty, Rikhia; Lim, Karen Phaik Har; Shih, Albert; Hicks, M. John; Wright, Teresa S.; Levy, Moise L.; McClain, Kenneth L.; Allen, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify features associated with multisystem involvement and therapeutic failure in patients with skin Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Study design We reviewed medical records of 71 consecutive LCH patients with skin involvement evaluated at Texas Children’s Hospital and analyzed clinical features, laboratory results, and presence of circulating cells with the BRAF-V600E mutation, with respect to initial staging and clinical outcomes. Results Skin disease in patients older than 18 months at diagnosis was associated with presence of multisystem disease (OR 9.65, 95% CI 1.17–79.4). Forty percent of patients referred for presumed skin-limited LCH had underlying multisystem involvement, half of these with risk-organ involvement. Patients with skin-limited LCH had 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 89% after initial therapy, and none developed multisystem disease. Patients with skin/multisystem involvement had 3 year PFS of 44% with vinblastine/prednisone therapy, and risk-organ involvement did not correlate with failure to achieve non-active disease. Circulating cells with BRAF-V600E were detected at higher frequency in multisystem patients (8/11 skin/multisystem, 1/13 skin-limited, P=0.002). Conclusions Skin-limited LCH requires infrequent therapeutic intervention and has lower risk of progression relative to skin plus multisystem LCH. The less aggressive clinical course and lack of circulating cells with BRAF-V600E mutation in skin-limited LCH suggest a different mechanism of disease origin compared with multisystem or risk-organ disease. PMID:25441388

  6. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The coherent radar technique is reviewed with special emphasis to mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars operating in the VHF band. Some basic introduction to Doppler radar measurements and the radar equation is followed by an outline of the characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, viewed from the scattering and reflection processes of radar signals. Radar signal acquisition and preprocessing, namely coherent detection, digital sampling, pre-integration and coding, is briefly discussed. The data analysis is represented in terms of the correlation and spectrum analysis, yielding the essential parameters: power, signal-to-noise ratio, average and fluctuating velocity and persistency. The techniques to measure wind velocities, viz. the different modes of the Doppler method as well as the space antenna method are surveyed and the feasibilities of the MST radar interferometer technique are elucidated. A general view on the criteria to design phased array antennas is given. An outline of the hardware of a typical MST radar system is presented.

  7. Decoders for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Decoding techniques and equipment used by MST radars are described and some recommendations for new systems are presented. Decoding can be done either by software in special-purpose (array processors, etc.) or general-purpose computers or in specially designed digital decoders. Both software and hardware decoders are discussed and the special case of decoding for bistatic radars is examined.

  8. The MST Radar Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    The past ten year have witnessed the development of a new radar technique to examine the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere between roughly 1 to 100 km on a continuous basis. The technique is known as the MST (for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere) technique and is usable in all weather conditions, being unaffected by precipitation or cloud cover. MST radars make use of scattering from small scale structure in the atmospheric refractive index, with scales of the order of one-half the radar wavelength. Pertinent scale sizes for middle atmospheric studies typically range between a fraction of a meter and a few meters. The structure itself arises primarily from atmospheric turbulence. The technique is briefly described along with the meteorological parameters it measures.

  9. MST Filterability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M. R.; Burket, P. R.; Duignan, M. R.

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  10. Equatorial MST radars: Further consideration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagos, P.

    1983-01-01

    The results presented give additional support to the need of equatorial MST radars in order to obtain more information on the nature of equatorial waves in the MST region. Radar deduced winds such as obtained at Jicamarca for periods of months indicate that with these data the full range of equatorial waves, with time scales of seconds to years, can be studied.

  11. Overview of MST Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; MST Team

    2015-11-01

    MST progress in advancing the RFP for (1) fusion plasma confinement with ohmic heating and minimal external magnetization, (2) predictive capability in toroidal confinement physics, and (3) basic plasma physics is summarized. Validation studies for nonlinear resistive MHD employ MST's advanced diagnostics and modeling using the NIMROD and DEBS codes. Major diagnostic improvements include an upgraded FIR system, improved DNB for CHERS and MSE, and Thomson scattering (TS) upgrades. Deep-insertion probes measure the dynamo emf associated with two-fluid MHD and Hall effects. Integrated data analysis of SXR and CHERS yields the best measurement of Zeff=2 to date. X-ray spectra reveal formation of an energetic electron tail during reconnection events, evidence that particle energization occurs for both ions and electrons. New theoretical work identifies an island-induced Alfven eigenmode consistent with modes seen in NBI-heated plasmas. A resonant magnetic perturbation technique controls the locked-phase for quasi-single-helicity plasmas, allowing improved diagnosis and 3D equilibrium reconstructions. Small-scale density fluctuations are consistent with density-gradient-driven trapped electron modes, also predicted in GENE modeling. Supported by US DoE and NSF.

  12. H-ras Inhibits the Hippo Pathway by Promoting Mst1/Mst2 Heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Sonali J; Araiza-Olivera, Daniela; Arias-Romero, Luis E; Villamar-Cruz, Olga; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Roder, Heinrich; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2016-06-20

    The protein kinases Mst1 and Mst2 have tumor suppressor activity, but their mode of regulation is not well established. Mst1 and Mst2 are broadly expressed and may have certain overlapping functions in mammals, as deletions of both Mst1 and Mst2 together are required for tumorigenesis in mouse models [1-3]. These kinases act via a three-component signaling cascade comprising Mst1 and Mst2, the protein kinases Lats1 and Lats2, and the transcriptional coactivators Yap and Taz [4-6]. Mst1 and Mst2 contain C-terminal SARAH domains that mediate their homodimerization as well as heterodimerization with other SARAH domain-containing proteins, which may regulate Mst1/Mst2 activity. Here we show that, in addition to forming homodimers, Mst1 and Mst2 heterodimerize in cells, this interaction is mediated by their SARAH domains and is favored over homodimers, and these heterodimers have much-reduced protein kinase activity compared to Mst1 or Mst2 homodimers. Mst1/Mst2 heterodimerization is strongly promoted by oncogenic H-ras, and this effect requires activation of the Erk pathway. Cells lacking Mst1, in which Mst1/Mst2 heterodimers are not possible, are resistant to H-ras-mediated transformation and maintain active hippo pathway signaling compared to wild-type cells or cells lacking both Mst1 and Mst2. Our results suggest that H-ras, via an Erk-dependent mechanism, downregulates Mst1/Mst2 activity by inducing the formation of inactive Mst1/Mst2 heterodimers. PMID:27238285

  13. MST kinases in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  14. RADIUM AND THORIUM SORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) AND MODIFIED MST (mMST)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-15

    A series of tests were planned to examine the removal of Ra and Th by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Simulated waste solutions were prepared containing Ra and Th, along with Sr, Np, Pu, and U. Following simulant preparation the simulants were filtered through 0.45-m filters. Analysis of the simulants indicated no Th in the filtered solution. This is due to the very low solubility of Th in alkaline solutions. Based on the reported detection limits for {sup 228}Th by gamma analyses, the solubility of Th in the simulant solutions is < 3.0E-10 g/L or < 1.3E-12 M. Therefore, data could not be obtained regarding the removal of Th by MST and mMST; however, testing proceeded to examine the removal of Ra. Sorption testing indicated that Ra, like Sr, is very rapidly removed from solution by both MST and mMST. The Ra concentration in solution fell below the method detection limit (MDL) within 30 minutes of contact with MST, and within 2 hours of contact with mMST, when tested at 25 C using a 5.6 M Na simulant. Additional testing examined the effects of ionic strength and temperature on the MST and mMST performance. Results from these tests showed that the majority of samples still reached a Ra concentration below the MDL, indicating excellent removal. For the highest ionic strength solution (6.6 M Na), there did appear to be a slight decrease in the Ra removal by mMST, as indicated by a larger number of samples just above the MDL. The effect of temperature on {sup 226}Ra removal is indeterminate for either MST or mMST in the temperature range (25-60 C) and concentrations studied since the final soluble concentration of Ra remained at or below the detection limits for all tests. Desorption testing was also performed using decontaminated salt solution (DSS) diluted to sodium concentrations of 2 M and 0.5 M, to represent the intermediate and final stages of washing. Results from these tests indicated no desorption of any sorbents, with the

  15. Budd-Chiari Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation of Multisystemic Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Dhouha; Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Nejma, Houda Ben; BelHadj, Najet

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown origin. All organs may be affected. Liver involvement is common but it is rarely symptomatic. Only a few cases of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) secondary to a hepatic sarcoidosis have been described so far. We describe a case of multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with BCS. A 42-year old female was referred to our department for chronic and anicteric cholestasis. Laboratory and imaging investigations disclosed features of chronic BCS associated with multisystemic sarcoidosis. The positive diagnosis was based on microscopic features, which showed hepatic, gastric and cutaneous non-caseating granulomas. Screening for an underlying thrombophilic disorder was negative. The diagnosis of BCS complicating hepatic sarcoidosis was the most likely. She was put on corticosteroids and anticoagulation therapy. To our knowledge, few cases of sarcoidosis-related BCS have been reported in the literature. In addition to being an uncommon presentation of sarcoidosis, this case illustrates the importance of recognizing an unusual cause of BCS and its therapeutic difficulties. PMID:26900444

  16. MST radar detection of middle atmosphere tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Meteorological and dynamical requirements pertaining to the specification of middle atmosphere tides by the MST radar technique are outlined. Major issues addressed include: (1) the extraction of tidal information from measurements covering a fraction of a day; (2) the ramifications of transient effects (tidal variability) on the determination and interpretation of tides; (3) required temporal and spatial resolutions and; (4) global distributions of MST radars, so as to complement existing MST, meteor wind, and partial reflection drift radar locations.

  17. We Are, Therefore I Am: A Multisystems Approach with Families in Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Shunda L.

    2002-01-01

    Although many individuals living in poverty are referred for family counseling services via schools, court systems, and social service agencies, theories have failed to provide an adequate framework for treatment. This article addresses the common principles of the multisystems approach and feminist family therapies and how they can be applied in…

  18. Celiac disease: Managing a multisystem disorder.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Gursimran Singh; Singh, Tavankit; Gill, Anant; Kirby, Donald F

    2016-03-01

    Celiac disease is a multisystem autoimmune disorder that can cause symptoms involving the gastrointestinal tract and other organ systems such as the skin and bones. This paper reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of celiac disease and associated diseases. PMID:26974993

  19. Jet stream related observations by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the jet stream and its observation by MST radar is presented. The climatology and synoptic and mesoscale structure of jet streams is briefly reviewed. MST radar observations of jet stream winds, and associated waves and turbulence are then considered. The possibility of using a network of ST radars to track jet stream winds in near real time is explored.

  20. AWIWPCA STATES HELPING STATES CLL ON MST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several Microbial Source Tracking (MST) tools are now being applied in the development of TMDL plans and in the evaluation of best management practices. However, due to the relatively recent development of MST most environmental managers and scientists have little training and ...

  1. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. PMID:27272316

  2. The kinases Mst1 and Mst2 positively regulate phagocyte ROS induction and bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jing; Sun, Xiufeng; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Shihao; Wang, Xiaozhen; Wu, Hongtan; Hong, Lixin; Xie, Changchuan; Li, Xun; Zhao, Hao; Liu, Qingxu; Jiang, Mingting; Chen, Qinghua; Zhang, Jinjia; Li, Yang; Song, Siyang; Wang, Hong-Rui; Zhou, Rongbin; Johnson, Randy L.; Chien, Kun-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Han, Jiahuai; Avruch, Joseph; Chen, Lanfen; Zhou, Dawang

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondria need to be juxtaposted to phagosomes to synergistically produce ample reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytes for pathogens killing. However, how phagosomes transmit signal to recruit mitochondria remains unclear. Here, we report that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 function to control ROS production by regulating mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrion-phagosome juxtaposition. Mst1 and Mst2 activate Rac GTPase to promote Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered assembly of the TRAF6-ECSIT complex that is required for mitochondrial recruitment to phagosomes. Inactive forms of Rac, including the human Rac2D57N mutant, disrupt the TRAF6-ECSIT complex by sequestering TRAF6, and severely dampen ROS production and greatly increase susceptibility to bacterial infection. These findings demonstrate the TLR-Mst1-Mst2-Rac signalling axis to be critical for effective phagosome-mitochondrion function and bactericidal activity. PMID:26414765

  3. Mst1 and Mst2 Are Essential Regulators of Trophoblast Differentiation and Placenta Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xingrong; Dong, Yongli; Shi, Hao; Li, Jiang; Kong, Shanshan; Shi, Donghua; Sun, Ling V.; Xu, Tian; Deng, Kejing; Tao, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is essential for survival and growth of the fetus because it promotes the delivery of nutrients and oxygen from the maternal circulation as well as fetal waste disposal. Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2), key components of the mammalian hpo/Mst signaling pathway, encode two highly conserved Ser/Thr kinases and play important roles in the prevention of tumorigenesis and autoimmunity, control of T cell development and trafficking, and embryonic development. However, their functions in placental development are not fully understood, and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the functions of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development using both conventional and conditional (endothelial) Mst1/2 double knockout mice. We found that the number of trophoblast giant cells dramatically increased while spongiotrophoblast cells almost completely disappeared in Mst1/2 deficient placentas. We showed that Mst1/2 deficiency down regulated the expression of Mash2, which is required for suppressing the differentiation of trophoblast giant cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that endothelial-specific deletion of Mst1/2 led to impaired placental labyrinthine vasculature and embryonic lethality at E11.5, but neither affected vasculature in yolk sac and embryo proper nor endocardium development. Collectively, our findings suggest that Mst1/2 regulate placental development by control of trophoblast cell differentiation and labyrinthine vasculature at midgestation and Mst1/2 control labyrinth morphogenesis in trophoblast- and fetal endothelial-dependent manners. Thus, our studies have defined novel roles of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development. PMID:24595170

  4. Progress in existing and planned MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    Radar systems are described which use two different wind measuring techniques: the partial-reflection drift technique and the mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) or Doppler beam-swing radar technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  5. MST radar data-base management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickwar, V. B.

    1983-01-01

    Data management for Mesospheric-Stratospheric-Tropospheric, (MST) radars is addressed. An incoherent-scatter radar data base is discussed in terms of purpose, centralization, scope, and nature of the data base management system.

  6. The Telomerase Inhibitor MST-312 Interferes with Multiple Steps in the Herpes Simplex Virus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Haberichter, Jarod; Roberts, Scott; Abbasi, Imran; Dedthanou, Phonphanh; Pradhan, Prajakta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of herpes simplex virus (HSV) has the potential to be further manipulated to yield novel, more effective therapeutic treatments. Recent research has demonstrated that HSV-1 can increase telomerase activity and that expression of the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), alters sensitivity to HSV-dependent apoptosis. Telomerase is a cellular enzyme that synthesizes nucleotide repeats at the ends of chromosomes (telomeres), which prevents shortening of the 3′ ends of DNA with each cell division. Once telomeres reach a critical length, cells undergo senescence and apoptosis. Here, we used a cell-permeable, reversible inhibitor of the telomerase enzyme, MST-312, to investigate telomerase activity during HSV infection. Human mammary epithelial cells immortalized through TERT expression and human carcinoma HEp-2 cells were infected with the KOS1.1 strain of HSV-1 in the presence of MST-312. MST-312 treatment reduced the number of cells displaying a cytopathic effect and the accumulation of immediate early and late viral proteins. Moreover, the presence of 20 μM to 100 μM MST-312 during infection led to a 2.5- to 5.5-log10 decrease in viral titers. MST-312 also inhibited the replication of HSV-2 and a recent clinical isolate of HSV-1. Additionally, we determined that MST-312 has the largest impact on viral events that take place prior to 5 h postinfection (hpi). Furthermore, MST-312 treatment inhibited virus replication, as measured by adsorption assays and quantification of genome replication. Together, these findings demonstrate that MST-312 interferes with the HSV life cycle. Further investigation into the mechanism for MST-312 is warranted and may provide novel targets for HSV therapies. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections can lead to cold sores, blindness, and brain damage. Identification of host factors that are important for the virus life cycle may provide novel targets for HSV

  7. Early protective role of MST1 knockdown in response to experimental diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weihua; Zhang, Maoping; Ou, Santao; Liu, Xing; Xue, Ling; Liu, Jian; Wu, Yuke; Li, Ying; Liu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a progressive kidney disease caused by the damage of capillaries in kidney’s glomeruli. Mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) has been reported to play an important role in many disease, such as diabetes, cardiac disease and ect. However, the potential role of MST1 pathway in DN has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we hypothesized that MST1 could be involved in DN, and MST1 knockdown would attenuate the DN injury in experimental diabetic nephropathy induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The sieving method was used to generate primary cultures of rat podocytes, and cultured according to the previous reports. The clinical data were analyzed for vein specimens from ESRD. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to examine the mRNA levels. Immuno-fluorescence assay was used for primary podocyte in vitro. Lectrophoretic mobility shift assay was used for DNA binding activity of NF-κB. HE staining for histological examination and western blot assay for protein expression were employed. The average GBM thickness (GBMT) was measured By using the electron microscopy. In vitro, MST1 level increased significantly in primary rat podocyte cultured in hyperglycemia condition. In vivo experiment, diabetes induced by a single STZ injection (50 mg/kg) in SD rats. Knockdown of MST1 expression by lentiviral mediated gene transfer partly reduced the proteinuria and the level of FASL, and improved the pathological changes of the diabetic kidney. In conclusion, the MST1 could be involved in DN pathogenesis and may serve as the target for development of new therapies for DN. PMID:27186267

  8. Examining Therapist Comfort in Delivering Family Therapy in Home and Community Settings: Development and Evaluation of the Therapist Comfort Scale

    PubMed Central

    Glebova, Tatiana; Foster, Sharon L.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric properties of a new measure assessing therapist comfort in the home treatment context, and the relationship between therapist comfort, related process variables, and therapist characteristics. Data were drawn from a longitudinal evaluation of 185 families treated by 51 therapists using Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Therapist comfort was measured at four time points. Psychometric evaluation indicated that the measure was internally and temporally consistent. Examination of the measure’s validity indicated that therapists’ feelings of safety and comfort during the provision of home-based treatment were associated with family neighborhood characteristics and family socioeconomic factors. Furthermore, the therapist’s reported level of alliance (as measured by the Emotional Bonding subscale of the Working Alliance Inventory) was related to her/his feeling of comfort. Analyses also indicated that therapists with greater belief in the clinical utility of the MST model felt more comfortable when delivering MST. Together the results suggest that economically disadvantaged families treated in home and community settings may be most at risk for erosions in the therapeutic relationship over time as a function of lower therapist comfort. Because therapist comfort was associated with therapeutic alliance - a factor found to be associated with clinical outcomes across studies and treatment models - findings imply that psychotherapists should regularly examine their own level of comfort, especially when providing services in non-traditional settings, and that therapist comfort should be routinely assessed as part of clinical supervision and training. PMID:22181024

  9. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  10. 28. INTERIOR OF MST, FROM STATION 111. UMBILICAL MAST CUTOUTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. INTERIOR OF MST, FROM STATION 111. UMBILICAL MAST CUTOUTS ON SOUTH SIDE OF MST. STATION 63 PLATFORM DOWN. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described.

  12. Observation of meteors by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William; Kingsley, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    The observation of meteor trails by a vertical mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST) radar beam has the advantage of good height resolution and an approximate knowledge of the zenith angle since the trails are horizontal or near-horizontal. An extension of the ablation theory of meteors was developed for near horizontal trails which takes into account the curvature of the earth. Observations of the Geminid meteor shower by MST radar reveal the 'diffusion heights' to be in fair agreement with the true height, but with some discrepancies that can amount to 4 km. The true heights are almost entirely confined to the range 87-91 km, although the upper limit is attributed to the coherent integration time of the existing MST radar processing.

  13. Spectral moment estimation in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Signal processing techniques used in Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radars are reviewed. Techniques which produce good estimates of the total power, frequency shift, and spectral width of the radar power spectra are considered. Non-linear curve fitting, autocovariance, autocorrelation, covariance, and maximum likelihood estimators are discussed.

  14. A young patient with multisystem complications after cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pulivarthi, Swaroopa; Gurram, Murali Krishna

    2014-01-01

    We are describing a case of an 18-year-old male patient with cytomegalovirus (CMV) associated guillain-barre syndrome (GBS) who presented with an acute onset of generalized weakness and numbness in the extremities, dysphagia, and facial diplegia, followed by respiratory failure, which led to mechanical ventilation. He had positive immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies against CMV, and CMV polymerase chain reaction was positive with <2000 copies of deoxyribonucleic acid. Human immunodeficiency virus test was negative. He received a course of ganciclovir, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis. After improving from acute episode, patient was transferred to a rehabilitation facility for physical and occupational therapy. At the rehabilitation facility, he exhibited signs of acute abdomen with pain in the left upper quadrant secondary to peritonitis from dislodged gastrostomy tube and underwent exploratory laparotomy. During the hospital course he was found to have splenic infarct and colitis on the computed tomography of abdomen. This case showed an immunocompetent young patient with multisystem complications including guillain-barre syndrome (GBS), splenic infarct, hepatitis, and colitis due to CMV. PMID:24741254

  15. Pharmacological targeting of kinases MST1 and MST2 augments tissue repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fuqin; He, Zhixiang; Kong, Lu-Lu; Chen, Qinghua; Yuan, Quan; Zhang, Shihao; Ye, Jinjin; Liu, Hao; Sun, Xiufeng; Geng, Jing; Yuan, Lunzhi; Hong, Lixin; Xiao, Chen; Zhang, Weiji; Sun, Xihuan; Li, Yunzhan; Wang, Ping; Huang, Lihong; Wu, Xinrui; Ji, Zhiliang; Wu, Qiao; Xia, Ning-Shao; Gray, Nathanael S; Chen, Lanfen; Yun, Cai-Hong; Deng, Xianming; Zhou, Dawang

    2016-08-17

    Tissue repair and regenerative medicine address the important medical needs to replace damaged tissue with functional tissue. Most regenerative medicine strategies have focused on delivering biomaterials and cells, yet there is the untapped potential for drug-induced regeneration with good specificity and safety profiles. The Hippo pathway is a key regulator of organ size and regeneration by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. Kinases MST1 and MST2 (MST1/2), the mammalian Hippo orthologs, are central components of this pathway and are, therefore, strong target candidates for pharmacologically induced tissue regeneration. We report the discovery of a reversible and selective MST1/2 inhibitor, 4-((5,10-dimethyl-6-oxo-6,10-dihydro-5H-pyrimido[5,4-b]thieno[3,2-e][1,4]diazepin-2-yl)amino)benzenesulfonamide (XMU-MP-1), using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based high-throughput biochemical assay. The cocrystal structure and the structure-activity relationship confirmed that XMU-MP-1 is on-target to MST1/2. XMU-MP-1 blocked MST1/2 kinase activities, thereby activating the downstream effector Yes-associated protein and promoting cell growth. XMU-MP-1 displayed excellent in vivo pharmacokinetics and was able to augment mouse intestinal repair, as well as liver repair and regeneration, in both acute and chronic liver injury mouse models at a dose of 1 to 3 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection. XMU-MP-1 treatment exhibited substantially greater repopulation rate of human hepatocytes in the Fah-deficient mouse model than in the vehicle-treated control, indicating that XMU-MP-1 treatment might facilitate human liver regeneration. Thus, the pharmacological modulation of MST1/2 kinase activities provides a novel approach to potentiate tissue repair and regeneration, with XMU-MP-1 as the first lead for the development of targeted regenerative therapeutics. PMID:27535619

  16. Combination treatment with flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 reduces cancer stem cell traits by targeting STAT3 and telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seyung S.; Oliva, Bryant; Dwabe, Sami; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The malignant CRC that undergoes metastasis in the advanced stage is usually refractory to existing chemotherapy and shows a poor prognosis. However, to date, efficient targeted-therapy for metastatic CRC is ill-defined. We tested the hypothesis that combined treatment of flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 may reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) traits. To characterize CSC phenotype, we performed the CD133/CD44 subpopulation profiling, tumorsphere formation assay, cell invasion assay and wound healing assay. We have examined the augmenting effects of the combined treatment of morin and MST-312 for 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) efficacy in human colorectal cancer. Morin and MST-312 combined treatment reduced CD133 (+) and CD44 (+) subpopulations in human colorectal and breast cancer cells, respectively. Tumorsphere formation and cell invasiveness were decreased with the morin and MST-312 combination treatment. Consistent with these data, morin and MST-312 treatment decreased the wound healing capacity of human breast cancer cells. Stress and apoptosis antibody arrays revealed that there were specific upregulated and downregulated proteins resulting from different treatments. Phosphorylation levels of BAD, p53 and Chk1 were enhanced upon morin/MST-312 treatments in HT-29 cells, whereas caspase-3 cleavage level and expression of IκBα were down-regulated by combined morin/MST-312 treatment in SW620 cells. Finally, morin and MST-312 co-treatment further augmented the 5-FU efficacy, chemosensitizing the 5-FU resistant human colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study suggests that novel targeted-therapy can be implemented by using flavonoid morin and telomerase inhibitor MST-312 for improved cancer prognosis. PMID:27279256

  17. DE-FG02-05ER64001 Overcoming the hurdles of multi-step targeting (MST) for effective radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    P.I. Steven M. Larson MD Co P.I. Nai-Kong Cheung MD, Ph.D.

    2009-09-21

    The 4 specific aims of this project are: (1) Optimization of MST to increase tumor uptake; (2) Antigen heterogeneity; (3) Characterization and reduction of renal uptake; and (4) Validation in vivo of optimized MST targeted therapy. This proposal focussed upon optimizing multistep immune targeting strategies for the treatment of cancer. Two multi-step targeting constructs were explored during this funding period: (1) anti-Tag-72 and (2) anti-GD2.

  18. Lower Hybrid Antenna Design for MST

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, J.A.; Thomas, M.A.; Kaufman, M.C.; Oliva, S.P.

    2005-09-26

    Inter-digital line antennas are being used to test the feasibility of lower hybrid current drive in MST. The antennas use {lambda}/4 resonators and launch slow waves at 800 MHz with n parallel {approx} 7.5. Routine operation has been achieved with a good impedance match between antenna and plasma. High power antenna design improvements include larger vacuum feed-throughs, better impedance matching, and rf instrumentation on all resonators. The antenna and feed-through modeling was performed with CST Microwave Studio{sup TM}. The pulse-forming network that powers the klystron is being upgraded to a 50 kV - 30 ms pulse. The goal for the LHCD system on MST is a modular design that can handle 300 kW per antenna.

  19. Binary Pulse Compression Techniques for MST Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Sulzer, M. P.; Farley, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    In most mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) applications pulsed radars are peak power limited and have excess average power capability. Short pulses are required for good range resolution but the problem of range biguity (signals received simultaneously from more than one altitude) sets a minimum limit on the interpulse period (IPP). Pulse compression is a echnique which allows more of the transmitter average power capacity to be used without scarificing range resolution. Binary phase coding methods for pulse compression are discussed. Many aspects of codes and decoding and their applications to MST experiments are addressed; this includes Barker codes and longer individual codes, and then complementary codes and other code sets. Software decoding, hardware decoders, and coherent integrators are also discussed.

  20. Magnetic fluctuation induced transport in MST (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoneking, M.R.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Ji, H. )

    1995-01-01

    We made local measurements of the magnetic fluctuation induced transport of particles and energy in the outer region ([ital r]/[ital a][gt]0.75) of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. These measurements allow comparison with the Rochester--Rosenbluth stochastic diffusion coefficients. An electrostatic electron energy analyzer and fast pyrobolometer were employed in combination with magnetic pickup coils to directly measure the correlated products [l angle][ital [tilde J

  1. MST-312 induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in APL cells through inhibition of telomerase activity and suppression of NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Ahmad; Safa, Majid; Kazemi, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Telomerase-targeted therapy for cancer has received great attention because telomerase is expressed in almost all cancer cells but is inactive in most normal somatic cells. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of telomerase inhibitor MST-312, a chemically modified derivative of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Our results showed that MST-312 exerted a dose-dependent short-term cytotoxic effect on APL cells, with G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, MST-312 induced apoptosis of APL cells in caspase-mediated manner. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay revealed significant reduction in telomerase activity of APL cells following short-term exposure to MST-312. Interestingly, MST-312-induced telomerase inhibition was coupled with suppression of NF-κB activity as evidenced by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and its degradation and decreased NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, gene expression analysis showed downregulation of genes regulated by NF-κB, such as antiapoptotic (survivin, Bcl-2, Mcl-1), proliferative (c-Myc), and telomerase-related (hTERT) genes. Importantly, MST-312 did not show any apoptotic effect in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In conclusion, our data suggest that dual inhibition of telomerase activity and NF-κB pathway by MST-312 represents a novel treatment strategy for APL. PMID:26022158

  2. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  3. TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERED FORMS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-05-14

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The {sup E}mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, {sup E}MST and {sup E}mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight ({approx}10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower ({approx}0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of {sup E}MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the {sup E}MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of {sup E}MST and the post-peroxide treated {sup E}mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated

  4. Long-Term Youth Criminal Outcomes in MST Transport: The Impact of Therapist Adherence and Organizational Climate and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Carter, Rickey E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and youth criminal charges on average 4 years posttreatment. Participants were 1,979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45…

  5. MST1: a promising therapeutic target to restore functional beta cell mass in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Amin; Maedler, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    The loss of insulin-producing beta cells by apoptosis is a hallmark of all forms of diabetes mellitus. Strategies to prevent beta cell apoptosis and dysfunction are urgently needed to restore the insulin-producing cells and to prevent severe diabetes progression. We recently identified the serine/threonine kinase known as mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) as a critical regulator of apoptotic beta cell death and dysfunction. MST1 activates several apoptotic signalling pathways, which further stimulate its own cleavage, leading to a vicious cycle of cell death. This led us to hypothesise that MST1 signalling is central to the initiation of beta cell death in diabetes. We found that MST1 is strongly activated in a diabetic beta cell and induces not only its death but also directly impairs insulin secretion through promoting proteasomal degradation of key beta cell transcription factor, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), which is critical for insulin production.Pre-clinical studies in various animal models of diabetes have reported that MST1 deficiency remarkably restores normoglycaemia and beta cell function and prevents the development of diabetes. Importantly, MST1 deficiency can revert fully diabetic beta cells to a non-diabetic state. MST1 may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes that trigger the cause of the disease, namely, the destruction of the beta cells. The major current focus of our investigation is to identify and test the efficacy of potent inhibitors of this death signalling pathway to protect beta cells against the effects of autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes and to preserve beta cell mass and function in type 2 diabetes. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Heiko Lickert and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3949-9 , and by Harry

  6. 29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF OUTLET DUCTS FOR MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 70.5 (LOWEST PAYLOAD SERVICE STATION). NOTE RING ATTACHMENT FOR PERSONNEL SAFETY HARNESS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF CHILLERS 1 AND 2 (MST AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM) INTERIOR, NORTHEAST CORNER, STATION 30, SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 61. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING MST RAIL, FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT (LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING MST RAIL, FIRE SUPPRESSION EQUIPMENT (LEFT OF RAIL), MST ANCHORING GROMETS (IN LIGHT SQUARE NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO AND IN BACKGROUND NEAR TERMINUS OF RAIL). NORTHWEST CORNER OF LAUNCHER IN LEFT BACKGROUND. BACK OF MAST CONTROL PANEL ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 15. VIEW OF NORTH FACE AND EAST SIDE OF MST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF NORTH FACE AND EAST SIDE OF MST IN PARKED POSITION, NORTH OF THE FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST. SLC-3E MST IN PARKED POSITION IN BACKGROUND (LEFT). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF MST, FACING SOUTHEAST, AND LAUNCH PAD TAKEN FROM NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: SOUTH TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER, SOUTHWEST PHOTO TOWER, LAUNCHER, UMBILICAL MAST, MST, AND OXIDIZER APRON. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 19. VIEW OF MST INTERIOR, WEST SIDE AND CENTER, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF MST INTERIOR, WEST SIDE AND CENTER, FROM EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD LOOKING UP INTO MST. NOTE: LOWER PLATFORMS FOLDED UP. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. On the measurement of vertical velocity by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is presented of the measurement of atmospheric vertical motion utilizing the MST radar technique. Vertical motion in the atmosphere is briefly discussed as a function of scale. Vertical velocity measurement by MST radars is then considered from within the context of the expected magnitudes to be observed. Examples are drawn from published vertical velocity observations.

  13. Effect of MST on Crystallinity of CST/Sludge Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, M.K.

    1998-11-18

    In support of the Salt Disposition team, the effects of monosodium titanate (MST) on two glass formulations were investigated. These glass formulations combined a blend-type sludge with Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and glass formers (or frit). The objective of the testing was to determine if the MST would lead to crystal formation in the glasses.

  14. 1. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF MOBILE SERVICE TOWER (MST). CABLE TRAY SHED IN FOREGROUND. MICROWAVE ANTENNAS AND AIR-CONDITIONING PORCH ON EAST SIDE OF MST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 73. LIQUID NITROGEN PUMPING STATION ON WEST SIDE OF MST; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. LIQUID NITROGEN PUMPING STATION ON WEST SIDE OF MST; NITROGEN EXCHANGERS ON RIGHT. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF MST VISIBLE; ENVIRONMENTAL CURTAIN SWING AND PLATFORM EXTENDED. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. NOTE CANVAS CURTAIN (RIGHT) USED TO COVER SOUTH SIDE OF MST BELOW LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Dynamics of helical states in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano; Auriemma, F.; Brower, D.; Chapman, B. E.; den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D.; Lin, L.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Sarff, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The thermal and the magnetic dynamics of quasi-single-helicity (QSH) plasmas evolve independently during the formation and sustainment of the core helical structure. At higher plasma current (and Lundquist number) MST plasmas transition from an axisymmetric multi-helicity state to a QSH state characterized by a strong core helical mode and reduced secondary mode amplitudes. Plasmas in the QSH state tend to wall-lock, often in an orientation that is unfavorable for optimized measurements of the 3D structure using MST's advanced diagnostics. Recently a technique to control the locking position through an applied resonant magnetic perturbation has been developed. Using this technique it is possible to adjust the 3D phase more optimally for specific diagnostics, to study the dynamics of the QSH structure and thermal features. The multi-chord FIR interferometer shows the presence of a density structure for the duration of the QSH state. Measurements of the time evolution of the electron temperature profile using the Thomson Scattering diagnostic reveal that the transition to QSH allows the presence of a 3D thermal structure, but this structure is intermittent. Understanding the mechanism(s) driving these dynamics is the goal of this work. Work supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  18. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Forest, Cary; Nonn, Paul; Thomas, Mark; Almagri, Abdulgader; Chapman, Brett; Dubois, Ami; Goetz, John; McCollam, Karsten

    2015-11-01

    The RFP plasma is inaccessible to ECRH, requiring the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) for edge localized heating and current drive. MST is capable of generating RFPs or overdense tokamaks with Bt(0) ~ 0.08-0.14T in which a 5.55 GHz RF source (450kW, 2ms pulse) can heat at fundamental and harmonic EC resonances. The design of a suitable antenna is challenging in the RFP due to a magnetic field geometry that requires a low-field-side launch. The small vacuum gap between the close-fitting conducting shell and plasma leads to substantial antenna-plasma interaction. A minimized port hole size is required to limit error fields. Even so the port hole induced magnetic field perturbation in the antenna near-field that affects the mode conversion process and introduces EC resonances. A 5cm diameter cylindrical antenna centered in 5cm and 11cm diameter portholes is used. A multi-chord time-resolved x-ray detector and GENRAY ray tracing verifies EBW heating at higher harmonics in an MST tokamak with 10-40keV detected x-ray energies. Evidence of RF-induced emission from absorption at higher harmonics (4th / 5th) in low current RFP discharges has been observed. Simultaneous reflected power changes correspond to termination of x-ray emission indicating power limits. Work supported by USDOE.

  19. Plasmodium coatneyi in Rhesus Macaques Replicates the Multisystemic Dysfunction of Severe Malaria in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Garcia, AnaPatricia; Orkin, Jack; Strobert, Elizabeth; Barnwell, John W.; Galinski, Mary R.

    2013-01-01

    Severe malaria, a leading cause of mortality among children and nonimmune adults, is a multisystemic disorder characterized by complex clinical syndromes that are mechanistically poorly understood. The interplay of various parasite and host factors is critical in the pathophysiology of severe malaria. However, knowledge regarding the pathophysiological mechanisms and pathways leading to the multisystemic disorders of severe malaria in humans is limited. Here, we systematically investigate infections with Plasmodium coatneyi, a simian malaria parasite that closely mimics the biological characteristics of P. falciparum, and develop baseline data and protocols for studying erythrocyte turnover and severe malaria in greater depth. We show that rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) experimentally infected with P. coatneyi develop anemia, coagulopathy, and renal and metabolic dysfunction. The clinical course of acute infections required suppressive antimalaria chemotherapy, fluid support, and whole-blood transfusion, mimicking the standard of care for the management of severe malaria cases in humans. Subsequent infections in the same animals progressed with a mild illness in comparison, suggesting that immunity played a role in reducing the severity of the disease. Our results demonstrate that P. coatneyi infection in rhesus macaques can serve as a highly relevant model to investigate the physiological pathways and molecular mechanisms of malaria pathogenesis in naïve and immune individuals. Together with high-throughput postgenomic technologies, such investigations hold promise for the identification of new clinical interventions and adjunctive therapies. PMID:23509137

  20. Spectral characteristics of the MST radar returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The salient features of the spectra of atmospheric returns due to random refractivity fluctuations in the Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere MST region are reviewed. The nonhomogeneous layered structure of turbulence is often evident as multiple peaks in the spectra. The time evolution of the spectra observed with a fine Doppler resolution provides evidence for thin regions of turbulence associated with gravity waves and shear instabilities. Embedded in these regions are horizontally extended refractivity structures that produce enhanced returns due to specular reflections. It is conceivable that some enhanced returns arise due to anisotropy of small scale refractivity structures. Observed correlations of the strength of the returns with their Doppler spread, wind shears, and winds provide insights into the physical mechanisms that produce turbulence.

  1. Archival of Poker Flat MST radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddle, A. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Gage, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    The Poker Flat MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar has operated from early 1979 to 1985. The data recorded during that time resides on some 1100 magnetic tapes. A second set containing only the derived parameters of velocity, width and signal to noise of the primary echo at each height, plus the noise spectra, occupies another 250 tapes. While processing to generate the compressed data set does correct some known errors, no attempt has been made to identify or remove spurious echoes. Because the Poker Flat data set is such a unique and valuable resource, a proposal is made to archive the data in forms more useful for analysis. The archived data set would contain only the parameters for significant echoes with contamination from airplanes, unwanted ionospheric returns, frequently aliased Doppler signals and other sources removed. The archived set should be as good or better than the example shown and may occupy only 25 to 50 tapes.

  2. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  3. The Urbana MST radar, capabilities and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royrvik, O.; Goss, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The 41-MHz coherent-scatter radar located northeast of the University of Illinois at Urbana is being used for studies of the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere regions. The antenna consists of 1008 halfwave dipoles with a physical aperture of 11000 sq m. Transmitted peak power is about 750 kW. Clear-air returns may be received from 6 km to 90 km altitude. Autocorrelation functions of the scattered signal are calculated on-line. From the autocorrelation functions the scattered power, line-of-sight velocity and signal correlation time are calculated. Some aspects of the troposphere/stratosphere and the mesosphere observations are discussed. Capabilities and limitations of the Urbana MST radar are pointed out, and recent and planned improvements to the radar are described.

  4. EDITORIAL: MST Best Paper Award for 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    For the last 12 years, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of the journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. An Editorial Board working party, comprising Patrick Gill (Chairman), Ralph Tatam and David Birch, was convened to determine a single contributed paper describing new and significant work, well aligned with the measurement scope of the journal, and presented in clear and rigorous form. They received a number of recommendations from the Editorial and International Advisory Board Members, and they would like to record their thanks to the Members for these recommendations, as they form an all-important first stage in the assessment process. There were responses from some 12 Board Members. In total, there were 31 papers nominated. To aid the process, additional information in the form of the 2003 MST papers top rated by referees, and the top papers ranked by most electronic accesses, was accessed. Reviews, and papers which included a Board Member as an author, were automatically excluded. From the totality of nominations and working party deliberations, there emerged a clear winner. Thus the paper recommended by the working party for the MST Best Paper Award for 2003 is: 'Extension of the torsional crystal viscometer to measurements in the time domain' by Richard F Hafer and Arno Laesecke, 14 663-673 (2003) This paper describes a significant advance in viscosity measurement using torsional vibration in piezoelectric rods. The method reported here demonstrates the use of free-decay time-domain measurements as opposed to the more established steady-state forced-mode resonance technique. The time domain technique is faster and more sensitive, with the potential for improved accuracy due to the lack of large time constants necessary for the interpretation of forced mode data. It offers

  5. 14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF MST, FULLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST, LAUNCHER, AND FLAME BUCKET - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 12. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST AND PARTIALLY ERECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST AND PARTIALLY ERECTED UMBILICAL MAST. UMBILICAL MAST TRENCH AND DOORS IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Cladribine and cytarabine in refractory multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of an international phase 2 study

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Frederic; van Noesel, Max; Barkaoui, Mohamed; Bardet, Odile; Mura, Rosella; Arico, Maurizio; Piguet, Christophe; Gandemer, Virginie; Armari Alla, Corinne; Clausen, Niels; Jeziorski, Eric; Lambilliote, Anne; Weitzman, Sheila; Henter, Jan Inge; Van Den Bos, Cor

    2015-01-01

    An international phase 2 study combining cladribine and cytarabine (Ara-C) was initiated for patients with refractory, risk-organ–positive Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in 2005. The protocol, comprising at least two 5-day courses of Ara-C (1 g/m2 per day) plus cladribine (9 mg/m2 per day) followed by maintenance therapy, was administered to 27 patients (median age at diagnosis, 0.7 years; median follow-up, 5.3 years). At inclusion, all patients were refractory after at least 1 course of vinblastine (VBL) plus corticosteroid, all had liver and spleen involvement, and 25 patients had hematologic cytopenia. After 2 courses, disease status was nonactive (n = 2), better (n = 23), or stable (n = 2), with an overall response rate of 92%. Median disease activity scores decreased from 12 at the start of therapy to 3 after 2 courses (P < .0001). During maintenance therapy, 4 patients experienced reactivation in risk organs. There were 4 deaths; 2 were related to therapy toxicity and 2 were related to reactivation. All patients experienced severe toxicity, with World Health Organization grade 4 hematologic toxicity and 6 documented severe infections. The overall 5-year survival rate was 85% (95% confidence interval, 65.2%-94.2%). Thus, the combination of cladribine/Ara-C is effective therapy for refractory multisystem LCH but is associated with high toxicity. PMID:26194764

  8. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multisystem involvement in an infant: A case report

    PubMed Central

    BI, LINTAO; SUN, BUTONG; LU, ZHENXIA; SHI, ZHANGZHEN; WANG, DAN; ZHU, ZHENXING

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disease of histiocyte-like cells, with a wide range of clinical presentations that vary from a solitary lesion to more severe multifocal or disseminated lesions. The disease can affect any age group; however, the peak incidence rate is in infants aged between 1 and 3 years-old. Diagnosis of LCH should be based on the synthetical analysis of clinical presentations, in addition to features of imaging and histopathology. Although certain cases regress spontaneously, other patients require systemic chemotherapy together with the administration of steroids. The present study reports the case of an infant with LDH with multisystem involvement, including that of the bone, skin, orbit, spleen and lungs. The patient received chemotherapy and obtained rapid improvement in the involved systems. A total of 2.5 years after completion of the therapy, the patient still remains in follow-up and no evidence of active disease has been noted. PMID:26136948

  9. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltzman, Andrew H.; Anderson, Jay K.; Nonn, Paul D.; Kauffold, Jason X.; Diem, Stephanie. J.; Forest, Cary B.

    2011-12-01

    The overdense plasma in an RFP prevents electromagnetic waves from propagating past the edge, however use of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) has the potential to heat and drive current in the plasma. MHD simulations have demonstrated that resistive tearing mode stability is very sensitive to gradients in the edge current density profile allowing EBW to potentially be a stabilizing influence. A new MW level experiment is being commissioned on MST to evaluate the potential use of the EBW for current profile control on the RFP. The development of new equipment includes a 5.5 GHz klystron driven by a novel switchmode power supply. A quartz window has been constructed and coupling with a cylindrical molybdenum wave guide antenna has been studied. Due to the steep edge density gradient in the RFP, it is possible to efficiently couple to the EBW with O or X mode launch. The EBW is strongly damped at the electron cyclotron resonance where it couples to the electron gyromotion and alters the electron distribution. Either Fisch-Boozer or Ohkawa current drive mechanisms can be activated to drive off axis current in the plasma. Preliminary experiments have been performed to verify high power coupling and understand heating via observed x-ray emission when compared to Fokker-Plank modeling in CQL3D.

  10. Overview of MST results and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.

    2010-11-01

    Advances in RFP performance and basic physics studies on MST are summarized. Pellet injection increases the density of improved confinement plasmas well above the empirical limit (up to n/nG=1.5), and the beta value is likewise increased, without evidence for a hard limit. A 1 MW tangential neutral beam injector is operational, sparking several new topics for RFP research. The observed good confinement of fast ions bodes well for increasing beta and assessing energetic ion effects. The NBI's directed momentum affects the plasma flow, and altered tearing mode dynamics suggest localized current drive in the core. Energy confinement with oscillating field current drive is measured about the same as for steady induction, a promising result for this efficient form of current sustainment. Magnetic self-organization studies reveal that ion heating during magnetic reconnection events is increasingly anisotropic at lower density. Detailed measurements of the flow and magnetic structure of the reconnection region around the q=0 surface emphasize the importance of nonlinear mode coupling and two-fluid physics. Several new diagnostics are being implemented, including fast Thomson scattering, neutral particle analyzers, and fast ion CHERS. Continuing investigation of lower hybrid and electron Bernstein waves will be summarized. Work supported by USDoE and NSF.

  11. Optimum coding techniques for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    The optimum coding technique for MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radars is that which gives the lowest possible sidelobes in practice and can be implemented without too much computing power. Coding techniques are described in Farley (1985). A technique mentioned briefly there but not fully developed and not in general use is discussed here. This is decoding by means of a filter which is not matched to the transmitted waveform, in order to reduce sidelobes below the level obtained with a matched filter. This is the first part of the technique discussed here; the second part consists of measuring the transmitted waveform and using it as the basis for the decoding filter, thus reducing errors due to imperfections in the transmitter. There are two limitations to this technique. The first is a small loss in signal to noise ratio (SNR), which usually is not significant. The second problem is related to incomplete information received at the lowest ranges. An appendix shows a technique for handling this problem. Finally, it is shown that the use of complementary codes on transmission and nonmatched decoding gives the lowest possible sidelobe level and the minimum loss in SNR due to mismatch.

  12. Upgrades to the MST Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubala, S. Z.; Borchardt, M. T.; den Hartog, D. J.; Holly, D. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; Morton, L. A.; Young, W. C.

    2015-11-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST records both equilibrium and fluctuating electron temperature with a range capability of 10 eV to 5 keV. Standard operation with two modified commercial Nd:YAG lasers allows measurements at rates of 1-25 kHz. A new laser system is being commissioned to enable measurements up to 250 kHz. Other subsystems of the diagnostic are also being improved. The power supplies for the avalanche photodiode detectors (APDs) that record the scattered light are being updated to improve safety, reliability, and maintainablity. Each of the 144 APDs will have an individual rack-mounted switched supply with bias voltage adjustable to match the APD. Long-wavelength filters (1140 nm center, 80 nm bandwidth) are being added to the polychromators to improve capability to resolve non-Maxwellian distributions and to enable electron-velocity measurement. A supercontinuum pulsed white-light source is being implemented to improve spectral calibration of the polychromators. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  13. LEACHING OF TITANIUM FROM MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND MODIFIED MST

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    Analysis of a fouled coalescer and pre-filters from Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) operations showed evidence of Ti containing solids. Based on these results a series of tests were planned to examine the extent of Ti leaching from monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) in various solutions. The solutions tested included a series of salt solutions with varying free hydroxide concentrations, two sodium hydroxide concentrations, 9 wt % and 15 wt %, nitric and oxalic acid solutions. Overall, the amount of Ti leached from the MST and mMST was much greater in the acid solutions compared to the sodium hydroxide or salt solutions, which is consistent with the expected trend. The leaching data also showed that increasing hydroxide concentration, whether pure NaOH solution used for filter cleaning in ARP or the waste salt solution, increased the amount of Ti leached from both the MST and mMST. For the respective nominal contact times with the MST solids - for filter cleaning or the normal filter operation, the dissolved Ti concentrations are comparable suggesting either cause may contribute to the increased Ti fouling on the MCU coalescers. Tests showed that Ti containing solids could be precipitated from solution after the addition of scrub acid and a decrease in temperature similar to expected in MCU operations. FTIR analysis of these solids showed some similarity to the solids observed on the fouled coalescer and pre-filters. Although only a cursory study, this information suggests that the practice of increasing free hydroxide in feed solutions to MCU as a mitigation to aluminosilicate formation may be offset by the impact of formation of Ti solids in the overall process. Additional consideration of this finding from MCU and SWPF operation is warranted.

  14. EDITORIAL: MST Best Paper Award for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    For the last 13 years, Measurement Science and Technology has awarded a Best Paper prize. The Editorial Board of the journal believes that such a prize is an opportunity to thank authors for submitting their work, and serves as an integral part of the on-going quality review of the journal. An Editorial Board working party, comprising Patrick Gill (Chairman), David Birch and Ralph Tatam undertook the task of selecting as Best Paper 2004 a single contributed paper describing new and significant work, well aligned with the measurement scope of the journal, and presented in clear and rigorous form. They received a number of recommendations from the Editorial and International Advisory Board Members, and they would like to record their thanks to the Members for these recommendations, as they form an all-important first stage in the assessment process. There were responses from some five Board Members. In total, there were 16 papers nominated, plus another six from the working party. All these papers had quality ratings of 2 or higher from the referees, and note was also taken of the total electronic accesses for those papers subsequently short-listed. Review Articles, and papers that included a Board Member as an author, were automatically excluded. From the submitted nominations and working party deliberations, a short list of two papers was drawn up. The winning paper was then selected on the totality of criteria. Thus the paper recommended by the working party for the MST Best Paper Award for 2004 is: 'Adsorptive pressure-sensitive coatings on porous anodised aluminium' by Masaharu Kameda, Norikazu Tezuka, Tomohiro Hangai, Keisuke Asai, Kazuyuki Nakakita and Yutaka Amao, 15 489-500 (2004) This paper describes a novel pressure sensor based on a luminescent coating applied to a porous anodized aluminium layer, with application to the measurement of fluctuating pressures on short timescales with high spatial resolution. The research has particular application to

  15. Early multi-system organ failure associated with acute pancreatitis: a plea for a conservative therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Dugernier, T; Reynaert, M; Laterre, P F

    2003-01-01

    The mortality of severe acute pancreatitis still ranges between 10 and 20%. Nowadays, infected pancreatic necrosis is the leading cause of death. Despite advances in intensive care therapy, however, early and worsening multi-system organ failure remains a source of substantial morbidity and still accounts for 20 to 50% of the deaths. In recent years, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the relevant cascades of inflammatory mediators have been implicated as the key factor in the emergence of remote tissue damage. Early multi-system organ failure that supervenes in the first week is typically associated with a sterile necrotizing process. There are no pathophysiological, clinical or economical data to support the practice of debridement of sterile necrosis to prevent or to control early multi-system organ failure. This issue has never been addressed in a controlled study. Besides intensive care support, non-surgical therapeutic modalities including urgent endoscopic sphincterotomy for impacted stones, antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of pancreatic infection and early jejunal nutrition have been specifically developed hopefully to attenuate multiple organ failure, to obviate the need of surgical drainage and to improve survival. Fine needle aspiration of necrotic areas must be incorporated in any conservative therapeutic strategy in order to identify and not to jeopardize those with infected necrosis that remains an absolute indication for drainage. A specific treatment of acute pancreatitis is still lacking, so far. However, there is ample experimental and pathophysiological evidence in favour of immunomodulatory therapy in severe acute pancreatitis. The administration of one or several antagonists of inflammatory mediators possibly combined with a protease inhibitor may at last provide the opportunity to interfere with the two major determinants of prognosis: the severity of multiple organ failure and the extent of necrotic areas that creates

  16. Predicting Therapist Adherence to a Transported Family-Based Treatment for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations between therapist, caregiver, and youth characteristics and therapist adherence to multisystemic therapy (MST). Participants were 405 therapists in 45 organizations and the 1,711 families they treated with MST. Therapist perceptions that the flexible hours required to implement MST are problematic predicted lower…

  17. Properties of echo spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakasugi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Turbulent scatter and Fresnel reflection are the fundamental echoing mechanisms to interpret the signals observed by Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars. Turbulent scattered echoes provide information about the turbulence structure and mean flow of the atmosphere. Observational results with VHF MST radars, however, show the importance of Fresnel reflection due to the infinite gradient of reflectivity at the edges of a scattering layer. This condition is excluded for the weak fluctuation models but it is still possible to include the observed aspect sensitivity by assuming an anisotropic structure of fluctuations. Another explanation of the aspect sensitivity observed by MST radars is advanced. Spectral estimates by the widely used periodogram were related to a four-dimensional spectrum of atmospheric fluctuations with anisotropic structure. Effects of the radar system such as antenna beam width, beam direction and Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) data length were discussed for the anisotropic turbulent atmosphere. Echo parameters were also estimated.

  18. Model of MT and MST areas using an autoencoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Katsuki; Ando, Masataka; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2003-05-01

    We propose a model for a system with middle temporal neurons and medial superior temporal (MST) neurons by using a three-layered autoencoder. Noise effect is taken into account by using the framework of statistical physics. We define a cost function of the autoencoder, from which a learning rule is derived by a gradient descent method, within a mean-field approximation. We find a pair of values of two noise levels at which a minimum value of the cost function is attained. We investigate response properties of the MST neurons to optical flows for various types of motion at the pair of optimal values of two noise levels. We obtain that the response properties of the MST neurons are similar to those obtained from neurophysiological experiments.

  19. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  20. System aspects of the Indian MST radar facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, G.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program is to investigate the motions of the middle atmosphere on temporal and spatial scales and the interaction between the three height regions of the middle atmosphere. Realizing the fact that radar technique has proven to be a very powerful tool for the study of Earth atmosphere, the Indian Middle Atmosphere Program has recommended establishing a mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar as a national facility for atmospheric research. The major landmarks in this attempt to setup the MST radar as a national facility are described.

  1. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST. SLC3E ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST. SLC-3E MST VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. NOTE MST RAILS AND STOPS IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. MST3 promotes proliferation and tumorigenicity through the VAV2/Rac1 signal axis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chien-Yu; Lee, Kuo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Hau-Lun; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Yen, Meng-Chi; Lai, Ming-Zong; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2016-01-01

    MST3 (mammalian STE20-like kinase 3) belongs to the Ste20 serine/threonine protein kinase family. The role of MST3 in tumor growth is less studied; therefore, we investigates the function of MST3 in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that MST3 is overexpressed in human breast tumors. Online Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis reveals that overexpression of MST3 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Knockdown of MST3 with shRNA inhibits proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Downregulation of MST3 in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells decreases tumor formation in NOD/SCID mice. MST3 interacts with VAV2, but not VAV3, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. By domain mapping of MST3, we determine that the proline-rich region of MST3 (353KDIPKRP359) interacts with the SH3 domain of VAV2. Mutation of the two proline residues in this domain significantly attenuates the interaction between MST3 and VAV2. Overexpression of wild-type MST3 (WT-MST3), but not proline-rich-deleted MST3 (ΔP-MST3), enhances the proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-468 cells. Overexpression of MST3 increases VAV2 phosphorylation and GTP-Rac1, whereas downregulation of MST3 or delivery of ΔP-MST3 results in a reduction of VAV2 and Rac1 activation. Knockdown of MST3 inhibits cyclin D1 protein expression. The Rac1 inhibitor EHop-016 attenuates cell proliferation induced by WT-MST3. Finally, Knockdown of MST3 or Rac1 inhibitor decreases cyclin D protein expression, which is important for tumor growth. These results indicate that MST3 interacts with VAV2 to activate Rac1 and promote the tumorigenicity of breast cancer. PMID:26910843

  3. Relationship and factor structure in multisystem neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takaaki; Orimo, Satoshi; Hallett, Mark; Wu, Tianxia; Inaba, Akira; Azuma, Reo; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to identify the relationship and factor structure among its different features. Materials & methods Motor, olfactory and cognitive function, and cardiac sympathetic denervation were evaluated in 125 PD patients using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III score, Odor Stick Identification Test for the Japanese (OSIT-J), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and [123I] meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy (heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio). Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to evaluate the association among the four measures with age, gender and disease duration as the covariates. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the underlying factor structure among the measures and covariates. Results Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis showed correlations between OSIT-J score and MIBG H/M ratio, OSIT-J and MMSE scores, UPDRS part III score and MIBG H/M ratio, UPDRS part III score and disease duration, and MMSE score and age. Factor analysis identified three factors: (i) age and MMSE score; (ii) MIBG H/M ratio and OSIT-J score; and (iii) UPDRS part III score and disease duration. Conclusions Our results suggest that aging, PD-related pathogenesis and disease duration underlie the multisystem neurodegeneration present in PD. Moreover, age and disease duration are the major risk factors for cognitive impairment and motor symptoms, respectively. Olfactory impairment and cardiac sympathetic denervation are strongly associated in PD. PMID:25209841

  4. Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Interacts with Proapoptotic Kinase Mst1 to Promote Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    You, Bei; Huang, Shengdong; Qin, Qing; Yi, Bing; Yuan, Yang; Xu, Zhiyun; Sun, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is a critical component of the Hippo signaling pathway, which regulates a variety of biological processes ranging from cell contact inhibition, organ size control, apoptosis and tumor suppression in mammals. Mst1 plays essential roles in the heart disease since its activation causes cardiomyocyte apoptosis and dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism underlying Mst1 activation in the heart remains unknown. In a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart cDNA library with Mst1 as bait, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was identified as an Mst1-interacting protein. The interaction of GAPDH with Mst1 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation in both co-transfected HEK293 cells and mouse heart homogenates, in which GAPDH interacted with the kinase domain of Mst1, whereas the C-terminal catalytic domain of GAPDH mediated its interaction with Mst1. Moreover, interaction of Mst1 with GAPDH caused a robust phosphorylation of GAPDH and markedly increased the Mst1 activity in cells. Chelerythrine, a potent inducer of apoptosis, substantially increased the nuclear translocation and interaction of GAPDH and Mst1 in cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of GAPDH significantly augmented the Mst1 mediated apoptosis, whereas knockdown of GAPDH markedly attenuated the Mst1 activation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in response to either chelerythrine or hypoxia/reoxygenation. These findings reveal a novel function of GAPDH in Mst1 activation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis and suggest that disruption of GAPDH interaction with Mst1 may prevent apoptosis related heart diseases such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease. PMID:23527007

  5. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Cappechi, W.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Galante, M.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Pueschel, M. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Whelan, G. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Stephens, H.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Li, M.; Zheng, L. J.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST reversed field pinch programme is presented. With neutral beam injection, bursty energetic particle (EP) modes are observed. The profiles of the magnetic and density fluctuations associated with these EP modes are measured using a far infrared interferometer-polarimeter. Equilibrium reconstructions of the quasi-single-helicity 3D helical state are provided by the V3FIT code that now incorporates several of MST's advanced diagnostics. The orientation of the helical structure is controlled using a new resonant magnetic perturbation technique. Gyrokinetic simulations based on experimental equilibria predict unstable trapped-electron modes (TEMs), and small-scale density fluctuations are detected in improved-confinement plasmas with TEM-like features. Upgraded pellet injection permits study of density and beta limits over MST's full range of operation, and an MST-record line-average density of 0.9 × 1020 m3 (n/nG = 1.4) has been obtained. Impurity ion temperature measurements reveal a charge-to-mass-ratio dependence in the rapid heating that occurs during a sawtooth crash. Runaway of NBI-born fast ions during the impulsive sawtooth event agrees with test-particle theory. Magnetic self-organization studies include measurements of the dynamo emf with an applied ac inductive electric field using oscillating field current drive.

  6. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; Magee, R.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J. P.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stephens, H.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio.

  7. 42. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM MST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF UMBILICAL MAST AND LAUNCH PAD FROM MST BASE. LAUNCHER IS BEHIND UMBILICAL MAST AND RAIL SYSTEM IS PARALLEL TO MAST ON RIGHT AND LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF DOOR FROM WEST ANTEROOM ON MST STATION 111 INTO SERVICE AREA SHOWING SECURITY LOCK ON DOOR AND CONTROLS FOR WEST PLATFORMS IMMEDIATELY SOUTH (RIGHT) OF DOOR - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Sample interchange of MST radar data from the Urbana radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Rennier, A.

    1984-01-01

    As a first step in interchange of data from the Urbana mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar, a sample tape has been prepared in 9-track 1600-bpi IBM format. It includes all Urbana data for April 1978 (the first month of operation of the radar). The 300-ft tape contains 260 h of typical mesospheric power and line-of-sight velocity data.

  10. Identification of Neutral Particle Sources in MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norval, Ryan; Munaretto, Stefano; Goetz, John; Schmitz, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The plasma wall interaction (PWI) in the MST RFP has yet to be studied systematically to determine the effects of the edge plasma on overall plasma performance. Two imaging views of the MST plasma currently exist. The first views the outboard toroidal and poloidal belt limiters at the main poloidal gap limiter. The second views the inboard poloidal limiter, as well as a section of the outboard toroidal limiter away from the man gap limiter. Data from viewing outboard limiters reveals PWI structures correlate with the plasma conditions. In standard RFP plasmas at lower plasma currents the PWI is dominated by non-axisymmetric radiation belts. As the RFP plasma current rises, increasing axisymmetry is seen from the edge. When in the 3D equilibria of the quasi-single helicity (QSH) state the PWI correlates with the main magnetic mode of the plasma. The dominant source of light observed from the MST edge is from hydrogen recycling. This will be used to inform neutral particle sourcing in the EIRENE neutral transport code. EIRENE will be used to compare how variations in fueling could affect the neutral profile in MST. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. 2. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF MST. POWER LINES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER OF MST. POWER LINES TO CAMERA TOWER IN FOREGROUND; UMBILICAL MAST ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 4. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE OF THE NORTH FACE IS MISSING. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER OF MST. NOTE: ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE OF THE NORTH FACE IS MISSING. NORTH CAMERA TOWER IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 15. BASE OF MST, SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING SOUTHWEST. AIR COMPRESSOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BASE OF MST, SOUTHEAST SIDE, FACING SOUTHWEST. AIR COMPRESSOR SHED AT STATION 3; PLATFORM AT STATION 12; ENVIRONMENTAL CURTAIN SWING AT STATION 21. ELECTRICAL HOOKUPS ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Hypermethylation of MST1 in IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis and rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, Takataro; Tomiyama, Takashi; Yasuda, Kaneki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Yoshio; Son, Yonsu; Nomura, Shosaku; Uchida, Kazushige; Okazaki, Kazuichi; Kinashi, Tatsuo

    2015-08-07

    The serine/threonine kinase Mst1 plays important roles in the control of immune cell trafficking, proliferation, and differentiation. Previously, we reported that Mst1 was required for thymocyte selection and regulatory T-cell functions, thereby the prevention of autoimmunity in mice. In humans, MST1 null mutations cause T-cell immunodeficiency and hypergammaglobulinemia with autoantibody production. RASSF5C(RAPL) is an activator of MST1 and it is frequently methylated in some tumors. Herein, we investigated methylation of the promoter regions of MST1 and RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from patients with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increased number of CpG methylation in the 5′ region of MST1 was detected in AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions, whereas AIP patients without extrapancreatic lesions were similar to controls. In RA patients, we detected a slight increased CpG methylation in MST1, although the overall number of methylation sites was lower than that of AIP patients with extrapancreatic lesions. There were no significant changes of the methylation levels of the CpG islands in the 5′ region of RASSF5C(RAPL) in leukocytes from AIP and RA patients. Consistently, we found a significantly down-regulated expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells of AIP patients. Our results suggest that the decreased expression of MST1 in regulatory T cells due to hypermethylation of the promoter contributes to the pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP. - Highlights: • Mst1 controls immune cells trafficking, cell proliferation and differentiation. • Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an idiopathic pancreatitis affecting multiple organs. • Decreased MST1 expression and increased CpG methylation of promoter of MST1 in AIP. • Slight increased CpG methylation of MST1 in rheumatoid arthritis patients. • MST1 contributes pathogenesis of IgG4-related AIP.

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Male and Female U.S. Veterans With and Without Military Sexual Trauma.

    PubMed

    Voelkel, Emily; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Walter, Kristen H; Chard, Kathleen M

    2015-06-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) affects approximately 2% and 36% of male and female veterans, respectively, (e.g., Allard, Gregory, Klest, & Platt, 2011). Although the deleterious consequences of MST have been clearly established, few studies have explored treatment effectiveness for this population. Using archival data from a residential treatment program, the current study explored the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) in treating full or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to compare U.S. veterans reporting an MST index trauma (MST-IT) to those without MST-IT. Of the 481 participants, 40.7% endorsed MST-IT. Multiway frequency analyses were utilized to compare men and women with and without MST on baseline demographic variables. Hierarchical linear models were constructed to investigate treatment outcome by MST status and sex. Results showed that 44.8%, 23.8%, and 19.6% of the variation in clinician- and self-reported PTSD and depression symptoms were explained by three models. Scores on all outcome measures significantly decreased over time for both groups. Additionally, women demonstrated a sharper decrease in PTSD symptoms over time than men. Lastly, men who reported MST-IT had higher PTSD symptoms than men without MST-IT on average. With no control group or random assignment, preliminary findings suggest residential treatment including CPT may be effective for MST-IT regardless of sex. PMID:25976767

  18. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  19. Pediatric vasculitis: recognizing multisystemic manifestations at body imaging.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Geetika; Sargar, Kiran; Baszis, Kevin W

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric vasculitides are multisystem diseases that can be diagnostic challenges because of variable clinical manifestations. The clinical manifestation is determined by the size of the affected vessels, organs involved, extent of vascular injury, and underlying pathologic characteristics. Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the two most common subtypes of pediatric vasculitis. Diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis can be difficult, and the outcome can be serious or fatal in the absence of timely intervention. Imaging plays a central role in establishing the diagnosis of vasculitis involving large- and medium-sized vessels, visualizing its vascular and extravascular manifestations, and monitoring the disease course and response to treatment. Although imaging cannot depict the vessel changes of small-vessel vasculitis directly, it can be used to detect tissue damage resulting from vessel inflammation. This article discusses the classification and clinical features of the major pediatric vasculitides. The imaging approach to and nonneurologic findings of major pediatric vasculitis subtypes are reviewed for the pediatric body imager. PMID:25969938

  20. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Modeling of Multisystemic, Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Amy; Nah, Shirley K.; Reid, Whitney; Ebata, Atsushi; Koch, Clarissa M.; Monti, Stefano; Genereux, Joseph C.; Wiseman, R. Luke; Wolozin, Benjamin; Connors, Lawreen H.; Berk, John L.; Seldin, David C.; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Kotton, Darrell N.; Murphy, George J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Familial transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is an autosomal-dominant protein-folding disorder caused by over 100 distinct mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. In ATTR, protein secreted from the liver aggregates and forms fibrils in target organs, chiefly the heart and peripheral nervous system, highlighting the need for a model capable of recapitulating the multisystem complexity of this clinically variable disease. Here, we describe the directed differentiation of ATTR patient-specific iPSCs into hepatocytes that produce mutant TTR, and the cardiomyocytes and neurons normally targeted in the disease. We demonstrate that iPSC-derived neuronal and cardiac cells display oxidative stress and an increased level of cell death when exposed to mutant TTR produced by the patient-matched iPSC-derived hepatocytes, recapitulating essential aspects of the disease in vitro. Furthermore, small molecule stabilizers of TTR show efficacy in this model, validating this iPSC-based, patient-specific in vitro system as a platform for testing therapeutic strategies. PMID:24286032

  1. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, C. K.; Vestergaard, K.; Dupont, K.; Bille-Hansen, V.; Enøe, C.; Jorsal, S. E.; Bækbo, P.; Larsen, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I) or 25 (study II) pigs with clinical symptoms of PMWS from a PMWS-affected herd and 25 healthy pigs from a PMWS-free, but PCV2-positive, herd were housed in unit A. Fifty pigs from a PMWS-free herd were housed in unit B, which were connected by pipes to unit A. In unit C, 30 pigs from a PMWS-free herd were housed as controls. In study II, the pigs in units A and B from the PMWS-free herd developed clinical signs of PMWS 2-3 weeks after arrival. PMWS was confirmed at necropsy and the diseased pigs had increased PCV2 load and increased antibody titers against PCV2 in serum that coincided with the development of clinical signs typical of PMWS. Sequence analysis revealed that the PCV2 isolate belonged to genotype 2b. In conclusion, the present study showed that PMWS can be induced in pigs from a PMWS-free herd by airborne contact with pigs from a PMWS-affected herd. PMID:23476787

  2. Magnetic seizure therapy in an adolescent with refractory bipolar depression: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Yoshihiro; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Downar, Jonathan; Croarkin, Paul E; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Blumberger, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) has shown efficacy in adult patients with treatment-resistant depression with limited impairment in memory. To date, the use of MST in adolescent depression has not been reported. Here we describe the first successful use of MST in the treatment of an adolescent patient with refractory bipolar depression. This patient received MST in an ongoing open-label study for treatment-resistant major depression. Treatments employed a twin-coil MST apparatus, with the center of each coil placed over the frontal cortex (ie, each coil centered over F3 and F4). MST was applied at 100 Hz and 100% machine output at progressively increasing train durations. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. This adolescent patient achieved full remission of clinical symptoms after an acute course of 18 MST treatments and had no apparent cognitive decline, other than some autobiographical memory impairment that may or may not be related to the MST treatment. This case report suggests that MST may be a safe and well tolerated intervention for adolescents with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Pilot studies to further evaluate the effectiveness and safety of MST in adolescents warrant consideration. PMID:25382978

  3. The MST of Symmetric Disk Graphs Is Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Affash, A. Karim; Aschner, Rom; Carmi, Paz; Katz, Matthew J.

    Symmetric disk graphs are often used to model wireless communication networks. Given a set S of n points in ℝ d (representing n transceivers) and a transmission range assignment r: S →ℝ, the symmetric disk graph of S (denoted SDG(S)) is the undirected graph over S whose set of edges is E = {(u,v) | r(u) ≥ |uv| and r(v) ≥ |uv|}, where |uv| denotes the Euclidean distance between points u and v. We prove that the weight of the MST of any connected symmetric disk graph over a set S of n points in the plane, is only O(logn) times the weight of the MST of the complete Euclidean graph over S. We then show that this bound is tight, even for points on a line.

  4. Criteria and algorithms for spectrum parameterization of MST radar signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The power spectra S(f) of MST radar signals contain useful information about the variance of refractivity fluctuations, the mean radial velocity, and the radial velocity variance in the atmosphere. When noise and other contaminating signals are absent, these quantities can be obtained directly from the zeroth, first and second order moments of the spectra. A step-by-step procedure is outlined that can be used effectively to reduce large amounts of MST radar data-averaged periodograms measured in range and time to a parameterized form. The parameters to which a periodogram can be reduced are outlined and the steps in the procedure, that may be followed selectively, to arrive at the final set of reduced parameters are given. Examples of the performance of the procedure are given and its use with other radars are commented on.

  5. Recent Ion Energy Distribution Observations on MST RFP Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A., III; Almagri, A. F.; Andeson, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Ion energy distribution and temperature measurements have been made on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) using the Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The CNPA is a low energy (0.34-5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer, with a radial view on MST. Recently, a retarding potential system was built to allow CNPA measurements to ensemble a complete ion energy distribution with high-energy resolution, providing insight into the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations. Recent work has also been done to improve the analysis techniques used to infer the ion temperature measurements, allowing us to understand temperature dynamics better during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported in part by grants to FAMU and to UW from NSF and from Fusion Energy Sciences at DOE.

  6. A Role for MST Neurons in Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, L. S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    A template model of human visual self-motion perception, which uses neurophysiologically realistic "heading detectors", is consistent with numerous human psychophysical results including the failure of humans to estimate their heading (direction of forward translation) accurately under certain visual conditions. We tested the model detectors with stimuli used by others in single-unit studies. The detectors showed emergent properties similar to those of MST neurons: (1) Sensitivity to non-preferred flow; Each detector is tuned to a specific combination of flow components and its response is systematically reduced by the addition of nonpreferred flow, and (2) Position invariance; The detectors maintain their apparent preference for particular flow components over large regions of their receptive fields. It has been argued that this latter property is incompatible with MST playing a role in heading perception. The model however demonstrates how neurons with the above response properties could still support accurate heading estimation within extrastriate cortical maps.

  7. Signal processing at the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Signal processing for Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST) radar is carried out by a combination of hardware in high-speed, special-purpose devices and software in a general-purpose, minicomputer/array processor. A block diagram of the signal processing system is presented, and the steps in the processing pathway are described. The current processing capabilities are given, and a system offering greater coherent integration speed is advanced which hinges upon a high speed preprocessor.

  8. 38. STATION 124 OF MST, NORTH SIDE. FEATURES LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. STATION 124 OF MST, NORTH SIDE. FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: COMMUNICATIONS PANEL, CONTROL REEL (120 VOLTS), HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT, DOOR CONTROLS (480 VOLTS), POWER REEL (480 VOLTS), CRANE NORTH/CRANE SOUTH DOORS (480 VOLTS), CIRCUIT BREAKER FOR TEN-TON BRIDGE CRANE, DUCT HEATER 122. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Pulse-Burst Laser Systems for Thomson Scattering on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Borchardt, M. T.; Harris, W. S.; Reusch, J. A.; Yang, Y. M.

    2009-11-01

    A new purpose-built ``pulse-burst'' laser system is being constructed for the Thomson scattering diagnostic on the MST reversed-field pinch. This new laser will produce a burst of 1--2 J Q-switched pulses at repetition rates 5--250 kHz. It will operate at 1064 nm and is a master oscillator, power amplifier (MOPA) system. Variable pulse-width drive (0.15--20 ms) of the flashlamps in this laser will be accomplished by IGBT switching of large electrolytic capacitor banks. A subset of these power supplies has already been constructed and is currently being used to drive the flashlamps in the two existing commercial Nd:YAG lasers used for Thomson scattering on MST. Each of these upgraded lasers now produces a burst of up to fifteen 2 J Q-switched pulses (1064 nm) at repetition rates 1--12.5 kHz. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction, and up to four 2 J laser pulses during one flashlamp pulse. These lasers are currently being used to study the dynamic evolution of electron temperature in MST. The new purpose-built ``pulse-burst'' laser system will further expand this capability.

  10. MST data exchange through the NCAR incoherent-scatter radar data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    One means of making MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar data more easily accessible for scientific research by the general scientific community is through a centralized data base. Such a data base can be designed to readily provide information on data availability and quality, and to provide copies of data from any radar in a common format to the user. The ionospheric incoherent scatter community has established a centralized data base at NCAR that may serve not only as a model for a possible MST data base, but also as a catalyst for getting an MST data base started. (Some key elements of the NCAR data base are given.) The NCAR data base can include MST data in the same framework with relatively little extra effort. They are willing to handle MST data on a limited basis in order to permit assessment of community interest and in order to provide some experience with a centralized data base for MST data.

  11. Discovery of Diverse Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Mammalian Sterile20-like Kinase 3 (MST3).

    PubMed

    Olesen, Sanne H; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Martin, Mathew P; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests key roles for members of the mammalian Sterile20-like (MST) family of kinases in many aspects of biology. MST3 is a member of the STRIPAK complex, the deregulation of which has recently been associated with cancer cell migration and metastasis. Targeting MST3 with small-molecule inhibitors may be beneficial for the treatment of certain cancers, but little information exists on the potential of kinase inhibitor scaffolds to engage with MST3. In this study we screened MST3 against a library of 277 kinase inhibitors using differential scanning fluorimetry and confirmed 14 previously unknown MST3 inhibitors by X-ray crystallography. These compounds, of which eight are in clinical trials or FDA approved, comprise nine distinct chemical scaffolds that inhibit MST3 enzymatic activity with IC50 values between 0.003 and 23 μm. The structure-activity relationships explain the differential inhibitory activity of these compounds against MST3 and the structural basis for high binding potential, the information of which may serve as a framework for the rational design of MST3-selective inhibitors as potential therapeutics and to interrogate the function of this enzyme in diseased cells. PMID:27135311

  12. REVIEW OF ACTINIDE AND STRONTIUM LOADING DATA FOR MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Hobbs, D.; Fink, S.

    2010-10-20

    SRNL reviewed the relevant data from MST and mMST fissile loading studies to determine if further studies were required. With respect to MST, SRNL found that the published results adequately bound the expected conditions that Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process will operate under. The lack of strontium data does not represent an issue as strontium is not relevant to criticality. There is no threat to criticality safety from the lack of strontium loading data. However, SRNL proposes a single test with MST to ensure that future SCIX operations are conservatively bounded and strontium maximum loading is understood. With respect to attempts to maximally load mMST, SRNL's knowledge on actinide and strontium loading is limited to uranium behavior. mMST has a very weak affinity for uranium, and even extended contact time at high uranium concentration shows minimal loading onto mMST. This leaves questions about the ability to load plutonium, neptunium and strontium. SRNL proposes to perform two tests with mMST to ensure that questions on plutonium, neptunium, and strontium sorption are answered, as well as ensuring that future mMST operations are conservatively bounded.

  13. Electric field strength and focality in electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a finite element simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first computational study comparing the electric field induced by various electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) paradigms. Four ECT electrode configurations (bilateral, bifrontal, right unilateral, and focal electrically administered seizure therapy) and three MST coil configurations (circular, cap, and double cone) were modeled. The model incorporated a modality-specific neural activation threshold. ECT (0.3 ms pulse width) and MST induced the maximum electric field of 2.1-2.5 V cm-1 and 1.1-2.2 V cm-1 in the brain, corresponding to 6.2-7.2 times and 1.2-2.3 times the neural activation threshold, respectively. The MST electric field is more confined to the superficial cortex compared to ECT. The brain volume stimulated was much larger with ECT (up to 100%) than with MST (up to 8.2%). MST with the double-cone coil was the most focal, and bilateral ECT was the least focal. Our results suggest a possible biophysical explanation of the reduced side effects of MST compared to ECT. Our results also indicate that the conventional ECT pulse amplitude (800-900 mA) is much higher than necessary for seizure induction. Reducing the ECT pulse amplitude should be explored as a potential means of diminishing side effects.

  14. A novel non-canonical mechanism of regulation of MST3 (mammalian Sterile20-related kinase 3)

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Stephen J.; McGuffin, Liam J.; Marshall, Andrew K.; Giraldo, Alejandro; Pikkarainen, Sampsa; Clerk, Angela; Sugden, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    The canonical pathway of regulation of the GCK (germinal centre kinase) III subgroup member, MST3 (mammalian Sterile20-related kinase 3), involves a caspase-mediated cleavage between N-terminal catalytic and C-terminal regulatory domains with possible concurrent autophosphorylation of the activation loop MST3(Thr178), induction of serine/threonine protein kinase activity and nuclear localization. We identified an alternative ‘non-canonical’ pathway of MST3 activation (regulated primarily through dephosphorylation) which may also be applicable to other GCKIII (and GCKVI) subgroup members. In the basal state, inactive MST3 co-immunoprecipitated with the Golgi protein GOLGA2/gm130 (golgin A2/Golgi matrix protein 130). Activation of MST3 by calyculin A (a protein serine/threonine phosphatase 1/2A inhibitor) stimulated (auto)phosphorylation of MST3(Thr178) in the catalytic domain with essentially simultaneous cis-autophosphorylation of MST3(Thr328) in the regulatory domain, an event also requiring the MST3(341–376) sequence which acts as a putative docking domain. MST3(Thr178) phosphorylation increased MST3 kinase activity, but this activity was independent of MST3(Thr328) phosphorylation. Interestingly, MST3(Thr328) lies immediately C-terminal to a STRAD (Sterile20-related adaptor) pseudokinase-like site identified recently as being involved in binding of GCKIII/GCKVI members to MO25 scaffolding proteins. MST3(Thr178/Thr328) phosphorylation was concurrent with dissociation of MST3 from GOLGA2/gm130 and association of MST3 with MO25, and MST3(Thr328) phosphorylation was necessary for formation of the activated MST3–MO25 holocomplex. PMID:22229648

  15. Locked modes and magnetic field errors in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Kerst, D.W.

    1992-06-01

    In the MST reversed field pinch magnetic oscillations become stationary (locked) in the lab frame as a result of a process involving interactions between the modes, sawteeth, and field errors. Several helical modes become phase locked to each other to form a rotating localized disturbance, the disturbance locks to an impulsive field error generated at a sawtooth crash, the error fields grow monotonically after locking (perhaps due to an unstable interaction between the modes and field error), and over the tens of milliseconds of growth confinement degrades and the discharge eventually terminates. Field error control has been partially successful in eliminating locking.

  16. Further developments of EISCAT as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rottger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The principal capabilities of EISCAT as an MST radar were described. Since the VHF transmitter of the EISCAT system is not yet delivered, only the UHF system could be used for radar experiments. Considerable developments in the year 1983 have now strongly improved the reliability of the operations. Most of the experiments were and will be done to investigate the high latitude ionosphere and thermosphere, but some time was also devoted to observations of the lower and middle atmosphere, particularly during the MAP/WINE compaign.

  17. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS DOWN. SLC-3E MST IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Regulation of Neuronal Cell Death by c-Abl-Hippo/MST2 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lei; Bai, Yujie; Qu, Aiqin; Zheng, Zheng; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Mammalian Ste20-like kinases (MSTs) are the mammalian homologue of Drosophila hippo and play critical roles in regulation of cell death, organ size control, proliferation and tumorigenesis. MSTs exert pro-apoptotic function through cleavage, autophosphorylation and in turn phosphorylation of downstream targets, such as Histone H2B and FOXO (Forkhead box O). Previously we reported that protein kinase c-Abl mediates oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death through phosphorylating MST1 at Y433, which is not conserved among mammalian MST2, Drosophila Hippo and C.elegans cst-1/2. Methodology/Principal Findings Using immunoblotting, in vitro kinase and cell death assay, we demonstrate that c-Abl kinase phosphorylates MST2 at an evolutionarily conserved site, Y81, within the kinase domain. We further show that the phosphorylation of MST2 by c-Abl leads to the disruption of the interaction with Raf-1 proteins and the enhancement of homodimerization of MST2 proteins. It thereby enhances the MST2 activation and induces neuronal cell death. Conclusions/Significance The identification of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase as a novel upstream activator of MST2 suggests that the conserved c-Abl-MST signaling cascade plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. PMID:22590567

  19. Ion Heating Anisotropy during Dynamo Activity in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.; Chapman, J. T.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P. W.

    1999-11-01

    MHD dynamo activity is large in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch during sawtooth crashes, and small otherwise. During a sawtooth crash, ion temperature increases rapidly to a level several times as high as the temperature between sawteeth, which itself can be larger than the electron temperature. Several theories have been developed to explain this ion heating, some indicating a possible asymmetry in perpendicular to parallel heating [C. G. Gimblett, Europhys. Lett. 11, 541 (1990); Z. Yoshida, Nucl. Fusion 31, 386 (1991); N. Mattor, P. W. Terry, and S. C. Prager, Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 15, 65 (1992)]. In standard MST discharges, impurity ion temperature measured perpendicular to the magnetic field (T_⊥) is higher than impurity ion temperature parallel to the magnetic field (T_allel) during a sawtooth crash. Throughout the rest of the sawtooth cycle, T_⊥ <= T_allel. This is in contrast to results obtained on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP which showed T_⊥ < T_allel throughout the discharge [K. Sasaki et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39, 333 (1997)

  20. Overview of results in the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S. C.; Adney, J.; Almagri, A.; Anderson, J.; Blair, A.; Brower, D. L.; Cengher, M.; Chapman, B. E.; Choi, S.; Craig, D.; Combs, S.; Demers, D. R.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Deng, B.; Ding, W. X.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ennis, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Foust, C.; Forest, C. B.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Goetz, J.; Holly, D.; Hudson, B.; Kaufman, M.; Lovell, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; McCollam, K.; Mirnov, V. V.; Nonn, P.; O'Connell, R.; Oliva, S.; Piovesan, P.; Predebon, I.; Sarff, J. S.; Spizzo, G.; Svidzinski, V.; Thomas, M.; Uchimoto, E.; White, R.; Wyman, M.

    2005-10-01

    Confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) has been shown to increase strongly with current profile control. The MST RFP can operate in two regimes: the standard regime with a naturally occurring current density profile, robust reconnection and dynamo activity; and the improved confinement regime with strong reduction in reconnection, dynamo and transport. New results in standard plasmas include the observation of a strong two-fluid Hall effect in reconnection and dynamo, the determination that the m = 0 edge resonant mode is nonlinearly driven, and the determination that tearing modes can lock to the wall via eddy currents in the shell. New results in improved confinement plasmas include observations that such plasmas are essentially dynamo-free, contain several isolated magnetic islands (as opposed to a stochastic field) and contain reduced high frequency turbulence. Auxiliary current drive and heating is now critical to RFP research. In MST, a programme to apply auxiliary systems to the RFP is underway and progress has accrued in several techniques, including lower hybrid and electron Bernstein wave injection, ac helicity injection current drive, pellet injection and neutral beam injection.

  1. Modeling of EBW Propagation and Damping in PEGASUS and MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diem, S. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Forest, C.; Redd, A.; Seltzman, A.; Harvey, R. W.; Petrov, Y.

    2010-11-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBW) can be used for localized heating and current drive (CD) in overdense devices, such as the spherical torus, Pegasus, and the reversed field pinch, Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), located at UW-Madison. Numerical modeling of EBW propagation and damping has been explored using the GENRAY ray-tracing code and the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code in support of current and proposed heating and CD experiments on both devices. In Pegasus, calculations were performed investigating a proposed EBW system for available sources at 2.45, 3.6 and 5.55 GHz frequencies for waves launched 25^o above the midplane. Preliminary results show between -35 kA/MW to 65 kA/MW can be driven at r/a > 0.5 with the available sources. Edge current profile modification is being explored to improve particle and energy transport in MST. Calculations of 5.5 GHz injection estimate > 10 kA/MW can be driven off axis at r/a > 0.65 via the Ohkawa CD method. The effect of large stochastic particle transport on CD efficiency was investigated by varying the radial transport model included in CQL3D.

  2. Doppler effects on velocity spectra observed by MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, wind data from mesophere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars have been used to study the spectra of gravity waves in the atmosphere (Scheffler and Liu, 1985; VanZandt et al., 1985). Since MST radar measures the line-of-sight Doppler velocities, it senses the components of the wave-associated velocities along its beam directions. These components are related through the polarization relations which depend on the frequency and wave number of the wave. Therfore, the radar-observed velocity spectrum will be different from the original gravity-wave spectrum. Their relationship depends on the frequency and wave number of the wave as well as the propagation geometry. This relation can be used to interpret the observed data. It can also be used to test the assumption of gravity-wave spectrum (Scheffler and Liu, 1985). In deriving this relation, the background atmosphere has been assumed to be motionless. Obviously, the Doppler shift due to the background wind will change the shape of the gravity-wave power spectrum as well as its relation with the radar-observed spectrum. Here, researcher's investigate these changes.

  3. Meteorological and dynamical requirements for MST radar networks: Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of wave motions using the MST radar have concentrated on single station time series analyses of gravity waves and tides. Since these radars collect high time resolution data they have the potential to become a significant tool for mesoscale research. In addition, radars are operated almost continuously unattended and, consequently, data sets are available for analyzing longer period wave motions such as tides and planetary scale waves. Although there is much to learn from single station data, the possibilities of new knowledge from a network of radars is exciting. The scales of wave motions in the atmosphere cover a broad range. Consequently the choice of a radar network depends to a large extent on the types of wave motions that are studied. There are many outstanding research problems that would benefit from observations from a MST radar network. In particular, there is a strong need for measurements of gravity wave parameters and equatorial wave motions. Some of the current problems in wave dynamics are discussed.

  4. A Role for MST Neurons in Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland Scott; Perrone, J. A.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A template model of human visual self-motion perception (Perrone, JOSA, 1992; Perrone & Stone, Vis. Res., in press), which uses neurophysiologically realistic "heading detectors", is consistent with numerous human psychophysical results (Warren & Hannon, Nature, 1988; Stone & Perrone, Neuro. Abstr., 1991) including the failure of humans to estimate their heading (direction of forward translation) accurately under certain visual conditions (Royden et al., Nature, 1992). We tested the model detectors with stimuli used by others in- single-unit studies. The detectors showed emergent properties similar to those of MST neurons: 1) Sensitivity to non-preferred flow. Each detector is tuned to a specific combination of flow components and its response is systematically reduced by the addition of nonpreferred flow (Orban et al., PNAS, 1992), and 2) Position invariance. The detectors maintain their apparent preference for particular flow components over large regions of their receptive fields (e.g. Duffy & Wurtz, J. Neurophys., 1991; Graziano et al., J. Neurosci., 1994). It has been argued that this latter property is incompatible with MST playing a role in heading perception. The model however demonstrates how neurons with the above response properties could still support accurate heading estimation within extrastriate cortical maps.

  5. Neutral dynamics and ion energy transport in MST plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zichuan; Nornberg, Mark; den Hartog, Daniel; Kumar, Santosh; Anderson, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Neutral dynamics can have a significant effect on ion energy transport through charge exchange collisions. Whereas previously charge exchange was considered a direct loss mechanism in MST plasmas, new analysis indicates that significant thermal charge exchange neutrals are reionized. Further, the temperatures of the neutral species in the core of the plasma are suspected to be much higher than room temperature, which has a large effect on ion energy losses due to charge exchange. The DEGAS2 Monte Carlo simulation code is applied to the MST reversed field pinch experiment to estimate the density and temperature profile of the neutral species. The result is then used to further examine the effect of the neutral species on ion energy transport in improved confinement plasmas. This enables the development of a model that accounts for collisional equilibration between species, classical convective and conductive energy transport, and energy loss due to charge exchange collisions. The goal is to quantify classical, stochastic, and anomalous ion heating and transport in RFP plasmas. Work supported by the US DOE. DEGAS2 is provided by PPPL and STRAHL is provided by Ralph Dux of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik.

  6. Electron Energization During m=0 Magnetic Bursts in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; MST Team

    2015-11-01

    MST reversed-field pinch plasmas develop magnetic modes with both a core-resonant poloidal mode m=1 structure and edge-resonant m=0 structure on the reversal surface. The impact of the m=0 modes on electron energization has been observed with Thomson scattering under plasma conditions with suppressed m=1 modes. Under such conditions, the m=0 modes undergo brief (~100 μs) bursts of localized magnetic activity. These bursts show a localized 4% heating of electrons above a 600-900 eV background temperature, associated with a reduction of magnetic energy. An inward propagating cold pulse follows after the heating as a result of reduced confinement. Ensembles of hundreds of bursts are required to measure small relative heating, however single-shot results from MST's high repetition Thomson scattering diagnostic support the ensemble results. Analysis of Thomson scattering data also provides constraints on non-Maxwellian distributions and upcoming upgrades will improve the ability to resolve electron currents associated with the magnetic bursts. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  7. Unary and binary multisystems; topologic classification of phase diagrams and relation to Euler's theorem on polyhedra.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, E.H., Jr.; Zen, E.-A.

    1982-01-01

    A representation polyhedron summarizing the topology of a large number of possible nets previously devised by Zen (M.A. 18-167) is extended from n + 3 unary to n + 6 phase unary systems. A general way for constructing n + 4 phase nets is outlined. With the technique described, 62 multisystems are recognized, of which 26 contain all 16 possible divariant fields and represent the most nearly complete closed nets possible for a binary six-phase (n + 4) multisystem.-M.S.

  8. Whole-exome sequencing identifies MST1R as a genetic susceptibility gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Zheng, Hong; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Tang, Clara Sze-Man; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Wong, Bonnie Wing Yan; Leong, Merrin Man Long; Sham, Pak Chung; Cheung, Florence; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Ngan, Roger Kai Cheong; Ng, Wai Tong; Yau, Chun Chung; Pan, Jianji; Peng, Xun; Tung, Stewart; Zhang, Zengfeng; Ji, Mingfang; Chiang, Alan Kwok-Shing; Lee, Anne Wing-Mui; Lee, Victor Ho-Fun; Lam, Ka-On; Au, Kwok Hung; Cheng, Hoi Ching; Yiu, Harry Ho-Yin; Lung, Maria Li

    2016-03-22

    Multiple factors, including host genetics, environmental factors, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, contribute to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development. To identify genetic susceptibility genes for NPC, a whole-exome sequencing (WES) study was performed in 161 NPC cases and 895 controls of Southern Chinese descent. The gene-based burden test discovered an association between macrophage-stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) and NPC. We identified 13 independent cases carrying theMST1Rpathogenic heterozygous germ-line variants, and 53.8% of these cases were diagnosed with NPC aged at or even younger than 20 y, indicating thatMST1Rgerm-line variants are relevant to disease early-age onset (EAO) (age of ≤20 y). In total, fiveMST1Rmissense variants were found in EAO cases but were rare in controls (EAO vs. control, 17.9% vs. 1.2%,P= 7.94 × 10(-12)). The validation study, including 2,160 cases and 2,433 controls, showed that theMST1Rvariant c.G917A:p.R306H is highly associated with NPC (odds ratio of 9.0).MST1Ris predominantly expressed in the tissue-resident macrophages and is critical for innate immunity that protects organs from tissue damage and inflammation. Importantly, MST1R expression is detected in the ciliated epithelial cells in normal nasopharyngeal mucosa and plays a role in the cilia motility important for host defense. Although no somatic mutation ofMST1Rwas identified in the sporadic NPC tumors, copy number alterations and promoter hypermethylation atMST1Rwere often observed. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of NPC by highlighting the involvement of the MST1R-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:26951679

  9. Structural basis of the heterodimerization of the MST and RASSF SARAH domains in the Hippo signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Eunha; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Mushtaq, Ameeq Ul; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Woo Cheol; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Cheong, Chaejoon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2014-07-01

    The heterodimeric structure of the MST1 and RASSF5 SARAH domains is presented. A comparison of homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions provides a structural basis for the preferential association of the SARAH heterodimer. Despite recent progress in research on the Hippo signalling pathway, the structural information available in this area is extremely limited. Intriguingly, the homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) kinases through the so-called ‘SARAH’ (SAV/RASSF/HPO) domains play a critical role in cellular homeostasis, dictating the fate of the cell regarding cell proliferation or apoptosis. To understand the mechanism of the heterodimerization of SARAH domains, the three-dimensional structures of an MST1–RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer and an MST2 SARAH homodimer were determined by X-ray crystallography and were analysed together with that previously determined for the MST1 SARAH homodimer. While the structure of the MST2 homodimer resembled that of the MST1 homodimer, the MST1–RASSF5 heterodimer showed distinct structural features. Firstly, the six N-terminal residues (Asp432–Lys437), which correspond to the short N-terminal 3{sub 10}-helix h1 kinked from the h2 helix in the MST1 homodimer, were disordered. Furthermore, the MST1 SARAH domain in the MST1–RASSF5 complex showed a longer helical structure (Ser438–Lys480) than that in the MST1 homodimer (Val441–Lys480). Moreover, extensive polar and nonpolar contacts in the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain were identified which strengthen the interactions in the heterodimer in comparison to the interactions in the homodimer. Denaturation experiments performed using urea also indicated that the MST–RASSF heterodimers are substantially more stable than the MST homodimers. These findings provide structural insights into the role of the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain in apoptosis signalling.

  10. DESORPTION OF SORBATES FROM MST, MMST, AND CST UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-06-10

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program (formerly referred to as the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) Project) seeks to deploy equipment to remove the {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (principally {sup 238,239,240}Pu and {sup 237}Np) from the high level waste salt solutions. The equipment is installed within a high level waste tank to take advantage of the shielding provided by the waste tank. The process will involve adding monosodium titanate (MST) to the waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to sorb the Sr and select actinides, removing the MST and entrained sludge with in-riser rotary microfilters, and subsequently using ion-exchange columns containing crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to remove the Cs. After being loaded with Cs, the CST will be ground to reduce the particle size and then transferred into another waste tank (e.g., Tank 40H). The MST and sludge solids stream will be transported to a sludge batch preparation tank (i.e., Tank 42H or Tank 51H) once the SCIX batch is processed. Both streams, MST/solids and CST, will ultimately be transported into and vitrified inside the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). A series of experiments were performed to examine desorption from monosodium titanate (MST), modified monosodium titanate (mMST), and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) under various conditions. The first two experiments examined desorption from MST and CST under two different sludge treatment processes, aluminum dissolution and sludge washing. Desorption of all sorbates was observed to varying degrees under the aluminum dissolution conditions. The extent of desorption ranged from < 3% to about 50% after 4 weeks, with Pu exhibiting the lowest desorption. At the end of the experiment, the temperature was reduced from 65 C to 25 C and the tests monitored for an additional two weeks. After reducing the temperature, partial resorption of the sorbates was observed with both MST and CST. Under the sludge washing conditions, no

  11. The Effects of Family Therapies for Adolescent Delinquency and Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…

  12. Mst1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-xL is required for myocardial reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Michinari; Zhai, Peiyong; Del Re, Dominic P.; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Mst1 is a central Ser-Thr kinase in the Hippo pathway, which promotes apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation. We have shown previously that, in cardiomyocytes, oxidative stress activates Mst1 at mitochondria, where Mst1 phosphorylates Bcl-xL at Ser14, inducing dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bax and thereby promoting apoptosis. However, the functional significance of Ser14 phosphorylation of endogenous Bcl-xL in vivo remains elusive. We generated knockin (KI) mice in which Ser14 of Bcl-xL is replaced with Ala. KI mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio, and adult KI mice exhibited normal cardiac morphology and function at baseline. However, KI mice were protected from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and exhibited reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Although suppression of endogenous Mst1 also reduced I/R injury, there was no additive protective effect when Mst1 was inhibited in KI mice. The development of dilated cardiomyopathy induced by cardiac-specific overexpression of Mst1 was also ameliorated in KI mice. Lats2 and YAP, two other key components of the Hippo pathway, were not affected in KI mice. These results suggest that Ser14 phosphorylation of Bcl-xL plays an essential role in mediating both cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial injury by acting as a key downstream mediator of Mst1 independently of the canonical Hippo pathway. PMID:27218122

  13. Capabilities and limitations of existing MST radars: Poker Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsley, B. B.; Ecklund, W. L.; Carter, D. A.

    1983-12-01

    Designed as a prototype system to continuously monitor the atmosphere up to approximately 100 km, the Poker Flat MST radar began operating in 1979 at a relatively low sensitivity. In almost continuous operation since then, the system is steadily increasing in sensitivity to its ultimate design characteristics. Current and final parameters are listed. The advantages of its modular design, which uses 64 transmitting modules distributed through the 200 mx 200 m antenna array include: easy maintenance, beam switching using very low power switching, air cooled transmitting tubes, lower feedline costs, and no moving parts. Continuous, uninterrupted operation ( 4 years) and less man-made interference because of the remote location) are other assets. Most disadvantages are related to its not-yet-finished status, climate, moose excursions, and operating expenses.

  14. Interpretation of MST radar returns from clear air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the scattering and reflection mechanisms that give rise to the MST radar echoes from the clear air is essential in the correct interpretation of the data about winds, waves, turbulence and stability in the atmosphere. There are two main aspects: the nature of the targets the radar sees and their generation mechanisms; and the signatures of the radar signals returned from the different targets. Volume scatterings from isotropic or anisotropic turbulence, and partial reflections from horizontally stratified, sharp refractive index gradients are believed the main contributors to radar echoes. Combined effects from all the mechanisms probably produce the observed data. The signature of the echo signals for these different scatterers under realistic experimental conditions should be studied. It is hoped from these studies, the nature of the targets can be better understood, and related to atmospheric dynamic processes.

  15. The MST radar technique: Requirements for operational weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    There is a feeling that the accuracy of mesoscale forecasts for spatial scales of less than 1000 km and time scales of less than 12 hours can be improved significantly if resources are applied to the problem in an intensive effort over the next decade. Since the most dangerous and damaging types of weather occur at these scales, there are major advantages to be gained if such a program is successful. The interest in improving short term forecasting is evident. The technology at the present time is sufficiently developed, both in terms of new observing systems and the computing power to handle the observations, to warrant an intensive effort to improve stormscale forecasting. An assessment of the extent to which the so-called MST radar technique fulfills the requirements for an operational mesoscale observing network is reviewed and the extent to which improvements in various types of forecasting could be expected if such a network is put into operation are delineated.

  16. Capabilities and limitations of existing MST radars: Poker Flat. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsley, B. B.; Ecklund, W. L.; Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Designed as a prototype system to continuously monitor the atmosphere up to approximately 100 km, the Poker Flat MST radar began operating in 1979 at a relatively low sensitivity. In almost continuous operation since then, the system is steadily increasing in sensitivity to its ultimate design characteristics. Current and final parameters are listed. The advantages of its modular design, which uses 64 transmitting modules distributed through the 200 mx 200 m antenna array include: easy maintenance, beam switching using very low power switching, air cooled transmitting tubes, lower feedline costs, and no moving parts. Continuous, uninterrupted operation ( 4 years) and less man-made interference because of the remote location) are other assets. Most disadvantages are related to its not-yet-finished status, climate, moose excursions, and operating expenses.

  17. Discrimination against interfering signals at the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several on line and off line data processing techniques are used to remove interfering signals due to ground clutter, aircraft, instrumental effects, and external transmissions from the desired atmospheric echoes of Mesosphere Stratosphere, Troposphere (MST) radar. The on line, real time techniques are necessarily simple in order to minimize processing delays. This algorithm examines the individual Doppler spectra which are computed every two to four seconds (for oblique antenna beams). The total spectral power in each individual spectrum is computed by summing all the spectral points. If this integrated power increases from one spectrum to the next by a factor greater than a preselected threshold, then that spectrum is not added to the spectral sum. Succeeding spectra are compared to the last acceptable spectrum. Only a certain maximum number of spectra are allowed to be rejected in succession.

  18. Magnetic Reconnection in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, N.E.

    2001-06-01

    Magnetic field line reconnection is a process whereby magnetic field lines which are otherwise topologically preserved by, and frozen into, a plasma can break and reconnect to form field lines with different topologies. It plays a significant role in a wide variety of plasmas, including stellar, space and laboratory plasmas. The focus of this dissertation is the underlying dynamics of reconnection in one particular kind of laboratory plasma: the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Specifically, this dissertation reports measurements, made using a pair of insertable diagnostics in conjunction with arrays of magnetic sensing coils positioned near the plasma surface, of the spatial structure of the magnetic and parallel current density fluctuations associated with reconnection in the edge of MST. At least 4 significant results are obtained form such measurements. First we observe direct evidence of reconnection which takes the form of tearing modes in an RFP. Specifically we measure a (radial) magnetic field fluctuation that causes reconnection in the so-called reversal surface, or q = 0 surface, in the edge of MST. Notably this evidence of reconnection at the reversal surface is the first of its kind in an RFP. Second, we measure the radial width of the associated current sheet, or fluctuation in the component of the current density parallel to the equilibrium magnetic field. Such current sheets are a characteristic feature of the reconnection process but their radial widths are sensitive to the specific effects that allow reconnection to occur sometimes call non-ideal effects because reconnection is forbidden by ideal MHD. We compare the observed width to those expected from models of reconnection that incorporate different non-ideal effects in Ohm's law. In particular we see that the observed width is significantly larger than those expected form resistivity in the context of linearly unstable tearing modes and electron inertia. It is a factor of a few larger than the

  19. Toward Effective Quality Assurance in Evidence-Based Practice: Links between Expert Consultation, Therapist Fidelity, and Child Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    This study validated a measure of expert clinical consultation and examined the association between consultation, therapist adherence, and youth outcomes in community-based settings. Consultant adherence to the multisystemic therapy (MST) consultation protocol was assessed through therapist reports, and therapist adherence to MST principles was…

  20. Magnetic Seizure Therapy for Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cretaz, Eric; Brunoni, André R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a novel, experimental therapeutic intervention, which combines therapeutic aspects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation, in order to achieve the efficacy of the former with the safety of the latter. MST might prove to be a valuable tool in the treatment of mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Our aim is to review current literature on MST. Methods. OVID and MEDLINE databases were used to systematically search for clinical studies on MST. The terms “magnetic seizure therapy,” “depression,” and “bipolar” were employed. Results. Out of 74 studies, 8 met eligibility criteria. There was considerable variability in the methods employed and samples sizes were small, limiting the generalization of the results. All studies focused on depressive episodes, but few included patients with bipolar disorder. The studies found reported significant antidepressant effects, with remission rates ranging from 30% to 40%. No significant cognitive side effects related to MST were found, with a better cognitive profile when compared to ECT. Conclusion. MST was effective in reducing depressive symptoms in mood disorders, with generally less side effects than ECT. No study focused on comparing MST to ECT on bipolar depression specifically. PMID:26075100

  1. STABLE SR VS 85SR SORPTION FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTIONS BY MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-04-02

    A series of tests were performed to examine the sorption of stable Sr versus the sorption of {sup 85}Sr by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) from simulated waste solutions. Earlier testing indicated a discrepancy between the decontamination factors (DFs) obtained by measuring the stable Sr concentrations by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the {sup 85}Sr activities by gamma spectroscopy. One hypothesis to explain this discrepancy was that the stable Sr and {sup 85}Sr were in different chemical forms in the simulated solutions. Several simulants were prepared using different methods for adding the Sr and performance tests were carried out using MST and mMST to determine the Sr and {sup 85}Sr DFs with the various simulants. Testing indicated no discrepancy between the Sr and {sup 85}Sr DFs in tests with these simulants.

  2. 62. TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CONNECTION STATION FOR SLC3W MST. STORAGE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. TYPICAL ELECTRICAL CONNECTION STATION FOR SLC-3W MST. STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 773) IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. The MST radar technique: A tool for investigations of turbulence spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of the MST radar as a tool for investigating turbulence spectra is discussed. Power spectral measurements using radar data are discussed. The characteristics of stratospheric turbulence are described. A model of the mesoscale turbulent process is developed.

  4. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS DOWN - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 8. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF NORTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS RAISED - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Long-term youth criminal outcomes in MST transport: the impact of therapist adherence and organizational climate and structure.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J; Carter, Rickey E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and youth criminal charges on average 4 years posttreatment. Participants were 1,979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations. Results showed therapist adherence predicted significantly lower rates of youth criminal charges independently and in the presence of organizational variables. Therapist perceptions of job satisfaction and opportunities for growth and advancement relative to the organizational average predicted youth criminal charges, as did organizational average levels of participation in decision making. These associations washed out in the presence of adherence, despite the fact that job satisfaction and growth and advancement were associated with adherence. PMID:19130360

  7. Long-Term Youth Criminal Outcomes in MST Transport: The Impact of Therapist Adherence and Organizational Climate and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Carter, Rickey E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and youth criminal charges on average 4 years post-treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations. Results showed therapist adherence predicted significantly lower rates of youth criminal charges independently and in the presence of organizational variables. Therapist perceptions of job satisfaction and opportunities for growth and advancement relative to the organizational average predicted youth criminal charges, as did organizational average levels of participation in decision-making. These associations washed out in the presence of adherence, despite the fact that job satisfaction and growth and advancement were associated with adherence. PMID:19130360

  8. 28. VIEW SOUTH FROM SLC3W MST STATION 63. FOREGROUND LEFT: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTH FROM SLC-3W MST STATION 63. FOREGROUND LEFT: THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 786) CENTER LEFT TO RIGHT: GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM AZIMUTH STATION (BLDG. 775), PYROTECHNIC SHED (BLDG. 757), PORTABLE GUARD SHED, METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756), METEOROLOGICAL TOWER. BACKGROUND CENTER TO RIGHT: STORAGE SHED (BLDG. 776), LIQUID OXYGEN APRON, SLC-3E MST, TOP OF SLC-3E FUEL STORAGE TANK. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 20-MST and PWC170 validity in non-Caucasian children in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, C

    1992-01-01

    The validity was investigated of 20-MST (20 Metre Endurance Shuttle Run Test) and PWC170 (Physical Working Capacity) field tests with laboratory-measured peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a multiracial UK population of 12-year olds: 103 subjects completed the 20-MST and 96 of these completed the PWC170. To assess validity, a laboratory treadmill test was completed by ten boys and ten girls who had performed both field tests. VO2peak was 43.8 ml kg-1 min-1 for boys and 38.5 ml kg-1 min-1 for girls. Pearson product-moment correlation showed 20-MST to be a reliable measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.83, boys; r = 0.76, girls, P less than 0.03), while correlations with PWC170 were lower (r = 0.64, boys; r = 0.54, girls) and not significant. The 20-MST was consistent in retest (n = 20) - reliability coefficients r = 0.73, boys; r = 0.88, girls; P less than 0.01. The results suggest 20-MST is a valid, measure of fitness in this population when compared with VO2peak. PWC170 is less valid, possibly due to cultural and social backgrounds. The cycle test was inappropriate in this population, especially for girls unaccustomed to exercise and cycling. The 20-MST test is recommended for large groups of children when facilities are limited. It requires limited skill or habituation and is relatively non-invasive. PMID:1600454

  10. Emulating the Visual Receptive Field Properties of MST Neurons with a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.; Stone, Leland S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously proposed a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. The model detectors were designed to extract self-translation (heading), self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer, and are arranged in cortical-like heading maps to perform this function. Heading estimation from optic flow has been postulated by some to be implemented within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether MST neurons can fulfill this role because some of their receptive-field properties appear inconsistent with a role in heading estimation. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST single-unit responses with the outputs of model detectors under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the basic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support heading estimation and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses which can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the primate superior temporal sulcus.

  11. Effects of cognitive processing therapy on PTSD-related negative cognitions in veterans with military sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ryan; Link-Malcolm, Jessica; Morris, Elizabeth E; Surís, Alina

    2014-10-01

    Treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to military sexual trauma (MST) continues to be a priority in veteran populations. Because negative cognitions (NCs) contribute to PTSD severity and treatment, further understanding of how PTSD and related NCs can be addressed and changed within an MST sample is important. Our study analyzed 45 participants who received either cognitive processing therapy (n = 32) or present centered therapy (n = 13). Participants who received cognitive processing therapy had significantly lower NCs scores post-treatment and at follow-up sessions than participants in the present centered therapy condition (p < 0.05). In addition, NCs were positively correlated with PTSD severity (p < 0.05). Implications for future research are discussed for both MST-related and non-MST-related PTSD. PMID:25269124

  12. A Fine Balance of Dietary Lipids Improves Pathology of a Murine Model of VCP-Associated Multisystem Proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Katrina J; Walker, Naomi; Nguyen, Christopher; Tan, Baichang; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Kimonis, Virginia E; Nalbandian, Angèle

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of effective therapies and of disease mechanisms underlying valosin containing protein (VCP)-associated myopathies and neurodegenerative disorders remains elusive. VCP disease, caused by mutations in the VCP gene, are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders with manifestations varying from hereditary inclusion body myopathy, Paget's disease of bone, frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the present study, we examined the effects of higher dietary lipid percentages on VCPR155H/R155H, VCPR155H/+ and Wild Type (WT) mice from birth until 15 months of age by immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. Findings illustrated improvement in the muscle strength, histology, and autophagy signaling pathway in the heterozygote mice when fed 9% lipid-enriched diets (LED). However, increasing the LED by 12%, 30%, and 48% showed no improvement in homozygote and heterozygote survival, muscle pathology, lipid accumulation or the autophagy cascade. These findings suggest that a balanced lipid supplementation may have a therapeutic strategy for patients with VCP-associated multisystem proteinopathies. PMID:26134519

  13. Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS Radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru; Saito, Akinori; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Aso, Takehiko; Ejiri, Masaki

    Syowa Station is one of the distinguished stations, where various atmospheric observations for research purposes by universities and institutes as well as operational observations by Japan Meteorological Agency and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology are performed continuously. National Institute of Polar Research plays a central part in the operations. The observation of the Antarctic atmosphere is important in two senses. First, it is easy to monitor weak signal of the earth climate change because contamination due to human activity is quite low. Second, there are various unique atmospheric phenomena in the Antarctic having strong signals such as katabatic flows, the ozone hole, noctilucent clouds, and auroras. The middle atmosphere is regarded as an important region to connect the troposphere and ionosphere. However, its observation is sparse and retarded in the Antarctic compared with the lower latitude regions; nevertheless the vertical coupling is especially important in the polar region. Since 2000, we have developed an MST/IS radar to be operational in the Antarctic and have made feasibility studies including environmental tests at Syowa Station. Various significant problems have been already solved, such as treatment against low temperature and strong winds, energy saving, weight reduction, and efficient construction method. A current config-uration of the planned system is a VHF (47MHz) Doppler pulse radar with an active phased array consisting of 1045 yagis. The value of the PANSY project has been approved internationally and domestically by reso-lutions and recommendations from international scientific organizations such as IUGG, URSI, SPARC, SCOSTEP, and SCAR. The scientific research objectives and technical developments have been frequently discussed at international and domestic conferences and at a scientific meeting at NIPR organized by the PANSY group every year. Special sessions of PANSY were organized at related

  14. Multisystem factors contributing to disparities in preventive health care among lesbian women.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M K; Thompson, Angela C; Cederbaum, Julie A

    2006-01-01

    Lesbians experience significant health disparities in preventive care utilization and health outcomes compared to heterosexual women. In this study, a multisystems ecologic approach is taken to identify barriers to access, treatment, and preventive care among lesbian women. Recommendations include increasing knowledge of lesbian health care needs, developing cultural sensitivity and competence in communication and care for lesbian women, and creating practice environments that convey respect, acceptance, and welcome to all women, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:16700689

  15. Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIB and pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Christopher; Fishbane, Steven; Shapiro, Lawrence; Courgi, Robert G; Kostadinov, Stefan; Donovan, Virginia; Epstein, David

    2002-06-01

    A patient with pyelonephritis developed multiorgan failure resulting in death. Clinical findings were consistent with multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, with bilateral pheochromocytomas identified by computed tomography scan. We hypothesize that either the infection or the administration of radiocontrast media led to a massive release of catecholamines from the pheochromocytomas. As a result, tissue perfusion was severely compromised, and multiorgan failure developed. This exceedingly rare complication of pheochromocytoma has been termed pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. PMID:12046054

  16. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Julia C.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age = 15) receiving…

  17. The Influence of Parental Factors on Therapist Adherence in Multi-Systemic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Mesha L.; Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Gallop, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Therapist treatment adherence has received a great deal of attention in recent years, in part because of its relation to treatment outcomes. Although certain therapist behaviors have been found to be associated with treatment outcomes, little is known about client factors impacting on therapists' ability to adhere to treatment protocols. In this…

  18. Lexical, conceptual and motor information in memory for action phrases: a multi-system account.

    PubMed

    Engelkamp, Johannes; Jahn, Petra

    2003-06-01

    According to the multi-system account [J. Engelkamp, H.D. Zimmer, The Human Memory: A Multi-Modal Approach, Hogrefe & Huber, Seattle, 1994], the enactment effect in free recall of action phrases (e.g. break the stick) is independent of inter- and intra-phrase associations because it emerges from the nonverbal encoding processes under enactment. Two experiments have been reported which tested these and further assumptions of the multi-system account of the enactment effect. In both experiments, inter- and intra-phrase (verb-object) associations were varied simultaneously in addition to enactment. In Experiment 1, the memory test was free recall, and in Experiment 2, it was cued recall. Independent effects of all three factors were observed in free recall. Enacted phrases were recalled better than phrases learned only verbally. Phrases with high-associated objects and verbs were better recalled than phrases with low-associated objects and verbs, and categorically related phrases were better recalled than unrelated phrases. In cued recall, there was no effect of categorical list structure. The effects of intra-phrase structure and enactment corresponded to those in free recall. All interactions were nonsignificant. The findings were interpreted as support for the multi-system account. PMID:12750046

  19. Adult multisystem langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with central diabetes insipidus successfully treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Eun; Lee, Hae Ri; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Juri; Lee, Seong Jin; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jung Han; Hong, Eun-Gyoung

    2014-09-01

    We report the rare case of an adult who was diagnosed with recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the pituitary stalk and lung who present with central diabetes insipidus and was successfully treated with systemic steroids and chemotherapy. A 49-year-old man visited our hospital due to symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria that started 1 month prior. Two years prior to presentation, he underwent excision of right 6th and 7th rib lesions for the osteolytic lesion and chest pain, which were later confirmed to be LCH on pathology. After admission, the water deprivation test was done and the result indicated that he had central diabetes insipidus. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass on the pituitary stalk with loss of normal bright spot at the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Multiple patchy infiltrations were detected in both lung fields by computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed with recurrent LCH and was subsequently treated with inhaled desmopressin, systemic steroids, vinblastine, and mercaptopurine. The pituitary mass disappeared after two months and both lungs were clear on chest CT after 11 months. Although clinical remission in multisystem LCH in adults is reportedly rare, our case of adult-onset multisystem LCH was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy using prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine, which was well tolerated. PMID:25309800

  20. Adult Multisystem Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Eun; Lee, Hae Ri; Ohn, Jung Hun; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Juri; Lee, Seong Jin; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jung Han

    2014-01-01

    We report the rare case of an adult who was diagnosed with recurrent multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the pituitary stalk and lung who present with central diabetes insipidus and was successfully treated with systemic steroids and chemotherapy. A 49-year-old man visited our hospital due to symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria that started 1 month prior. Two years prior to presentation, he underwent excision of right 6th and 7th rib lesions for the osteolytic lesion and chest pain, which were later confirmed to be LCH on pathology. After admission, the water deprivation test was done and the result indicated that he had central diabetes insipidus. Sella magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass on the pituitary stalk with loss of normal bright spot at the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Multiple patchy infiltrations were detected in both lung fields by computed tomography (CT). He was diagnosed with recurrent LCH and was subsequently treated with inhaled desmopressin, systemic steroids, vinblastine, and mercaptopurine. The pituitary mass disappeared after two months and both lungs were clear on chest CT after 11 months. Although clinical remission in multisystem LCH in adults is reportedly rare, our case of adult-onset multisystem LCH was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy using prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine, which was well tolerated. PMID:25309800

  1. Turbulent transport in the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, T.D.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Zita, E.J.

    1991-11-01

    Measurements of edge turbulence and the associated transport are ongoing in the Madison Symmetric Torus (R = 1.5 m, a = 0.52 m) reversed-field pinch using magnetic and electrostatic probes. Magnetic fluctuations are dominated by m = 1 and n {approximately} 2R/a tearing modes. Particle losses induced by magnetic field fluctuations have been found to be ambipolar (<{tilde J}{sub parallel}{tilde B}{sub r}> = O). Electrostatic fluctuations are broadband and turbulent, with mode widths {delta}m {approximately} 3--7 and {delta}n {approximately}70--150. Particle, parallel current, and energy transport arising from coherent motion with the fluctuating {tilde E}xB drift has been measured. Particle transport via this channel is comparable to the total particle loss from MST. Energy transport (from <{tilde P}{tilde E}{sub phi}>/B{sub o}) due to electrostatic fluctuations is relatively small, and parallel current transport (from <{tilde J}{sub parallel}{tilde E}{sub chi}>/B{sub o}) may be small as well.

  2. Current density fluctuations, nonlinear coupling, and transport in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Cekic, M.; Chapman, B.E.; Crocker, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Dexter, R.N.; Fiksel, G.; Fonck, R.J.; Henry, J.S.; Hokin, S.A.; Holly, D.J.; Ji, H.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Sidikman, K.L.; Sprott, J.C.; Stoneking, M.R.; Watts, C.

    1992-09-01

    New information on magnetic fluctuations and transport in toroidal devices has been obtained in the MST reversed field pinch through measurement of nonlinear coupling of three waves in k-space, and measurement of current density fluctuations. Measurements of nonlinear coupling of magnetic fluctuations reveals that (1) two poloidal mode number m = 1 modes couple strongly to an m = 2 mode, (2) toroidal mode coupling is broad extending up to n = 20, (3) these features agree with predictions for tearing fluctuations from a nonlinear MHD code, (4) during a sawtooth crash the number of modes involved in nonlinear interactions increases dramatically and the k-spectrum broadens simultaneously. Measurements of current density fluctuations over the outer 20% of the minor radius reveal that (1) low frequency fluctuations are consistent with tearing modes, (2) high frequency fluctuations are localized turbulence which maintains resonance with the equilibrium field as q changes with radius, (3) particle transport from magnetic fluctuations is ambipolar (i.e., <{delta}j{sub {parallel}}B{sub r}> = O).

  3. Data processing techniques used with MST radars: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The data processing methods used in high power radar probing of the middle atmosphere are examined. The radar acts as a spatial filter on the small scale refractivity fluctuations in the medium. The characteristics of the received signals are related to the statistical properties of these fluctuations. A functional outline of the components of a radar system is given. Most computation intensive tasks are carried out by the processor. The processor computes a statistical function of the received signals, simultaneously for a large number of ranges. The slow fading of atmospheric signals is used to reduce the data input rate to the processor by coherent integration. The inherent range resolution of the radar experiments can be improved significant with the use of pseudonoise phase codes to modulate the transmitted pulses and a corresponding decoding operation on the received signals. Commutability of the decoding and coherent integration operations is used to obtain a significant reduction in computations. The limitations of the processors are outlined. At the next level of data reduction, the measured function is parameterized by a few spectral moments that can be related to physical processes in the medium. The problems encountered in estimating the spectral moments in the presence of strong ground clutter, external interference, and noise are discussed. The graphical and statistical analysis of the inferred parameters are outlined. The requirements for special purpose processors for MST radars are discussed.

  4. Advanced meteor wind observations using meteor and MST radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, M.; Aso, T.; Hall, C.; Nakamura, T.; Sato, K.; Sato, T.

    A few topics from recent developments of radio meteor observation techniques are presented The Nippon Norway Tromsoe Meteor Radar NTMR has been in continuous operation since November 2003 in Tromsoe 69N One of the major advantages of the present meteor radar is its high echo rate 6000-20000 echoes a day despite the relatively small transmitting power 7 5kW peak From ambipolar diffusion coefficients we have successfully extracted atmospheric temperature fluctuations due to gravity waves assuming the Boussinesq approximation The time and height resolutions of horizontal winds and temperature fluctuations at the altitude of 90 km are 1 hour and 2km high enough for the study of gravity waves with a period longer than a few hours Horizontal propagation characteristics of gravity waves are further studied using a theoretical phase relation between the wind and temperature fluctuations MST radars in the VHF band have a great potential in meteor echo observations due to their high transmitting power The meteor measurement can be conducted throughout a day and complement the turbulent echo measurement in the mesosphere which is limited to daylight hours only The MU radar of Kyoto University is one of those radars and has been successfully applied to meteor studies by utilizing its very high versatility The MU radar was recently renewed Its signal processing unit is up-graded from a 4 analog receiver system to a 25 digital receiver system In the present study we try to improve the MU radar meteor measurement

  5. An upgraded x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic on MST.

    PubMed

    Clayton, D J; Almagri, A F; Burke, D R; Forest, C B; Goetz, J A; Kaufman, M C; O'Connell, R

    2010-10-01

    An upgraded x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic is used to measure the distribution of fast electrons in MST and to determine Z(eff) and the particle diffusion coefficient D(r). A radial array of 12 CdZnTe hard-x-ray detectors measures 10-150 keV Bremsstrahlung from fast electrons, a signature of reduced stochasticity and improved confinement in the plasma. A new Si soft-x-ray detector measures 2-10 keV Bremsstrahlung from thermal and fast electrons. The shaped output pulses from both detector types are digitized and the resulting waveforms are fit with Gaussians to resolve pileup and provide good time and energy resolution. Lead apertures prevent detector saturation and provide a well-known etendue, while lead shielding prevents pickup from stray x-rays. New Be vacuum windows transmit >2 keV x-rays, and additional Al and Be filters are sometimes used to reduce low energy flux for better resolution at higher energies. Measured spectra are compared to those predicted by the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D to deduce Z(eff) and D(r). PMID:21034007

  6. Measurements of the Hall Dynamo in MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, J. C.; Almagri, A. F.; McCollam, K. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Fluctuation-induced emfs correlated with tearing mode activity govern the relaxation process in RFP plasmas. Previous radial profile measurements in the edge of MST plasmas (ra/> 0 . 8) revealed a competition of the Hall, 1 ne < j ~ × b ~ >|| , and MHD, < v ~ × b ~ >|| , terms in Ohm's law. A robust magnetic probe allows measurements of the Hall-dynamo profile much deeper in the plasma (ra > 0 . 4) for low current conditions. The mode composition of the dynamo emf is computed using pseudospectral (cross-correlation) analysis with the spectrum measured from a toroidal magnetic array at the plasma surface. Extended MHD simulations with parameters comparable to the experiment have been performed using NIMROD. They predict complex variation of the Hall and MHD dynamo profiles across the plasma radius. Measurements of the Hall-dynamo profile can inform future computational work in addition to directing future experimental measurements of the MHD term. Work supported by U.S. DOE and NSF.

  7. Deacetylation of tumor-suppressor MST1 in Hippo pathway induces its degradation through HBXIP-elevated HDAC6 in promotion of breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Fang, R; Liu, B; Shi, H; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Zhang, X; Ye, L

    2016-08-01

    Reduction or loss of tumor-suppressor mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in Hippo pathway contributes to the tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism leading to reduction of MST1 in cancers remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is involved in the reduction of MST1 in breast cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays revealed that the expression of HBXIP was negatively associated with that of MST1 in 98 clinical breast tissue samples. Then we found that HBXIP could posttranslationally downregulate MST1 in breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, we identified that MST1 could be acetylated on its lysine 35 residue in the cells. Strikingly, the treatment with trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), markedly increased the levels of MST1 acetylation and protein in the cells. Interestingly, the oncoprotein HBXIP could significantly inhibit acetylation of MST1, resulting in the reduction of MST1 protein. Notably, we revealed that the HDAC6 could reduce the protein levels of MST1 through deacetylation modification of MST1 in the cells. Moreover, our data revealed that HBXIP upregulated HDAC6 at the levels of mRNA and protein by activating transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Deacetylation of MST1 promoted the interaction of MST1 with HSC70 in the cells, resulting in a lysosome-dependent degradation of MST1 via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Functionally, the reduction of tumor-suppressor MST1 mediated by HBXIP promoted the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus we conclude that the deacetylation of MST1 mediated by HBXIP-enhanced HDAC6 results in MST1 degradation in a CMA manner in promotion of breast cancer growth. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of tumor-suppressor MST1 reduction in breast cancer. PMID:26657153

  8. MST3 Kinase Phosphorylates TAO1/2 to Enable Myosin Va Function in Promoting Spine Synapse Development

    PubMed Central

    Ultanir, Sila K.; Yadav, Smita; Hertz, Nicholas T.; Oses-Prieto, Juan A.; Claxton, Suzanne; Burlingame, Alma L.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Jan, Lily Y.; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian Sterile 20 (Ste20)-like kinase 3 (MST3) is a ubiquitously expressed kinase capable of enhancing axon outgrowth. Whether and how MST3 kinase signaling might regulate development of dendritic filopodia and spine synapses is unknown. Through shRNA-mediated depletion of MST3 and kinase-dead MST3 expression in developing hippocampal cultures, we found that MST3 is necessary for proper filopodia, dendritic spine, and excitatory synapse development. Knockdown of MST3 in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons via in utero electroporation also reduced spine density in vivo. Using chemical genetics, we discovered thirteen candidate MST3 substrates and identified the phosphorylation sites. Among the identified MST3 substrates, TAO kinases regulate dendritic filopodia and spine development, similar to MST3. Furthermore, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC), we show that phosphorylated TAO1/2 associates with Myosin Va and is necessary for its dendritic localization, thus revealing a mechanism for excitatory synapse development in the mammalian CNS. PMID:25456499

  9. mTORC2 regulates cardiac response to stress by inhibiting MST1

    PubMed Central

    Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Zhai, Peiyong; Maejima, Yasuhiro; Del Re, Dominic P.; Nagarajan, Narayani; Yee, Derek; Liu, Tong; Magnuson, Mark A.; Volpe, Massimo; Frati, Giacomo; Li, Hong; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The mTOR and Hippo pathways have recently emerged as the major signaling transduction cascades regulating organ size and cellular homeostasis. However, direct crosstalk between two pathways is yet to be determined. Here we demonstrate that mTORC2 is a direct negative regulator of the MST1 kinase, a key component of the Hippo pathway. mTORC2 phosphorylates MST1 at serine 438 in the SARAH domain, thereby reducing its homodimerization and activity. We found that Rictor/mTORC2 preserves cardiac structure and function by restraining the activity of MST1 kinase. Cardiac-specific mTORC2 disruption through rictor deletion leads to a marked activation of MST1 that, in turn, promotes cardiac dysfunction and dilation, impairing cardiac growth and adaptation in response to pressure overload. In conclusion, our study demonstrates the existence of a direct crosstalk between mTORC2 and MST1 that is critical for cardiac cell survival and growth. PMID:25843706

  10. DECONTAMINATION FACTORS AND FILTRATION FLUX IMPACT TO ARP AT REDUCED MST CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-06-27

    Tank Farm and Closure Engineering is evaluating changes to the Actinide Removal Process facility operations to decrease the MST concentration from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L and the contact time from 12 hours to between 6 and 8 hours. For this evaluation, SRNL reviewed previous datasets investigating the performance of MST at 0.2 g/L in salt solutions ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration. In general, reducing the MST concentration from 0.4 to 0.2 g/L and increasing the ionic strength from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration will decrease the measured decontamination factors for plutonium, neptunium, uranium and strontium. The decontamination factors as well as single standard deviation values for each sorbate are reported. These values are applicable within the sorbate and sodium concentrations used in the experimental measurements. Decreasing the MST concentration in the ARP from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L will produce an increase in the filter flux, and could lead to longer operating times between filter cleaning. The increase in flux is a function of a number of operating parameters, and is difficult to quantify. However, it is estimated that the reduction in MST could result in a reduction of filtration time of up to 20%.

  11. MHD simulation of RF current drive in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Hendries, E. R.; Anderson, J. K.; Forest, C. B.; Reusch, J. A.; Seltzman, A. H.; Sovinec, C. R.; Diem, S.; Harvey, R. W.

    2014-02-12

    Auxiliary heating and current drive using RF waves such as the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) promises to advance the performance of the reversed field pinch (RFP). In previous computational work [1], a hypothetical edge-localized current drive is shown to suppress the tearing activity which governs the macroscopic transport properties of the RFP. The ideal conditions for tearing stabilization include a reduced toroidal induction, and precise width and radial position of the Gaussian-shaped external current drive. In support of the EBW experiment on the Madison Symmetric Torus, an integrated modeling scheme now incorporates ray tracing and Fokker-Plank predictions of auxiliary current into single fluid MHD. Simulations at low Lundquist number (S ∼ 10{sup 4}) generally agree with the previous work; significantly more burdensome simulations at MST-like Lundquist number (S ∼ 3×10{sup 6}) show unexpected results. The effect on nonlinearly saturated current profile by a particular RF-driven external force decreases in magnitude and widens considerably as the Lundquist number increases toward experimental values. Simulations reproduce the periodic current profile relaxation events observed in experiment (sawteeth) in the absence of current profile control. Reduction of the tearing mode amplitudes is still observable; however, reduction is limited to periods between the large bursts of magnetic activity at each sawtooth. The sawtoothing pattern persists with up to 10 MW of externally applied RF power. Periods with prolonged low tearing amplitude are predicted with a combination of external current drive and a reduced toroidal loop voltage, consistent with previous conclusions. Finally, the resistivity profile is observed to have a strong effect on the optimal externally driven current profile for mode stabilization.

  12. Mst1 Kinase Regulates the Actin-Bundling Protein L-Plastin To Promote T Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolu; Wang, Xinxin; Todd, Elizabeth M; Jaeger, Emily R; Vella, Jennifer L; Mooren, Olivia L; Feng, Yunfeng; Hu, Jiancheng; Cooper, John A; Morley, Sharon Celeste; Huang, Yina H

    2016-09-01

    Exploring the mechanisms controlling lymphocyte trafficking is essential for understanding the function of the immune system and the pathophysiology of immunodeficiencies. The mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) has been identified as a critical signaling mediator of T cell migration, and loss of Mst1 results in immunodeficiency disease. Although Mst1 is known to support T cell migration through induction of cell polarization and lamellipodial formation, the downstream effectors of Mst1 are incompletely defined. Mice deficient for the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) have phenotypes similar to mice lacking Mst1, including decreased T cell polarization, lamellipodial formation, and cell migration. We therefore asked whether LPL functions downstream of Mst1. The regulatory N-terminal domain of LPL contains a consensus Mst1 phosphorylation site at Thr(89) We found that Mst1 can phosphorylate LPL in vitro and that Mst1 can interact with LPL in cells. Removal of the Mst1 phosphorylation site by mutating Thr(89) to Ala impaired localization of LPL to the actin-rich lamellipodia of T cells. Expression of the T89A LPL mutant failed to restore migration of LPL-deficient T cells in vitro. Furthermore, expression of T89A LPL in LPL-deficient hematopoietic cells, using bone marrow chimeras, failed to rescue the phenotype of decreased thymic egress. These results identify LPL as a key effector of Mst1 and establish a novel mechanism linking a signaling intermediate to an actin-binding protein critical to T cell migration. PMID:27465533

  13. An intricate dance: Life experience, multisystem resiliency, and rate of telomere decline throughout the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa

    2012-11-01

    Accumulation of life stressors predicts accelerated development and progression of diseases of aging. Telomere length, the DNA-based biomarker indicating cellular aging, is a mechanism of disease development, and is shortened in a dose response fashion by duration and severity of life stressor exposures. Telomere length captures the interplay between genetics, life experiences and psychosocial and behavioral factors. Over the past several years, psychological stress resilience, healthy lifestyle factors, and social connections have been associated with longer telomere length and it appears that these factors can protect individuals from stress-induced telomere shortening. In the current review, we highlight these findings, and illustrate that combining these `multisystem resiliency' factors may strengthen our understanding of aging, as these powerful factors are often neglected in studies of aging. In naturalistic studies, the effects of chronic stress exposure on biological pathways are rarely main effects, but rather a complex interplay between adversity and resiliency factors. We suggest that chronic stress effects can be best understood by directly testing if the deleterious effects of stress on biological aging processes, in this case the cell allostasis measure of telomere shortening, are mitigated in individuals with high levels of multisystem resiliency. Without attending to such interactions, stress effects are often masked and missed. Taking account of the cluster of positive buffering factors that operate across the lifespan will take us a step further in understanding healthy aging. While these ideas are applied to the telomere length literature for illustration, the concept of multisystem resiliency might apply to aging broadly, from cellular to systemic health. PMID:23162608

  14. An intricate dance: Life experience, multisystem resiliency, and rate of telomere decline throughout the lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of life stressors predicts accelerated development and progression of diseases of aging. Telomere length, the DNA-based biomarker indicating cellular aging, is a mechanism of disease development, and is shortened in a dose response fashion by duration and severity of life stressor exposures. Telomere length captures the interplay between genetics, life experiences and psychosocial and behavioral factors. Over the past several years, psychological stress resilience, healthy lifestyle factors, and social connections have been associated with longer telomere length and it appears that these factors can protect individuals from stress-induced telomere shortening. In the current review, we highlight these findings, and illustrate that combining these `multisystem resiliency' factors may strengthen our understanding of aging, as these powerful factors are often neglected in studies of aging. In naturalistic studies, the effects of chronic stress exposure on biological pathways are rarely main effects, but rather a complex interplay between adversity and resiliency factors. We suggest that chronic stress effects can be best understood by directly testing if the deleterious effects of stress on biological aging processes, in this case the cell allostasis measure of telomere shortening, are mitigated in individuals with high levels of multisystem resiliency. Without attending to such interactions, stress effects are often masked and missed. Taking account of the cluster of positive buffering factors that operate across the lifespan will take us a step further in understanding healthy aging. While these ideas are applied to the telomere length literature for illustration, the concept of multisystem resiliency might apply to aging broadly, from cellular to systemic health. PMID:23162608

  15. Eye position effects on the remapped memory trace of visual motion in cortical area MST

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Naoko; Kawano, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    After a saccade, most MST neurons respond to moving visual stimuli that had existed in their post-saccadic receptive fields and turned off before the saccade (“trans-saccadic memory remapping”). Neuronal responses in higher visual processing areas are known to be modulated in relation to gaze angle to represent image location in spatiotopic coordinates. In the present study, we investigated the eye position effects after saccades and found that the gaze angle modulated the visual sensitivity of MST neurons after saccades both to the actually existing visual stimuli and to the visual memory traces remapped by the saccades. We suggest that two mechanisms, trans-saccadic memory remapping and gaze modulation, work cooperatively in individual MST neurons to represent a continuous visual world. PMID:26903084

  16. Eye position effects on the remapped memory trace of visual motion in cortical area MST.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Naoko; Kawano, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    After a saccade, most MST neurons respond to moving visual stimuli that had existed in their post-saccadic receptive fields and turned off before the saccade ("trans-saccadic memory remapping"). Neuronal responses in higher visual processing areas are known to be modulated in relation to gaze angle to represent image location in spatiotopic coordinates. In the present study, we investigated the eye position effects after saccades and found that the gaze angle modulated the visual sensitivity of MST neurons after saccades both to the actually existing visual stimuli and to the visual memory traces remapped by the saccades. We suggest that two mechanisms, trans-saccadic memory remapping and gaze modulation, work cooperatively in individual MST neurons to represent a continuous visual world. PMID:26903084

  17. Human ITCH E3 ubiquitin ligase deficiency causes syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Naomi J; Molleston, Jean P; Strauss, Kevin A; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Sherman, Eric A; Squires, Robert H; Rider, Nicholas L; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Cummings, Oscar W; Morton, D Holmes; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2010-03-12

    Ubiquitin ligases play an important role in the regulation of the immune system. Absence of Itch E3 ubiquitin ligase in mice has been shown to cause severe autoimmune disease. Using autozygosity mapping in a large Amish kindred, we identified a linkage region on chromosome 20 and selected candidate genes for screening. We describe, in ten patients, identification of a mutation resulting in truncation of ITCH. These patients represent the first reported human phenotype associated with ITCH deficiency. These patients not only have multisystem autoimmune disease but also display morphologic and developmental abnormalities. This disorder underscores the importance of ITCH ubiquitin ligase in many cellular processes. PMID:20170897

  18. Human ITCH E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Deficiency Causes Syndromic Multisystem Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Naomi J.; Molleston, Jean P.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Torres-Martinez, Wilfredo; Sherman, Eric A.; Squires, Robert H.; Rider, Nicholas L.; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R.; Cummings, Oscar W.; Morton, D. Holmes; Puffenberger, Erik G.

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligases play an important role in the regulation of the immune system. Absence of Itch E3 ubiquitin ligase in mice has been shown to cause severe autoimmune disease. Using autozygosity mapping in a large Amish kindred, we identified a linkage region on chromosome 20 and selected candidate genes for screening. We describe, in ten patients, identification of a mutation resulting in truncation of ITCH. These patients represent the first reported human phenotype associated with ITCH deficiency. These patients not only have multisystem autoimmune disease but also display morphologic and developmental abnormalities. This disorder underscores the importance of ITCH ubiquitin ligase in many cellular processes. PMID:20170897

  19. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with nail changes and multisystem disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Jesus Semblano Bittencourt, Maraya; Moraes Dias, Carolina; Lima Lage, Thaiane; Magno Parijós, Amanda; Brito Mesquita, Letícia; Haber Carvalho, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Nail involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is uncommon and is said to indicate a poor prognosis. We describe a 2-year-old boy with onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, and hemorrhages on his fingernails. He also had hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary involvement. The diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis was made by histopathologic examination of skin and liver.The role of nail involvement as an unfavorable prognostic sign is still unclear and this paper concludes that nail involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a possible sign of multisystemic involvement. PMID:27617727

  20. [The involvement of pulmonary interstitial tissue in multisystemic lupus erythematosus: interdisciplinarity and role of the pneumologists].

    PubMed

    Salvati, F

    2015-01-01

    The Author remarks the interstitial lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. This secondary respiratory manifestation is infrequent as well as the consequent pulmonary hypertension making it possible to miss or delay the diagnosis. Therefore the interdisciplinary evaluation of the multisystemic disease lupus erythematosus needs. In this context the role of the pneumologists is relevant for the global treatment of the patients with LES in particular as concerns the early detection of the clinical and functional respiratory symptoms as well as the appropriate treatment plan within their specialistic competence. PMID:26550810

  1. Multisystem disorder associated with a missense mutation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Wibrand, F; Ravn, K; Schwartz, M; Rosenberg, T; Horn, N; Vissing, J

    2001-10-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome b mutations have been reported to have a homogenous phenotype of pure exercise intolerance. We describe a novel mutation in the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (A15579G) associated with a selective decrease of muscle complex III activity in a patient who, besides severe exercise intolerance, also has multisystem manifestations (deafness, mental retardation, retinitis pigmentosa, cataract, growth retardation, epilepsy). The point mutation is heteroplasmic in muscle (88%) and leukocytes (15%), and changes a highly conserved tyrosine to cysteine at amino acid position 278. PMID:11601507

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging for prenatal diagnosis of multisystem disease: megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Munch, Erika M S; Cisek, Lawrence J; Roth, David R

    2009-09-01

    We discuss a third-trimester diagnosis of Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and consider the benefits of MRI as a noninvasive imaging technique after routine ultrasonography reveals genitourinary pathology requiring further elucidation. MMIHS is a rare cause of functional gastrointestinal and genitourinary obstruction in newborns. Because of the poor prognosis of MMIHS, prenatal diagnosis is warranted for optimal prenatal counseling and postnatal treatment. Although MMIHS commonly presents on ultrasonography, the limitations of ultrasonography make definitive diagnosis difficult. However, MRI is safe, accurate, and can be used for early prenatal diagnoses of multisystem diseases. PMID:19501881

  3. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SORPTION BY MST AND MMST UNDER CONDITIONS REVELANT TO THE SMALL COLUMN ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Poirier, M.

    2011-05-06

    A series of tests were performed to examine the kinetics of Sr and actinide removal by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) under mixing conditions similar to what will be provided in the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program. Similar removal kinetics were seen for two different mixing energies, indicating that under these conditions bulk solution transport is not the rate limiting step for Sr and actinide removal. Sr removal was found to be rapid for both MST and mMST, reaching steady-state conditions within six hours. In contrast, at least six weeks is necessary to reach steady-state conditions for Pu with MST. For mMST, steady-state conditions for Pu were achieved within two weeks. The actual contact time required for the SCIX process will depend on starting sorbate concentrations as well as the requirements for the decontaminated salt solution. During testing leaks occurred in both the MST and mMST tests and evidence of potential desorption was observed. The desorption likely occurred as a result of the change in solids to liquid phase ratio that occurred due to the loss of solution. Based on these results, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended additional testing to further study the effect of changing phase ratios on desorption. This testing is currently in progress and results will be documented in a separate report.

  4. Multisystem resiliency moderates the major depression-telomere length association: findings from the Heart and Soul Study.

    PubMed

    Puterman, Eli; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Gross, James J; Whooley, Mary A; Cohen, Beth E

    2013-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with reduced leukocyte telomere length (LTL). It is not known, however, whether psychosocial and behavioral protective factors moderate this association. In the current study, we examine whether multisystem resiliency--defined by healthy emotion regulation, strong social connections, and health behaviors (sleep and exercise)--predicts LTL and mitigates previously demonstrated associations between depression diagnosis and LTL. LTL was measured, using a quantitative PCR assay, in 954 patients with stable cardiovascular disease in the Heart and Soul Study. In a fully adjusted model, high multisystem resiliency predicted longer LTL (b=80.00, SE=27.17, p=.003), whereas each individual factor did not. Multisystem resiliency significantly moderated the MDD-LTL association (p=.02). Specifically, MDD was significantly related to LTL at 1 SD below the mean of multisystem resiliency (b=-142.86, SE=56.46, p=.01), but not at 1 SD above the mean (b=49.07, SE=74.51, p=.51). This study suggests that MDD associations with biological outcomes should be examined within a psychosocial-behavioral context, because this context shapes the nature of the direct relationship. Further research should explore the cognitive, neural, and other physiological pathways through which multisystem resiliency may confer biological benefit. PMID:23727245

  5. INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

    2011-05-24

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

  6. Overview of on-line data processing for MST radars (keynote paper), part 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    The most important aspects of the processing of MST radar data are discussed. The important points of on-line data processing for MST radar are reviewed. The goals of the on-line and now almost exclusively digital processing, procedures are to achieve good altitude resolution and coverage, good frequency (Doppler shift) resolution, and good time resolution, while avoiding, the problems of range and frequency ambiguity (aliasing), ground clutter, and interference. Achieving optimum results requires pulse compression and some coherent integration. The first allows full utilization of the average power capability of the transmitter and the second reduces the computing requirements.

  7. Search for clustering of background objects near distant radio galaxies using the MST method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshelava, T. V.; Verkhodanov, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    The minimal spanning tree (MST) method was used to explore the statistical properties of field objects near distant radio galaxies (0.3 ≤ z ≤ 1.2) on SDSS images. The average diagrams of MST branch lengths were found to differ statistically for field objects near radio galaxies with z < 0.7 and z > 0.7, although zones of the subsample considered show no signs of clustering down to the SDSS limiting magnitude at a significance level greater than 5σ.

  8. Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Sato, Toru; Nakamura, Takuji; Saito, Akinori; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Kohma, Masashi; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    The PANSY radar is the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic region. It is a large VHF monostatic pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz, consisting of an active phased array of 1045 Yagi antennas and an equivalent number of transmit-receive (TR) modules with a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar was installed at Syowa Station (69°00‧S, 39°35‧E) in early 2011, and is currently operating with 228 antennas and modules. This paper reports the project's scientific objectives, technical descriptions, and the preliminary results of observations made to date. The radar is designed to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Moreover, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar which extends from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. From engineering points of view, the radar had to overcome restrictions related to the severe environments of Antarctic research, such as very strong winds, limited power availability, short construction periods, and limited manpower availability. We resolved these problems through the adoption of specially designed class-E amplifiers, light weight and tough antenna elements, and versatile antenna arrangements. Although the radar is currently operating with only about a quarter of its full designed system components, we have already obtained interesting results on the Antarctic troposphere, stratosphere and

  9. Medical hazards of the tear gas CS. A case of persistent, multisystem, hypersensitivity reaction and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hill, A R; Silverberg, N B; Mayorga, D; Baldwin, H E

    2000-07-01

    A 30-year-old incarcerated man was sprayed with the "tear gas" ortho-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS). He was hospitalized 8 days later with erythroderma, wheezing, pneumonitis with hypoxemia, hepatitis with jaundice, and hypereosinophilia. During the subsequent months he continued to suffer from generalized dermatitis, recurrent cough and wheezing consistent with reactive airways dysfunction syndrome, and eosinophilia. These abnormalities responded to brief courses of systemic corticosteroid but recurred off therapy. The dermatitis resolved gradually over 6-7 months, but the patient still had asthma-like symptoms a year following exposure. Patch testing confirmed sensitization to CS. The mechanism of the patient's prolonged reaction is unknown but may involve cell-mediated hypersensitivity, perhaps to adducts of CS (or a metabolite) and tissue proteins. This is the first documented case in which CS apparently caused a severe, multisystem illness by hypersensitivity rather than direct tissue toxicity. Both the ethics and safety of CS use remain controversial, in part because of the difficulty documenting sporadic injuries received in the field, and also because the charged circumstances surrounding CS use may lead to both underreporting and exaggerated claims of medical harm. The medical literature on CS focuses mainly on its immediate irritant effects and on transient dermal and ocular injuries, with only 2 prior case reports of acute lung injury related to CS exposure. Given the paucity of documented lasting effects despite its widespread use for more than 3 decades, CS appears to be safe when deployed (outdoors) in a controlled manner, but it can cause important injuries if misused or if applied to a sensitized individual. PMID:10941352

  10. MPV17 Mutations Causing Adult-Onset Multisystemic Disorder With Multiple Mitochondrial DNA Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Garone, Caterina; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Calvo, Sarah E.; Naini, Ali; Tanji, Kurenai; DiMauro, Salvatore; Mootha, Vamsi K.; Hirano, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the cause of an adult-onset multisystemic disease with multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Design Case report. Setting University hospitals. Patient A 65-year-old man with axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, ophthalmoparesis, diabetes mellitus, exercise intolerance, steatohepatopathy, depression, parkinsonism, and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Results Skeletal muscle biopsy revealed ragged-red and cytochrome-c oxidase–deficient fibers, and Southern blot analysis showed multiple mtDNA deletions. No deletions were detected in fibroblasts, and the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the amount of mtDNA was normal in both muscle and fibroblasts. Exome sequencing using a mitochondrial library revealed compound heterozygous MPV17 mutations (p.LysMet88-89MetLeu and p.Leu143*), a novel cause of mtDNA multiple deletions. Conclusions In addition to causing juvenile-onset disorders with mtDNA depletion, MPV17 mutations can cause adult-onset multisystemic disease with multiple mtDNA deletions. PMID:22964873

  11. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

  12. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  13. Visual Motion Responses in the Posterior Cingulate Sulcus: A Comparison to V5/MT and MST

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Elvira; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2012-01-01

    Motion processing regions apart from V5+/MT+ are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to perform a detailed functional analysis of the recently described cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. We used distinct types of visual motion stimuli to compare CSv with V5/MT and MST, including a visual pursuit paradigm. Both V5/MT and MST preferred 3D flow over 2D planar motion, responded less yet substantially to random motion, had a strong preference for contralateral versus ipsilateral stimulation, and responded nearly equally to contralateral and to full-field stimuli. In contrast, CSv had a pronounced preference to 2D planar motion over 3D flow, did not respond to random motion, had a weak and nonsignificant lateralization that was significantly smaller than that of MST, and strongly preferred full-field over contralateral stimuli. In addition, CSv had a better capability to integrate eye movements with retinal motion compared with V5/MT and MST. CSv thus differs from V5+/MT+ by its unique preference to full-field, coherent, and planar motion cues. These results place CSv in a good position to process visual cues related to self-induced motion, in particular those associated to eye or lateral head movements. PMID:21709176

  14. 2. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST SHOWING FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST SHOWING FLAME BUCKET BENEATH LAUNCH DECK, AND DELUGE CHANNEL. THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 786) IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 63. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST AND LAUNCH DECK SHOWING FLAME BUCKET AND DELUGE CHANNEL. RETENTION BASIN IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 64. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST, LAUNCH DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST, LAUNCH DECK, AND FLAME BUCKET FROM DELUGE CHANNEL. NOTE SQUARED CORNERS OF FLAME BUCKET. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. The MST/Hippo Pathway and Cell Death: A Non-Canonical Affair

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Emma; O’Driscoll, Niamh A.; Matallanas, David

    2016-01-01

    The MST/Hippo signalling pathway was first described over a decade ago in Drosophila melanogaster and the core of the pathway is evolutionary conserved in mammals. The mammalian MST/Hippo pathway regulates organ size, cell proliferation and cell death. In addition, it has been shown to play a central role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and it is commonly deregulated in human tumours. The delineation of the canonical pathway resembles the behaviour of the Hippo pathway in the fly where the activation of the core kinases of the pathway prevents the proliferative signal mediated by the key effector of the pathway YAP. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence support the idea that the mammalian MST/Hippo pathway has acquired new features during evolution, including different regulators and effectors, crosstalk with other essential signalling pathways involved in cellular homeostasis and the ability to actively trigger cell death. Here we describe the current knowledge of the mechanisms that mediate MST/Hippo dependent cell death, especially apoptosis. We include evidence for the existence of complex signalling networks where the core proteins of the pathway play a central role in controlling the balance between survival and cell death. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of these signalling networks in several human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27322327

  18. PHLPP1 regulates contact inhibition by dephosphorylating Mst1 at the inhibitory site

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Sujin; Kang, Jeong Gu; Lee, Ju Hee; Song, Kyoung Jin; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Sam

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PHLPP1 regulates contact inhibition by dephosphorylating Mst1 at Thr{sup 387}. • Overexpression of PHLPP1 sensitizes contact inhibition. • Tumor cells with suppressed PHLPP1 expression are refractory to apoptosis and highly proliferative. • Loss or down-regulation of PHLPP1 may drive tumor development and progression. - Abstract: Contact inhibition has been largely elusive despite that a loss of contact inhibition is a critical event for cancer development and progression. Here, we report that PHLPP1 is a binding protein for Mst1 and it modulates the Hippo pathway by dephosphorylating Mst1 at the inhibitory Thr{sup 387} of Mst1. Yap1 was localized predominantly in the nucleus but marginally in the cytoplasm in HeLa cells under sparse conditions, whereas the functional protein was more directed to sequestration in the cytoplasm under dense environments. Furthermore, loss of PHLPP1 resulted in a failure of the apoptotic control. It is interesting that down-regulated expression of PHLPP1 appears to mimic the loss of contact inhibition, a hallmark of cancer.

  19. 26. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 63 (TOP SERVICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63 (TOP SERVICE STATION FOR DELIVERY VEHICLE) FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING REMOVABLE SAFETY RAILS SURROUNDING CENTRAL OPENING, PULLEY AND WINCH SYSTEM FOR RAISING SERVICE PLATFORM, AND PLATFORM HINGES - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 36. 1,000POUND CHAIN HOIST AT STATION 124 OF MST, WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. 1,000-POUND CHAIN HOIST AT STATION 124 OF MST, WEST SIDE. (ITS ONLY USE WAS INSTALLATION OF ELEVATOR MOTOR.) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Reframing the Public in Public Education: The Landless Workers Movement (MST) and Adult Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapliyal, Nisha

    2013-01-01

    Education for rural Brazilians has historically been dominated by two imperatives: human capital and political patronage. For the last four decades, the Landless Workers Movement (MST) have maintained a struggle to democratise public education and democracy itself. In this article, I make a situated analysis of the educational politics of the MST…

  2. Empirical vs. Expected IRT-Based Reliability Estimation in Computerized Multistage Testing (MST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanwei; Breithaupt, Krista; Tessema, Aster; Chuah, David

    2006-01-01

    Two IRT-based procedures to estimate test reliability for a certification exam that used both adaptive (via a MST model) and non-adaptive design were considered in this study. Both procedures rely on calibrated item parameters to estimate error variance. In terms of score variance, one procedure (Method 1) uses the empirical ability distribution…

  3. Mesospheric wave number spectra from Poker Flat MST radar measurements compared with gravity-wave model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a comparison of mesospheric wind fluctuation spectra computed from radial wind velocity estimates made by the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar are compared with a gravity-wave model developed by VanZandt (1982, 1985). The principal conclusion of this comparison is that gravity waves can account for 80% of the mesospheric power spectral density.

  4. '"My Land, Your Social Transformation": Conflicts within the Landless People Movement (MST), Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Rute

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian "Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra" (MST) is one of the best-known and most prominent rural social movements. The unequal distribution of land in Brazil, and the neglect of this problem by successive Brazilian governments contributed greatly to the organisation of rural movements striving for the implementation of land…

  5. 37. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM NORTHEAST CORNER SHOWING PLATFORM CONTROLS IN SOUTHWEST CORNER, COMMUNICATION STATION AND ELEVATOR ON WEST SIDE. STRETCH SLING CYLINDER PRESSURE GAUGE IN SOUTHWEST CORNER OF STATION 78 VISIBLE THROUGH CENTRAL OPENING. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 21. STATION 70.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. AIRCONDITIONING DUCT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. STATION 70.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT AT TOP; POWER BOX ON RIGHT; WINCH ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 39. NORTH WALL OF MST AT STATION 124. 480VOLT MASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. NORTH WALL OF MST AT STATION 124. 480-VOLT MASTER POWER SHUTOFF AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS FOR CRANE NORTH DOORS/CRANE SOUTH DOORS ON LEFT; FOR BRIDGE CRANE AND DUCT HEATER 122 ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 22. DOOR CONTROL BOX AT STATION 70.5 OF MST FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DOOR CONTROL BOX AT STATION 70.5 OF MST FOR CONTROL OF SOUTH DOORS. NITROGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR ON LEFT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 36. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. GENERAL VIEW OF SLC-3W MST STATION 85.5 FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER SHOWING REMOVABLE SAFETY RAILS AROUND CENTRAL OPENING, STRETCH SLING CYLINDER, AND PULLEY ON WEST SIDE, AIR-CONDITIONING DUCTING IN NORTHWEST CORNER, PLATFORM SEGMENTS AND HINGES - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. The MST/Hippo Pathway and Cell Death: A Non-Canonical Affair.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Emma; O'Driscoll, Niamh A; Matallanas, David

    2016-01-01

    The MST/Hippo signalling pathway was first described over a decade ago in Drosophila melanogaster and the core of the pathway is evolutionary conserved in mammals. The mammalian MST/Hippo pathway regulates organ size, cell proliferation and cell death. In addition, it has been shown to play a central role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis and it is commonly deregulated in human tumours. The delineation of the canonical pathway resembles the behaviour of the Hippo pathway in the fly where the activation of the core kinases of the pathway prevents the proliferative signal mediated by the key effector of the pathway YAP. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence support the idea that the mammalian MST/Hippo pathway has acquired new features during evolution, including different regulators and effectors, crosstalk with other essential signalling pathways involved in cellular homeostasis and the ability to actively trigger cell death. Here we describe the current knowledge of the mechanisms that mediate MST/Hippo dependent cell death, especially apoptosis. We include evidence for the existence of complex signalling networks where the core proteins of the pathway play a central role in controlling the balance between survival and cell death. Finally, we discuss the possible involvement of these signalling networks in several human diseases such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27322327

  11. 23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STATION 85.5 OF MST, WEST SIDE. ACTUATOR FOR MIDDLE NORTH DOORS AT TOP; WEST DOOR MOTOR DISCONNECT ABOVE ACTUATOR; WINCH AND PULLEY SYSTEM AT BOTTOM; HYDRAULIC PUMPING UNIT ABOVE WINCHES; MOTOR COMPRESSOR FOR DOORS ON RIGHT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL FOR SLC-3W MST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF STATION 70.5. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 9. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST WITH ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS OPEN AND SERVICE PLATFORMS RAISED. LAUNCHER VISIBLE BELOW LOWEST SET OF ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Differential localization of A-Raf regulates MST2-mediated apoptosis during epithelial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rauch, J; Vandamme, D; Mack, B; McCann, B; Volinsky, N; Blanco, A; Gires, O; Kolch, W

    2016-08-01

    A-Raf belongs to the family of oncogenic Raf kinases that are involved in mitogenic signaling by activating the MEK-ERK pathway. Low kinase activity of A-Raf toward MEK suggested that A-Raf might have alternative functions. We recently identified A-Raf as a potent inhibitor of the proapoptotic mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST2) tumor suppressor pathway in several cancer entities including head and neck, colon, and breast. Independent of kinase activity, A-Raf binds to MST2 thereby efficiently inhibiting apoptosis. Here, we show that the interaction of A-Raf with the MST2 pathway is regulated by subcellular compartmentalization. Although in proliferating normal cells and tumor cells A-Raf localizes to the mitochondria, differentiated non-carcinogenic cells of head and neck epithelia, which express A-Raf at the plasma membrane. The constitutive or induced re-localization of A-Raf to the plasma membrane compromises its ability to efficiently sequester and inactivate MST2, thus rendering cells susceptible to apoptosis. Physiologically, A-Raf re-localizes to the plasma membrane upon epithelial differentiation in vivo. This re-distribution is regulated by the scaffold protein kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2). Downregulation of KSR2 during mammary epithelial cell differentiation or siRNA-mediated knockdown re-localizes A-Raf to the plasma membrane causing the release of MST2. By using the MCF7 cell differentiation system, we could demonstrate that overexpression of A-Raf in MCF7 cells, which induces differentiation. Our findings offer a new paradigm to understand how differential localization of Raf complexes affects diverse signaling functions in normal cells and carcinomas. PMID:26891695

  15. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Pilot Study Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, effective, multi-system countermeasures will likely be required to protect the health, safety, and performance of crews aboard planned exploration-class space flight missions to Mars and beyond. To that end, NASA, DLR, and IMBP initiated a multi-center international project to begin systematically exploring the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure in ground based venues using test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. The goal of this project is to explore the efficacy of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensory-motor adaptations to hypogravity. This session reports the results from a pilot study commissioned to validate a standardized protocol to be used by all centers involved in the project. Subject selection criteria, medical monitoring requirements, medical care procedures, experiment control procedures, and standardized dependent measures were established jointly. Testing was performed on 15 rigorously screened male volunteers subjected to 21 days of 6deg HDT bed rest. (All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them.) Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple tests of multiple dependent measures were made in each of the primary physiological systems of interest during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period was complete. Analyses of these data (presented in other papers in this session) suggest the AG prescription had salutary effects on aspects of the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Furthermore, treatment subjects were able to tolerate 153/160 centrifuge sessions over

  16. Phenotype variability of infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease IMNEPD.

    PubMed

    Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Mignot, Cyril; Doummar, Diane; Hashem, Mais; Faqeih, Eissa; Josset, Patrice; Dubern, Béatrice; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Kraemer, Nadine; Kaindl, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease (IMNEPD) has been recently linked to biallelic mutation of the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase 2 gene PTRH2. Two index patients with IMNEPD in the original report had multiple neurological symptoms such as postnatal microcephaly, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sensorineural deafness, cerebellar atrophy, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. In addition, distal muscle weakness and abnormalities of thyroid, pancreas, and liver were found. Here, we report five further IMNEPD patients with a different homozygous PTRH2 mutation, broaden the phenotypic spectrum of the disease and differentiate common symptoms and interindividual variability in IMNEPD associated with a unique mutation. We thereby hope to better define IMNEPD and promote recognition and diagnosis of this novel disease entity. PMID:27129381

  17. Multi-system progressive angiomatosis in a dog resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Ide, K; Uchida, N; Iyori, K; Mochizuki, T; Fukushima, R; Iwasaki, T; Nishifuji, K

    2013-04-01

    A six-year-old, neutered, female golden retriever was presented with generalised, dark purple to black cutaneous nodules and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Histopathologically, all cutaneous nodules were diagnosed as benign cavernous haemangiomas. Endoscopic analysis revealed similar nodules in the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. At laparotomy, similar nodules were seen on the visceral peritoneal lining of abdominal organs. Metastatic haemangiosarcoma was ruled out based on histological features and lack of primary tumour in spleen, liver or heart ultrasonographically. Blood loss associated with gastrointestinal haemorrhage was managed with blood transfusion. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first canine case of multi-system progressive angiomatosis resembling blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome in humans. PMID:23496103

  18. Multisystemic Listeriosis in a Common Brushtail Possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and Two Common Ringtail Possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus).

    PubMed

    Sangster, C R

    2016-05-01

    A single free-ranging common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and 2 captive sibling common ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus peregrinus)from a zoological facility in Sydney, Australia, were diagnosed with multisystemic listeriosis. The brushtail was found dead in an animal enclosure while the ringtails presented with signs of cardiovascular collapse and died shortly thereafter. All 3 animals were culture positive forListeria monocytogenesand demonstrated focal suppurative lesions within the brainstem in addition to fulminant disease in other areas of the thorax and/or abdomen. Listeriosis in phalangeriformes species has rarely been reported, and brainstem lesions have not previously been described. It is speculated that access to the brainstem by the organism may have occurred hematogenously or via retrograde migration along cranial nerves. Sources of infection and the possibility of transmission between animals are also discussed. PMID:26215760

  19. Humanized TLR7/8 expression drives proliferative multisystemic histiocytosis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Nagy, Lee; Yam, Cathy; Yi, Jaehun; Brasfield, Alicia; Nguyen, Lisa Phuong Anh; Hajjar, Adeline M

    2014-01-01

    A humanized TLR7/TLR8 transgenic mouse line was engineered for studies using TLR7/8 ligands as vaccine adjuvants. The mice developed a spontaneous immune-mediated phenotype prior to six months of age characterized by runting, lethargy, blepharitis, and corneal ulceration. Histological examination revealed a marked, multisystemic histiocytic infiltrate that effaced normal architecture. The histological changes were distinct from those previously reported in mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus. When the mice were crossed with MyD88-/- mice, which prevented toll-like receptor signaling, the inflammatory phenotype resolved. Illness may be caused by constitutive activation of human TLR7 or TLR8 in the bacterial artificial chromosome positive mice as increased TLR7 and TLR8 expression or activation has previously been implicated in autoimmune disease. PMID:25229618

  20. Swelling of bilateral parotid glands: An unusual symptom of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mengjie; Sheng, Qi; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an unusual disorder of unknown etiology with heterogeneous clinical behaviors and variable outcomes. It can involve one or more organs or systems, but to our best knowledge, parotid glands involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is extremely rare in English literature. Method: We report a 13-month-old girl who presented with bilateral parotid swelling as presenting symptom. She was misdiagnosed for 4 months, but final diagnosis was multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Result: After being treated for 18 months, the patient acquired complete remission and attained similar growth status to other healthy children. Conclusion: Langerhans cell histiocytosis may involve any organ; in patients with parotid enlargement, Langerhans cell histiocytosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnoses. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for histologic evaluation as soon as possible and even repeatedly if initial results are negative for Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PMID:27489645

  1. Multi-System Effects of Daily Artificial Gravity Exposures in Humans Deconditioned by Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    We have begun to explore the utility of intermittent artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure to the untoward health and performance effects of adaptation to decreased gravity during prolonged space flight. The first study in this exploration was jointly designed by an international, multi-disciplinary team of scientists interested in standardizing an approach so that comparable data could be obtained from follow-on studies performed in multiple international locations. Fifteen rigorously screened male volunteers participated in the study after providing written informed consent. All were subjected to 21 days of 6deg head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple observations were made of dependent measures in the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immune, and behavioral systems during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period. Comparisons between the treatment and control subjects demonstrated salutary effects of the AG exposure on aspects of the muscle and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Bone deconditioning was similar between the treatment and control groups, suggesting that the loading provided by this specific AG paradigm was insufficient to protect that system from deconditioning. Future work will be devoted to varying the loading duty cycle and/or coupling the AG loading with exercise to provide maximum physiological protection across all systems. Testing will also be extended to female subjects. The results of this study suggest that intermittent AG could be an effective multi-system countermeasure.

  2. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  3. Posterior spinal instrumented fusion for idiopathic scoliosis in patients with multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Loh, K W; Chan, C Yw; Chiu, C K; Bin Hasan, M S; Kwan, M K

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke (MELAS) syndrome is a progressive multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder. MELAS syndrome impairs oxidative phosphorylation and predisposes patients to lactic acidosis, particularly under metabolic stress. We report 2 siblings with MELAS-associated idiopathic scoliosis who underwent posterior spinal instrumented fusion with measures taken to minimise anaesthetic and surgical stress, blood loss, and operating time. PMID:27574278

  4. Effect of anatomical variability on electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a parametric modeling study.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H; Peterchev, Angel V

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation modalities were modeled including bilateral and right unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), and MST with circular, cap, and double-cone coils. The electric field was computed using the finite element method in a parameterized spherical head model representing the variability in the general population. Head tissue layer thicknesses and conductivities were varied to examine the impact of interindividual anatomical differences on the stimulation strength, depth, and focality. Skull conductivity most strongly affects the ECT electric field, whereas the MST electric field is independent of tissue conductivity variation in this model but is markedly affected by differences in head diameter. Focal ECT electrode configurations such as FEAST is more sensitive to anatomical variability than that of less focal paradigms such as BL ECT. In MST, anatomical variability has stronger influence on the electric field of the cap and circular coils compared to the double-cone coil, possibly due to the more superficial field of the former. The variability of the ECT and MST electric fields due to anatomical differences should be considered in the interpretation of existing studies and in efforts to improve dosing approaches for better control of stimulation strength and focality across patients, such as individualization of the current amplitude. The conventional approach to individualizing dosage by titrating the number of pulses cannot compensate for differences in

  5. Effect of anatomical variability on electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a parametric modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-De; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Peterchev, Angel V.

    2014-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST) are conventionally applied with a fixed stimulus current amplitude, which may result in differences in the neural stimulation strength and focality across patients due to interindividual anatomical variability. The objective of this study is to quantify the effect of head anatomical variability associated with age, sex, and individual differences on the induced electric field characteristics in ECT and MST. Six stimulation modalities were modeled including bilateral and right unilateral ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), and MST with circular, cap, and double-cone coils. The electric field was computed using the finite element method in a parameterized spherical head model representing the variability in the general population. Head tissue layer thicknesses and conductivities were varied to examine the impact of interindividual anatomical differences on the stimulation strength, depth, and focality. Skull conductivity most strongly affects the ECT electric field, whereas the MST electric field is independent of tissue conductivity variation in this model but is markedly affected by differences in head diameter. Focal ECT electrode configurations such as FEAST is more sensitive to anatomical variability than that of less focal paradigms such as BL ECT. In MST, anatomical variability has stronger influence on the electric field of the cap and circular coils compared to the double-cone coil, possibly due to the more superficial field of the former. The variability of the ECT and MST electric field due to anatomical differences should be considered in the interpretation of existing studies and in efforts to improve dosing approaches for better control of stimulation strength and focality across patients, such as individualization of the current amplitude. The conventional approach to individualizing dosage by titrating the number of pulses cannot compensate for differences in

  6. The Differential Effects of Wild-Type and Mutated K-Ras on MST2 Signaling Are Determined by K-Ras Activation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Romano, David; Maccario, Helene; Doherty, Carolanne; Quinn, Niall P.

    2013-01-01

    K-Ras is frequently mutated in human cancers. Mutant (mt) K-Ras can stimulate both oncogenic transformation and apoptosis through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT pathways and the MST2 pathway, respectively. The biological outcome is determined by the balance and cross talk between these pathways. In colorectal cancer (CRC), a K-Ras mutation is negatively correlated with MST2 expression, as mt K-Ras can induce apoptosis by activating the MST2 pathway. However, wild-type (wt) K-Ras can prevent the activation of the MST2 pathway upon growth factor stimulation and enable transformation by mt K-Ras in CRC cells that express MST2. Here we have investigated the mechanism by which wt and mt K-Ras differentially regulate the MST2 pathway and MST2-dependent apoptosis. The ability of K-Ras to activate MST2 and MST2-dependent apoptosis is determined by the differential activation kinetics of mt K-Ras and wt K-Ras. Chronic activation of K-Ras by mutation or overexpression of Ras exchange factors results in the activation of MST2 and LATS1, increased MST2-LATS1 complex formation, and apoptosis. In contrast, transient K-Ras activation upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation prevents the formation of the MST2-LATS1 complex in an AKT-dependent manner. Our data suggest that the close relationship between Ras prosurvival and proapoptotic signaling is coordinated via the differential regulation of the MST2-LATS1 interaction by transient and chronic stimuli. PMID:23459937

  7. Long-Read Single Molecule Sequencing to Resolve Tandem Gene Copies: The Mst77Y Region on the Drosophila melanogaster Y Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Krsticevic, Flavia J; Schrago, Carlos G; Carvalho, A Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    The autosomal gene Mst77F of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for male fertility. In 2010, Krsticevic et al. (Genetics 184: 295-307) found 18 Y-linked copies of Mst77F ("Mst77Y"), which collectively account for 20% of the functional Mst77F-like mRNA. The Mst77Y genes were severely misassembled in the then-available genome assembly and were identified by cloning and sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The genomic structure of the Mst77Y region and the possible existence of additional copies remained unknown. The recent publication of two long-read assemblies of D. melanogaster prompted us to reinvestigate this challenging region of the Y chromosome. We found that the Illumina Synthetic Long Reads assembly failed in the Mst77Y region, most likely because of its tandem duplication structure. The PacBio MHAP assembly of the Mst77Y region seems to be very accurate, as revealed by comparisons with the previously found Mst77Y genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome sequence, and Illumina reads of the same strain. We found that the Mst77Y region spans 96 kb and originated from a 3.4-kb transposition from chromosome 3L to the Y chromosome, followed by tandem duplications inside the Y chromosome and invasion of transposable elements, which account for 48% of its length. Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction-induced artifacts. There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes. PMID:25858959

  8. Long-Read Single Molecule Sequencing to Resolve Tandem Gene Copies: The Mst77Y Region on the Drosophila melanogaster Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Krsticevic, Flavia J.; Schrago, Carlos G.; Carvalho, A. Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The autosomal gene Mst77F of Drosophila melanogaster is essential for male fertility. In 2010, Krsticevic et al. (Genetics 184: 295−307) found 18 Y-linked copies of Mst77F (“Mst77Y”), which collectively account for 20% of the functional Mst77F-like mRNA. The Mst77Y genes were severely misassembled in the then-available genome assembly and were identified by cloning and sequencing polymerase chain reaction products. The genomic structure of the Mst77Y region and the possible existence of additional copies remained unknown. The recent publication of two long-read assemblies of D. melanogaster prompted us to reinvestigate this challenging region of the Y chromosome. We found that the Illumina Synthetic Long Reads assembly failed in the Mst77Y region, most likely because of its tandem duplication structure. The PacBio MHAP assembly of the Mst77Y region seems to be very accurate, as revealed by comparisons with the previously found Mst77Y genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome sequence, and Illumina reads of the same strain. We found that the Mst77Y region spans 96 kb and originated from a 3.4-kb transposition from chromosome 3L to the Y chromosome, followed by tandem duplications inside the Y chromosome and invasion of transposable elements, which account for 48% of its length. Twelve of the 18 Mst77Y genes found in 2010 were confirmed in the PacBio assembly, the remaining six being polymerase chain reaction−induced artifacts. There are several identical copies of some Mst77Y genes, coincidentally bringing the total copy number to 18. Besides providing a detailed picture of the Mst77Y region, our results highlight the utility of PacBio technology in assembling difficult genomic regions such as tandemly repeated genes. PMID:25858959

  9. B{sub 4}C solid target boronization of the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Cekic, M.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Kendrick, R.D.; Prager, S.C.; Stoneking, M.R.

    1992-10-01

    A solid rod of hot-pressed boron carbide is being used as the source of boron during boronization of MST. The most striking result of this procedure is the reduction in oxygen contamination of the plasma (O III radiation, characteristic of oxygen at the edge, falls by about a factor of 3 after boronization.). The radiated power fraction drops to about half its initial value. Particle reflux from the wall is also lowered, making density control simpler. The rod (12.7 mm diameter) is inserted into the edge plasma of normal high-power RFP discharges. B{sub 4}C is ablated from the surface of the rod and deposited in a thin film (a-B/C:H) on the walls and limiters. The energy flux carried by ``superthermal`` (not ``runaway``) electrons at the edge of MST appears to enhance the efficient, non-destructive ablation of the boron carbide rod.

  10. B sub 4 C solid target boronization of the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Cekic, M.; Fiksel, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Kendrick, R.D.; Prager, S.C.; Stoneking, M.R.

    1992-10-01

    A solid rod of hot-pressed boron carbide is being used as the source of boron during boronization of MST. The most striking result of this procedure is the reduction in oxygen contamination of the plasma (O III radiation, characteristic of oxygen at the edge, falls by about a factor of 3 after boronization.). The radiated power fraction drops to about half its initial value. Particle reflux from the wall is also lowered, making density control simpler. The rod (12.7 mm diameter) is inserted into the edge plasma of normal high-power RFP discharges. B{sub 4}C is ablated from the surface of the rod and deposited in a thin film (a-B/C:H) on the walls and limiters. The energy flux carried by superthermal'' (not runaway'') electrons at the edge of MST appears to enhance the efficient, non-destructive ablation of the boron carbide rod.

  11. Meteorological and aeronomical requirements for MST radar networks (keynote paper), part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST) radar are phase coherent radars that measure the amplitude and Doppler shift of radio waves that are scattered back to the receiving antennas. For a monostatic system, the line-of-sight projection of the wind vector is obtained if one assumes that the atmospheric scatterers are being swept along with the wind velocity. The three-dimensional wind is then derived either by using multiple beams or by beam swinging. The turbulence intensity is derived either by measuring the backscattered power or by deriving the width of the autocorrelation function for the wind. Furthermore, some information on sharp changes in the atmospheric static stability (e.g., at the tropopause) can be obtained by looking for specular reflections. The discussion addresses the question of how these MST measurement capabilities can contribute to various meteorological and aeronomical research areas.

  12. The economics of data acquisition computers for ST and MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Some low cost options for data acquisition computers for ST (stratosphere, troposphere) and MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere) are presented. The particular equipment discussed reflects choices made by the University of Alaska group but of course many other options exist. The low cost microprocessor and array processor approach presented here has several advantages because of its modularity. An inexpensive system may be configured for a minimum performance ST radar, whereas a multiprocessor and/or a multiarray processor system may be used for a higher performance MST radar. This modularity is important for a network of radars because the initial cost is minimized while future upgrades will still be possible at minimal expense. This modularity also aids in lowering the cost of software development because system expansions should rquire little software changes. The functions of the radar computer will be to obtain Doppler spectra in near real time with some minor analysis such as vector wind determination.

  13. Capabilities and limitations of the Jicamarca radar as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.; Farley, D. T.

    1983-01-01

    The Jicamarca radar (Long. 76.52W, Lat. 11.56S), located at 20 km from Lima at approximately 500 meters over sea level, is surrounded by mountains which provide a good shield from man-made interference. The radio horizon goes from a few hundred meters, across the dry valley where it is located, to 15 km, along the valley in the direction of the continental divide. This limits the clutter to 15 km, except for one high peak at 21 km. It is the most equatorial of all existing MST radars. Its proximity to the Andes, makes its location unique for the study of lee waves and orographic-induced turbulence. Vertical as well as horizontal projections of MST velocities are obtained by simultaneously pointing with different sections of the antenna into three or four different directions. The transmitters, receivers, and systems for data acquisition, processing, and control are included.

  14. Construction of a Pulse-Burst Laser System for Fast Thomson Scattering on the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, D. J.

    2007-11-01

    A ``pulse-burst'' laser system is being constructed for addition to the Thomson scattering diagnostic on the MST RFP. This laser will produce a burst of up to 200 approximately 1 J Q-switched pulses at repetition frequencies 5-250 kHz. This laser system will operate at 1064 nm and is a master oscillator, power amplifier (MOPA). The master oscillator is a compact diode-pumped vanadate laser, intermediate amplifier stages are flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG, and final stage(s) will be flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass (silicate). The burst train of laser pulses will enable the study of Te and ne dynamics in a single MST shot, and with ensembling, will enable correlation of Te and ne fluctuations with other fluctuating quantities.

  15. Smooth pursuit preparation modulates neuronal responses in visual areas MT and MST.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Vincent P

    2015-07-01

    Primates are able to track small moving visual targets using smooth pursuit eye movements. Target motion for smooth pursuit is signaled by neurons in visual cortical areas MT and MST. In this study, we trained monkeys to either initiate or withhold smooth pursuit in the presence of a moving target to test whether this decision was reflected in the relative strength of "go" and "no-go" processes. We found that the gain of the motor response depended strongly on whether monkeys were instructed to initiate or withhold pursuit, thus demonstrating voluntary control of pursuit initiation. We found that the amplitude of the neuronal response to moving targets in areas MT and MST was also significantly lower on no-go trials (by 2.1 spikes/s on average). The magnitude of the neural response reduction was small compared with the behavioral gain reduction. There were no significant differences in neuronal direction selectivity, spatial selectivity, or response reliability related to pursuit initiation or the absence thereof. Variability in eye speed was negatively correlated with firing rate variability after target motion onset during go trials but not during no-go trials, suggesting that MT and MST activity represents an error signal for a negative feedback controller. We speculate that modulation of the visual motion signals in areas MT and MST may be one of the first visual cortical events in the initiation of smooth pursuit and that the small early response modulation may be amplified to produce an all-or-none motor response by downstream areas. PMID:26019315

  16. Smooth pursuit preparation modulates neuronal responses in visual areas MT and MST

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Primates are able to track small moving visual targets using smooth pursuit eye movements. Target motion for smooth pursuit is signaled by neurons in visual cortical areas MT and MST. In this study, we trained monkeys to either initiate or withhold smooth pursuit in the presence of a moving target to test whether this decision was reflected in the relative strength of “go” and “no-go” processes. We found that the gain of the motor response depended strongly on whether monkeys were instructed to initiate or withhold pursuit, thus demonstrating voluntary control of pursuit initiation. We found that the amplitude of the neuronal response to moving targets in areas MT and MST was also significantly lower on no-go trials (by 2.1 spikes/s on average). The magnitude of the neural response reduction was small compared with the behavioral gain reduction. There were no significant differences in neuronal direction selectivity, spatial selectivity, or response reliability related to pursuit initiation or the absence thereof. Variability in eye speed was negatively correlated with firing rate variability after target motion onset during go trials but not during no-go trials, suggesting that MT and MST activity represents an error signal for a negative feedback controller. We speculate that modulation of the visual motion signals in areas MT and MST may be one of the first visual cortical events in the initiation of smooth pursuit and that the small early response modulation may be amplified to produce an all-or-none motor response by downstream areas. PMID:26019315

  17. A note on the use of coherent integration in periodogram analysis of MST radar signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of coherent integration on the periodogram method to estimate the power spectra of MST radar signals is examined. The spectrum estimate usually is biased, even when care is taken to reduce the aliasing effects. Due to this bias, the signal power for Doppler shifted signals is underestimated by as much as 4 dB. The use of coherent integration in reducing the effect of aliased power line harmonics is pointed out.

  18. On the morphology of the scattering medium as seen by MST/ST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    Much is learned about the morphology of the small scale structures of the atmosphere from analysis of echoes observed by MST radars. The use of physical models enables a synthesis of diverse observations. Each model contains an implicit assumption about the nature of the irregularity structure of the medium. A comparison is made between the irregularity structure implicit in several models and what is known about the structure of the medium.

  19. Manipulating the content of dynamic natural scenes to characterize response in human MT/MST.

    PubMed

    Durant, Szonya; Wall, Matthew B; Zanker, Johannes M

    2011-01-01

    Optic flow is one of the most important sources of information for enabling human navigation through the world. A striking finding from single-cell studies in monkeys is the rapid saturation of response of MT/MST areas with the density of optic flow type motion information. These results are reflected psychophysically in human perception in the saturation of motion aftereffects. We began by comparing responses to natural optic flow scenes in human visual brain areas to responses to the same scenes with inverted contrast (photo negative). This changes scene familiarity while preserving local motion signals. This manipulation had no effect; however, the response was only correlated with the density of local motion (calculated by a motion correlation model) in V1, not in MT/MST. To further investigate this, we manipulated the visible proportion of natural dynamic scenes and found that areas MT and MST did not increase in response over a 16-fold increase in the amount of information presented, i.e., response had saturated. This makes sense in light of the sparseness of motion information in natural scenes, suggesting that the human brain is well adapted to exploit a small amount of dynamic signal and extract information important for survival. PMID:21908713

  20. Advanced control of MST's poloidal field with a programmable power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, B. E.; Holly, D. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Sarff, J. S.; Squitieri, A.; Anderson, J. K.; Seltzman, A. H.

    2015-11-01

    One thrust of the MST program is to advance inductive control for the development of both the RFP's fusion potential and the predictive capability of fusion science. This entails programmable power supplies (PPS's) for the Bt and Bp circuits. A Bt PPS is in place, and a Bp PPS is being designed. Together, these supplies will provide inductive capability rivaling that of any fusion device in the world. To better inform the design of the Bp PPS, and to demonstrate some of the new capabilities that will be provided, the existing Bt PPS has been connected to MST's Bp circuit. While limited to lower voltage and current than the planned Bp PPS, this has already more than quadrupled the Ip flattop duration. It has also allowed access to very low Ip, down to 20 kA, substantially increasing MST's range of Lundquist number, important for the validation of MHD computational models. Low Ip has also allowed electron energization by high-harmonic EBW. At higher Ip, work has begun on self-similar ramp-down of Ip, a potential route to improved confinement. Work supported by U.S.D.O.E.

  1. A new active array MST radar system with enhanced capabilities for high resolution atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Narayana Rao, T.; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Kmv, Prasad; Kamal Kumar, J.; Raghavendra, J.; Prasad, T. Rajendra; Thriveni, A.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A new version of the 53-MHz MST Radar, using the 1024 solid state Transmit-Receive Modules (TRM), necessary feeder network, multi-channel receiver and a modified radar controller has been established using the existing antenna array of 1024 crossed Yagis. The new system has been configured for steering the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis in all 360o azimuth and 20o zenith angle, providing enhanced capability to study the Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere and Ionosphere. The multi channel receiver system has been designed for Spaced Antenna (SA) and Interferometry/ Iamging applications. The new system has also been configured for radiating in circular polarization for its application in the Ionosphere Incoherent Scatter mode. The new active array MST radar at Very-High-Frequency (53-MHz) located at Gadanki (13.45°N, 79.18°E), a tropical station in India, will be used to enhance the observations of winds, turbulence during the passage of convective events over the radar site as deep convection occurs very often at tropical latitudes. The new configuration with enhanced average power, beam agility with multi-channel experiments will be a potential source for studying middle atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present the system configuration, new capabilities and the first results obtained using the new version of the MST Radar.

  2. Validity of 20-MST for predicting VO2max of adult Singaporean athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Sproule, J; Kunalan, C; McNeill, M; Wright, H

    1993-01-01

    This investigation compared the results of direct and indirect measurements of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of an Asian population. Twenty subjects (16 male, 4 female), all of whom were physical education students, were assessed directly using laboratory treadmill running to determine VO2max. The indirect estimation of VO2max was obtained using a modified form of the Leger and Lambert 20-m multistage shuttle run test (20-MST). Heart rates were recorded throughout both tests. Pearson product moment correlations confirmed test-retest reliability for both direct and indirect measurements (r = 0.90 and r = 0.91 respectively). Differences for test-retest were found to be not significant. No differences were found between the maximal heart rate responses of the subjects for the direct and indirect tests. Of the subjects 75% had a lower predicted VO2max value (P < 0.01) compared with results gained by direct measurements when the Ramsbottom norms for the 20-MST were used. The reasons for this difference could be due to the different racial groups used as subjects, the climatic conditions in Singapore, or the small sample size. In order for the 20-MST test to be considered a valid measure of aerobic fitness in Singapore with an Asian population further study is recommended. PMID:8242281

  3. Helical Magnetic Self-Organization in the RFX-mod and MST devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Spolaore, M.; Cappello, S.; Puiatti, M. E.; Chapman, B. E.; Sarff, J. S.; den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M. B.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Stephens, H. D.; Yang, Y. M.

    2010-11-01

    Self-organization of the reversed field pinch with large helical structure (QSH regimes) is predominant as plasma current is increased. In RFX-mod, the persistence and strength of the QSH state increases markedly above 1 MA. An internal transport barrier appears, and plasma thermalization within the helical magnetic surfaces reflects improved confinement. The QSH regime is also obtained in MST plasmas, which operates with plasma current up to nearly 0.6 MA. We report here a statistical analysis of the tearing mode behavior in MST (e.g., amplitudes and QSH persistency) that reveals a trend with plasma current similar to that observed in RFX-Mod. This trend supports an expectation for universal behavior that depends on parameters such as the Lundquist number that vary with the plasma current. Analysis of the common database from the two devices should help reveal key physics for QSH onset and dynamics. Planned Thomson scattering measurements and transport analysis on MST will be important to compare with the confinement behavior established for RFX-Mod. Work supported by USDoE.

  4. Quantitative Simulations of MST Visual Receptive Field Properties Using a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    We previously developed a template model of primate visual self-motion processing that proposes a specific set of projections from MT-like local motion sensors onto output units to estimate heading and relative depth from optic flow. At the time, we showed that that the model output units have emergent properties similar to those of MSTd neurons, although there was little physiological evidence to test the model more directly. We have now systematically examined the properties of the model using stimulus paradigms used by others in recent single-unit studies of MST: 1) 2-D bell-shaped heading tuning. Most MSTd neurons and model output units show bell-shaped heading tuning. Furthermore, we found that most model output units and the finely-sampled example neuron in the Duffy-Wurtz study are well fit by a 2D gaussian (sigma approx. 35deg, r approx. 0.9). The bandwidth of model and real units can explain why Lappe et al. found apparent sigmoidal tuning using a restricted range of stimuli (+/-40deg). 2) Spiral Tuning and Invariance. Graziano et al. found that many MST neurons appear tuned to a specific combination of rotation and expansion (spiral flow) and that this tuning changes little for approx. 10deg shifts in stimulus placement. Simulations of model output units under the same conditions quantitatively replicate this result. We conclude that a template architecture may underlie MT inputs to MST.

  5. Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on 3D equilibria in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano; Chapman, B. E.; Almagri, A. F.; Boguski, J.; Cianciosa, M.; den Hartog, D. J.; Dubois, A. M.; Goetz, J. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Holly, D. J.; McCollam, K. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.; Norval, R. J.; Sarff, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    The orientation of 3D equilibria in the MST RFP can now be controlled with application of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). This control has led to improved diagnosis revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. Coupled to a recent advance in the V3FIT code, reconstructions of the 3D equilibria have also been improved. The RMP also inhibits generation of high-energy (>20keV) electrons, which are otherwise produced with the 3D state. This state occurs when the normally broad spectrum of core-resonant m = 1 tearing modes condenses, with the innermost resonant mode growing to large amplitude ~ 8% of the axisymmetric field. As the dominant mode grows, eddy current in MST's conducting shell slows the mode's rotation, eventually leading to locking of the 3D structure. An m = 1 RMP with an amplitude br/B ~ 10% can force the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. Reduced stochasticity and improved confinement of high-energy electrons during the formations of the 3D structure are observed. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  6. A multisystemic Acanthamoeba infection in a dog in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Comyn-Afonso, Estefanía; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Maciver, Sutherland K; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-10-15

    A 22-month-old male Spanish water dog was hospitalized after its physical examination revealed fever and movement difficulty. After 24h, the dog was found to have a high fever (39.5 °C) and was treated empirically with doxycycline/ciprofloxacin. At 48 h, after submission the fever rose to 41 °C and the animal presented with a stiff neck and dehydration. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were sampled and trophozoites with an Acanthamoeba-like morphology were observed in the CSF. PCR specific for Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris were performed and the CSF sample found positive for Acanthamoeba. Lungs, kidney, liver and spleen samples were collected post mortem. All collected organ samples were positive for Acanthamoeba by PCR, thus confirming a multisystemic infection. Water samples taken at a suspected site of infection yielded an almost identical PCR fragment to those of the clinical samples, indicating that this was probably where the infection originated. This is the first report of a fatal case of Acanthamoeba disseminated infection in a dog in Spain. PMID:25193180

  7. Ultrastructural findings in lymph nodes from pigs suffering from naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cariño, C; Segalés, J

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate ultrastructural lesions in lymph nodes from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pigs and to correlate these alterations with detection of viral-like particles (VLPs). Samples of lymph nodes were taken from 4 PMWS-affected pigs and 2 healthy animals and processed by transmission electron microscopy. Significant ultrastructural alterations were only noted in PMWS-affected pigs, mainly in histiocytes and rarely in other cell types. Histiocytes showed severe swelling and proliferation of mitochondria, and proliferation and dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Infected histiocytes contained large numbers of intracytoplasmic inclusion (ICI) bodies with VLPs; some histiocytes also had intranuclear inclusions (INIs). Small inclusions were surrounded by double membrane, with a granular appearance or containing paracrystalline arrays; icosahedral VLPs were 8-17 nm in diameter. Large ICIs were double-membrane bounded or not and contained VLPs usually forming paracrystalline arrays. ICIs were often found next to mitochondria with severe swelling, and also inside them. INIs were not surrounded by membranes and contained virions of 10-13 nm diameter. Lymphocyte depletion was a striking finding of lymph nodes from PMWS-affected pigs. The inclusion bodies containing VLPs referred to in the present study should be classified as viral factories, suggesting that viral replication is probably a frequent event in macrophages, in which mitochondria might play a role. PMID:19276043

  8. Kcne2 Deletion Creates a Multisystem Syndrome Predisposing to Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyang; Kant, Ritu; Anand, Marie; King, Elizabeth C.; Krogh-Madsen, Trine; Christini, David J.; Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading global cause of mortality, exhibiting increased incidence in diabetics. Ion channel gene perturbations provide a well-established ventricular arrhythmogenic substrate for SCD. However, most arrhythmia susceptibility genes - including the KCNE2 K+ channel β subunit - are expressed in multiple tissues, suggesting potential multiplex SCD substrates. Methods and Results Using “whole transcript” transcriptomics, we uncovered cardiac angiotensinogen upregulation and remodeling of cardiac angiotensinogen interaction networks in P21 Kcne2−/− mouse pups, and adrenal remodeling consistent with metabolic syndrome in adult Kcne2−/− mice. This led to the discovery that Kcne2 disruption causes multiple acknowledged SCD substrates of extracardiac origin: diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hyperkalemia, anemia and elevated angiotensin II. Kcne2 deletion was also prerequisite for aging-dependent QT prolongation, ventricular fibrillation and SCD immediately following transient ischemia, and fasting-dependent hypoglycemia, myocardial ischemia and atrioventricular block. Conclusions Disruption of a single, widely expressed arrhythmia susceptibility gene can generate a multisystem syndrome comprising manifold electrical and systemic substrates and triggers of SCD. This paradigm is expected to apply to other arrhythmia susceptibility genes, the majority of which encode ubiquitously expressed ion channel subunits or regulatory proteins. PMID:24403551

  9. Judging sound rotation when listeners and sounds rotate: Sound source localization is a multisystem process.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A; Zhong, Xuan; Najam, Anbar

    2015-11-01

    In four experiments listeners were rotated or were stationary. Sounds came from a stationary loudspeaker or rotated from loudspeaker to loudspeaker around an azimuth array. When either sounds or listeners rotate the auditory cues used for sound source localization change, but in the everyday world listeners perceive sound rotation only when sounds rotate not when listeners rotate. In the everyday world sound source locations are referenced to positions in the environment (a world-centric reference system). The auditory cues for sound source location indicate locations relative to the head (a head-centric reference system), not locations relative to the world. This paper deals with a general hypothesis that the world-centric location of sound sources requires the auditory system to have information about auditory cues used for sound source location and cues about head position. The use of visual and vestibular information in determining rotating head position in sound rotation perception was investigated. The experiments show that sound rotation perception when sources and listeners rotate was based on acoustic, visual, and, perhaps, vestibular information. The findings are consistent with the general hypotheses and suggest that sound source localization is not based just on acoustics. It is a multisystem process. PMID:26627802

  10. Variations in optical coherence tomography resolution and uniformity: a multi-system performance comparison.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Anthony; Pfefer, T Joshua; Chen, Chao-Wei; Gong, Wei; Agrawal, Anant; Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter D; Drezek, Rebekah A; Chen, Yu

    2014-07-01

    Point spread function (PSF) phantoms based on unstructured distributions of sub-resolution particles in a transparent matrix have been demonstrated as a useful tool for evaluating resolution and its spatial variation across image volumes in optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. Measurements based on PSF phantoms have the potential to become a standard test method for consistent, objective and quantitative inter-comparison of OCT system performance. Towards this end, we have evaluated three PSF phantoms and investigated their ability to compare the performance of four OCT systems. The phantoms are based on 260-nm-diameter gold nanoshells, 400-nm-diameter iron oxide particles and 1.5-micron-diameter silica particles. The OCT systems included spectral-domain and swept source systems in free-beam geometries as well as a time-domain system in both free-beam and fiberoptic probe geometries. Results indicated that iron oxide particles and gold nanoshells were most effective for measuring spatial variations in the magnitude and shape of PSFs across the image volume. The intensity of individual particles was also used to evaluate spatial variations in signal intensity uniformity. Significant system-to-system differences in resolution and signal intensity and their spatial variation were readily quantified. The phantoms proved useful for identification and characterization of irregularities such as astigmatism. Our multi-system results provide evidence of the practical utility of PSF-phantom-based test methods for quantitative inter-comparison of OCT system resolution and signal uniformity. PMID:25071949

  11. Development of a Multisystemic Parent Management Training Intervention for Incarcerated Parents, Their Children and Families.

    PubMed

    Eddy, J Mark; Martinez, Charles R; Schiffmann, Tracy; Newton, Rex; Olin, Laura; Leve, Leslie; Foney, Dana M; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2008-11-01

    The majority of men and women prison inmates are parents. Many lived with children prior to incarceration, and most have at least some contact with their children and families while serving their sentences. As prison populations have increased in the United States, there has been a renewed interest in finding ways not only to reduce recidivism, but also to prevent incarceration in the first place, particularly amongst the children of incarcerated parents. Positive family interaction is related to both issues. The ongoing development of a multisystemic intervention designed to increase positive family interaction for parents and families involved in the criminal justice system is described. The intervention package currently includes a prison-based parent management training program called Parenting Inside Out (PIO); a prison-based therapeutic visitation program; and complimentary versions of PIO designed for jail and probation and parole settings. Work on other components designed for justice-involved parents, children and for caregivers during reunification from prison is ongoing. Program development has occurred within the context of strong support from the state department of corrections and other key governmental and non-profit sector groups, and support systems have been established to help maintain the interventions as well as to develop complimentary interventions, policies and procedures. PMID:19885365

  12. Lack of evidence of conserved lentiviral sequences in pigs with post weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bratanich, A; Lairmore, M; Heneine, W; Konoby, C; Harding, J; West, K; Vasquez, G; Allan, G; Ellis, J

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of retroviruses in the recently described porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) serum and leukocytes were screened for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and tissues were examined for the presence of conserved lentiviral sequences using degenerate primers in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum and stimulated leukocytes from the blood and lymph nodes from pigs with PMWS, as well as from control pigs had RT activity that was detected by the sensitive Amp-RT assay. A 257-bp fragment was amplified from DNA from the blood and bone marrow of pigs with PMWS. This fragment was identical in size to conserved lentiviral sequences that were amplified from plasmids containing DNA from several lentiviruses. Cloning and sequencing of the fragment from affected pigs, however, did not reveal homology with the recognized lentiviruses. Together the results of these analyses suggest that the RT activity present in tissues from control and affected pigs is the result of endogenous retrovirus expression, and that a lentivirus is not a primary pathogen in PMWS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10480463

  13. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Judith E.; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this “toxic” stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P < 0.001]. Inversely, higher amounts of reported parental warmth and affection during childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = −0.40 (0.14); P < 0.005]. A significant interaction of abuse and warmth (P < 0.05) was found, such that individuals reporting low levels of love and affection and high levels of abuse in childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood. PMID:24062432

  14. Sugar exchanges in arbuscular mycorrhiza: RiMST5 and RiMST6, two novel Rhizophagus irregularis monosaccharide transporters, are involved in both sugar uptake from the soil and from the plant partner.

    PubMed

    Ait Lahmidi, Nassima; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Brulé, Daphnée; Chatagnier, Odile; Arnould, Christine; Doidy, Joan; Berta, Graziella; Lingua, Guido; Wipf, Daniel; Bonneau, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are associated with about 80% of land plants. AM fungi provide inorganic nutrients to plants and in return up to 20% of the plant-fixed CO2 is transferred to the fungal symbionts. Since AM fungi are obligate biotrophs, unraveling how sugars are provided to the fungus partner is a key for understanding the functioning of the symbiosis. In this study, we identified two new monosaccharide transporters from Rhizophagus irregularis (RiMST5 and RiMST6) that we characterized as functional high affinity monosaccharide transporters. RiMST6 was characterized as a glucose specific, high affinity H(+) co-transporter. We provide experimental support for a primary role of both RiMST5 and RiMST6 in sugar uptake directly from the soil. The expression patterns of RiMSTs in response to partial light deprivation and to interaction with different host plants were investigated. Expression of genes coding for RiMSTs was transiently enhanced after 48 h of shading and was unambiguously dependent on the host plant species. These results cast doubt on the 'fair trade' principle under carbon-limiting conditions. Therefore, in light of these findings, the possible mechanisms involved in the modulation between mutualism and parasitism in plant-AM fungus interactions are discussed. PMID:27362299

  15. Translational Development Strategy for Magnetic Seizure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rowny, Stefan; Benzl, Karla; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has unparalleled antidepressant efficacy, but its cognitive side effects may be persistent. Research suggests that the side effects may be at least partially dissociable from the therapeutic effects of ECT, suggesting that distinct cortical networks may underlie them and introducing a role for focal seizure induction as a means of minimizing side effects. In magnetic seizure therapy (MST), magnetic fields avoid tissue impedance and induce electrical currents confined to superficial cortex, facilitating focal seizure induction. The translational development strategy for MST has included: (1) device development, (2) feasibility in animals and initial human trials, (3) testing in nonhuman primates on safety and mechanisms of action (with neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and cognitive endpoints), (4) safety testing in patients, (5) initial efficacy testing in patients, (6) dosage optimization, and (7) randomized comparison with ECT. These stages have been iterative, with results of early clinical testing prompting device enhancements that were, in turn, tested in nonhuman primates prior to human trials. Safety testing was aided by development of a nonhuman primate model of human ECT, and the validation of a cognitive battery for the monkey that is sensitive to the range of effects of ECT on human memory. Human testing has been facilitated by the development of an international consortium of centers addressing various aspects of technique and dose/response relationships. Challenges facing MST are common to other device based therapies: characterizing dose/response relationships, optimizing efficacy, and developing efficient and reliable methods to induce lasting therapeutic change in the circuitry underlying depression. PMID:19348798

  16. Effect of food on the comparative pharmacokinetics of modified-release morphine tablet formulations: Oramorph SR and MST Continus

    PubMed Central

    DRAKE, J.; KIRKPATRICK, C. T.; ALIYAR, C. A.; CRAWFORD, F. E.; GIBSON, P.; HORTH, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    The relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profiles of Oramorph SR (OSR) and MST Continus (MST), were evaluated by a randomized, four-way cross-over study in 24 healthy, male volunteers given single oral (30 mg) doses whilst fasting or after a high-fat breakfast. Mean Cmax, tmax, AUC(0,24h), AUC and tlag were significantly greater in fed compared with fasting subjects. Overall relative bioavailability of the two formulations (log AUC), was within the acceptable 80–125% limits for bioequivalence both fed and fasting. Mean fasting Cmax for OSR was greater than MST (P<0.05) but there was no difference between formulations in mean fed Cmax. No statistically significant difference between OSR and MST was found for other parameters nor in the incidence of adverse events. These results suggest that OSR and MST are bioequivalent and that if patients were to transfer between formulations, dosage adjustment would be unnecessary, irrespective of their meal schedules or food intake. PMID:8735684

  17. Paleoelevation and paleotemperature of the Ethiopian Plateau from multi-system stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, M. R.; Gani, N. D.; Huang, Y.; Rowley, D. B.; Tadesse, K.; Neupane, P. C.

    2011-12-01

    In earth system modeling of the past, paleoelevation and paleotemperature of a region are key variables, yet they remain mostly controversial. Recently developed various stable-isotopic techniques and associated quantitative calculations of elevation and temperature from the sedimentary record are highly potential in constraining tectonic and climatic history of an elevated landscape. Epeirogenic Ethiopian Plateau in the Horn of Africa was uplifted through combined effect of upward doming of the Afar mantle plume and tearing of the lithosphere that created East African Rift System. The northwestern plateau experienced spectacularly deep incisions of the Blue Nile, a tributary of the Nile River, that started after extensive volcanisms of the Afar mantle plume accumulating ~1 km (average) thick flood basalts around 30 Ma. Here, we undertook robust multi-system approach of stable isotope analysis of intrabasalt sedimentary rocks to constrain paleoelevation and paleotemperature of the Ethiopian Plateau. Organic-rich shale, paleosol, and pedogenic carbonate nodules were sampled around the plateau from fluvial-floodplain and lacustrine strata of late Oligocene to early Miocene age. Compound specific δD and δ13C from n-alkyl lipids (both n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids) of leaf wax, microbially derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) from shale and plaeosols, and δ18O and δ13C from pedogenic carbonates were analyzed. Estimated paleotemperatures from GDGTs, when calibrated to East African modern soil and lake deposits, varies from 20 to 22 degrees C (mean annual air temperature). These initial results, combined with the relatively enriched values (comparing to known, low-elevation values) of δD and δ18O indicate that during late Oligocene and early Miocene the Ethiopian Plateau was quite different than today and likely was a low elevated (~1 km) terrain with a warmer, humid climate.

  18. Assessment and quantification of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome severity at farm level.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Pablo; Velasova, Martina; Werling, Dirk; Stärk, Katharina D C; Chang, Yu-Mei; Nevel, Amanda; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Wieland, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) causes major economic losses for the English pig industry and severity of clinical signs and economic impact vary considerably between affected farms. We present here a novel approach to quantify severity of PMWS based on morbidity and mortality data and presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). In 2008-2009, 147 pig farms across England, non-vaccinating for PCV2, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Factor analysis was used to generate variables representing biologically meaningful aspects of variation among qualitative and quantitative morbidity variables. Together with other known variables linked to PMWS, the resulting factors were included in a principal component analysis (PCA) to derive an algorithm for PMWS severity. Factor analysis resulted in two factors: Morbidity Factor 1 (MF1) representing mainly weaner and grower morbidity, and Morbidity Factor 2 (MF2) which mainly reflects variation in finisher morbidity. This indicates that farms either had high morbidity mainly in weaners/growers or mainly in finishers. Subsequent PCA resulted in the extraction of one component representing variation in MF1, post-weaning mortality and percentage of PCV2 PCR positive animals. Component scores were normalised to a value range from 0 to 10 and farms classified into: non or slightly affected farms with a score <4, moderately affected farms with scores 4-6.5 and highly affected farms with a score >6.5. The identified farm level PMWS severities will be used to identify risk factors related to these, to assess the efficacy of PCV2 vaccination and investigating the economic impact of potential control measures. PMID:21036410

  19. Microarray analysis of mediastinal lymph node of pigs naturally affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, L T; Tomás, A; Bensaid, A; Sibila, M; Sánchez, A; Segalés, J

    2012-05-01

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is one of the pig diseases with major economic impact worldwide. Clinical, pathologic and some immunologic aspects of this disease are relatively well-known, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease are still poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the global transcriptome changes in the mediastinal lymph nodes from pigs naturally affected by PMWS, as well as healthy counterparts, using the Affymetrix Porcine Genechip(®). From 366 transcripts showing significant differential abundance in the PMWS group of pigs relative to healthy animals, 229 showed higher and 137 lower abundance. A relative increased abundance of mRNAs coded by a large set of genes involved in the inflammatory responses (e.g. cytokines, acute phase proteins, and respiratory burst) was observed in PMWS affected pigs. The Gpnmb and Lgals3 genes, which have antagonistic functions in regulation of inflammatory processes, showed high mRNA levels in diseased pigs. The complement system was altered by PMWS, notably by the lower levels of Cr1 mRNA, which might favour both complement deposition and secondary infections by impairing phagocytosis. Decreased mRNA abundance of several genes involved in lymphocyte activation/differentiation, such as Cd79b, Cd19, Cd21 and MybL1, and the high level of Vsig4 mRNA, which can compromise the activation of residing T-cells, pointed towards a defective adaptive immunity. This is the first study on gene expression in pigs naturally affected by PMWS. The present results allowed identifying potential mechanisms underlying the inflammation and lymphocyte depletion in lymphoid tissues by complement mediated damage and immunosuppression, which are key features of PMWS. PMID:22366492

  20. Integrated Multisystem Analysis in a Mental Health and Criminal Justice Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  1. A 24-month open-label study of canakinumab in neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Cailin H; Chioato, Andrea; Felix, Sandra; Colin, Laurence; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Plass, Nikki; Rodriguez-Smith, Jackeline; Brewer, Carmen; King, Kelly; Zalewski, Christopher; Kim, H Jeffrey; Bishop, Rachel; Abrams, Ken; Stone, Deborah; Chapelle, Dawn; Kost, Bahar; Snyder, Christopher; Butman, John A; Wesley, Robert; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study efficacy and safety of escalating doses of canakinumab, a fully human anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody in the severe cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). Methods 6 patients were enrolled in this 24-month, open-label phase I/II study. All underwent anakinra withdrawal. The initial subcutaneous canakinumab dose was 150 mg (or 2 mg/kg in patients ≤40 kg) or 300 mg (or 4 mg/kg) with escalation up to 600 mg (or 8 mg/kg) every 4 weeks. Full remission was remission of patientreported clinical components and measures of systemic inflammation and CNS inflammation. Hearing, vision and safety were assessed. Primary endpoint was full remission at month 6. Results All patients flared after anakinra withdrawal, and symptoms and serum inflammatory markers improved with canakinumab. All patients required dose escalation to the maximum dose. At month 6, none had full remission, although 4/6 achieved inflammatory remission, based on disease activity diary scores and normal C-reactive proteins. None had CNS remission; 5/6 due to persistent CNS leucocytosis. At the last study visit, 5/6 patients achieved inflammatory remission and 4/6 had continued CNS leucocytosis. Visual acuity and field were stable in all patients, progressive hearing loss occurred in 1/10 ears. Adverse events (AEs) were rare. One serious AE (abscess due to a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection) occurred. Conclusions Canakinumab at the studied doses improves symptoms and serum inflammatory features of NOMID, although low-grade CNS leukocytosis in four patients and headaches in one additional patient persisted. Whether further dose intensifications are beneficial in these cases remains to be assessed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00770601. PMID:24906637

  2. Isolated inclusion body myopathy caused by a multisystem proteinopathy–linked hnRNPA1 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Rumiko; Warita, Hitoshi; Niihori, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tateyama, Maki; Suzuki, Naoki; Nishiyama, Ayumi; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Mitsuhashi, Satomi; Nishino, Ichizo; Aoki, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic cause of isolated inclusion body myopathy (IBM) with autosomal dominant inheritance in 2 families. Methods: Genetic investigations were performed using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 gene (hnRNPA1). The clinical and pathologic features of patients in the 2 families were evaluated with neurologic examinations, muscle imaging, and muscle biopsy. Results: We identified a missense p.D314N mutation in hnRNPA1, which is also known to cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in 2 families with IBM. The affected individuals developed muscle weakness in their 40s, which slowly progressed toward a limb-girdle pattern. Further evaluation of the affected individuals revealed no apparent motor neuron dysfunction, cognitive impairment, or bone abnormality. The muscle pathology was compatible with IBM, lacking apparent neurogenic change and inflammation. Multiple immunohistochemical analyses revealed the cytoplasmic aggregation of hnRNPA1 in close association with autophagosomes and myonuclei. Furthermore, the aberrant accumulation was characterized by coaggregation with ubiquitin, sequestome-1/p62, valosin-containing protein/p97, and a variety of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Conclusions: The present study expands the clinical phenotype of hnRNPA1-linked multisystem proteinopathy. Mutations in hnRNPA1, and possibly hnRNPA2B1, will be responsible for isolated IBM with a pure muscular phenotype. Although the mechanisms underlying the selective skeletal muscle involvement remain to be elucidated, the immunohistochemical results suggest a broad sequestration of RBPs by the mutated hnRNPA1. PMID:27066560

  3. Integrated multisystem analysis in a mental health and criminal justice ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  4. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2006-01-01

    Artificial gravity paradigms may offer effective, efficient, multi-system protection from the untoward effects of adaptation to the microgravity of space or the hypogravity of planetary surfaces. Intermittent artificial gravity (AG) produced by a horizontal short-radius centrifuge (SRC) has recently been utilized on human test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. This presentation will review preliminary results of a 41 day study conducted at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX bed rest facility. During the first eleven days of the protocol, subjects were ambulatory, but confined to the facility. They began a carefully controlled diet, and participated in multiple baseline tests of bone, muscle, cardiovascular, sensory-motor, immunological, and psychological function. On the twelfth day, subjects entered the bed rest phase of the study, during which they were confined to strict 6deg head down tilt bed rest for 21 days. Beginning 24 hrs into this period, treatment subjects received one hour daily exposures to artificial gravity which was produced by spinning the subjects on a 3.0 m radius SRC. They were oriented radially in the supine position so that the centrifugal force was aligned with their long body axis, and while spinning, they "stood" on a force plate, supporting the centrifugal loading (2.5 g at the feet, 1.0 g at the heart). The subject station allowed free translation over approximately 10 cm to ensure full loading of the lower extremities and to allow for anti-orthostatic muscle contractions. Control subjects were positioned on the centrifuge but did not spin. Following the bed rest phase, subjects were allowed to ambulate again, but remained within the facility for an additional 9 days and participated in multiple follow-up tests of physiological function.

  5. Representation of illusory and physical rotations in human MST: A cortical site for the pinna illusion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanxia; Wang, Lijia; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Chan; Yu, Wenwen; Spillmann, Lothar; Gu, Yong; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Visual illusions have fascinated mankind since antiquity, as they provide a unique window to explore the constructive nature of human perception. The Pinna illusion is a striking example of rotation perception in the absence of real physical motion. Upon approaching or receding from the Pinna-Brelstaff figure, the observer experiences vivid illusory counter rotation of the two rings in the figure. Although this phenomenon is well known as an example of integration from local cues to a global percept, the visual areas mediating the illusory rotary perception in the human brain have not yet been identified. In the current study we investigated which cortical area in the human brain initially mediates the Pinna illusion, using psychophysical tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of visual cortices V1, V2, V3, V3A, V4, and hMT+ of the dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We found that both the Pinna-Brelstaff figure (illusory rotation) and a matched physical rotation control stimulus predominantly activated subarea MST in hMT+ with a similar response intensity. Our results thus provide neural evidence showing that illusory rotation is initiated in human MST rather than MT as if it were physical rotary motion. The findings imply that illusory rotation in the Pinna illusion is mediated by rotation-sensitive neurons that normally encode physical rotation in human MST, both of which may rely on a cascade of similar integrative processes from earlier visual areas. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2097-2113, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945511

  6. An Open and Shut Case: The Interaction of Magnesium with MST Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Sundlov, Jesse A; Gulick, Andrew M; Moran, Graham R; Lamb, Audrey L

    2016-07-27

    The shikimate pathway of bacteria, fungi, and plants generates chorismate, which is drawn into biosynthetic pathways that form aromatic amino acids and other important metabolites, including folates, menaquinone, and siderophores. Many of the pathways initiated at this branch point transform chorismate using an MST enzyme. The MST enzymes (menaquinone, siderophore, and tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes) are structurally homologous and magnesium-dependent, and all perform similar chemical permutations to chorismate by nucleophilic addition (hydroxyl or amine) at the 2-position of the ring, inducing displacement of the 4-hydroxyl. The isomerase enzymes release isochorismate or aminodeoxychorismate as the product, while the synthase enzymes also have lyase activity that displaces pyruvate to form either salicylate or anthranilate. This has led to the hypothesis that the isomerase and lyase activities performed by the MST enzymes are functionally conserved. Here we have developed tailored pre-steady-state approaches to establish the kinetic mechanisms of the isochorismate and salicylate synthase enzymes of siderophore biosynthesis. Our data are centered on the role of magnesium ions, which inhibit the isochorismate synthase enzymes but not the salicylate synthase enzymes. Prior structural data have suggested that binding of the metal ion occludes access or egress of substrates. Our kinetic data indicate that for the production of isochorismate, a high magnesium ion concentration suppresses the rate of release of product, accounting for the observed inhibition and establishing the basis of the ordered-addition kinetic mechanism. Moreover, we show that isochorismate is channeled through the synthase reaction as an intermediate that is retained in the active site by the magnesium ion. Indeed, the lyase-active enzyme has 3 orders of magnitude higher affinity for the isochorismate complex relative to the chorismate complex. Apparent negative-feedback inhibition by ferrous

  7. Application of the quantum mechanical IEF/PCM-MST hydrophobic descriptors to selectivity in ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Ginex, Tiziana; Muñoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Herrero, Enric; Gibert, Enric; Cozzini, Pietro; Luque, F Javier

    2016-06-01

    We have recently reported the development and validation of quantum mechanical (QM)-based hydrophobic descriptors derived from the parametrized IEF/PCM-MST continuum solvation model for 3D-QSAR studies within the framework of the Hydrophobic Pharmacophore (HyPhar) method. In this study we explore the applicability of these descriptors to the analysis of selectivity fields. To this end, we have examined a series of 88 compounds with inhibitory activities against thrombin, trypsin and factor Xa, and the HyPhar results have been compared with 3D-QSAR models reported in the literature. The quantitative models obtained by combining the electrostatic and non-electrostatic components of the octanol/water partition coefficient yield results that compare well with the predictive potential of standard CoMFA and CoMSIA techniques. The results also highlight the potential of HyPhar descriptors to discriminate the selectivity of the compounds against thrombin, trypsin, and factor Xa. Moreover, the graphical representation of the hydrophobic maps provides a direct linkage with the pattern of interactions found in crystallographic structures. Overall, the results support the usefulness of the QM/MST-based hydrophobic descriptors as a complementary approach for disclosing structure-activity relationships in drug design and for gaining insight into the molecular determinants of ligand selectivity. Graphical Abstract Quantum Mechanical continuum solvation calculations performed with the IEF/PCM-MST method are used to derived atomic hydrophobic descriptors, which are then used to discriminate the selectivity of ligands against thrombin, trypsin and factor Xa. The descriptors provide complementary view to standard 3D-QSAR analysis, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of ligand recognition. PMID:27188723

  8. First results from the MST (Madison Symmetric Torus) reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.A.; Lovell, T.W.; Prager, S.C.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1989-11-01

    The first period of physics operation of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (Proc. 12th Intl. Conf. on Plasma Physics and Cont. Fusion, I.A.E.A., 1988) has produced information on sawtooth oscillations, edge magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations, and equilibrium parameters at large plasma size. Sawtooth oscillations are prevalent at all values of pinch parameter, and might constitute discrete dynamo events. Both electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations are of sufficient magnitude to be relevant to transport in the RFP. In the plasmas studied to date (up to a plasma current of 0.5 MA) the poloidal beta value is about 10%, or greater.

  9. MS&T'13 Symposium Preview: Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2013-08-01

    The Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites symposium at Materials Science & Technology 2013 (MS&T'13) conference is planned to provide a platform to researchers working on various aspects of composite materials and capture the state of the art in this area. The dialogue among leading researchers is expected to provide insight into the future of this field and identify the future directions in terms of research, development, and applications of composite materials. In the 2 day program, the symposium includes 34 presentations, including 10 invited presentations. The contributions have come from 16 different countries including USA, Mexico, Switzerland, India, Egypt, and Singapore.

  10. On the spectrum of atmospheric velocity fluctuations seen by MST/ST radar and their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, K. S.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The observations of the spectrum of atmospheric motions over the range of periods from a few minutes to many hours are considered that have been made with stratosphere-troposphere/mesosphere-stratosphere (ST/MST) radars in the past five years. This range of periods includes the periods associated with buoyancy waves and the scale of atmospheric motions often referred to by meteorologists as the mesoscale. The spectra of horizontal and vertical velocities are considered. Their interpretation is examined in terms of buoyancy wave theory and turbulence theory. To help in interpreting these spectra some recently determined aircraft wave number spectra are presented.

  11. An overview of data acquisition, signal coding and data analysis techniques for MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastogi, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the data acquisition, signal processing, and data analysis techniques that are currently in use with high power MST/ST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere/stratosphere troposphere) radars. This review supplements the works of Rastogi (1983) and Farley (1984) presented at previous MAP workshops. A general description is given of data acquisition and signal processing operations and they are characterized on the basis of their disparate time scales. Then signal coding, a brief description of frequently used codes, and their limitations are discussed, and finally, several aspects of statistical data processing such as signal statistics, power spectrum and autocovariance analysis, outlier removal techniques are discussed.

  12. Mesospheric momentum fluxes observed by the MST radar at Poker Flat, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ding-Yi; Fritts, David C.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the wave motions observed with the Poker Flat MST radar during the winter, summer, and fall of 1986 is presented. Monthly and daily mean winds, momentum fluxes, and velocity variances are investigated in detail. While several features are in agreement with previous measurements, some significant differences also are found to exist in the observations. Monthly mean horizontal winds between 82 and 89 km have amplitudes of 20-40 m/s westward and 10-25 m/s southward in July and August. In fall and winter, the horizontal winds between 58 and 75 km are weaker and essentially eastward.

  13. Effect of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations on 3D equilibria in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaretto, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    The orientation of 3D, stellarator-like equilibria in the MST RFP can now be controlled with application of an m = 1 RMP. This has led to greatly improved diagnosis, revealing enhancements in both the central electron temperature and density. Coupled to a recent advance in the V3FIT code, reconstructions of the 3D equilibria have also been dramatically improved. The RMP also inhibits the generation of high-energy >20 keV electrons that is otherwise common with the 3D state. This state occurs when the normally broad spectrum of core-resonant m = 1 tearing modes condenses, with the innermost resonant mode growing to large amplitude, reaching ~ 8% of the axisymmetric field strength. This occurs in plasmas of sufficiently large Lundquist number ~ IpTe3/2, and the duration of the state is maximized with zero applied Bt (infinite toroidal beta). As the dominant mode grows, eddy current in MST's conducting shell slows the mode's rotation. This leads to locking of the 3D structure, but with an orientation that varies randomly shot to shot, making diagnosis difficult. An m = 1 RMP can now be applied with an array of saddle coils at the vertical insulated cut in the shell. With an amplitude br/B ~ 10% and a tailored temporal waveform, the RMP can force the 3D structure into any desired orientation relative to MST's diagnostics. A recent advance in V3FIT allows calculation of the substantial helical image current flowing in MST's shell, which has in turn allowed self-consistent utilization of both external and internal (Faraday rotation) measurements of the magnetic field. The ORBIT code predicts reduced stochasticity and improved confinement of high-energy electrons within the 3D structure. The suppression of these electrons by the m = 1 RMP may reflect a change to the central magnetic topology. The generation of these electrons is unaffected by non-resonant perturbations, such as m = 3. Supported by the US DOE.

  14. RON (MST1R) is a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel VT; Cervantes, Gustavo; Yala, Soheil; Nelson, Erik A; El-Hashani, Essam; Kanteti, Rajani; El Dinali, Mohamed; Hasina, Rifat; Brägelmann, Johannes; Seiwert, Tanguy; Sanicola, Michele; Henderson, Les; Grushko, Tatyana A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Karrison, Theodore; Bang, Yung-Jue; Ho Kim, Woo; Tretiakova, Maria; Vokes, Everett; Frank, David A; Kindler, Hedy L; Huet, Heather

    2011-01-01

    RON (MST1R) is one of two members of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase family, along with parent receptor MET. RON has a putative role in several cancers, but its expression and function is poorly characterized in gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. A recognized functional role of MET tyrosine kinase in gastroesophageal cancer has led to early phase clinical trials using MET inhibitors, with unimpressive results. Therefore, the role of RON in gastroesophageal cancer, as well as its role in cooperative signaling with MET and as a mechanism of resistance to MET inhibition, was studied in gastroesophageal tissues and cell lines. By IHC, RON was highly overexpressed in 74% of gastroesophageal samples (n = 94) and overexpression was prognostic of poor survival (p = 0.008); RON and MET co-expression occurred in 43% of samples and was prognostic of worst survival (p = 0.03). High MST1R gene copy number by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or array comparative genomic hybridization, was seen in 35.5% (16/45) of cases. High MST1R gene copy number correlated with poor survival (p = 0.01), and was associated with high MET and ERBB2 gene copy number. a novel somatic MST1R juxtamembrane mutation R1018G was found in 11% of samples. RON signaling was functional in cell lines, activating downstream effector STAT3, and resulted in increased viability over controls. RON and MET co-stimulation assays led to enhanced malignant phenotypes over stimulation of either receptor alone. Growth inhibition as evidenced by viability and apoptosis assays was optimal using novel blocking monoclonal antibodies to both ROn and MET, versus either alone. SU11274, a classic MET small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked signaling of both receptors and proved synergistic when combined with STAT3 inhibition (combination index <1). These preclinical studies define RON as an important novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for

  15. Determination of Fissile Loadings onto Monosodium Titanate (MST) under Conditions Relevant to the Actinide Removal Process Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T

    2005-11-15

    This report describes the results of an experimental study to measure the sorption of fissile actinides on monosodium titanate (MST) at conditions relevant to operation of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP). The study examined the effect of a single contact of a large volume of radionuclide-spiked simulant solution with a small mass of MST. The volume of simulant to MST (8.5 L to 0.2 g of MST solids) was designed to mimic the maximum phase ratio that occurs between the multiple contacts of MST and waste solution and washing of the accumulated solids cycle of ARP. This work provides the following results. (1) After a contact time of {approx}2 weeks, we measured the following actinide loadings on the MST (average of solution and solids data), Pu: 2.79 {+-} 0.197 wt %, U: 14.0 {+-} 1.04 wt %, and Np: 0.839 {+-} 0.0178 wt %. (2) The plutonium and uranium loadings reported above are considerably higher than previously reported values. The higher loading result from the very high phase ratio and the high initial mass concentrations of uranium and plutonium. A separate upcoming document details the predicted values for this system versus the results. (3) The strontium DF values measured in these tests proved much lower than those reported previously with simulants having the same bulk chemical composition. The low strontium DF values reflect the very low initial mass concentration of strontium in this simulant (<100 {micro}g/L) compared to that in previous testing (> 600 {micro}g/L).

  16. Emulating the visual receptive-field properties of MST neurons with a template model of heading estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, J. A.; Stone, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    We have proposed previously a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to those of neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. These detectors, arranged within cortical-like maps, were designed to extract self-translation (heading) and self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer. We then postulated that heading from optic flow is directly encoded by individual neurons acting as heading detectors within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether individual MST neurons can perform this function because some of their receptive-field properties seem inconsistent with this role. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST responses with those of detectors from two different configurations of the model under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the characteristic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support self-motion estimation via a direct encoding of heading and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses that can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the superior temporal sulcus.

  17. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  18. Prediction Models for Plutonium, Strontium, Uranium and Neptunium Loading onto Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F. F.; Hobbs, D. T.; Barnes, M. J.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-07-11

    The DA isotherm parameters for U, Pu, Sr and Np have been updated to include additional data obtained since the original derivation. The DA isotherms were modified to include a kinetic function derived by Rahn to describe sorbate loading from the beginning of sorption up to equilibrium. The final functions describe both kinetic and thermodynamic sorption. We selected the Rahn function to describe radionuclide sorption because it originates from diffusion and absorption controlled sorption. An investigation of the thermal behavior of radionuclide sorption on MST as shown by this data revealed the sorption process is diffusion (or transport) controlled (in solution). Transport in solution can in theory be accelerated by vigorous mixing but the range of available mixing speed in the facility design will probably not be sufficient to markedly increase radionuclide sorption rate on MST from diffusion-controlled sorption. The laboratory studies included mixing energies hydraulically-scaled to match those of the Actinide Removal Process and these likely approximate the range of energies available in the Salt Waste Processing Facility.

  19. Simultaneous rocket and MST radar observation of an internal gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Philbrick, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    In June, 1983, the Structure and Atmospheric Turbulence Environment (STATE) rocket and Poker Flat Mesophere-Stratosphere-Troposphere radar campaign was conducted to measure the interaction between turbulence, electron density and electron density gradient that has produced unusually strong MST radar echoes from the summer mesosphere over Poker Flat, Alaska. Analysis or radar wind measurements and a concurrent wind and temperature profile obtained from a rocket probe carrying a three-axis accelerometer are given. The two data sets provide a fairly complete (and in some cases, redundant) picture of the breaking (or more correctly, the saturation) of a large-amplitude, low-frequency, long-wavelength internal gravity wave. The data show that small-scale turbulence and small-scale wave intensity is greatest at those altitudes where the large-scale wave-induced temperature lapse rate is most negative or most nearly unstable, but the wind shear due to the large-scale wave is a minimum. A brief review of linear gravity-wave theory is presented as an aid to the identification of the gravity-wave signature in the radar and rocket data. Analysis of the time and height cross sections of wind speed and turbulence intensity observed by the Poker Flat MST radar follows. Then, the vertical profile of temperature and winds measured by a rocket probe examined. Finally, the use of the independent data sets provided by the rocket and the radar are discussed and implications for theories of wave saturation are presented.

  20. Frequency and site selection criteria for MST radars, part 5.1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The majority of mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) and ST radars are located in or near mountainous terrain. When measuring horizontal velocities, the terrain is a small factor, but when measuring vertical velocities, the meteorological noise induced by rough terrain can severely limit the usefulness of the observations. When the variance of the vertical velocity is too large, it is not possible to suitably filter the data to detect the small synoptic-scale signal with reasonable statistical confidence. The variance of vertical velocity at all tropospheric levels is directly related to the low level wind speed during flow over rough terrain. It is suggested that the synoptic-scale vertical velocity can be measured by ST radars where the terrain is smooth. The large-scale vertical velocity cannot always be reliably determined from MST radar data when the underlying terrain is rough. The vertical velocity is potentially on of future radar site selections, taking into account the desired meteorological applications of the data and engineering design factors. If the synoptic-scale vertical velocity is a desired variable, the radar should not be located near mountains.

  1. Identification of an Island-induced Alfvén Eigenmode in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. K.; Cook, C. R.; Hegna, C. C.; Boguski, J.; Feng, R.; McCollam, K. M.; Sears, S. H.; Spong, D. A.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Recent theoretical work analytically computes the effect of a magnetic island on the shear Alfvén continuum and may explain unresolved Alfvénic activity observed in neutral beam-heated MST plasmas. Consideration of the previously-ignored core-localized n=5 island leads to theoretical Alfvén continua that provide a gap in which the observed n=4 Alfvénic bursts reside. Numerical simulations using the STELLGAP/AE3D codes, as well as a new code called SIESTAlfvén have identified the bursts as the first observation of an Island-induced Alfvén Eigenmode (IAE). The IAE arises from a helical coupling of mode numbers, similar to the helicity-induced Alfvén eigenmode, but occurs in the core of an island. The observed frequency of bursting n=4 Alfvénic modes fall within the island-induced gap over a wide range of MST operating parameters. Characteristics such as mode frequency, width and damping rate are measured as a function of experimentally-varied magnetic island width. Coincident bursts with toroidal mode number n=1 may exhibit frequency scaling of an Alfvénic eigenmode; the possibility of an island induced extremum mode is explored as an explanation. Work supported by US DoE under grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-SC0006103 and DE-FC02-05ER54814.

  2. First Absolutely Calibrated Localized Measurements of Ion Velocity in the MST in Locked and Rotating Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.

    2015-11-01

    An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.

  3. An example of scaling MST Doppler spectra using median spectra, spectral smoothing, and velocity tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Although automatic, computer scaling methods appeared at the start of the MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar technique, there is a continuing need for scaling algorithms that perform editing functions and increase the sensitivity of radar by post processing. The scaling method presented is an adaptation of the method of scaling MST Doppler spectra presented by Rastogi (1984). A brief overview of this method is as follows: a median spectrum is calculated from several sequential spectra; the median noise value is subtracted from this derived spectrum; the median spectrum is smoothed; the detection/nondetection decision is made by comparing the smoothed spectrum to the variance of the smoothed noise; and if a signal is detected, then the half-power points of the smoothed echo spectrum are used to place limits on the evaluation of the first two moments of the unsmoothed median spectrum. In all of the above steps, the algorithm is guided by tracing the expected velocity range upward from the lowest range as far as possible. The method is discussed in more detail.

  4. Possibility of measuring gravity-wave momentum flux by single beam observation of MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Vincent and Reid (1983) proposed a technique to measure gravity-wave momentum fluxes in the atmosphere by mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars using two or more radar beams. Since the vertical momentum fluxes are assumed to be due to gravity waves, it appears possible to make use of the dispersion and polarization relations for gravity waves in extracting useful information from the radar data. In particular, for an oblique radar beam, information about both the vertical and the horizontal velocities associated with the waves are contained in the measured Doppler data. Therefore, it should be possible to extract both V sub Z and V sub h from a single beam observational configuration. A procedure is proposed to perform such an analysis. The basic assumptions are: the measured velocity fluctuations are due to gravity waves and a separable model gravity-wave spectrum of the Garrett-Munk type that is statistically homogeneous in the horizontal plane. Analytical expressions can be derived that relate the observed velocity fluctuations to the wave momentum flux at each range gate. In practice, the uncertainties related to the model parameters and measurement accuracy will affect the results. A MST radar configuration is considered.

  5. LRPPRC mutations cause early-onset multisystem mitochondrial disease outside of the French-Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Oláhová, Monika; Hardy, Steven A; Hall, Julie; Yarham, John W; Haack, Tobias B; Wilson, William C; Alston, Charlotte L; He, Langping; Aznauryan, Erik; Brown, Ruth M; Brown, Garry K; Morris, Andrew A M; Mundy, Helen; Broomfield, Alex; Barbosa, Ines A; Simpson, Michael A; Deshpande, Charu; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Koch, Johannes; Stettner, Georg M; Bonnen, Penelope E; Prokisch, Holger; Lightowlers, Robert N; McFarland, Robert; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M A; Taylor, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    of mitochondrial mRNAs, although the length of poly(A) tails of mitochondrial transcripts were unaffected. Our study identifies LRPPRC as an important disease-causing gene in an early-onset, multisystem and neurological mitochondrial disease, which should be considered as a cause of COX deficiency even in patients originating outside of the French-Canadian population. PMID:26510951

  6. LRPPRC mutations cause early-onset multisystem mitochondrial disease outside of the French-Canadian population

    PubMed Central

    Oláhová, Monika; Hardy, Steven A.; Hall, Julie; Yarham, John W.; Haack, Tobias B.; Wilson, William C.; Alston, Charlotte L.; He, Langping; Aznauryan, Erik; Brown, Ruth M.; Brown, Garry K.; Morris, Andrew A. M.; Mundy, Helen; Broomfield, Alex; Barbosa, Ines A.; Simpson, Michael A.; Deshpande, Charu; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Koch, Johannes; Stettner, Georg M.; Bonnen, Penelope E.; Prokisch, Holger; Lightowlers, Robert N.; McFarland, Robert; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M. A.

    2015-01-01

    -state levels of mitochondrial mRNAs, although the length of poly(A) tails of mitochondrial transcripts were unaffected. Our study identifies LRPPRC as an important disease-causing gene in an early-onset, multisystem and neurological mitochondrial disease, which should be considered as a cause of COX deficiency even in patients originating outside of the French-Canadian population. PMID:26510951

  7. Intensive Quality Assurance of Therapist Adherence to Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Ogden, Terje; Henggeler, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study was a cross-cultural replication of a study that investigated therapist adherence to behavioral interventions as a result of an intensive quality assurance system which was integrated into Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Thirty-three therapists and eight supervisors were block randomized to either an Intensive Quality Assurance or a…

  8. Predictors of Treatment Response for Suicidal Youth Referred for Emergency Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Jr., Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated factors that predicted poor treatment response for 70 suicidal youth (ages 10 to 17 years; 67% African American) who received either multisystemic therapy (MST) or inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Following treatment, suicidal youth were classified as either treatment responders or nonresponders based on caregiver or…

  9. Clinical Supervision in Treatment Transport: Effects on Adherence and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Chapman, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    This nonexperimental study used mixed-effects regression models to examine relations among supervisor adherence to a clinical supervision protocol, therapist adherence, and changes in the behavior and functioning of youths with serious antisocial behavior treated with an empirically supported treatment (i.e., multisystemic therapy [MST]) 1 year…

  10. Caregiver-Therapist Ethnic Similarity Predicts Youth Outcomes from an Empirically Based Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of caregiver-therapist ethnic similarity on youth outcomes from multisystemic therapy (MST), as implemented in dissemination sites, were examined. Consistent with hypotheses, findings confirmed that youths whose caregivers were ethnically matched with their therapists demonstrated greater decreases in symptoms, longer times in…

  11. Low Level Laser Therapy to Reduce Recurrent Oral Ulcers in Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Babu, D. B. Gandhi; Chavva, Sunanda; Waghray, Shefali

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing multisystemic vascular condition. Behçet's disease was described by Hulusi Behçet in 1937. This rare multisystem relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease is poorly understood but is thought to be an autoimmune inflammatory vasculitic process in a genetically predisposed population. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease is based on International Criteria of Behçet's Disease (ICBD). The present paper describes a case report of Behçet's syndrome where aphthous stomatitis was treated with low level laser therapy. PMID:27555969

  12. Low Level Laser Therapy to Reduce Recurrent Oral Ulcers in Behçet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Babu, D B Gandhi; Chavva, Sunanda; Waghray, Shefali; Allam, Neeharika Satya Jyothi; Kondaiah, Marella

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing multisystemic vascular condition. Behçet's disease was described by Hulusi Behçet in 1937. This rare multisystem relapsing-remitting inflammatory disease is poorly understood but is thought to be an autoimmune inflammatory vasculitic process in a genetically predisposed population. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease is based on International Criteria of Behçet's Disease (ICBD). The present paper describes a case report of Behçet's syndrome where aphthous stomatitis was treated with low level laser therapy. PMID:27555969

  13. Plasma research in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). Annual technical progress report, November 1, 1990--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, S.C.

    1993-11-01

    We present physics results divided into the four categories (confinement optimization, transport measurements, fluctuations and fluctuation-induced transport, and fluctuation suppression). For simplicity, we highlight a subset of original MST results which are presented as 13 specific conclusions (not listed in order of importance), each followed by a brief elaboration. Within each of the four categories we also present other progress.

  14. Sample results from the integrated salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualifications MST solids sample

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-02-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  15. MST 1: Proceedings of a conference on the integration of mathematics, science and technology in precollege education

    SciTech Connect

    Swyler, K.

    1995-11-01

    Example MST activities examined here show: (1) an inquiry-driven learning stimulus, involving (2) the synthesis of concepts in math, science and technology, through (3) the application of the scientific method and engineering problem solving/test protocols, and provoking (4) a stimulus for further exploration. A semi-exploratory learning approach offered background aimed at enabling participants to take meaningful courses of investigation; this approach must be balanced by maintaining contact with framework content standards. On the whole, the philosophy underlying the MST learning approach--as envisioned in the draft NYS Framework, and embodied in the example activities--is strongly endorsed. This endorsement is broad-based: those represented include teachers of mathematics, science, and technology, and school district administrators--in roughly equal numbers. Discussion centers not on whether the MST approach should be pursued, but on what is involved in doing it. Teams of conference participants were given time to plan or extend MST initiatives in their own districts. Outlines of the initiatives proposed by ten of the teams are disseminated herein.

  16. Middle Atmosphere Program. Handbook for MAP. Volume 14: URSI/SCOSTEP Workshop on Technical Aspects of MST Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A. (Editor); Edwards, B. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Various topics relative to middle atmosphere research were discussed. meteorological and aeronomical requirements for mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar networks, general circulation of the middle atmosphere, the interpretation of radar returns from clear air, spaced antenna and Doppler techniques for velocity measurement, and techniques for the study of gravity waves and turbulence are among the topics discussed.

  17. The Social("ist") Pedagogies of the MST: Towards New Relations of Production in the Brazilian Countryside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the social("ist") pedagogies of the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), a large agrarian social movement that fights for socialism in the Brazilian countryside, meaning that workers own their own means of production and collectively produce the food and other products necessary for their communities'…

  18. Registration of TARS-MST1 and SB-DT1 multiple-stress tolerant black bean germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-ambient-temperature stress, drought stress, root rot disease, and common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye] cause widespread yield reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. TARS-MST1 (Reg. No. GP-284, PI 661512) and SB-DT1 (Reg. ...

  19. Confinement and fluctuations in the MST (Madison Symmetric Torus) reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Sprott, J.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.A.; Chartas, G.; Dexter, N.; Den Hartog, D.J.; Hokin, S.A.; Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Rempel, T.D.; Sarff, J.S.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.W.; Watts, C.

    1990-09-01

    MST is a large (R{sub 0}/a = 1.5/0.52 m) RFP which to date has obtained 80 ms discharges at a peak plasma current of 0.6 MA. Low loop voltages (15 volts) and modest temperatures (T{sub e}/T{sub i} {approx} 350/250 eV) are routinely obtained giving estimated unoptimized energy confinement times of about 1 ms. Loop voltage and ion temperature are anomalous. Magnetic fluctuations are typically 0.5% with most of the power at frequencies below 30 kHz and mode numbers in agreement with MHD prediction for tearing modes. Electrostatic fluctuations are typically 10 to 20% with a spectrum that decreases with frequency. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Symposium Review: Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites at MS&T 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Nikhil; Paramsothy, Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    This article reflects on the presentations made during the Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites symposium at Materials Science and Technology 2013 (MS&T'13) held in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) from October 27 to 31. The symposium had three sessions on metal matrix composites and one session on polymer matrix composites containing a total of 23 presentations. While the abstracts and full-text papers are available through databases, the discussion that took place during the symposium is often not captured in writing and gets immediately lost. We have tried to recap some of the discussion in this article and hope that it will supplement the information present in the proceedings. The strong themes in the symposium were porous composites, aluminum matrix composites, and nanocomposites. The development of processing methods was also of interest to the speakers and attendees.

  1. Practicality of electronic beam steering for MST/ST radars, part 6.2A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Electronic beam steering is described as complex and expensive. The Sunset implementation of electronic steering is described, and it is demonstrated that such systems are cost effective, versatile, and no more complex than fixed beam alternatives, provided three or more beams are needed. The problem of determining accurate meteorological wind components in the presence of spatial variation is considered. A cost comparison of steerable and fixed systems allowing solution of this problem is given. The concepts and relations involved in phase steering are given, followed by the description of the Sunset ST radar steering system. The implications are discussed, references to the competing SAD method are provided, and a recommendation concerning the design of the future Doppler ST/MST systems is made.

  2. Coding schemes for improving MST radar performance, part 7.1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowhill, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar can be characterized by its system sensitivity and its range resolution. The former enables Doppler velocities to be determined even in the presence of very weak structures; the latter permits study of the fine structure within a turbulent region. Coding of transmitted signals has as its aim an increase in the effective radar sensitivity or range resolution without an increase in the peak transmitted power. This is accomplished by spreading the power in the frequency domain, giving better range resolution, without reducing the pulse width. Two basic techniques are used to accomplish this frequency dispersion: (1) using a type of pseudorandom code for the phase or amplitude within a single pulse, or within a finite sequence of pulses; (2) to code the frequency of the transmitted signal in some way. The various possibilities are discussed and are compared with the pulse-coding methods.

  3. Antarctic MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux Observed by the Davis MST Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, P. T.; Murphy, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The MST radar at Davis Station, Antarctica, 68.6 S 78.0 E, was used to make dual coplanar beam measurements of short period (12-60 minutes) gravity wave momentum flux in the mesopause region during the southern hemisphere summer of 2014-2015. Mean zonal and meridional momentum flux estimates are eastward and southward respectively, throughout the region and season, with a bias towards both larger mean flux and number of eastward and southward propagating waves. Lognormal distributions of the absolute momentum flux attributable to individual wave events are broadly consistent with satellite and other middle atmosphere gravity wave observation and modelling techniques, with greater than 40% of the total flux being contributed by the largest 10% of wave events. Estimates of flux divergence are made during periods where sufficient density of observations exist. Ray tracing methods are employed to identify potential source regions and mechanisms to aid the development of meteorologically interactive parameterization schemes for the region.

  4. Estimations of model parameters for gravity wave spectra observed by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.; Franke, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The general theory of MST radar observations of gravity wave spectra is developed. This effort extends the previous results to include anisotropy and Doppler effects for the spectra, as well as the consequences for the multibeam configuration. The relationships between the observed one- or two-dimensional spectra for the line-of-sight velocity in the gravity wave spectra are derived. Expressions for cross spectra, as well as covariances between velocities observed on different beams, are computed. Using these results, studies are carried out to show how model parameters for gravity wave spectra can be estimated from the observed quantities. Model parameters include the variance, power law indices, anisotropy parameters, Doppler parameters, mean scale sizes, etc. Cases with different numbers of beams are investigated.

  5. Competing to coordinate cell fate decisions: the MST2-Raf-1 signaling device

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lan K; Matallanas, David G; Romano, David; Kholodenko, Boris N; Kolch, Walter

    2015-01-01

    How do biochemical signaling pathways generate biological specificity? This question is fundamental to modern biology, and its enigma has been accentuated by the discovery that most proteins in signaling networks serve multifunctional roles. An answer to this question may lie in analyzing network properties rather than individual traits of proteins in order to elucidate design principles of biochemical networks that enable biological decision-making. We discuss how this is achieved in the MST2/Hippo-Raf-1 signaling network with the help of mathematical modeling and model-based analysis, which showed that competing protein interactions with affinities controlled by dynamic protein modifications can function as Boolean computing devices that determine cell fate decisions. In addition, we discuss areas of interest for future research and highlight how systems approaches would be of benefit.

  6. Upgrade of far-infrared laser-based Faraday rotation measurement on MST

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Bergerson, W. F.; Lin, L.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the far-infrared (FIR) laser ({lambda}{sub 0}=432 {mu}m) Faraday rotation measurement system on MST has been upgraded. The dc flowing-gas discharge CO{sub 2} pump laser is replaced by a rf-excited, sealed CO{sub 2} laser at 9.27 {mu}m (GEM select 100, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara, CA), which is subdivided equally into three parts to simultaneously pump three FIR cavities. The total infrared pump power is approximately 80 W on the 9R(20) line required to pump the formic acid molecule. Each FIR cavity produces {approx}12 mW, sufficient for 11 simultaneous chord interferometry-polarimetry operations. Three key issues [(1) conservation of circularly polarized wave, (2) colinearity of two probe waves, and (3) stability of intermediate frequencies between lasers] affecting the Faraday rotation measurement have been resolved experimentally.

  7. Kinetic Stress as a Flow Driver in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Lin, L.; Bergerson, W. F.; Almagri, A.; den Hartog, D. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.

    2011-10-01

    Self-generated or intrinsic parallel flows are routinely observed in the MST RFP where flow parallel to equilibrium magnetic field reverses sign at mid-radius. In the absence of external torque, the intrinsic flow may arise from residual stresses. Kinetic stress, the correlated product of parallel pressure and radial magnetic field fluctuations, has been measured by using a high-speed polarimetry-interferometry diagnostic (for both radial magnetic field and density fluctuations). Away from the sawtooth crash, it is found that the measured kinetic stress has the finite amplitude comparable to the change of flow in the core. This indicates that kinetic stress plays an important role in self-generated flow in high-temperature RFP plasmas. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  8. Interaction of Tearing Modes and Fast Ions in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; Eilerman, S.; Falk, J.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Waksman, J.; Lin, L.; Liu, D.; Tsidulko, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Energetic ions sourced by a 1 MW, 25 keV, tangential neutral-beam injector (NBI) are well confined in RFP discharges in MST. In beam blip experiments, classical slowing and charge exchange loss can often account for the measured neutron flux decay. While these experiments give a sense of the global fast ion confinement, there are many important details that are lost in such an analysis. To gain insight into the effects of tearing modes on the fast ion distribution, a full orbit particle tracing code (RIO) has been used. RIO is capable of taking as input the 3D time varying electric and magnetic field output from the nonlinear resistive MHD code DEBS. While the tearing modes present in MST do not appear to cause significant direct loss of the highest energy ions due to drift orbit averaging, the ions do begin to interact with the tearing modes as they slow down, leading to a flattening of the ion density profile and an enhancement in the fast ion loss rate. While RIO allows the study of the effect of tearing modes on the fast ions we have also observed, in a separate set of long pulse NBI experiments, that the fast ions affect the tearing modes. Specifically, the core-most tearing mode amplitude is suppressed during NBI with the degree of suppression tracking directly with neutral particle analyzer measurements of the core localized circulating fast ions. The interaction of fast ions with the tearing modes in both beam blip and long pulse experiments will be presented. This work supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  9. Studies on gravity waves momentum flux variations in different seasons using MST radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I, V.; Y-H, C.; v, S.; D, N.; S, V.

    2006-12-01

    MST radars are the best tools to study the high frequency gravity waves and its associated momentum fluxes because of excellent temporal and spatial resolutions. The upward propagating gravity waves transport energy and momentum in different regions of the atmosphere along with their propagation to produce effects at upper heights. The estimation of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum in the troposphere and lower stratosphere involves two methods, using three beams V one vertical and two oblique, and using four beams V two pairs of oblique beams systematically offset from the vertical. The rapid steerability of the Indian MST radar allows to make three and four beam measurements simultaneously. The objective of this study is to examine the variations of zonal and meridional momentum fluxes with height, variation of momentum fluxes with wave periods and body forces. We choose frequency bands corresponding to periods of 30 min-2h, 2-8 h, and 2-16h. Vertical profiles of the zonal and meridional flux in each frequency band were found to be consistent, in general, with the total flux. The study also compares momentum fluxes computed with three and four beam methods. Zonal fluxes were small at lower levels and increasingly negative (westward) at higher heights. The dominant contributions to the meridional flux occur in the lower-frequency band. The large vertical momentum flux values observed around the 16 km altitude on most of the observations are due to the presence of large zonal wind shears at that altitude. Due to their persistent southward direction of propagation the meridional momentum flux during winter and summer shows southward direction of propagation and long period waves make contributions to the momentum flux in the lower stratosphere which is comparable to that of short period waves. The detailed discussion will be presented in the meeting.

  10. Unusual multisystemic involvement and a novel BAG3 mutation revealed by NGS screening in a large cohort of myofibrillar myopathies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myofibrillar myopathies (MFM) are a group of phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous neuromuscular disorders, which are characterized by protein aggregations in muscle fibres and can be associated with multisystemic involvement. Methods We screened a large cohort of 38 index patients with MFM for mutations in the nine thus far known causative genes using Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). We studied the clinical and histopathological characteristics in 38 index patients and five additional relatives (n = 43) and particularly focused on the associated multisystemic symptoms. Results We identified 14 heterozygous mutations (diagnostic yield of 37%), among them the novel p.Pro209Gln mutation in the BAG3 gene, which was associated with onset in adulthood, a mild phenotype and an axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, in the absence of giant axons at the nerve biopsy. We revealed several novel clinical phenotypes and unusual multisystemic presentations with previously described mutations: hearing impairment with a FLNC mutation, dysphonia with a mutation in DES and the first patient with a FLNC mutation presenting respiratory insufficiency as the initial symptom. Moreover, we described for the first time respiratory insufficiency occurring in a patient with the p.Gly154Ser mutation in CRYAB. Interestingly, we detected a polyneuropathy in 28% of the MFM patients, including a BAG3 and a MYOT case, and hearing impairment in 13%, including one patient with a FLNC mutation and two with mutations in the DES gene. In four index patients with a mutation in one of the MFM genes, typical histological findings were only identified at the ultrastructural level (29%). Conclusions We conclude that extraskeletal symptoms frequently occur in MFM, particularly cardiac and respiratory involvement, polyneuropathy and/or deafness. BAG3 mutations should be considered even in cases with a mild phenotype or an adult onset. We identified a genetic defect in one of

  11. The role of cognitive processing therapy in improving psychosocial functioning, health, and quality of life in veterans with military sexual trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ryan; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Although research has identified evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), few studies have examined the effect of such treatments on psychosocial functioning, health or quality of life in individuals with MST-related PTSD. Male and female veterans (N = 45) with MST-related PTSD took part in a randomized clinical trial that included either 12 weeks of an evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatment (cognitive processing therapy; [CPT]) or a standard control condition (present centered therapy) and 6 months of follow-up. To assess quality of life and psychosocial functioning, each participant was administered the Quality of Life Inventory and the Short Form (36) Health Survey. Using a hierarchical linear modeling approach, results demonstrated that participants treated with CPT reported significantly higher physical functioning over time than did participants treated with PCT. Implications are discussed with regard to the role of psychotherapy in improving a patient's psychosocial and health functioning. PMID:26524285

  12. Myo-, neuro-, gastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE syndrome) due to partial deficiency of cytochrome-c-oxidase. A new mitochondrial multisystem disorder.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, A; Creutzfeldt, W; DiMauro, S; Felgenhauer, K; Friede, R L; Goebel, H H; Kohlschütter, A; Mayer, G; Rahlf, G; Servidei, S

    1987-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman had a 10-year history of external ophthalmoplegia, malabsorption resulting in chronic malnutrition, muscle atrophy and polyneuropathy. Computer tomography revealed hypodensity of her cerebral white matter. A metabolic disturbance consisted of lactic acidosis after moderate glucose loads with increased excretion of hydroxybutyric and fumaric acids. Post-mortem studies revealed gastrointestinal scleroderma as the morphological manifestation of her malabsorption syndrome, ocular and skeletal myopathy with ragged red fibers, peripheral neuropathy, vascular abnormalities of meningeal and peripheral nerve vessels. Biochemical examination of the liver and muscle tissues revealed a partial defect of cytochrome-c-oxidase (complex IV of the respiratory chain). This mitochondrial multisystem disorder may represent a separate entity to be classified between the spectrum of myoencephalopathies and oculo-gastrointestinal muscular dystrophy. PMID:2823522

  13. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF MST METHODOLOGIES TO DIFFERENTIATE SOURCES OF FECAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal variability in the gastrointestinal flora of animals impacting water resources with fecal material can be one of the factors producing low source identification rates when applying microbial source tracking (MST) methods. Understanding how bacterial species and genotype...

  14. Long and complex thermal history of the Song Chay metamorphic dome (Northern Vietnam) by multi-system geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Francoise; Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Jolivet, Marc; Lacassin, Robin; Trinh, Phan Trong; Brunel, Maurice; Seward, Diane

    2000-06-01

    Multi-system geochronology was used to unravel the long and complex thermal history of the Song Chay range (Northern Vietnam), a high-grade granitic and metamorphic dome in the vicinity of the Cenozoic, Ailao Shan-Red River fault zone. It was considered to be Proterozoic South China basement, but its geological history was basically unknown. Scattered field observations suggest three episodes of high-temperature deformation: firstly at the time of granite emplacement, secondly a décollement with top to the north shear and thirdly anticlinal doming of the foliations formed during the two first stages. P- T estimates suggest that metamorphism coeval with the second deformation phase culminated at ˜580°C and ˜4.5 kbar (˜16 km depth). Multi-system geochronology is applied to a two-micas granite sample, slightly deformed within the décollement. U/Pb dating of zircon yields an age of 428±5 Ma (±2 σ) interpreted as the time of granite crystallization within the South China 'Caledonian' belt. Rb/Sr on white micas and biotite yields ages of 206±10 Ma and 176±5.3 Ma, respectively (2 σ), whereas 39Ar/ 40Ar ages of the same minerals are 210±9 and 190±8 Ma (2 σ). These ages suggest an Upper Triassic episode of rapid cooling interpreted as due to doming a few million years after the end of movement on the décollement. The K-feldspar irregular 39Ar/ 40Ar age spectrum can, to the first order, be explained by a cooling history with two episodes of rapid cooling: one at ˜140 Ma and a second around 41 to 25 Ma. Apatite fission tracks central age (33.6±3.6 Ma, 1 σ) confirms a Tertiary rapid cooling event interpreted as the final exhumation of the Song Chay dome.

  15. Key Elements of a Successful Multi-System Collaboration for School-Based Mental Health: In-Depth Interviews with District and Agency Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Blackman, Kate F.; Wegmann, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming number of youth with unmet mental health needs in the US is a significant social problem. The pilot school-based mental health project described here established an innovative multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental health agency, and a local university to better meet the mental health needs of youth…

  16. Structure-Based Screen Identification of a Mammalian Ste20-like Kinase 4 (MST4) Inhibitor with Therapeutic Potential for Pituitary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Weipeng; Matheson, Christopher J; Xu, Mei; Backos, Donald S; Mills, Taylor S; Salian-Mehta, Smita; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Reigan, Philip; Wierman, Margaret E

    2016-03-01

    Pituitary tumors of the gonadotrope lineage are often large and invasive, resulting in hypopituitarism. No medical treatments are currently available. Using a combined genetic and genomic screen of individual human gonadotrope pituitary tumor samples, we recently identified the mammalian sterile-20 like kinase 4 (MST4) as a protumorigenic effector, driving increased pituitary cell proliferation and survival in response to a hypoxic microenvironment. To identify novel inhibitors of the MST4 kinase for potential future clinical use, computational-based virtual library screening was used to dock the SelleckChem kinase inhibitor library into the ATP-binding site of the MST4 crystal structure. Several inhibitor candidates were identified with the potential to bind with high affinity. Using a TR-FRET in vitro recombinant kinase assay, hesperadin, initially described as an Aurora kinase inhibitor, exhibited potent inhibition of the MST4 kinase at nanomolar concentrations. The LβT2 gonadotrope pituitary cell hypoxic model was used to test the ability of this inhibitor to antagonize MST4 actions. Under short-term severe hypoxia (1% O2), MST4 protection from hypoxia-induced apoptosis was abrogated in the presence of hesperadin. Similarly, under chronic hypoxia (5%), hesperadin blocked the proliferative and colony-forming actions of MST4 as well as the ability to activate specific downstream signaling and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 effectors. Together, these data identify hesperadin as the first potent, selective inhibitor of the MST4 kinase with the capacity to block pituitary tumor cell growth in a hypoxic microenvironment. PMID:26721946

  17. Evaluating the operational utility of a Bacteroidales quantitative PCR-based MST approach in determining the source of faecal indicator organisms at a UK bathing water.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Carl M; Kay, David; Wyer, Mark D; Davies, Cheryl; Watkins, John; Kay, Chris; McDonald, Adrian T; Porter, Jonathan; Gawler, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    Microbial source tracking techniques are used in the UK to provide an evidence-base to guide major expenditure decisions and/or regulatory action relating to sewage disposal. Consequently, it is imperative that the techniques used robustly index faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) that are the regulatory parameters for bathing and shellfish harvesting areas. This study reports a 'field-scale' test of microbial source tracking (MST) based on the quantitative PCR analyses of Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic marker sequences. The project acquired data to test the operational utility of quantitative Bacteroidales MST data, comparing it with FIO concentrations in streams, effluents and bathing waters. Overall, the data did not exhibit a consistent pattern of significant correlations between Bacteroidales MST parameters and FIOs within the different sample matrices (i.e. rivers, bathing waters and/or effluents). Consequently, there was little evidence from this study that reported concentrations and/or percentages of human and/or ruminant faecal loadings (that are based on Bacteroidales MST gene copy numbers) offer a credible evidence-base describing FIO contributions to receiving water 'non-compliance'. The study also showed (i) there was no significant attenuation of the Bacteroidales gene copy number 'signal' through the UV disinfection process; and (ii) single non-compliant samples submitted for Bacteroidales MST analysis, do not reliably characterise the balance of faecal loadings due to the high variability in the MST signal observed. At this stage in the development of the MST tool deployed, it would be imprudent to use the percentage human and/or ruminant contributions (i.e. as indicated by MST data acquired at a bathing water) as the sole or principal element in the evidence-base used to guide major expenditure decisions and/or regulatory action. PMID:19783026

  18. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  19. Global confinement and discrete dynamo activity in the MST reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Hokin, S.; Almagri, A.; Assadi, S.; Beckstead, J.; Chartas, G.; Crocker, N.; Cudzinovic, M.; Den Hartog, D.; Dexter, R.; Holly, D.; Prager, S.; Rempel, T.; Sarff, J.; Scime, E.; Shen, W.; Spragins, C.; Sprott, C.; Starr, G.; Stoneking, M.; Watts, C. ); Nebel, R. )

    1991-04-01

    Results obtained on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch after installation of the design poloidal field winding are presented. Values of {beta}{sub {theta}e0} {triple bond} 2{mu}{sub 0}n{sub e0}T{sub e0}/B{sub {theta}}{sup 2}(a) {approximately} 12% are achieved in low-current (I = 220 kA) operation; here n{sub e0} and T{sub e0} are central electron density and temperature, and B{sub {theta}}(a) is the poloidal magnetic field at the plasma edge. An observed decrease in {beta}{sub {theta}e0} with increasing plasma current may be due to inadequate fueling, enhanced wall interaction, and the growth of a radial field error at the vertical cut in the shell at high current. Energy confinement time varies little with plasma current, lying in the range 0.5 {minus} 1.0 ms. Strong discrete dynamo activity is present, characterized by the coupling of m = 1, n = 5 {minus} 7 modes leading to an m = 0, n = 0 crash (m and n are poloidal and toroidal mode numbers). The m = 0 crash generates toroidal flux and produces a small (2.5%) increase in plasma current. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Measurements of global and localized ion heating during impulsive reconnection in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangadhara, S.; Craig, D.; Ennis, D. A.; den Hartog, D. J.; Almagri, A. F.; Chapman, B. E.; Fiksel, G.; Prager, S. C.

    2006-10-01

    In the MST reversed field pinch, impulsive reconnection occurs at (a) sawtooth crashes in standard plasmas, in which many large tearing modes are present, and (b) bursts of edge-resonant tearing modes with poloidal mode number m = 0 in enhanced confinement plasmas. In both cases, magnetic energy decreases while ion thermal energy increases. Fast, localized measurements of the impurity ion temperature (Ti) are made using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. Ion heating is observed to be limited to the outer half of the plasma for an m=0 burst, and is strongest near the m=0 resonant surface. Conversely, ion heating occurs at all radii during a sawtooth crash, as Ti more than doubles over ˜ 100 μs. The results suggest that ions are heated primarily near the reconnection layer, and that global heating during a crash arises from activity at multiple reconnection sites throughout the plasma. Both the heating profile and degree of heating during a crash vary strongly with plasma current, density, the reversal parameter, and ion species. At high plasma current (0.5 MA), the large Ti (> 1 keV on-axis) generated during a crash can be sustained by reduction of magnetic fluctuations using auxiliary current drive. Work supported by U.S.D.O.E. and N.S.F.

  1. Density fluctuation measurements by far-forward collective scattering in the MST reversed-field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Duff, J. R.; Sarff, J. S.

    2012-10-15

    The multichannel polarimeter-interferometer system on the MST reversed-field pinch can be utilized to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The collective scattering system has 11 viewing chords with {approx}8 cm spacing. The source is a 432 {mu}m (694 GHz) far infrared laser and the scattered power is measured using a heterodyne detection scheme. Collective scattering provides a line-integrated measurement of fluctuations within the divergence of the probe beam covering wavenumber range: k{sub Up-Tack} < 1.3 cm{sup -1}, corresponding k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub s} < 1.3 ({rho}{sub s} is the ion-sound Larmor radius), the region of primary interest for turbulent fluctuation-induced transport. The perpendicular wavenumber consists of toroidal, poloidal, and radial contributions, which vary with chord position. Coherent modes associated with tearing instabilities and neutral-beam driven fast particles are observed along with broadband turbulence at frequencies up to 500 kHz. Changes in frequency are consistent with a Doppler shift due to parallel plasma flow.

  2. Simulated and Measured Electron Thermal Transport with Varying Stochasticity in the MST RFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, J. A.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; Forest, C. B.; O'Connell, R.; Schnack, D. D.; Stephens, H. D.

    2009-11-01

    Recent results show that the MST RFP exhibits Rechester-Rosenbluth thermal transport only at the sawtooth crash, when the MHD activity peaks. This is in contrast with previous results [Biewer, 2003], which suggested stochastic transport between sawteeth. Results from a new set of first principles simulations using the resistive MHD code DEBS will be presented. The simulations are designed to match experimental conditions as closely as possible. Both Spitzer and neoclassical resistivity models were tried for the case of a fixed, experimentally measured resistivity at a central Lundquist number of 3.8x10^6. The measured electron thermal diffusion, χe, obtained through power balance is compared to the Rechester-Rosenbluth electron thermal diffusion obtained from DEBS, χRR = vTe πLeff b^2/B^2, and the expected thermal diffusion from the field line tracing code MAgnetic Lines (MAL), χMAL=vTeDmag where Dmag=(δr)^2/(2δl), where the traced magnetic field is also from DEBS. χRR is generally found to be an order of magnitude larger than χe except at the sawtooth crash, where the two are in agreement, suggesting that while magnetic fluctuations are always the dominant transport mechanism, the magnetic field is only fully stochastic at the sawtooth crash. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE.

  3. Fragmentation of specular overdense meteor trail echoes observed with Gadanki MST radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenna Reddy, K.; Yellaiah, G.

    2016-02-01

    The pulse-integrated signal to noise ratio as a function of time known as radar meteor light curve (analogous to optical light curve), is an indicative of ablation processes during meteoroid flight in the atmosphere. In this study, we present and discuss few examples of light curves of long duration specular overdense meteor echoes detected with 53 MHz Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) MST radar. These echoes are of several seconds duration, where pulsation in amplitude is about ten cycles within few seconds. This means the fluctuations in amplitude are much slower than typical Fresnel oscillations of underdense as well as the head echo fluctuations. These light curves reveal several features unreported previously in the radar meteor returns that are consistent with meteoroid fragmentation. Some of them provide the strong observational evidence of a sub-millimeter-sized meteoroid, breaking apart into two distinct fragments. The pulsations in light curves are interpreted as being due to interference from two distinct scattering centers. Some other meteor events such as meteoroids undergoing quasi-continuous disintegration are also discussed.

  4. The frequency spectrum of C sub n sup 2 from MST radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent study (Nastrom et al., 1986), the variability of the refractivity turbulence structure constant, C sub n(2), was examined using observations from the stratosphere troposphere/mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (ST/MST) radar at Poker Flat, Alaska, and Platteville, Colorado. Variations of C2 with height, season, and weather conditions were examined. Also, the autocorrelation function and the frequency distribution of C sub n(2) were studied, and it was shown that C sub n(2), follows a log-normal frequency distribution. One of the more tentative results given in that paper is a first look at the spectrum of log C sub n(2), as a function of frequency at Poker Flat. This spectrum appears to obey a power law relation with frequency, P(F) approx. F(k), with k near -5/3 at periods between about 4 hours and 6 days, and with k near -1 at shorter periods. Power law behavior of a spectrum often helps us to infer the underlying dynamics which give rise to this spectrum, and it is thus of some concern to establish further confidence in the spectral shape. The purpose here is to address these questions.

  5. Particle Heating and Energization During Magnetic Reconnection Events in MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Ami M.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Forest, C.; Nornberg, M.; Sarff, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in particle transport, energization, and acceleration in space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas. In MST reversed field pinch plasmas, discrete magnetic reconnection events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field, resulting in non-collisional ion heating. However, Thomson Scattering measures a decrease in the thermal electron temperature. Recent fast x-ray measurements show an enhancement in the high energy x-ray flux during reconnection, where the coupling between edge and core tearing modes is essential for enhanced flux. A non-Maxwellian energetic electron tail is generated during reconnection, where the power law spectral index (γ) decreases from 4.3 to 1.8 and is dependent on density, plasma current, and the reversal parameter. After the reconnection event, γ increases rapidly to 5.8, consistent with the loss of energetic electrons due to stochastic thermal transport. During the reconnection event, the change in γ is correlated with the change in magnetic energy stored in the equilibrium field, indicating that the released magnetic energy may be an energy source for electron energization. Recent experimental and computational results of energetic electron tail formation during magnetic reconnection events will be presented. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE and the NSF.

  6. Investigation of interaction between fast ions and tearing modes in MST plasmas using full orbit tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungha; Anderson, Jay; Capecchi, William; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Sears, Stephanie; Tsidulko, Yuri

    2015-11-01

    Under proper conditions, global reconnection events generate an anisotropic runaway ion distribution in MST plasmas. Full orbit tracing with time-dependent fluctuating fields, calculated by the nonlinear resistive MHD code DEBS, is used to inform a refined model of ion heating to explain this phenomenon, where tearing modes and ions interact on two distinct scales. There is anisotropic heating of thermal ions (T⊥>T∥), likely through a stochastic heating mechanism that requires high diffusivity and a tearing mode induced radial electric field with correlation length of a few cm. This process does not, however, continuously energize ions into the runaway regime. At sufficient energy, the ion guiding center deviates from the background magnetic field, which reduces the effective diffusivity to classical levels even in a stochastic magnetic field. These ``fast'' ions are accelerated by a parallel electric field (length scale of meters) induced by the equilibrium change accompanying tearing modes. This process relies on multiple global tearing modes; here we focus on a single tearing mode. This is compared to an experimental state where a transition to a single, dominant tearing mode is observed to accelerate fast ions and alter their confinement properties. Work supported by US DOE.

  7. Characterization and initial results from the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The FIR interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic on MST is a high-bandwidth system with unique capabilities for measuring high-frequency density and internal magnetic fluctuations. Installation of new planar-diode mixers improves both the signal strength and the noise floor compared to the corner-cube mixers previously used. The new mixer technology also offers a simpler detection configuration that eliminates the need for additional amplifiers. We characterize the bandwidth capabilities of the upgraded heterodyne receiver system and present initial measurements in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas. High wavenumber resolution becomes possible when operating without focusing elements, using only the 2-3 mm aperture on the mixer to determine the sampled chord width. This configuration will provide better resolution of small-scale fluctuations observed in the RFP during periods of improved, tokamak-like confinement. Finally, cross-correlation techniques between two mixers viewing the same chord further reduce measurement noise and improve the resolution of high-frequency, small-amplitude magnetic and density fluctuations. Initial tests of this technique in neutral-beam heated plasmas will be presented. Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  8. Gravity-wave spectra in the atmosphere observed by MST radar, part 4.2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A universal spectrum of atmospheric buoyancy waves is proposed based on data from radiosonde, Doppler navigation, not-wire anemometer and Jimsphere balloon. The possible existence of such a universal spectrum clearly will have significant impact on several areas in the study of the middle atmosphere dynamics such as the parameterization of sub-grid scale gravity waves in global circulation models; the transport of trace constituents and heat in the middle atmosphere, etc. Therefore, it is important to examine more global wind data with temporal and spatial resolutions suitable for the investigation of the wave spectra. Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar observations offer an excellent opportunity for such studies. It is important to realize that radar measures the line-of-sight velocity which, in general, contains the combination of the vertical and horizontal components of the wave-associated particle velocity. Starting from a general oblique radar observation configuration, applying the dispersion relation for the gravity waves, the spectrum for the observed fluctuations in the line-of-sight gravity-wave spectrum is investigated through a filter function. The consequence of the filter function on data analysis is discussed.

  9. Optimizing 50kV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam performance for active spectroscopy in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Boguski, J.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Munaretto, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Olivia, S.

    2015-11-01

    The 50 kV hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam on MST provides local measurements of impurity ion emission through charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) and of core-localized magnetic field through the motional Stark effect (MSE). The beam, which was designed to provide 5A of neutral current at 50 kV to meet these needs, is currently on a test stand to accommodate diagnosis, in order to increase the reliability of beam formation, sustain a steady current of 5 amps for 20ms, and optimize the primary energy fraction. The reliability of arc formation was increased from 40% to 80% success rate with increase of cathode gas pressure from 150kPa to 200kPa, and the stability of the arc current is improved with a decrease of the insulation magnetic field. A calorimeter with 5 thermocouples is installed to measure the horizontal and vertical beam profiles as well as beam divergence. Beam energy components are quantified through Doppler-shift spectroscopy. Preliminary simulation results of the beam using the ALCBEAM code as well as a description of how changes to the beam performance can affect CHERS and MSE measurements are presented. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE.

  10. Fast ion beta limit measurements by collimated neutron detection in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capecchi, William; Anderson, Jay; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Kim, Jungha; Sears, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Fast ion orbits in the reversed field pinch (RFP) are well ordered and classically confined despite magnetic field stochasticity generated by multiple tearing modes. Classical TRANSP modeling of a 1MW tangentially injected hydrogen neutral beam in MST deuterium plasmas predicts a core-localized fast ion density that can be up to 25% of the electron density and a fast ion beta of many times the local thermal beta. However, neutral particle analysis of an NBI-driven mode (presumably driven by a fast ion pressure gradient) shows mode-induced transport of core-localized fast ions and a saturated fast ion density. The TRANSP modeling is presumed valid until the onset of the beam-driven mode and gives an initial estimate of the volume-averaged fast ion beta of 1-2% (local core value up to 10%). A collimated neutron detector for fusion product profile measurements will be used to determine the spatial distribution of fast ions, allowing for a first measurement of the critical fast-ion pressure gradient required for mode destabilization. Testing/calibration data and initial fast-ion profiles will be presented. Characterization of both the local and global fast ion beta will be done for deuterium beam injection into deuterium plasmas for comparison to TRANSP predictions. Work supported by US DOE.

  11. Improvements in electron temperature measurements from soft x-rays in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, L. M.; Franz, P.; Galante, M. E.; Goetz, J.; den Hartog, D. J.; McGarry, M. B.; Stephens, H. D.

    2015-11-01

    The MST is equipped with a two-color soft x-ray tomography (SXT) diagnostic that is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-foil technique. Discrepancies between the double-foil temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) have been confirmed to be due to impurities present in the Be filters used to block visible light and select the energy range for soft x-ray detection. Namely, contamination from Zr led to a larger effective thickness for all filters. Furthermore, the distribution of Zr particles was highly non-uniform, making accurate accounting of the contaminated filters impossible and leading to different effective thicknesses between different probes in the SXT system. We have installed new confirmed 99.9% purity Be filters and assessed their effect on the brightness profiles and on the two-foil temperature measurements. Results show consistent amplitudes for brightness profiles from all four probes, and the double-foil temperature measurement from SXT matches TS within uncertainty, both spatially and temporally. In addition, empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy for the Be filters contaminated with Zr will allow us to accurately characterize data using the contaminated Be filters. This work was supported by the US DOE.

  12. Behavior of m =0 Modes in DEBS Modeling and MST Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, D.; Hesse, R.; Martin, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Jacobson, C. M.; McCollam, K. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the reversed field pinch (RFP), poloidal mode number m =0 fluctuations are driven through nonlinear coupling with unstable m =1 tearing modes. Many relaxation processes are strongly linked to the behavior of the m =0 modes and hence understanding and controlling them has high leverage for many physics studies. We explore the dependence of m =0 modes on several key parameters in both MST experiments and visco-resistive MHD simulations using the DEBS code. In both experiment and code, m =0 modes are suppressed by removing their resonant surface from the plasma though the suppression is more complete in the experiment. Reduced m =0 magnetic mode amplitudes are correlated with a reduction in the m =1 mode velocity fluctuations in both experiment and code. The time scale for m =0 mode amplitudes to rise and fall during relaxation events does not depend strongly on the degree of magnetic field reversal in the experiment or in the code. Systematic variation of the Lundquist number and magnetic Prandtl number in the code shows that both resistivity and viscosity affect the temporal evolution of the m =0 modes during relaxation events. The effect of the edge resistivity profile and the electric field boundary condition on m =0 modes is also examined in the code. These observations are discussed in relation to the nonlinearly driven reconnection paradigm for m =0 mode evolution. This work has been supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  13. Initial Studies of Validation of MHD Models for MST Reversed Field Pinch Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, C. M.; Almagri, A. F.; Craig, D.; McCollam, K. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J. P.; Sovinec, C. R.; Triana, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative validation of visco-resistive MHD models for RFP plasmas takes advantage of MST's advanced diagnostics. These plasmas are largely governed by MHD relaxation activity, so that a broad range of validation metrics can be evaluated. Previous nonlinear simulations using the visco-resistive MHD code DEBS at Lundquist number S = 4 ×106 produced equilibrium relaxation cycles in qualitative agreement with experiment, but magnetic fluctuation amplitudes b~ were at least twice as large as in experiment. The extended-MHD code NIMROD previously suggested that a two-fluid model may be necessary to produce b~ in agreement with experiment. For best comparisons with DEBS and to keep computational expense tractable, NIMROD is run in single-fluid mode at low S. These simulations are complemented by DEBS at higher S in cylindrical geometry, which will be used to examine b~ as a function of S. Experimental measurements are used with results from these simulations to evaluate validation metrics. Convergence tests of previous high S DEBS simulations are also discussed, along with benchmarking of DEBS and NIMROD with the SPECYL and PIXIE3D codes. Work supported by U.S. DOE and NSF.

  14. Multi-System Verification of Registrations for Image-Guided Radiotherapy in Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James M.; Straube, William L.; Bosch, Walter R.; Purdy, James A.; Li, X. Allen; Xiao Ying

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To provide quantitative information on the image registration differences from multiple systems for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) credentialing and margin reduction in clinical trials. Methods and Materials: Images and IGRT shift results from three different treatment systems (Tomotherapy Hi-Art, Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy) have been sent from various institutions to the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center (ITC) for evaluation for the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Nine patient datasets (five head-and-neck and four prostate) were included in the comparison, with each patient having 1-4 daily individual IGRT studies. In all cases, daily shifts were re-calculated by re-registration of the planning CT with the daily IGRT data using three independent software systems (MIMvista, FocalSim, VelocityAI). Automatic fusion was used in all calculations. The results were compared with those submitted from institutions. Similar regions of interest (ROIs) and same initial positions were used in registrations for inter-system comparison. Different slice spacings for CBCT sampling and different ROIs for registration were used in some cases to observe the variation of registration due to these factors. Results: For the 54 comparisons with head-and-neck datasets, the absolute values of differences of the registration results between different systems were 2.6 {+-} 2.1 mm (mean {+-} SD; range 0.1-8.6 mm, left-right [LR]), 1.7 {+-} 1.3 mm (0.0-4.9 mm, superior-inferior [SI]), and 1.8 {+-} 1.1 mm (0.1-4.0 mm, anterior-posterior [AP]). For the 66 comparisons in prostate cases, the differences were 1.1 {+-} 1.0 mm (0.0-4.6 mm, LR), 2.1 {+-} 1.7 mm (0.0-6.6 mm, SI), and 2.0 {+-} 1.8 mm (0.1-6.9 mm, AP). The differences caused by the slice spacing variation were relatively small, and the different ROI selections in FocalSim and MIMvista also had limited impact. Conclusion: The extent of differences was reported when different systems were used for image

  15. Novel nervous and multi-system regenerative therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus with mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the globe, diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in incidence with limited therapies presently available to prevent or resolve the significant complications of this disorder. DM impacts multiple organs and affects all components of the central and peripheral nervous systems that can range from dementia to diabetic neuropathy. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising agent for the development of novel regenerative strategies for the treatment of DM. mTOR and its related signaling pathways impact multiple metabolic parameters that include cellular metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, pancreatic β-cell function, and programmed cell death with apoptosis and autophagy. mTOR is central element for the protein complexes mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and is a critical component for a number of signaling pathways that involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), and growth factors. As a result, mTOR represents an exciting target to offer new clinical avenues for the treatment of DM and the complications of this disease. Future studies directed to elucidate the delicate balance mTOR holds over cellular metabolism and the impact of its broad signaling pathways should foster the translation of these targets into effective clinical regimens for DM. PMID:27127460

  16. Biology of Parkinson's disease: pathogenesis and pathophysiology of a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Garrett E.

    2004-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common movement disorder. The characteristic motor impairments - bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor - result from degenerative loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, and are responsive to symptomatic treatment with dopaminergic medications and functional neurosurgery. PD is also the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Viewed from this perspective, PD is a disorder of multiple functional systems, not simply the motor system, and of multiple neurotransmitter systems, not merely that of DA. The characteristic pathology - intraneuronal Lewy body inclusions and reduced numbers of surviving neurons - is similar in each of the targeted neuron groups, suggesting a common neurodegenerative process. Pathological and experimental studies indicate that oxidative stress, proteolytic stress, and inflammation figure prominently in the pathogenesis of PD. Yet, whether any of these mechanisms plays a causal role in human PD is unknown, because to date we have no proven neuroprotective therapies that slow or reverse disease progression in patients with PD. We are beginning to understand the pathophysiology of motor dysfunction in PD, but its etiopathogenesis as a neurodegenerative disorder remains poorly understood. PMID:22033559

  17. Novel nervous and multi-system regenerative therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus with mTOR.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Throughout the globe, diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in incidence with limited therapies presently available to prevent or resolve the significant complications of this disorder. DM impacts multiple organs and affects all components of the central and peripheral nervous systems that can range from dementia to diabetic neuropathy. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising agent for the development of novel regenerative strategies for the treatment of DM. mTOR and its related signaling pathways impact multiple metabolic parameters that include cellular metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, pancreatic β-cell function, and programmed cell death with apoptosis and autophagy. mTOR is central element for the protein complexes mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and is a critical component for a number of signaling pathways that involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), and growth factors. As a result, mTOR represents an exciting target to offer new clinical avenues for the treatment of DM and the complications of this disease. Future studies directed to elucidate the delicate balance mTOR holds over cellular metabolism and the impact of its broad signaling pathways should foster the translation of these targets into effective clinical regimens for DM. PMID:27127460

  18. Novel Multi-System Functional Gains via Task Specific Training in Spinal Cord Injured Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Herrity, April N.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Willhite, Andrea; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Harkema, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Locomotor training (LT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a rehabilitative therapy used to enhance locomotor recovery. There is evidence, primarily anecdotal, also associating LT with improvements in bladder function and reduction in some types of SCI-related pain. In the present study, we determined if a step training paradigm could improve outcome measures of locomotion, bladder function, and pain/allodynia. After a T10 contusive SCI trained animals (adult male Wistar rats), trained animals began quadrupedal step training beginning 2 weeks post-SCI for 1 h/day. End of study experiments (3 months of training) revealed significant changes in limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns relative to non-trained controls. Importantly, micturition function, evaluated with terminal transvesical cystometry, was significantly improved in the step trained group (increased voiding efficiency, intercontraction interval, and contraction amplitude). Because both SCI and LT affect neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophins are involved with post-SCI plasticity in micturition pathways, we measured bladder neurotrophin mRNA. Training regulated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) but not BDNF or NT3. Bladder NGF mRNA levels were inversely related to bladder function in the trained group. Monitoring of overground locomotion and neuropathic pain throughout the study revealed significant improvements, beginning after 3 weeks of training, which in both cases remained consistent for the study duration. These novel findings, improving non-locomotor in addition to locomotor functions, demonstrate that step training post-SCI could contribute to multiple quality of life gains, targeting patient-centered high priority deficits. PMID:24294909

  19. Mutations in the selenocysteine insertion sequence–binding protein 2 gene lead to a multisystem selenoprotein deficiency disorder in humans

    PubMed Central

    Schoenmakers, Erik; Agostini, Maura; Mitchell, Catherine; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Papp, Laura; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Padidela, Raja; Ceron-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Doffinger, Rainer; Prevosto, Claudia; Luan, Jian’an; Montano, Sergio; Lu, Jun; Castanet, Mireille; Clemons, Nick; Groeneveld, Matthijs; Castets, Perrine; Karbaschi, Mahsa; Aitken, Sri; Dixon, Adrian; Williams, Jane; Campi, Irene; Blount, Margaret; Burton, Hannah; Muntoni, Francesco; O’Donovan, Dominic; Dean, Andrew; Warren, Anne; Brierley, Charlotte; Baguley, David; Guicheney, Pascale; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Coles, Alasdair; Gaston, Hill; Todd, Pamela; Holmgren, Arne; Khanna, Kum Kum; Cooke, Marcus; Semple, Robert; Halsall, David; Wareham, Nicholas; Schwabe, John; Grasso, Lucia; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Ogunko, Arthur; Dattani, Mehul; Gurnell, Mark; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Selenium, a trace element that is fundamental to human health, is incorporated into some proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), generating a family of selenoproteins. Sec incorporation is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes Sec insertion sequence–binding protein 2 (SECISBP2; also known as SBP2). Here, we describe subjects with compound heterozygous defects in the SECISBP2 gene. These individuals have reduced synthesis of most of the 25 known human selenoproteins, resulting in a complex phenotype. Azoospermia, with failure of the latter stages of spermatogenesis, was associated with a lack of testis-enriched selenoproteins. An axial muscular dystrophy was also present, with features similar to myopathies caused by mutations in selenoprotein N (SEPN1). Cutaneous deficiencies of antioxidant selenoenzymes, increased cellular ROS, and susceptibility to ultraviolet radiation–induced oxidative damage may mediate the observed photosensitivity. Reduced levels of selenoproteins in peripheral blood cells were associated with impaired T lymphocyte proliferation, abnormal mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, and telomere shortening. Paradoxically, raised ROS in affected subjects was associated with enhanced systemic and cellular insulin sensitivity, similar to findings in mice lacking the antioxidant selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1). Thus, mutation of SECISBP2 is associated with a multisystem disorder with defective biosynthesis of many selenoproteins, highlighting their role in diverse biological processes. PMID:21084748

  20. A new paradigm: Diagnosis and management of HSCT-associated thrombotic microangiopathy as multi-system endothelial injury

    PubMed Central

    Jodele, Sonata; Laskin, Benjamin L; Dandoy, Christopher E.; Myers, Kasiani C.; El-Bietar, Javier; Davies, Stella M.; Goebel, Jens; Dixon, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is now a well-recognized and potentially severe complication of HSCT that carries a high risk of death. In those who survive, TA-TMA may be associated with long-term morbidity and chronic organ injury. Recently, there have been new insights into the incidence, pathophysiology, and management of TA-TMA. Specifically, TA-TMA can manifest as a multi-system disease occurring after various triggers of small vessel endothelial injury, leading to subsequent tissue damage in different organs. While the kidney is most commonly affected, TA-TMA involving organs such as the lung, bowel, heart, and brain is now known to have specific clinical presentations. We now review the most up-to-date research on TA-TMA, focusing on the pathogenesis of endothelial injury, the diagnosis of TA-TMA affecting the kidney and other organs, and new clinical approaches to the management of this complication after HSCT. PMID:25483393

  1. [Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) in Switzerland in the years 2003 - 2006].

    PubMed

    Welti, S; Sydler, T; Wiederkehr, D; Pospischil, A; Hässig, M; Bürgi, E; Sidler, X

    2012-10-01

    In Switzerland postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), caused by porcine circovirus type 2, was detected for the first time in 2001. To comprise the PMWS epizooty in 2003 - 2006 retrospectively, individual animals were diagnosed according to internationally accepted criteria and temporal and regional patterns of the epizooty were reconstructed. Occurrence of PMWS was predominantly in regions with a high frequency of swine farms (central and eastern Switzerland). Apparently it was spread to other, less affected regions, through trade of infected fattening pigs. Concurrently, disease was found in different establishments of production. Affected were mainly weaners or fattening pigs. In 40 % of the breeding farms and in 25 % of the fattening farms mortality rate was higher than 5 %. Starting in 2003, also a higher frequency of porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) diseased pigs was diagnosed. In the years 2004 to 2006 they accounted for about 10 % of the diagnosed PCV2-associated diseases. Besides the characteristic skin- and kidney lesions approximately half of the PDNS cases showed wasting and lymphoid lesions with high quantities of PCV2 antigen. We termed these mixed forms PMWS-PDNS-hybrid forms. PMID:23027508

  2. Protection of swine against post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) proteins.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, P; Mahé, D; Cariolet, R; Keranflec'h, A; Baudouard, M A; Cordioli, P; Albina, E; Jestin, A

    2003-11-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is known to be associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), a recently described disease of young pigs. Since no PCV2 vaccine was available so far, we have developed a specific PCV2 vaccine candidate. The Orf1-encoded replication protein and Orf2-encoded capsid protein of PCV2 were expressed and detected in either mammalian or insect expression systems. In a first trial, Orf2 protein was found to be a major immunogen, inducing protection in a prime-boost protocol; the piglets received a first injection with plasmids directing Orf2 protein and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression, followed by a second injection, a fortnight later, associated with baculovirus-expressed Orf2 protein. As evaluated by growth parameters, clinical signs (fever), seroconversion, the pigs were protected against a PCV2 challenge after vaccination. In a second trial, protection induced by a subunit vaccine was even better than the one induced by DNA vaccine, since PCV2 replication was completely inhibited. PMID:14575769

  3. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Croatia: detection and characterisation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

    PubMed

    Lipej, Z; Segalés, J; Toplak, I; Sostarić, B; Roić, Besi; Lojkić, M; Hostnik, P; Grom, J; Barlic-Maganja, Darja; Zarković, Kamelija; Oraić, D

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Croatia, and to determine the epizootiological, clinical and pathomorphological features of the disease. During a systematic health monitoring programme conducted in the period from January 2002 to June 2003, PMWS was suspected on eight different pig-producing farms in Croatia. The diagnosis of PMWS met all three key criteria: the presence of compatible clinical signs, the presence of the characteristic microscopic lymphoid lesions, and the detection of PCV2 within the lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by in situ hybridisation (ISH). Moreover, PCV2 DNA from swine tissues was extracted and sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of 4 Croatian PCV2 strains showed close relationship to PCV2 strains isolated in Slovenia, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, China and Hungary. PCV2 was also demonstrated by electron microscopy in the lymph node of an affected animal. This is the first demonstration of PMWS in Croatia based on all scientifically accepted diagnostic criteria. PMID:16156133

  4. Infectious risk factors for individual postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) development in pigs from affected farms in Spain and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Stockmarr, Anders; Kristensen, Charlotte S; Enøe, Claes; López-Soria, Sergio; Nofrarías, Miquel; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Hjulsager, Charlotte K; Sibila, Marina; Jorsal, Sven E; Fraile, Lorenzo; Baekbo, Poul; Vigre, Hakan; Segalés, Joaquim; Larsen, Lars E

    2012-12-01

    Two prospective longitudinal studies in 13 postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected farms from Spain (n=3) and Denmark (n=10) were performed. Blood samples from pigs were longitudinally collected from 1st week until the occurrence of the PMWS outbreak. Wasted and healthy age-matched pigs were euthanized, necropsied and histopathologically characterised. PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by means of lymphoid lesions and detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in these tissues by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. Serological analyses were performed in longitudinally collected serum samples to detect antibodies against, PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), swine influenza virus (SIV) and Lawsonia intracellularis (law), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and Salmonella spp. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of seroconversion and maternal immunity against the studied pathogens. Results showed that high levels of maternal immunity against PCV2 had a protecting effect in farms from both countries. Moreover, for the Danish dataset, seroconversion against law had an overall protecting effect, but for animals with very low levels of maternal antibody levels against this pathogen, the effect appeared neutral or aggravating. Otherwise, for the Spanish dataset, maternal immunity against PPV and PRRSV gave protective and aggravating effects, respectively. In conclusion, the present study reflects the complex interaction among different pathogens and their effects in order to trigger PMWS in PCV2 infected pigs. PMID:22884005

  5. MAP4K family kinases act in parallel to MST1/2 to activate LATS1/2 in the Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhipeng; Moroishi, Toshiro; Mottier-Pavie, Violaine; Plouffe, Steven W.; Hansen, Carsten G.; Hong, Audrey W.; Park, Hyun Woo; Mo, Jung-Soon; Lu, Wenqi; Lu, Shicong; Flores, Fabian; Yu, Fa-Xing; Halder, Georg; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo pathway plays a central role in tissue homoeostasis, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Core components of the Hippo pathway include a kinase cascade of MST1/2 and LATS1/2 and the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ. In response to stimulation, LATS1/2 phosphorylate and inhibit YAP/TAZ, the main effectors of the Hippo pathway. Accumulating evidence suggests that MST1/2 are not required for the regulation of YAP/TAZ. Here we show that deletion of LATS1/2 but not MST1/2 abolishes YAP/TAZ phosphorylation. We have identified MAP4K family members—Drosophila Happyhour homologues MAP4K1/2/3 and Misshapen homologues MAP4K4/6/7—as direct LATS1/2-activating kinases. Combined deletion of MAP4Ks and MST1/2, but neither alone, suppresses phosphorylation of LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ in response to a wide range of signals. Our results demonstrate that MAP4Ks act in parallel to and are partially redundant with MST1/2 in the regulation of LATS1/2 and YAP/TAZ, and establish MAP4Ks as components of the expanded Hippo pathway. PMID:26437443

  6. Spectroscopic measurement of the MHD dynamo in the MST reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.T.

    1998-09-01

    The author has directly observed the coupling of ion velocity fluctuations and magnetic field fluctuations to produce an MHD dynamo electric field in the interior of the MST reversed field pinch. Chord averaged ion velocity fluctuations were measured with a fast spectroscopic diagnostic which collects line radiation from intrinsic carbon impurities simultaneously along two lines of sight. The chords employed for the measurements resolved long wavelength velocity fluctuations of several km/s at 8--20 kHz as tiny, fast Doppler shifts in the emitted line profile. During discrete dynamo events the velocity fluctuations, like the magnetic fluctuations, increase dramatically. The toroidal and poloidal chords with impact parameters of 0.3 a and 0.6 a respectively, resolved fluctuation wavenumbers with resonance surfaces near or along the lines of sight indicating a radial velocity fluctuation width for each mode which spans only a fraction of the plasma radius. The phase between the measured toroidal velocity fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations matches the predictions of resistive MHD while the poloidal velocity fluctuations exhibit a phase consistent with the superposition of MHD effects and the advection of a mean flow gradient past the poloidal line of sight. Radial velocity fluctuations resolved by a chord through the center of the plasma were small compared to the poloidal and toroidal fluctuations and exhibited low coherence with the magnetic fluctuations. The ensembled nonlinear product of the ion velocity fluctuations and fluctuations in the magnetic field indicates a substantial dynamo electric field which peaks during the periods of spontaneous flux generation.

  7. Characterization of beam-driven instabilities and current redistribution in MST plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.

    2015-11-01

    A unique, high-rep-rate (>10 kHz) Thomson scattering diagnostic and a high-bandwidth FIR interferometer-polarimeter on MST have enabled characterization of beam-driven instabilities and magnetic equilibrium changes observed during high power (1 MW) neutral beam injection (NBI). While NBI leads to negligible net current drive, an increase in on-axis current density observed through Faraday rotation is offset by a reduction in mid-radius current. Identification of the phase flip in temperature fluctuations associated with tearing modes provides a sensitive measure of rational surface locations. This technique strongly constrains the safety factor for equilibrium reconstruction and provides a powerful new tool for measuring the equilibrium magnetic field. For example, the n = 6 temperature structure is observed to shift inward 1.1 +/- 0.6 cm, with an estimated reduction of q0 by 5%. This is consistent with a mid-radius reduction in current, and together the Faraday rotation and Thomson scattering measurements corroborate an inductive redistribution of current that compares well with TRANSP/MSTFit predictions. Interpreting tearing mode temperature structures in the RFP remains challenging; the effects of multiple, closely-spaced tearing modes on the mode phase measurement require further verification. In addition to equilibrium changes, previous work has shown that the large fast ion population drives instabilities at higher frequencies near the Alfvén continuum. Recent observations reveal a new instability at much lower frequency (~7 kHz) with strongly chirping behavior. It participates in extensive avalanches of the higher frequency energetic particle and Alfvénic modes to drive enhanced fast ion transport. Internal structures measured from Te and ne fluctuations, their dependence on the safety factor, as well as frequency scaling motivate speculation about mode identity. Work supported by U.S. DOE.

  8. High-repetition-rate pulse-burst laser for Thomson scattering on the MST reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    A new, high-repetition-rate pulse-burst laser system for the MST Thomson scattering diagnostic has operated with 2 J pulses at repetition rates up to 75 kHz within a burst. The 1064 nm laser currently employs a q-switched, diode pumped Nd:YVO4 master oscillator, four Nd:YAG amplifier stages, and a Nd:glass amplifier, with plans for an additional Nd:glass amplifier. The laser can maintain 1.5-2 J pulses in two operating modes: either at a uniform repetition rate of 5-10 kHz (sustained for 5-8 ms), or reach rates of up to 75 kHz in pulse-burst operation (for 10 bursts of 15 pulses each), limited by flashlamp explosion energy and wall loading. The full system, including an additional Nd:glass amplifier, is designed to produce bursts of 2 J pulses at a repetition rate of at least 250 kHz. Custom programmable square-pulse power supplies drive the amplifier flashlamps, providing fine control of pulse timing, duration, and repetition, and allow for pulse-burst operation. The new laser system integrates with the same collection optics and detectors as used by the previous MST Thomson laser: 21 spatial points across the MST minor radius, filter polychromators with 6 to 8 channels (10 eV-5 keV range), avalanche photodiode detectors, and 1 GSample/s/channel digitization. Use of the previous pulse-burst laser continues concurrently with new laser development. Additional notes on optimization of flashlamp simmering will also be covered, showing that an increase in simmer currents can improve pulse-to-pulse energy consistency on both the new and older lasers.

  9. Reducing and measuring fluctuations in the MST RFP: Enhancement of energy confinement and measurement of the MHD dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Almagri, A.F.; Cekic, M.

    1996-09-01

    A three- to five-fold enhancement of the energy confinement time in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) by reducing the amplitude of tearing mode fluctuations responsible for anomalous transport in the core of the RFP. By applying a transient poloidal inductive electric field to flatten the current density profile, the fluctuation amplitude {tilde b}/B decreases from 1.5% to 0.8%, the electron temperature T{sub e0} increases from 250 eV to 370 eV, the ohmic input power decreases from 4.5 MW to approximately 1.5 MW, the poloidal beta {beta}{sub 0} increases from 6% to 9%, and the energy confinement time {tau}{sub E} increases from 1 ms to {approximately}5 ms in I{sub {phi}} = 340 kA plasmas with density {tilde n} = 1 {times} 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}. Current profile control methods are being developed for the RFP in a program to eliminate transport associated with these current-gradient-driven fluctuations. In addition to controlling the amplitude of the tearing modes, we are vigorously pursuing an understanding of the physics of these fluctuations. In particular, plasma flow, both equilibrium and fluctuating, plays a critical role in a diversity of physical phenomena in MST. The key results: 1) Edge probe measurements show that the MHD dynamo is active in low collisionality plasmas, while at high collisionality a new mechanism, the `electron diamagnetic dynamo,` is observed. 2) Core spectroscopic measurements show that the toroidal velocity fluctuations of the plasma are coherent with the large-scale magnetic tearing modes; the scalar product of these two fluctuating quantities is similar to that expected for the MHD dynamo electromotive force. 3) Toroidal plasma flow in MST exhibits large radial shear and can be actively controlled, including unlocking locked discharges, by modifying E{sub r} with a robust biased probe. 24 refs.

  10. The instrumental principles of MST radars and incoherent scatter radars and the configuration of radar system hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, Juergen

    1989-01-01

    The principle of pulse modulation used in the case of coherent scatter radars (MST radars) is discussed. Coherent detection and the corresponding system configuration is delineated. Antenna requirements and design are outlined and the phase-coherent transmitter/receiver system is described. Transmit/receive duplexers, transmitters, receivers, and quadrature detectors are explained. The radar controller, integrator, decoder and correlator design as well as the data transfer and the control and monitoring by the host computer are delineated. Typical operation parameters of some well-known radars are summarized.

  11. Tanshinol suppresses inflammatory factors in a rat model of vascular dementia and protects LPS-treated neurons via the MST1-FOXO3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yishu; Wang, Lili; Wu, Yan; Su, Dongmei; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jiedong; Shi, Cuige; Lv, Liping; Zhang, Shucheng

    2016-09-01

    Neuroinflammation plays an important role in vascular dementia(VD). Our previous work showed that mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and the gene for a downstream transcription factor, FOXO3, play major roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons. The neurotoxic effects of LPS are derived from its ability to cause an inflammatory response. We also previously showed that Tanshinol (TSL) provides neuro-protection in a rat model of VD. The present study further explores the effects of TSL on the neuroinflammatory aspects of VD and investigates whether TSL affects the MST1-FOXO3signaling pathway. VD was induced in rats using transient bilateral coronary artery occlusion. Interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay kits. Cell apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining. Protein and mRNA levels were evaluated by western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. TSL improved working memory and significantly inhibited plasma and hippocampal protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in a rat model of VD. LPS induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons and increasedMST1 and p-FOXO3 protein expression, whereas MST1 siRNA transfection almost completely reversed LPS-induced neuronal apoptosis, indicating that LPS-induced cytotoxicity in hippocampal neurons is associated with MST1. TSL protected against LPS-induced cell apoptosis and suppressed IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression as well as MST1 and p-FOXO3 protein expression in neurons. The present study provided novel mechanisms by which TSL exerts its neuroprotective activity and indicates that TSL may be a potential neuro-protective agent in VD. PMID:27317635

  12. Clinical and Genetic Features of Korean Patients with Recurrent Fever and Multi-System Inflammation without Infectious or Autoimmune Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autoinflammatory disease (AID) is a newly proposed category of disorders characterized by unprovoked episodes of inflammation without any infectious or autoimmune evidence. We aimed to characterize the clinical and genetic features of patients who had recurrent fever and multi-system inflammation but remain unclassified for any established AIDs. Medical records of 1,777 patients who visited our Rheumatology Clinic between March 2009 and December 2010 were reviewed to identify those who met the following criteria; 1) presence of fever, 2) inflammation in two or more organ systems, 3) recurrent nature of fever or inflammation, 4) no evidence of infection or malignancy, 5) absence of high titer autoantibodies, and 6) failure to satisfy any classification criteria for known AIDs. Genotyping was performed for common missense variants in MEFV, NOD2/CARD15, and TNFRSF1A. A small number of patients (17/1,777, 0.95%) were identified to meet the above criteria. Muco-cutaneous and musculoskeletal features were most common, but there was a considerable heterogeneity in symptom combination. Although they did not satisfy any established classification criteria for AIDs, substantial overlap was observed between the clinical spectrum of these patients and known AIDs. According to the newly proposed Eurofever criteria for periodic fevers, eleven of them were classified as TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome and two as mevalonate kinase deficiency. However, no examined genetic variants including those in TNFRSF1A were found in these patients. A new set of classification criteria needs to be developed and validated for Asian patients with unclassified AIDs. PMID:26839472

  13. An ORF2 protein-based ELISA for porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ph; Mahé, D; Cariolet, R; Truong, C; Le Dimna, M; Arnauld, C; Rose, N; Eveno, E; Albina, E; Madec, F; Jestin, A

    2003-07-17

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in swine. As PCV2 displays significant homology with PCV1 (a non-pathogenic virus) at the nucleotide and amino-acid level, a discriminative antigen is needed for specific serological diagnosis. The ORF2-encoded capsid protein from PCV2 was used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GST-fused capsid protein from PCV2 and GST alone (both expressed in recombinant baculovirus-infected cells) were used as antigens for serodiagnosis. The specificity of the ELISA for detection of PCV2 antibodies was demonstrated in sera from pigs experimentally infected with PCV1, PCV2 and other swine viruses. The semi-quantitative nature of the test was evaluated versus an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). The ELISA was performed on 322 sera from pigs in eight Brittany herds and compared with IPMA. The sensitivity (98.2%) and specificity (94.5%) of this test were considered suitable for individual serological detection. High PCV2 seroprevalence was found in sows and pigs at the end of the growth phase (18-19 weeks) in all eight herds. The seroprevalence in piglets (11-17 weeks) was statistically correlated with clinical symptoms of PMWS (93% in affected versus 54%, in non-affected farms). A cohort study performed in PMWS-free farms showed that 57% of piglets exhibited active seroconversion after 13 weeks, indicating that PCV2 infection occurred earlier in PMWS-affected piglets. PMID:12814886

  14. Indian MST radar: A remote sensing tool for studying long- and short- term cross tropopause transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddarth Shankar; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Suneeth, K. V.

    The stratospheric air is dry and ozone rich in nature, whereas the tropospheric air is enriched in humidity with high aerosol concentration. The tropopause is the stable layer which acts as a semi-permeable membrane between these two spheres (i.e. troposphere and stratosphere) and thus hinders the exchange of the minors constituents (e.g. water vapour and ozone) between these two spheres. This complex equilibrium region is known as the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The major mixing process befalls over the tropical region, where the maximum convective systems occur through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamical and chemical processes that occurring at UTLS region and quantative analysis of the mass exchange is essential. Ten years of data obtained from Indian MST radar located at a Tropical station Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) is used to study the long- and short (event) term cross tropopause transport. The prime mechanisms responsible for the radar backscattering echoes are isotropic/anisotropic turbulence fluctuations in the refractive index and Fresnel reflection/scattering due to sharp gradients in the radio refractive index. The inhomogeneties in the radio refractive index are contributed by both humidity and temperature below 8 km height, whereas above it, it is only contributed by the temperature gradients. When the dry stratospheric air penetrates into the troposphere, it will take some time to mix with the humid air of troposphere. Due to two different constituents of the air, there will be strong refractive index gradient, which will be reflected as enhanced radar backscattering echoes. The dry stratospheric air will slowly mix with the humid tropospheric air by means of small scale turbulence. Using this scattering mechanism behavior, the long-term and its seasonal characteristics, and the short-term event wise (convective disturbances) stratospheric air intrusion into the troposphere

  15. Non-axisymmetric Flows and Transport in the Edge of MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew Charles

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in plasmas all throughout the universe and is responsible for spectacular and perplexing phenomena. In the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP), reconnection occurs as quasi-periodic bursts of tearing instabilities (saw-teeth), which give rise to a number of processes that affect the RFP's global behavior and confinement. This work examines the structure of turbulent plasma flow in the edge region and its role in affecting momentum and particle transport through the use of several insertable probes and novel ensemble techniques. Very few measurements exist of tearing mode flow structures. The flow structure has now been measured for m = 0 modes and is in good agreement with theoretical expectations for nonlinear resistive MHD calculated for the RFP using DEBS and NIMROD. The flows are predicted and measured to be different than the classical Sweet-Parker picture with symmetric inward flows. The flow fluctuations have a profound effect on momentum transport, which is trans- ported rapidly at the crash. This work advances the understanding of this process by measuring the Reynolds stress associated with turbulent flow. Combined with measurements of the Maxwell stress, a new picture for magnetic self-organization in the RFP via two-fluid physics has emerged. The Reynolds and Maxwell stresses are measured to be an order of magnitude larger than the rate of change in inertia but oppositely directed such that they almost cancel. Two-fluid effects are significant because of the relationship be- tween the Maxwell stress and the Hall dynamo, a term only existing in two-fluid theories. This relationship inextricably couples the momentum dynamics with the current dynamics. Indeed, the parallel momentum profile exhibits a relaxation at the crash akin to the relaxation seen in the parallel current density profile. Tearing modes also drive particle transport. Fluctuation-induced particle flux is resolved through a crash by

  16. Current status of Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar (PANSY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kaoru; Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Saito, Akinori; Sato, Toru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    The Syowa Station is one of the distinguished stations, where various atmospheric observations for research purposes by universities and institutes as well as operational observations by government agencies are performed continuously. The observation of the Antarctic is important in two senses. First, it is easy to monitor weak signal of the earth climate change because contamination due to human activity is quite low. Second, there are various unique atmospheric phenomena in the Antarctic having strong signals such as katabatic flows, the ozone hole, noctilucent clouds, and auroras. The middle atmosphere is regarded as an important region to connect the troposphere and ionosphere. However, its observation is retarded in the Antarctic compared with the other regions; nevertheless the vertical coupling through the mechanisms such as momentum transport by gravity waves is especially important in this region. Since 2000, we have developed an MST/IS radar to be operational in the Antarctic and have made feasibility studies. After solving various significant problems such as treatment against strong winds, energy saving, weight reduction, and efficient construction method, we reached the final system design which is a VHF (47MHz) Doppler pulse radar with an active phased array consisting of 1045 yagis. This project was authorized as a main observation plan for JARE52-57 in 2008, and finally funded by Japanese government in 2009. The radar construction started in late December, 2010. In the first summer since late December 2010, JARE52 installed all yagi antennas in a circular region with a diameter of 160m as scheduled regardless of the record-worst weather condition. Three groups out of 55, each of which is composed of 19 modules and antennas, were operated and the first echoes from the low and middle troposphere were successfully obtained in March 2011. In the second summer, JARE53 rearranged the shape of the antenna area to avoid snow accumulation which has recently

  17. Advances in the pulse-burst laser system for high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, W. S.; Hurst, N. C.; den Hartog, D. J.; Ambuel, J. R.; Holly, D. J.; Robl, P. E.

    2010-11-01

    A pulse-burst laser has been installed for Thomson scattering measurements on MST. The laser design is a master-oscillator power-amplifier which is capable of Q-switching at frequencies between 5-250 kHz. Single pulses through the first (four) Nd:YAG amplifier stages give energies up to 1.5 J, and the gain for each stage has been measured. Repetitive pulsing at 10 kHz has also been performed for 2 ms bursts giving average pulse energies of 0.53 J with δE/E of 4.6%, where δE is the standard deviation between pulses. The final Nd:glass amplifier stages require flashlamps operated at 1800 V and 1800 A. At these currents, inductive turnoff spikes can become large even for small circuit inductances. The flashlamp power supplies have been modified to reduce inductance and increase snubber capacitance, and now reliably produce pulse trains (10 pulses at 1 kHz) at maximum flashlamp drive current. In addition, the beam path is being extended to the MST vacuum vessel. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  18. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H Blocks MST2-Dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells via Regulation of A-Raf transcription

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Jens; O'Neill, Eric; Mack, Brigitte; Matthias, Christoph; Munz, Markus; Kolch, Walter; Gires, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Summary A-Raf belongs to the family of oncogenic Raf kinases that are involved in mitogenic signalling by activating the MEK-ERK pathway. Low kinase activity of A-Raf towards MEK suggested that A-Raf might have alternative functions. We show that A-Raf prevents cancer cell apoptosis contingent on the expression of the hnRNP H splice factor, which is required for the correct transcription and expression of A-Raf. A-Raf prevented apoptosis by sequestering and inactivating the pro-apoptotic MST2 kinase. Knock-down of hnRNP H or A-Raf resulted in MST2-dependent apoptosis, while enforced expression of either one partially counteracted apoptosis induced by etoposide. In vivo expression studies in colon specimens corroborated the over-expression of hnRNP H in malignant tissues and its correlation with A-Raf levels. In summary, we present a novel route that is usurped by tumor cells to escape naturally imposed apoptotic signals. PMID:20145135

  19. miR-155-dependent regulation of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2 (MST2) coordinates inflammation, oxidative stress and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhan; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Yu; He, Ming; Zhang, Xin-hua; Ma, Dong; Zhang, Ruo-nan; Wu, Xiao-li; Wen, Jin-kun

    2015-07-01

    In response to vascular injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation often occur simultaneously in vascular tissues. We previously observed that microRNA-155 (miR-155), which is implicated in proliferation and inflammation is involved in neointimal hyperplasia; however, the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates these processes remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed that vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and neointimal formation in wire-injured femoral arteries were reduced by the loss of miR-155 and increased by the gain of miR-155. The proliferative effect of miR-155 was also observed in cultured VSMCs. Notably, expression of the miR-155-target protein mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2 (MST2) was increased in the injured arteries of miR-155-/- mice. miR-155 directly repressed MST2 and thus activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway by promoting an interaction between RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (Raf-1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and stimulating inflammatory and oxidative stress responses; together, these effects lead to VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling. Our data reveal that MST2 mediates miR-155-promoted inflammatory and oxidative stress responses by altering the interaction of MEK with Raf-1 and MST2 in response to vascular injury. Therefore, suppression of endogenous miR-155 might be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular injury and remodeling. PMID:25892184

  20. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described. PMID:27033924

  1. Single-unit activity in cortical area MST associated with disparity-vergence eye movements: evidence for population coding.

    PubMed

    Takemura, A; Inoue, Y; Kawano, K; Quaia, C; Miles, F A

    2001-05-01

    Single-unit discharges were recorded in the medial superior temporal area (MST) of five behaving monkeys. Brief (230-ms) horizontal disparity steps were applied to large correlated or anticorrelated random-dot patterns (in which the dots had the same or opposite contrast, respectively, at the two eyes), eliciting vergence eye movements at short latencies [65.8 +/- 4.5 (SD) ms]. Disparity tuning curves, describing the dependence of the initial vergence responses (measured over the period 50-110 ms after the step) on the magnitude of the steps, resembled the derivative of a Gaussian, the curves obtained with correlated and anticorrelated patterns having opposite sign. Cells with disparity-related activity were isolated using correlated stimuli, and disparity tuning curves describing the dependence of these initial neuronal responses (measured over the period of 40-100 ms) on the magnitude of the disparity step were constructed (n = 102 cells). Using objective criteria and the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm, disparity tuning curves were sorted into four groups based on their shapes. A post hoc comparison indicated that these four groups had features in common with four of the classes of disparity-selective neurons in striate cortex, but three of the four groups appeared to be part of a continuum. Most of the data were obtained from two monkeys, and when the disparity tuning curves of all the individual neurons recorded from either monkey were summed together, they fitted the disparity tuning curve for that same animal's vergence responses remarkably well (r(2): 0.93, 0.98). Fifty-six of the neurons recorded from these two monkeys were also tested with anticorrelated patterns, and all showed significant modulation of their activity (P < 0.005, 1-way ANOVA). Further, when all of the disparity tuning curves obtained with these patterns from either monkey were summed together, they too fitted the disparity tuning curve for that same animal's vergence responses very

  2. Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification MST Solids Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2013-09-19

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 7 processing. The Marcrobatch 7 material was received with visible fine particulate solids, atypical for these samples. The as received material was allowed to settle for a period greater than 24 hours. The supernatant was then decanted and utilized as our clarified feed material. As part of this qualification work, SRNL performed an Actinide Removal Process (ARP) test using the clarified feed material. From this test, the residual monosodium titanate (MST) was analyzed for radionuclide uptake after filtration from H-Tank Farm (HTF) feed salt solution. The results of these analyses are reported and are within historical precedent.

  3. Some recent developments in the interpretation of MST radar returns from clear air (keynote paper), part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar returns from clear air come about through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with the inhomogeneous structures of refractive index in the atmosphere. In order to interpret the data correctly to obtain information concerning the dynamics of the atmosphere, one must first know how the various refractive index structures can affect the propagation and scattering of the radio waves. This can be achieved through theoretical and model studies. On the other hand, in order to carry out realistic theoretical studies, realistic models of the inhomogeneous structures of the atmospheric refractive index are needed. These are available only through observational data. Therefore the close interplays between theoretical and observational investigations are essential in making progress in this area. Some results on certain aspects of the problem are presented with emphasis on those aspects that may lead to new developments.

  4. Damping of Energetic-Particle-Driven Alfven Eigenmodes in Different Magnetic Equilibria in the MST Reversed-Field Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Stephanie; Anderson, Jay; Capecchi, William; Bonofiglo, Phillip; Kim, Jungha

    2015-11-01

    Alfven wave dissipation is an important mechanism behind anomalous ion heating, both in astrophysical and reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma systems. Additionally, the damping rate has implications for the stability of energetic particle driven modes (EPMs) and their associated nonlinear dynamics and fast ion transport, which are crucial topics for any burning plasma reactor. With a 1 MW neutral beam injector on the MST RFP, a controlled set of EPMs and Alfvenic eigenmodes can be driven in this never-before-probed region of strong magnetic shear and weak externally applied magnetic field. The decay time of the average of 100s of reproducible bursts is computed for different equilibrium profiles. In this work, we report initial measurements of Alfvenic damping rates with varied RFP equilibria (including magnetic shear and flow shear) and the effects on fast ion transport. This research is supported by DOE and NSF.

  5. A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

  6. Targeted therapies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Grech, P; Khamashta, Ma

    2013-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, multisystem disorder characterised by loss of tolerance to endogenous nuclear antigens and autoantibody formation. Recent insight into the immunopathogenesis of lupus has provided the foundation for a novel class of agents which target specific, dysregulated components of the immune system. Efforts have focused predominantly on B-cell depleting therapies, of which belimumab was the first to demonstrate success in phase III studies and thus receive marketing authorisation. Off-label prescribing of rituximab in refractory cases is common and supported by uncontrolled studies, which suggest a favourable risk:benefit profile. However, two placebo-controlled trials failed to show benefit, possibly because of inappropriate patient selection and other aspects of trial methodology. Inhibition of dysregulated co-stimulatory signals and cytokines are other therapeutic strategies currently under investigation. Some candidate drugs failed to meet primary endpoints in early-phase clinical trials, yet demonstrated clinical benefit when alternative assessment criteria were applied or specific patient sub-groups analysed. Well-designed studies of greater size and duration are needed to clarify the therapeutic utility of these agents. Future immunomodulatory strategies targeting interferon-alpha, T cells, oxidative stress and epigenetic abnormalities may reduce multisystem disease activity and prolong survival in this complex and heterogeneic disease. PMID:23963429

  7. Negative Peer Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy for the Treatment of Youth Problem Behavior: Exploring Outcome and Process Variables in "Real-World" Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Associating with a negative peer group is related to involvement in problem behavior, yet very little research has considered the role of negative peer group affiliations in the context of "real-world" community-based treatments for problem behavior. This study examined the effects of negative peer involvement on case closure status and treatment…

  8. Feasibility of Adapting Multisystemic Therapy to Improve Illness Management Behaviors and Reduce Asthma Morbidity in High Risk African American Youth: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…

  9. Task completion report for investigating why output signal-variable values differ from their output component-parameter values in test problem MST2

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, R.G.

    1997-09-10

    Signal-variable values and their component-parameter values differ in an end-of-timestep edit to the TRCOUT and TRCGRF files because signal variables have beginning-of-timestep values, and component parameters have end-of-timestep values. Oscillatory divergence in the MST2 standard test problem after 9000 s occurs because of TRAC-P`s numerical evaluation at a 1000 material Courant number. The magnitude of that divergence has diminished by a factor of 3.5 from Version 5.3.01 to 5.4.15 and by a factor of 25 from Version 5.4.15 to 5.4.28. That divergence can be eliminated by evaluating MST2 with a maximum material Courant number of 500.

  10. Application of the MST clustering to the high energy γ-ray sky. III—New detections of γ-ray emission from blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, R.; Massaro, E.; Bernieri, E.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a photon cluster search in the γ-ray sky observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, using the new Pass 8 dataset, at energies higher than 10 GeV. By means of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) algorithm, we found 25 clusters associated with catalogued blazars not previously known as γ-ray emitters. The properties of these sources are discussed.

  11. Dimerization-induced folding of MST1 SARAH and the influence of the intrinsically unstructured inhibitory domain: low thermodynamic stability of monomer.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu Aruxandei, Diana; Makbul, Cihan; Koturenkiene, Agne; Lüdemann, Maik-Borris; Herrmann, Christian

    2011-12-27

    The serine/threonine mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST1) is involved in promotion of caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis. Phosphorylation and oligomerization are required for its activation. The oligomerization domain, denoted as SARAH domain, forms an antiparallel coiled coil dimer, and it is important for both MST1 autophosphorylation and interactions with other proteins like the Rassf proteins containing also a SARAH domain. Here we show that the monomeric state of SARAH is thermodynamically unstable and that homodimerization is coupled with folding. Moreover, the influence of the inhibitory domain on SARAH stability and affinity is addressed. By investigating the thermal denaturation using differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism, we have found that the SARAH domain dissociates and unfolds cooperatively, without a stable intermediate monomeric state. Combining the data with information from isothermal titration calorimetry, a low thermodynamic stability of the monomeric species is obtained. Thus, it is proposed that the transition from MST1 SARAH homodimer to some specific heterodimer implies a non-native monomer intermediate. The inhibitory domain is found to be highly flexible and intrinsically unfolded, not only in isolation but also in the dimeric state of the inhibitory-SARAH construct. The existence of two caspase recognition motifs within the inhibitory domain suggests that its structural flexibility might be important for activation of MST1 during apoptosis. Moreover, the inhibitory domain increases the thermodynamic stability of the SARAH dimer and the homodimer affinity, while having almost no effect on the SARAH domain in the monomeric state. These results emphasize the importance of flexibility and binding-induced folding for specificity, affinity, and the capacity to switch from one state to another. PMID:22112013

  12. hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 mutations are rare in patients with "multisystem proteinopathy" and frontotemporal lobar degeneration phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Isabelle; Van Bortel, Inge; Nicolas, Gael; Bouya-Ahmed, Kawtar; Camuzat, Agnès; Wallon, David; De Septenville, Anne; Latouche, Morwena; Lattante, Serena; Kabashi, Edor; Jornea, Ludmila; Hannequin, Didier; Brice, Alexis

    2014-04-01

    hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 mutations have been recently identified by exome sequencing in three families presenting with multisystem proteinopathy (MSP), a rare complex phenotype associating frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Paget disease of bone (PDB), inclusion body myopathy (IBM), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). No study has evaluated the exact frequency of these genes in cohorts of MSP or FTD patients so far. We sequenced both genes in 17 patients with MSP phenotypes, and in 60 patients with FTLD and FTLD-ALS to test whether mutations could be implicated in the pathogenesis of these disorders. No disease-causing mutation was identified. We conclude that hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 mutations are rare in MSP and FTLD spectrum of diseases, although further investigations in larger populations are needed. PMID:24119545

  13. Full genome sequences of torque teno sus virus strains that coinfected a pig with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Japan: implications for genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawabata, Toshiko; Okuya, Kosuke; Nagano, Kiori; Kanda, Takehiro; Kanazawa, Norihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Taneno, Akira; Deguchi, Eisaburo

    2015-12-01

    We determined the complete genome sequences of torque teno sus viruses (TTSuVs) detected in pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and in healthy pigs in Japan. Unexpectedly, we found coinfection of a PMWS-affected pig in Japan with one strain of TTSuV1, five strains of TTSuV2, and one strain of PCV2. Full-genome sequencing of each of these strains, followed by phylogenetic analysis, revealed broad genetic diversity in the TTSuV2 strains infecting the PMWS-affected pig. These results suggest that the geographical bias in the available genetic information about TTSuVs has a limited impact on the evaluation of their genetic diversity. PMID:26335893

  14. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children: from the bench to bedside for an updated therapy.

    PubMed

    Aricò, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease, affecting subjects of any age, with extremely variable clinical manifestations. Although most patients with LCH have localized disease, requiring local or even no therapy, those patients with disseminated, 'multi-system' disease require specific therapy because they may be at risk for morbidity or even mortality. The current standard of care has developed empirically, based mainly on the experience of treating children with leukaemia and other haemo-proliferative disorders. At the time of writing, the combined use of vinblastine and prednisone remains the standard of care for children with multi-system LCH. The combination of cytarabine and cladribine is the current standard for second-line therapy of refractory cases with vital organ dysfunction. Recent advances in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of LCH may support a change in treatment strategy. Evidence of mutations that aberrantly activate RAF/MEK/ERK signalling in over two thirds of patients with LCH may direct a target therapy strategy. Vemurafenib, a small molecule widely used in the treatment of melanoma, is the main candidate for testing in prospective trials for patients with evidence of BRAF(V) (600E) mutation on lesional tissue. Additional molecules, including the recently approved trametinib, could follow. Identification of mutations in other genes in the remaining multisystem LCH cases could contribute to define a scenario in which target therapy becomes the main therapeutic choice in this intriguing disorder. However, because the long-term risks and benefits of these agents in children are unknown, and other effective treatments exist for many LCH patients, the optimal indications for administering a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to children is an open question. PMID:26913480

  15. Development of microbial and chemical MST tools to identify the origin of the faecal pollution in bathing and shellfish harvesting waters in France.

    PubMed

    Gourmelon, M; Caprais, M P; Mieszkin, S; Marti, R; Wéry, N; Jardé, E; Derrien, M; Jadas-Hécart, A; Communal, P Y; Jaffrezic, A; Pourcher, A M

    2010-09-01

    The microbiological quality of coastal or river waters can be affected by faecal pollution from human or animal sources. An efficient MST (Microbial Source Tracking) toolbox consisting of several host-specific markers would therefore be valuable for identifying the origin of the faecal pollution in the environment and thus for effective resource management and remediation. In this multidisciplinary study, after having tested some MST markers on faecal samples, we compared a selection of 17 parameters corresponding to chemical (steroid ratios, caffeine, and synthetic compounds), bacterial (host-specific Bacteroidales, Lactobacillus amylovorus and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and viral (genotypes I-IV of F-specific bacteriophages, FRNAPH) markers on environmental water samples (n = 33; wastewater, runoff and river waters) with variable Escherichia coli concentrations. Eleven microbial and chemical parameters were finally chosen for our MST toolbox, based on their specificity for particular pollution sources represented by our samples and their detection in river waters impacted by human or animal pollution; these were: the human-specific chemical compounds caffeine, TCEP (tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate) and benzophenone; the ratios of sitostanol/coprostanol and coprostanol/(coprostanol+24-ethylcopstanol); real-time PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) human-specific (HF183 and B. adolescentis), pig-specific (Pig-2-Bac and L. amylovorus) and ruminant-specific (Rum-2-Bac) markers; and human FRNAPH genogroup II. PMID:20709349

  16. Development and validation of hydrophobic molecular fields derived from the quantum mechanical IEF/PCM-MST solvation models in 3D-QSAR.

    PubMed

    Ginex, Tiziana; Muñoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Herrero, Enric; Gibert, Enric; Cozzini, Pietro; Luque, F J

    2016-05-15

    Since the development of structure-activity relationships about 50 years ago, 3D-QSAR methods belong to the most refined ligand-based in silico techniques for prediction of biological data using physicochemical molecular fields. In this scenario, this study reports the development and validation of quantum mechanical (QM)-based hydrophobic descriptors derived from the parametrized MST continuum solvation model to be used in 3D-QSAR studies within the framework of the Hydrophobic Pharmacophore (HyPhar) method. To this end, five sets of compounds reported in the literature (dopamine D2/D4 antagonists, antifungal 2-aryl-4-chromanones, and inhibitors of GSK-3, cruzain and thermolysin) have been revisited. The results derived from the QM/MST-based hydrophobic descriptors have been compared with previous CoMFA and CoMSIA studies, and examined in light of the available X-ray crystallographic structures of the targets. The analysis reveals that the combination of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic components of the octanol/water partition coefficient yields pharmacophoric models fully comparable with the predictive potential of standard 3D-QSAR techniques. Moreover, the graphical representation of the hydrophobic maps provides a direct linkage with the pattern of interactions found in crystallographic structures. Overall, the introduction of the QM/MST-based descriptors, which could be easily adapted to other continuum solvation formalisms, paves the way to novel computational strategies for disclosing structure-activity relationships in drug design. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26813046

  17. The 5-Year EFS of Multisystem LCH With Risk-Organ Involvement Is Suboptimal: A Single-center Experience From India.

    PubMed

    Totadri, Sidharth; Bansal, Deepak; Trehan, Amita; Srinivasan, Radhika; Varma, Neelam; Kakkar, Nandita; Saxena, Akshay K; Bhatia, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    The study describes an 8-year experience of a single center in managing patients with langerhans cell histiocytosis on the basis of the langerhans cell histiocytosis-III platform. A retrospective case-file review of children diagnosed during 2006 to 2013 was performed. Group 1 (multisystem with risk-organ involvement) patients received an initial treatment of 6 to 12 weeks, followed by continuation treatment to complete 12 months. Drugs included vinblastine, prednisolone, and 6-mercaptopurine. Group 2 (multisystem without risk-organ involvement) patients received a similar treatment, except for 6-mercaptopurine. Group 3 (single-system/multifocal bone disease) patients were treated for a duration of 6 months. Forty-nine patients were treated: 24 (49%), 14 (28.6%), and 11 (22.4%) in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean age at diagnosis was 31.6 ± 28.4 months (range, 4 to 120 mo). Five patients abandoned treatment. There were 7 deaths, all in group 1. All patients who died had either a partial response or progressive disease after induction (P=0.000). Among patients with liver involvement, those with sclerosing cholangitis had a greater mortality (P=0.007). A relapse was observed in 12 (24.5%) patients. The frequency of relapse was not different in the 3 groups (P=0.833). The 5-year event-free survival in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 29.3 ± 10%, 58.9 ± 14.6%, and 69.3 ± 15%, respectively (P=0.019). The 5-year overall survival was 100% in groups 2/3 and 68.9 ± 9.8% in group 1 (P=0.011). PMID:26274033

  18. Measurements and Modeling of the RF Fields from an Interdigital Line Antenna for Lower Hybrid Experiments in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Carter, M. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Thomas, M. A.; Goetz, J. A.

    2003-10-01

    A system for launching lower hybrid slow waves at 800 MHz has been developed on MST, and the antenna used to launch the lower hybrid waves is being analyzed. The antenna is an enclosed interdigital line using λ/4 resonators with an opening in the cavity through which the wave is coupled to the plasma. The RF fields are measured as a function of distance away from the antenna in 3 dimensions using electric and magnetic field probes. The power deposition is being measured with a heat deposition technique where a simple mirror, contoured to the shape of the antenna, is used to act as a load under moderate power from the antenna ( 100 W). The power deposition in the thin metallic coating of the mirror is imaged with an infrared camera. The RF fields in vacuum are being modeled using Microwave Studio^TM. Plasma effects on power absorption and coupling are modeled using the RANT/GLOSI codes. Details of the measurement technique and comparison between the measurements and the modeling results will be presented.

  19. Commercialization issues of MEMS/MST/micromachines: an updated industry report card on the barriers to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Roger H.

    2000-11-01

    The last five years have witnessed unprecedented interest in MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems), MST (Microsystem Technologies) and Micromachines (M3). Of great interest has been the creation of many new companies whose desire it is to commercialize the technology. During 1999 and 2000, an unprecedented number of startups, especially in the optical MEMS sector, have been created. It is estimated that there are over 750 companies, research institutes, and universities currently involved with M3 worldwide. Over 150 of these are U.S. based companies who wish to commercialize this technology. This paper addresses a number of the significant issues associated with the barriers that have existed to the successful commercialization of M3 by new as well as established companies. These issues include R & D, marketing, infrastructure support and venture capital funding. An M3 'Report Card' is provided assessing current status of the industry with respect to these issues and comparing the grades with those reported in June 1998 and June 1999. Recommended strategies are provided that are expected to help overcome these barriers to commercialization. Current (2000) market and projections for the year 2004 are provided.

  20. Multispacer Typing (MST) of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Isolated from Humans and Rats in Chengmai County, Hainan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xueqin; Jin, Yuming; Lao, Shijun; Huang, Changhe; Huang, Fang; Jia, Pengben; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-09-01

    Spotted fever caused by spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) is found throughout China. During 2007-2008, 28 human SFGR isolates and 34 rat SFGR isolates including 15 isolates from Rattus fulvescens, 5 isolates from R. edwardsi, 7 isolates from Callosciurus erythraeus roberti and 7 isolates from Dremomys rufigenis) were obtained from L929 cell culture. Previous research indicated that the 62 strains of SFGR mentioned above shared not only the same serophenotype but also 100% of identity sequences of 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, groEL and 17KD, which enabled us to apply multispacer typing (MST) to the 62 SFGR isolates in the study. Six primer pairs, which were used for typing of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii, were chosen, and the results exhibited greater nucleotide polymorphisms among the 62 isolates tested. A total of 48 distinct genotypes were identified. The dominant genotype, represented by h3 isolates, accounted for 21.7% (13/60) of the isolates tested, and the remaining 47 genotypes were all unique. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the 48 genotypes could be classified in the same clade, while the genetically related strain, R. heilongjiangensis, was close but not the same as the cluster. We concluded that the genetically diverse of spotted fever group rickettsiae strains are endemic in Chengmai County, Hainan Province, China. PMID:25324688

  1. Design considerations for high-power VHF radar transceivers: The Poker Flat MST radar phase control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Johnson, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty-four separate 50-kW peak-power transmitters are distributed throughout the 200 x 200 meter Poker Flat MST radar antenna array. The relative phase of each transmitter is automatically controlled by a 64-channel unit located in the main building at the edge of the antenna. The phase control unit is described. In operation the RF pulse from a transmitter coupler is power divided and compared with the phase reference in a mixer. The mixer output is low-pass filtered and sampled near the center of the resulting video pulse by an amplifying sample-and-hold integrated circuit. Phase control is effected by maintaining the mixer output pulse near zero volts by amplifying the sample-and-hold output which then drives the voltage-controlled phase shifter in the direction to null the mixer output. The voltage-controlled shifter achieves over 360 deg phase shift in the range from 0.7 to 24 volts. When the voltage into the shifter tracks to either voltage limit the wrap-around control resets the voltage so that the shifter is always operating within its control range.

  2. Operation of the pulse-burst laser system for high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering on MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, W. S.; den Hartog, D. J.; Hurst, N. C.

    2011-10-01

    A custom pulse-burst laser system has been developed for high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering measurements on MST. The laser system is a master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) design with five flashlamp-pumped amplifier stages. A diode-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YVO4 master oscillator (1064 nm) operates at pulse repetition rates between 5-250 kHz. The first four amplifier stages are Nd:YAG; the final amplifier is Nd:glass (silicate). Amplifier flashlamp drive is extremely flexible, ranging from short (250 μs) high-power pump pulses to long (10 ms) lower-power pulses. The entire laser system is computer controlled. Single pulse energies of the laser system are up to 5.5 J. Operation of the system with a short, high-power flashlamp discharge delivers a burst of up to 25 Q-switched laser pulses at 250 kHz repetition rate. For long flashlamp discharges, the laser system can deliver a burst of up to 50 pulses at a 5 kHz repetition rate. This work is supported by the U. S. DOE and NSF.

  3. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study

    PubMed Central

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L.; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy. PMID:24027507

  4. Clinical outcome of immunotherapy with dendritic cell vaccine and cytokine-induced killer cell therapy in hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LIHONG; ZHU, WEI; LI, JIALI; YANG, XUEJING; REN, YANJIE; NIU, JINGXIU; PANG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effects of adoptive immunotherapy following dendritic cell (DC) vaccine and cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell therapy and evaluate its cytotoxicity, survival benefits and quality of life (QOL) changes in patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer (HPC). We performed a retrospective analysis of 407 clinical cases, including 77 patients with HPC who received immunotherapy with DC vaccine and CIK cells (I group) and 330 patients with similar characteristics who underwent baseline treatment but did not receive immunotherapy [non-immunotherapy (NI) group)] as the control group. After a follow-up period of 294±207.5 days, the median survival time (MST) of the two groups was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. In the I group, 61% of the patients developed a positive, delayed-type hypersensitivity response and 65% of the patients exhibited an improvement in QOL. The most notable adverse events included fever (28%), insomnia (25%), anorexia (17%), skin rash (12%) and arthralgia (31%). No severe toxicities were observed in patients in the I group; in addition, the MST was significantly longer in the I group compared with that in the NI group (P=0.014). Thus, the DC vaccine and CIK cell therapy was associated with mild adverse effects, but was able to induce an immune response and effectively eliminate tumor cells, thereby improving the QOL and prolonging the MST of the patients. PMID:26870371

  5. Plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex induced by Music-supported therapy in stroke patients: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Amengual, Julià L; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de Las Heras, Misericordia; Montero, Jordi; Rubio, Francisco; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician's brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live independently. Thus, there is an increasing demand for effective restorative interventions for neurological deficits. Music-supported Therapy (MST) has been recently developed to restore motor deficits. We report data of a selected sample of stroke patients who have been enrolled in a MST program (1 month intense music learning). Prior to and after the therapy, patients were evaluated with different behavioral motor tests. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied to evaluate changes in the sensorimotor representations underlying the motor gains observed. Several parameters of excitability of the motor cortex were assessed as well as the cortical somatotopic representation of a muscle in the affected hand. Our results revealed that participants obtained significant motor improvements in the paretic hand and those changes were accompanied by changes in the excitability of the motor cortex. Thus, MST leads to neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex of stroke patients which may explain its efficacy. PMID:24027507

  6. Protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A) binds within the oligomerization domain of striatin and regulates the phosphorylation and activation of the mammalian Ste20-Like kinase Mst3

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Striatin, a putative protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) B-type regulatory subunit, is a multi-domain scaffolding protein that has recently been linked to several diseases including cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), which causes symptoms ranging from headaches to stroke. Striatin association with the PP2A A/C (structural subunit/catalytic subunit) heterodimer alters PP2A substrate specificity, but targets and roles of striatin-associated PP2A are not known. In addition to binding the PP2A A/C heterodimer to form a PP2A holoenzyme, striatin associates with cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3) protein, the mammalian Mps one binder (MOB) homolog, Mob3/phocein, the mammalian sterile 20-like (Mst) kinases, Mst3, Mst4 and STK25, and several other proteins to form a large signaling complex. Little is known about the molecular architecture of the striatin complex and the regulation of these sterile 20-like kinases. Results To help define the molecular organization of striatin complexes and to determine whether Mst3 might be negatively regulated by striatin-associated PP2A, a structure-function analysis of striatin was performed. Two distinct regions of striatin are capable of stably binding directly or indirectly to Mob3--one N-terminal, including the coiled-coil domain, and another more C-terminal, including the WD-repeat domain. In addition, striatin residues 191-344 contain determinants necessary for efficient association of Mst3, Mst4, and CCM3. PP2A associates with the coiled-coil domain of striatin, but unlike Mob3 and Mst3, its binding appears to require striatin oligomerization. Deletion of the caveolin-binding domain on striatin abolishes striatin family oligomerization and PP2A binding. Point mutations in striatin that disrupt PP2A association cause hyperphosphorylation and activation of striatin-associated Mst3. Conclusions Striatin orchestrates the regulation of Mst3 by PP2A. It binds Mst3 likely as a dimer with CCM3 via residues lying between

  7. Testing gene therapy vectors in human primary nasal epithelial cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huibi; Ouyang, Hong; Ip, Wan; Du, Kai; Duan, Wenming; Avolio, Julie; Wu, Jing; Duan, Cathleen; Yeger, Herman; Bear, Christine E; Gonska, Tanja; Hu, Jim; Moraes, Theo J

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which codes for a chloride/bicarbonate channel in the apical epithelial membranes. CFTR dysfunction results in a multisystem disease including the development of life limiting lung disease. The possibility of a cure for CF by replacing defective CFTR has led to different approaches for CF gene therapy; all of which ultimately have to be tested in preclinical model systems. Primary human nasal epithelial cultures (HNECs) derived from nasal turbinate brushing were used to test the efficiency of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vector expressing CFTR. HD-Ad-CFTR transduction resulted in functional expression of CFTR at the apical membrane in nasal epithelial cells obtained from CF patients. These results suggest that HNECs can be used for preclinical testing of gene therapy vectors in CF. PMID:26730394

  8. Testing gene therapy vectors in human primary nasal epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huibi; Ouyang, Hong; Ip, Wan; Du, Kai; Duan, Wenming; Avolio, Julie; Wu, Jing; Duan, Cathleen; Yeger, Herman; Bear, Christine E; Gonska, Tanja; Hu, Jim; Moraes, Theo J

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which codes for a chloride/bicarbonate channel in the apical epithelial membranes. CFTR dysfunction results in a multisystem disease including the development of life limiting lung disease. The possibility of a cure for CF by replacing defective CFTR has led to different approaches for CF gene therapy; all of which ultimately have to be tested in preclinical model systems. Primary human nasal epithelial cultures (HNECs) derived from nasal turbinate brushing were used to test the efficiency of a helper-dependent adenoviral (HD-Ad) vector expressing CFTR. HD-Ad-CFTR transduction resulted in functional expression of CFTR at the apical membrane in nasal epithelial cells obtained from CF patients. These results suggest that HNECs can be used for preclinical testing of gene therapy vectors in CF. PMID:26730394

  9. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Henggeler, Scott W.; Shapiro, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes. PMID:22389577

  10. Money Matters: Cost Effectiveness of Juvenile Drug Court with and without Evidence-Based Treatments.

    PubMed

    Sheidow, Ashli J; Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W David; Henggeler, Scott W; Shapiro, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    The 12-month cost effectiveness of juvenile drug court and evidence-based treatments within Court were compared with traditional Family Court for 128 substance abusing/dependent juvenile offenders participating in a four-condition randomized trial. Intervention conditions included Family Court with community services (FC), Drug Court with community services (DC), Drug Court with Multisystemic Therapy (DC/MST), and Drug Court with MST enhanced with a contingency management program (DC/MST/CM). Average cost effectiveness ratios for substance use and criminal behavior outcomes revealed that economic efficiency in achieving outcomes generally improved from FC to DC, with the addition of evidence-based treatments improving efficiency in obtaining substance use outcomes. PMID:22389577

  11. The Hippo/MST Pathway Member SAV1 Plays a Suppressive Role in Development of the Prehierarchical Follicles in Hen Ovary.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Zhichao; Qin, Ning; Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Dehui; Yuan, Shuguo; Xu, Rifu

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo/MST signaling pathway is a critical player in controlling cell proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of most tissues and organs in diverse species. Previous studies have shown that Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein which functions in the signaling system is expressed in mammalian ovaries and play a vital role in governing the follicle development. But the exact biological effects of chicken SAV1 in prehierarchical follicle development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SAV1 protein is predominantly expressed in the oocytes and undifferentiated granulosa cells in the various sized prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary, and the endogenous expression level of SAV1 mRNA appears down-regulated from the primordial follicles to the largest preovulatory follicles (F2-F1) by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Moreover, we found the intracellular SAV1 physically interacts with each of the pathway members, including STK4/MST1, STK3/MST2, LATS1 and MOB2 using western blotting. And SAV1 significantly promotes the phosphorylation of LATS1 induced by the kinase of STK4 or STK3 in vitro. Furthermore, SAV1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased proliferation of granulosa cells from the prehierarchical follicles (6-8 mm in diameter) by BrdU-incorporation assay, in which the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA was notably enhanced. Meanwhile, these findings were consolidated by the data of SAV1 overexpression. Taken together, the present results revealed that SAV1 can inhibit proliferation of the granulosa cells whereby the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA were negatively regulated. Accordingly, SAV1, as a member of the hippo/MST signaling pathway plays a suppressive role in ovarian follicle development by promoting phosphorylation and activity of the downstream LATS1, may consequently lead to prevention of the follicle

  12. The Hippo/MST Pathway Member SAV1 Plays a Suppressive Role in Development of the Prehierarchical Follicles in Hen Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Tyasi, Thobela Louis; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Dehui; Yuan, Shuguo; Xu, Rifu

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo/MST signaling pathway is a critical player in controlling cell proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis of most tissues and organs in diverse species. Previous studies have shown that Salvador homolog 1 (SAV1), a scaffolding protein which functions in the signaling system is expressed in mammalian ovaries and play a vital role in governing the follicle development. But the exact biological effects of chicken SAV1 in prehierarchical follicle development remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the SAV1 protein is predominantly expressed in the oocytes and undifferentiated granulosa cells in the various sized prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary, and the endogenous expression level of SAV1 mRNA appears down-regulated from the primordial follicles to the largest preovulatory follicles (F2-F1) by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Moreover, we found the intracellular SAV1 physically interacts with each of the pathway members, including STK4/MST1, STK3/MST2, LATS1 and MOB2 using western blotting. And SAV1 significantly promotes the phosphorylation of LATS1 induced by the kinase of STK4 or STK3 in vitro. Furthermore, SAV1 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased proliferation of granulosa cells from the prehierarchical follicles (6–8 mm in diameter) by BrdU-incorporation assay, in which the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA was notably enhanced. Meanwhile, these findings were consolidated by the data of SAV1 overexpression. Taken together, the present results revealed that SAV1 can inhibit proliferation of the granulosa cells whereby the expression levels of GDF9, StAR and FSHR mRNA were negatively regulated. Accordingly, SAV1, as a member of the hippo/MST signaling pathway plays a suppressive role in ovarian follicle development by promoting phosphorylation and activity of the downstream LATS1, may consequently lead to prevention of the follicle

  13. A novel m.7539C>T point mutation in the mt-tRNAAsp gene associated with multisystemic mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Diana; Schubert, Kathrin; Joshi, Pushpa R.; Baty, Karen; Blakely, Emma L.; Zierz, Stephan; Taylor, Robert W.; Deschauer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial transfer RNA (mt-tRNA) mutations are the commonest sub-type of mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations associated with human disease. We report a patient with multisytemic disease characterised by myopathy, spinal ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, cataract and cognitive impairment in whom a novel m.7539C>T mt-tRNAAsp transition was identified. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive histopathological findings including cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres. Pyrosequencing confirmed mtDNA heteroplasmy for the mutation whilst single muscle fibre segregation studies revealed statistically significant higher mutation loads in COX-deficient fibres than in COX-positive fibres. Absence from control databases, hierarchical mt-tRNA mutation segregation within tissues, and occurrence at conserved sequence positions, further confirm this novel mt-tRNA mutation to be pathogenic. To date only three mt-tRNAAsp gene mutations have been described with clear evidence of pathogenicity. The novel m.7539C>T mt-tRNAAsp gene mutation extends the spectrum of pathogenic mutations in this gene, further supporting the notion that mt-tRNAAsp gene mutations are associated with multisystemic disease presentations. PMID:25447692

  14. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: Coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Sally I.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period (“matched phase coordination”), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict (“average level coordination”). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. PMID:23684904

  15. First description of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Croatia and phylogenetic analysis of partial PCV2 sequences.

    PubMed

    Lipej, Z; Segalés, J; Jemersić, Lorena; Olvera, A; Roić, Besi; Novosel, D; Mihaljević, Z; Manojlović, L

    2007-09-01

    This report describes the first case of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in wild boar in Croatia. During the winter season of 2004, eight wild young piglets (of approximately 2 to 5 months of age) were found dead in a fenced hunting area. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out on mesenteric lymph nodes and all animals yielded positive results. In one of these animals diagnosis of PMWS was established based on the three key diagnostic criteria including the clinical manifestation, moderate lymphoid lesions consisting of lymphocyte depletion and granulomatous inflammation, and detection of the presence of PCV2 genome within the lymphoid lesions by in situ hybridisation (ISH). Three additional wild piglets had also mild PMWS-like lesions and a low amount of PCV2 was also found. No PMWS-like lesions or PCV2 genome were detected in the rest of the wild piglets studied. Three PCR-positive isolates were partially sequenced, which confirmed the diagnosis of PCV2 and demonstrated that the three sequences were genetically identical. The phylogenetic analysis of a representative PCV2 isolate indicated that its sequence (DQ875444) is grouped in a separate branch with Hungarian isolate (AY256460) and differs from any of the annotated sequences. PMID:17867466

  16. [Uncommon cutaneous ulcerative and systemic sarcoidosis. Successful treatment with hydroxychloroquine and compression therapy].

    PubMed

    Meyersburg, D; Schön, M P; Bertsch, H P; Seitz, C S

    2011-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystemic disease of unclear etiology, which can affect any organ. The cutaneous manifestations are variable, but ulcerative cutaneous sarcoidosis is very rare. One must rule out other granulomatous skin diseases, especially necrobiosis lipoidica. There is no standarized therapy; usually an interdisciplinary approach over years taking multiple side effects into consideration is needed. A 58-year-old woman with a long history of cutaneous, nodal and pulmonary sarcoidosis suddenly developed ulcerations within the disseminated skin lesions on her legs. The combination of systemic hydroxychloroquine and modern wound management lead to complete healing of the ulcers and a significant improvement in the remaining skin lesions. PMID:21656110

  17. Application of the MST clustering to the high energy γ-ray sky. II—Possible detection of γ-ray emission from blazar candidates in the 1WHSP sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, R.; Massaro, E.; Bernieri, E.

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a photon cluster search in the 7-years Fermi-Large Area Telescope extragalactic Pass 8 γ-ray sky by means of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) algorithm, at energies higher than 10 GeV. We found 16 clusters of photons, corresponding to candidate γ-ray sources, located very close to infrared-selected sources in the 1WHSP (WISE High Synchrotron Peaked) sample, and therein classified as either "new" or "candidate" blazars. In this paper some properties of the MST clusters and of the associated sources are presented.

  18. Sequence analysis of old and new strains of porcine circovirus associated with congenital tremors in pigs and their comparison with strains involved with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwon; Stevenson, Gregory W.; Kiupel, Matti; Harrach, Balázs; Anothayanontha, Lavun; Kanitz, Charles L.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2002-01-01

    The entire genomes of 7 isolates of porcine circovirus (PCV) from pigs with congenital tremors (CT), type A2, or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were cloned and sequenced. One isolate (CT-PCV-P7) originated from the late 1960s from a neonatal pig with CT, type A2. Two recent PCV isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6) were from 2 affected neonatal pigs, from different farms, with unrelated outbreaks of CT; type A2. Four isolates (PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) originated from pigs with PMWS from 4 different farms. A comparative analysis of these PMWS and PCV isolates demonstrated 99% sequence identity with each other, and over 96% sequence identity with previously sequenced PCV2 isolates. The CT-PCV-P5 and CT-PCV-P6 isolates, however, shared 99% of the same identity with each other, and interestingly also with PMWS PCV isolates. There were no consistent genomic differences between PMWS and recent CT isolates. The CT-PCV-P7 showed 98% identity similarity to PK-15-derived PCV1 and demonstrated only 72% identity similarity to either CT-PCV-P5 or CT-PCV-P6. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the old isolate (CT-PCV-P7), and the new isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6, PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) were correctly classified as PCV1 and PCV2, respectively. PMID:12418776

  19. Fine particulate chemical composition and light extinction at Canyonlands National Park using organic particulate material concentrations obtained with a multisystem, multichannel diffusion denuder sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eatough, Delbert J.; Eatough, David A.; Lewis, Laura; Lewis, Edwin A.

    1996-08-01

    The concentration of fine particulate carbonaceous material has been measured over a 1-year period at the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) Canyonlands National Park, Utah sampling site using a Brigham Young University organic sampling system (BOSS) multisystem, multichannel diffusion denuder sampler. Samples were collected on the IMPROVE schedule of a 24-hour sample every Wednesday and Saturday. The concentrations of particulate C, determined using only a quartz filter pack sampling system, were low by an average of 39%, as a result of the loss of semi-volatile organic compounds from the particles collected on quartz filters during sampling. The loss was higher during the summer than during the winter sampling periods. The BOSS and IMPROVE quartz filter carbon measurements were in agreement except for a few samples collected during the summer. The fine particulate carbonaceous material concentrations determined using the BOSS have been combined with concentrations of particulate elemental C (soot), sulfate, nitrate, crustal material, and fine and coarse particulate mass from the IMPROVE sampling system, as well as relative humidity, light absorption, and transmissometer measurements of light extinction from IMPROVE. Extinction budgets have been calculated using multilinear regression analyses of the data set. Literature data were used to estimate the change in the mass extinction coefficients for the measured species as a function of relative humidity. The results show carbonaceous material to be the principal contributor to light extinction due to particles during the study period, with the major contributor to light extinction being light-absorbing carbonaceous material. However, the periods of maximum light extinction are associated with high humidity and the associated increased scattering of light due to particulate sulfate during the winter. The effect of particulate organic compounds on light extinction is greatest in the

  20. A 3.7 Mb Deletion Encompassing ZEB2 Causes a Novel Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome in the Progeny of a Somatic Mosaic Bull

    PubMed Central

    Capitan, Aurélien; Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pinton, Alain; Marquant-Le Guienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Grohs, Cécile; Bouet, Stéphan; Clément, Laëtitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Chaffaux, Stéphane; Weiss, Bernard; Delpeuch, Arnaud; Noé, Guy; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Barasc, Harmonie; Auguste, Aurélie; Pannetier, Maëlle; Deloche, Marie-Christine; Lhuilier, Emeline; Bouchez, Olivier; Esquerré, Diane; Salin, Gérald; Klopp, Christophe; Donnadieu, Cécile; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Hayes, Hélène; Gallard, Yves; Ponsart, Claire; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Polled and Multisystemic Syndrome (PMS) is a novel developmental disorder occurring in the progeny of a single bull. Its clinical spectrum includes polledness (complete agenesis of horns), facial dysmorphism, growth delay, chronic diarrhea, premature ovarian failure, and variable neurological and cardiac anomalies. PMS is also characterized by a deviation of the sex-ratio, suggesting male lethality during pregnancy. Using Mendelian error mapping and whole-genome sequencing, we identified a 3.7 Mb deletion on the paternal bovine chromosome 2 encompassing ARHGAP15, GTDC1 and ZEB2 genes. We then produced control and affected 90-day old fetuses to characterize this syndrome by histological and expression analyses. Compared to wild type individuals, affected animals showed a decreased expression of the three deleted genes. Based on a comparison with human Mowat-Wilson syndrome, we suggest that deletion of ZEB2, is responsible for most of the effects of the mutation. Finally sperm-FISH, embryo genotyping and analysis of reproduction records confirmed somatic mosaicism in the founder bull and male-specific lethality during the first third of gestation. In conclusion, we identified a novel locus involved in bovid horn ontogenesis and suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition plays a critical role in horn bud differentiation. We also provide new insights into the pathogenicity of ZEB2 loss of heterozygosity in bovine and humans and describe the first case of male-specific lethality associated with an autosomal locus in a non-murine mammalian species. This result sets PMS as a unique model to study sex-specific gene expression/regulation. PMID:23152852

  1. MST radar data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    One atmospheric variable which can be deduced from stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar data other than wind speed and direction is C sub n sup 2, related to the eddy dissipation rate. The computation of C sub n sup 2 makes use of the transmitted power (average, or peak plus duty cycle), the range of the echoes, and the returned power. The returned power can be calibrated only if a noise source of known strength is imposed; e.g., in the absence of absolute calibration, one can compare the diurnal noise signal with the galactic sky temperature. Thus to compute C sub n sup 2 one needs the transmitter power, the returned signal as a function of height, and the returned noise at an altitude so high that it is not contaminated by any signal. Now C sub n sup 2 relates with the amount of energy within the inertial subrange, and for many research studies it may be desirable to relate this with background flow as well as shears or irregularities on the size of the sample volume. The latter are quantified by the spectral width.

  2. Long Term Treatment with Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Patients with Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Oder, Daniel; Nordbeck, Peter; Wanner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Anderson-Fabry disease is a potentially life-threatening hereditary lysosomal storage disorder taking origin in over 1,000 known pathogenic mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A encoding gene. Over the past 15 years, intravenous replacement therapy of the deficient alpha agalsidase A enzyme has been well-established retarding the progression of a multisystemic disease and organ involvement. Despite this innovative treatment approach, premature deaths still do occur. The response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) varies considerably and appears to depend on gender, genotype (classic or later onset/non-classic), stage of disease or age and agalsidase inhibition by anti-agalsidase antibodies. Early ERT treatment at young age, a personalized approach, and adjunctive therapies for specific disease manifestations appear to impact on prognosis and are currently favored with the expectance of more effective intravenous and oral treatments in the short future. PMID:27576727

  3. Genotyping markers used for multi locus VNTR analysis with ompA (MLVA-ompA) and multi sequence typing (MST) retain stability in Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Labiran, Clare; Clarke, Ian N; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Wang, Yibing; Skilton, Rachel J; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Herrmann, Björn; Christerson, Linus; Marsh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the stability of the Chlamydia trachomatis multi locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-ompA) and multi sequence typing (MST) systems through multiple passages in tissue culture. Firstly, we analyzed the stability of these markers through adaptation of C. trachomatis to tissue culture and secondly, we examined the stability of a four-locus MLVA-ompA and a five-locus MST system after multiple passages in tissue culture. Marker sequences were monitored through successive chlamydial developmental cycles to evaluate the stability of the individual DNA markers through many bacterial divisions and this, in turn, informed us of the usefulness of using such typing systems for short and long-term molecular epidemiology. Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic isolates from endocervical swabs collected from C. trachomatis positive women were passaged through tissue culture. MLVA-ompA typing was applied to primary swab samples and to the same samples after C. trachomatis had been passaged through cell culture (eight passages). Sequence data from time-zero and passage-eight isolates were aligned with reference sequences to determine the stability of the markers. The Swedish new variant (nvCT) underwent 72 passages in cell culture and the markers of the two schemes were similarly analyzed. Analysis of genetic markers of the MLVA-ompA typing system before and after the isolates were introduced to tissue culture showed no change in the dominant sequence. The nvCT that had been passaged 72 times over the duration of a year also showed no variation in the dominant sequence for both the genotyping schemes. MLVA-ompA and MST markers are stable upon adaptation of C. trachomatis to tissue culture following isolation of strains from primary endocervical swab samples. These markers remain stable throughout multiple rounds of cell-division in tissue culture, concomitant with the incubation period and appearance of symptoms normally associated with host-infection. Both

  4. Genotyping markers used for multi locus VNTR analysis with ompA (MLVA-ompA) and multi sequence typing (MST) retain stability in Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Labiran, Clare; Clarke, Ian N.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Wang, Yibing; Skilton, Rachel J.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Herrmann, Björn; Christerson, Linus; Marsh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the stability of the Chlamydia trachomatis multi locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-ompA) and multi sequence typing (MST) systems through multiple passages in tissue culture. Firstly, we analyzed the stability of these markers through adaptation of C. trachomatis to tissue culture and secondly, we examined the stability of a four-locus MLVA-ompA and a five-locus MST system after multiple passages in tissue culture. Marker sequences were monitored through successive chlamydial developmental cycles to evaluate the stability of the individual DNA markers through many bacterial divisions and this, in turn, informed us of the usefulness of using such typing systems for short and long-term molecular epidemiology. Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic isolates from endocervical swabs collected from C. trachomatis positive women were passaged through tissue culture. MLVA-ompA typing was applied to primary swab samples and to the same samples after C. trachomatis had been passaged through cell culture (eight passages). Sequence data from time-zero and passage-eight isolates were aligned with reference sequences to determine the stability of the markers. The Swedish new variant (nvCT) underwent 72 passages in cell culture and the markers of the two schemes were similarly analyzed. Analysis of genetic markers of the MLVA-ompA typing system before and after the isolates were introduced to tissue culture showed no change in the dominant sequence. The nvCT that had been passaged 72 times over the duration of a year also showed no variation in the dominant sequence for both the genotyping schemes. MLVA-ompA and MST markers are stable upon adaptation of C. trachomatis to tissue culture following isolation of strains from primary endocervical swab samples. These markers remain stable throughout multiple rounds of cell-division in tissue culture, concomitant with the incubation period and appearance of symptoms normally associated with host-infection. Both

  5. Phase II Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial of conventional radiation therapy followed by treatment with recombinant interferon-{beta} for supratentorial glioblastoma: Results of RTOG 9710

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, Howard . E-mail: hcolman@mdanderson.org; Berkey, Brian A.; Maor, Moshe H.; Groves, Morris D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Vermeulen, Sandra; Mehta, Minesh P.; Yung, W.K. Alfred

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether recombinant human interferon {beta}-1a (rhIFN-{beta}), when given after radiation therapy, improves survival in glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: After surgery, 109 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma were enrolled and treated with radiation therapy (60 Gy). A total of 55 patients remained stable after radiation and were treated with rhIFN-{beta} (6 MU/day i.m., 3 times/week). Outcomes were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group glioma historical database. Results: RhIFN-{beta} was well tolerated, with 1 Grade 4 toxicity and 8 other patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity. Median survival time (MST) of the 55 rhIFN-{beta}-treated patients was 13.4 months. MST for the 34 rhIFN-{beta}-treated in RPA Classes III and IV was 16.9 vs. 12.4 months for historical controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89-1.81). There was also a trend toward improved survival across all RPA Classes comparing the 55 rhIFN-{beta} treated patients and 1,658 historical controls (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.94-1.63). The high rate of early failures (54/109) after radiation and before initiation of rhIFN-{beta} was likely caused by stricter interpretation of early radiographic changes in the current study. Matched-pair and intent-to-treat analyses performed to try to address this bias showed no difference in survival between study patients and controls. Conclusion: RhIFN-{beta} given after conventional radiation therapy was well tolerated, with a trend toward survival benefit in patients who remained stable after radiation therapy. These data suggest that rhIFN-{beta} warrants further evaluation in additional studies, possibly in combination with current temozolomide-based regimens.

  6. Cyclotron Produced Radionuclides for Diagnosis and Therapy of Human Neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Larson MD

    2009-09-21

    This project funded since 1986 serves as a core project for cancer research throughout MSKCC, producing key radiotracers as well as basic knowledge about thel physics of radiation decay and imaging, for nuclear medicine applications to cancer diagnosis and therapy. In recent years this research application has broadened to include experiments intended to lead to an improved understanding of cancer biology and into the discovery and testing of new cancer drugs. Advances in immune based radiotargeting form the basis for this project. Both antibody and cellular based immune targeting methods have been explored. The multi-step targeting methodologies (MST) developed by NeoRex (Seattle,Washington), have been adapted for use with positron emitting isotopes and PET allowing the quantification and optimization of targeted delivery. In addition, novel methods for radiolabeling immune T-cells with PET tracers have advanced our ability to track these cells of prolonged period of time.

  7. Mobile Multi-System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witoff, Robert J.; Doody, David F.

    2012-01-01

    At the time of this reporting, there are 2,589 rich mobile devices used at JPL, including 1,550 iPhones and 968 Blackberrys. Considering a total JPL population of 5,961 employees, mobile applications have a total addressable market of 43 percent of the employees at JPL, and that number is rising. While it was found that no existing desktop tools can realistically be replaced by a mobile application, there is certainly a need to improve access to these desktop tools. When an alarm occurs and an engineer is away from his desk, a convenient means of accessing relevant data can save an engineer a great deal of time and improve his job efficiency. To identify which data is relevant, an engineer benefits from a succinct overview of the data housed in 13+ tools. This need can be well met by a single, rich, mobile application that provides access to desired data across tools in the ops infrastructure.

  8. Esophageal Manifestations of Multisystem Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mapp, Esmond

    1980-01-01

    The esophagus may be involved directly or indirectly by numerous disease conditions. On occasion, the esophageal process may be the key to the diagnosis. In some situations, the esophageal manifestation of a disease may be more immediately life-threatening than the primary process. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7310903

  9. High-frequency fluctuation measurements by far-infrared laser Faraday-effect polarimetry-interferometry and forward scattering system on MST

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X. Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Duff, J. R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnetic fluctuation-induced transport driven by global tearing modes has been measured by Faraday-effect polarimetry and interferometry (phase measurements) in the MST reversed field pinch. However, the role of small-scale broadband magnetic and density turbulence in transport remains unknown. In order to investigate broadband magnetic turbulence, we plan to upgrade the existing detector system by using planar-diode fundamental waveguide mixers optimized for high sensitivity. Initial tests indicate these mixers have ×10 sensitivity improvement compared to currently employed corner-cube Schottky-diode mixers and ×5 lower noise. Compact mixer design will allow us to resolve the wavenumbers up to k ∼ 1–2 cm{sup −1} for beam width w = 1.5 cm and 15 cm{sup −1} for beam width w = 2 mm. The system can also be used to measure the scattered signal (amplitude measurement) induced by both plasma density and magnetic fluctuations.

  10. A study of gravity-wave spectra in the troposphere and stratosphere at 5-min to 5-day periods with the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemra, R. S.; Rastogi, P. K.; Balsley, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of frequency spectra at periods of about 5 days to 5 min from two 20-day sets of velocity measurements in the stratosphere and troposphere region obtained with the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar during January and June, 1984 is presented. A technique based on median filtering and averaged order statistics for automatic editing, smoothing and spectral analysis of velocity time series contaminated with spurious data points or outliers is outlined. The validity of this technique and its effects on the inferred spectral index was tested through simulation. Spectra obtained with this technique are discussed. The measured spectral indices show variability with season and height, especially across the tropopause. The discussion briefly outlines the need for obtaining better climatologies of velocity spectra and for the refinements of the existing theories to explain their behavior.

  11. Evaluation of material microstructure changes in high speed tool steel by the non-collinear wave mixing technique with MST(magnetostrictive transducer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeongseok; Lee, Dong Jin; Cho, Younho

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of material microstructure changes plays an important role in predicting material failure. Both destructive and nondestructive testings can be used to evaluate the variation of material microstructure. Destructive methods are used to directly verify the changes of material via microstructure picture in a vigorous manner while nonlinear ultrasonic NDE can render a promising tool for the cases. In this study, the MST driven non-collinear wave mixing technique is implemented to evaluate the material microstructure changes in high speed tool steel. The resonant wave is used to analyze the acoustic nonlinearity which is influenced by microstructure changes with various austenitizing temperature effects. Correlation microstructure change between the acoustic nonlinearity and material microstructure is accomplished to explore the feasibility of the non-collinear mixing technique.

  12. Antipurinergic Therapy Corrects the Autism-Like Features in the Poly(IC) Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Naviaux, Robert K.; Zolkipli, Zarazuela; Wang, Lin; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Naviaux, Jane C.; Le, Thuy P.; Schuchbauer, Michael A.; Rogac, Mihael; Tang, Qingbo; Dugan, Laura L.; Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Mitochondria act to connect genes and environment by regulating gene-encoded metabolic networks according to changes in the chemistry of the cell and its environment. Mitochondrial ATP and other metabolites are mitokines—signaling molecules made in mitochondria—that undergo regulated release from cells to communicate cellular health and danger to neighboring cells via purinergic signaling. The role of purinergic signaling has not yet been explored in autism spectrum disorders. Objectives and Methods We used the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model of gestational poly(IC) exposure and treatment with the non-selective purinergic antagonist suramin to test the role of purinergic signaling in C57BL/6J mice. Results We found that antipurinergic therapy (APT) corrected 16 multisystem abnormalities that defined the ASD-like phenotype in this model. These included correction of the core social deficits and sensorimotor coordination abnormalities, prevention of cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, correction of the ultrastructural synaptic dysmorphology, and correction of the hypothermia, metabolic, mitochondrial, P2Y2 and P2X7 purinergic receptor expression, and ERK1/2 and CAMKII signal transduction abnormalities. Conclusions Hyperpurinergia is a fundamental and treatable feature of the multisystem abnormalities in the poly(IC) mouse model of autism spectrum disorders. Antipurinergic therapy provides a new tool for refining current concepts of pathogenesis in autism and related spectrum disorders, and represents a fresh path forward for new drug development. PMID:23516405

  13. ST2 blockade reduces sST2-producing T cells while maintaining protective mST2-expressing T cells during graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jilu; Ramadan, Abdulraouf M.; Griesenauer, Brad; Li, Wei; Turner, Matthew J.; Liu, Chen; Kapur, Reuben; Hanenberg, Helmut; Blazar, Bruce R.; Tawara, Isao; Paczesny, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a devastating complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We previously identified high plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) as a biomarker of the development of GVHD and death. sST2 sequesters interleukin (IL)-33, limiting its availability to T cells expressing membrane-bound ST2 (mST2) [Th2 cells and ST2+FoxP3+regulatory T cells]. Here, we report that blockade of sST2 in the peri-transplant period with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (anti-ST2 mAb) reduced GVHD severity and mortality. We identified intestinal stromal cells and T cells as major sources of sST2 during GVHD. ST2 blockade decreased systemic interferon-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 but increased IL-10 and IL-33 plasma levels. ST2 blockade also reduced sST2 production by IL-17–producing T cells while maintaining protective mST2-expressing T cells, increasing the frequency of intestinal myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and decreasing frequency of intestinal CD103 dendritic cells. Finally, ST2 blockade preserved graft-versus-leukemia activity in a model of GFP+MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia. Our findings suggest that ST2 is a therapeutic target for severe GVHD, and that the ST2/IL-33 pathway could be investigated in other T-cell mediated immune disorders with loss of tolerance. PMID:26446957

  14. ST2 blockade reduces sST2-producing T cells while maintaining protective mST2-expressing T cells during graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jilu; Ramadan, Abdulraouf M; Griesenauer, Brad; Li, Wei; Turner, Matthew J; Liu, Chen; Kapur, Reuben; Hanenberg, Helmut; Blazar, Bruce R; Tawara, Isao; Paczesny, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a devastating complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We previously identified high plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) as a biomarker of the development of GVHD and death. sST2 sequesters interleukin-33 (IL-33), limiting its availability to T cells expressing membrane-bound ST2 (mST2) [T helper 2 (TH2) cells and ST2(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells]. We report that blockade of sST2 in the peritransplant period with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (anti-ST2 mAb) reduced GVHD severity and mortality. We identified intestinal stromal cells and T cells as major sources of sST2 during GVHD. ST2 blockade decreased systemic interferon-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 but increased IL-10 and IL-33 plasma levels. ST2 blockade also reduced sST2 production by IL-17-producing T cells while maintaining protective mST2-expressing T cells, increasing the frequency of intestinal myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and decreasing the frequency of intestinal CD103 dendritic cells. Finally, ST2 blockade preserved graft-versus-leukemia activity in a model of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia. Our findings suggest that ST2 is a therapeutic target for severe GVHD and that the ST2/IL-33 pathway could be investigated in other T cell-mediated immune disorders with loss of tolerance. PMID:26446957

  15. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001918.htm Radiation therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or ...

  16. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  17. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them ... places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  18. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have radiation therapy may feel more tired than usual, not feel hungry, or lose their ... of radiation therapy include: Fatigue. Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common side effect of radiation ...

  19. Feminist Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Toni; Malmo, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Traces roots of feminist therapy and its independence from traditional and prevalent theories and therapy practices. Asserts that Freudian theory and humanistic assumptions are sexist and contribute to powerlessness of women. In contrast, feminist therapy is seen as dealing directly with client-counselor relationships, trust, advocacy, and…

  20. Increasing Tumor Volume is Predictive of Poor Overall and Progression-Free Survival: Secondary Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 93-11 Phase I-II Radiation Dose-Escalation Study in Patients with Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Werner-Wasik, Maria Swann, R. Suzanne; Bradley, Jeffrey; Graham, Mary; Emami, Bahman; Purdy, James; Sause, William

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 93-11 trial received radiation doses of 70.9, 77.4, 83.8, or 90.3 Gy. The locoregional control and survival rates were similar among the various dose levels. We investigated the effect of the gross tumor volume (GTV) on the outcome. Methods and Materials: The GTV was defined as the sum of the volumes of the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes. The tumor response, median survival time (MST), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed separately for smaller ({<=}45 cm{sup 3}) vs. larger (>45 cm{sup 3}) tumors. Results: The distribution of the GTV was as follows: {<=}45 cm{sup 3} in 79 (49%) and >45 cm{sup 3} in 82 (51%) of 161 patients. The median GTV was 47.3 cm{sup 3}. N0 status and female gender were associated with better tumor responses. Patients with smaller ({<=}45 cm{sup 3}) tumors achieved a longer MST and better PFS than did patients with larger (>45 cm{sup 3}) tumors (29.7 vs. 13.3 months, p < 0.0001; and 15.8 vs. 8.3 months, p < 0.0001, respectively). Increasing the radiation dose had no effect on the MST or PFS. On multivariate analysis, only a smaller GTV was a significant prognostic factor for improved MST and PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.12, p = 0.0002; and HR, 2.0, p = 0.0002, respectively). The GTV as a continuous variable was also significantly associated with the MST and PFS (HR, 1.59, p < 0.0001; and HR, 1.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation up to 90.3 Gy did not result in improved MST or PFS. The tumor responses were greater in node-negative patients and women. An increasing GTV was strongly associated with decreased MST and PFS. Future radiotherapy trials patients might need to use stratification by tumor volume.

  1. Cost of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type-2 subclinical infection in England – An economic disease model

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, Pablo; Rushton, Jonathan; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is a multi-factorial disease with major economic implications for the pig industry worldwide. The present study aimed to assess the economic impact of PMWS and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subclinical infections (PCV2SI) for farrow-to-finish farms and to estimate the resulting cost to the English pig industry. A disease model was built to simulate the varying proportions of pigs in a batch that get infected with PCV2 and develop either PMWS, subclinical disease (reduce growth without evident clinical signs) or remain healthy (normal growth and no clinical signs), depending on the farm level PMWS severity. This PMWS severity measure accounted for the level of post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity and proportion of PCV2 infected pigs observed on farms. The model generated six outcomes: infected pigs with PMWS that die (PMWS-D); infected pigs with PMWS that recover (PMWS-R); subclinical pigs that die (Sub-D); subclinical pigs that reach slaughter age (Sub-S); healthy pigs sold (H-S); and pigs, infected or non-infected by PCV2, that die due to non-PCV2 related causes (nonPCV2-D). Enterprise and partial budget analyses were used to assess the deficit/profits and the extra costs/extra benefits of a change in disease status, respectively. Results from the economic analysis at pig level were combined with the disease model's estimates of the proportion of different pigs produced at different severity scores to assess the cost of PMWS and subclinical disease at farm level, and these were then extrapolated to estimate costs at national level. The net profit for a H-S pig was £19.2. The mean loss for a PMWS-D pig was £84.1 (90% CI: 79.6–89.1), £24.5 (90% CI: 15.1–35.4) for a PMWS-R pig, £82.3 (90% CI: 78.1–87.5) for a Sub-D pig, and £8.1 (90% CI: 2.18–15.1) for a Sub-S pig. At farm level, the greatest proportion of negative economic impact was attributed to PCV2 subclinical pigs. The economic impact for the

  2. Oxygen transport deficits in systemic disease and implications for physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Dean, E

    1997-02-01

    The purposes of this article are to discuss the effects of some common systemic diseases on cardiopulmonary function and oxygen transport and to describe the implications for physical therapists. Pathology of every major organ system can manifest secondary effects on cardiopulmonary function and oxygen transport. Such effects are of considerable clinical significance given that they can be life threatening and that physical therapy usually stresses the oxygen transport system. This article reviews the cardiopulmonary effects of hematologic, neuromuscular, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, collagen vascular and connective tissue, endocrine, and immunologic conditions. The cardiopulmonary manifestations of some common nutritional disorders (eg, obesity, anorexia nervosa) are also discussed. Physical therapists need to be able to anticipate, detect, and manage the cardiopulmonary manifestations of systemic disease given medical advances and the increasing number of patients with multisystem problems, the aging of the population, the expanding scope of physical therapy practice, and the increased professional and ethical responsibility associated with direct patient access. PMID:9037219

  3. Sweat Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  4. Poetry Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  5. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  6. Sex Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Douglas

    1977-01-01

    Notes that no single theory of psychotherapy dominates the field of sex therapy. On one hand, sex therapy is not subject to the rigid dogmas of many areas of psychotherapy. But on the other hand, many techniques are invented at the whim of clinicians with no basis in theory. (Author/AM)

  7. Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Bruce J

    2014-01-01

    Applications of gene therapy have been evaluated in virtually every oral tissue, and many of these have proved successful at least in animal models. While gene therapy will not be used routinely in the next decade, practitioners of oral medicine should be aware of the potential of this novel type of treatment that doubtless will benefit many patients with oral diseases. PMID:24372817

  8. A randomized clinical trial of cognitive processing therapy for veterans with PTSD related to military sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Surís, Alina; Link-Malcolm, Jessica; Chard, Kathleen; Ahn, Chul; North, Carol

    2013-02-01

    In this randomized controlled clinical trial, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) in the treatment of self-reported and clinician-assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to military sexual trauma (MST), along with depressive symptoms. Eighty-six veterans (73 female, 13 male) randomly assigned to receive 12 individual sessions of either CPT or present-centered therapy (PCT) were included in analyses. Blinded assessments occurred at baseline, posttreatment, and 2, 4, and 6 months posttreatment. Mixed-effects model analysis revealed a significant interaction between groups (p = .05, d = -0.85): At posttreatment, veterans who received CPT had a significantly greater reduction in self-reported, but not clinician-assessed, PTSD symptom severity compared to veterans who received PCT. All three primary outcome measures improved significantly, both clinically and statistically, across time in both treatment groups. Pre- and posttreatment effect sizes were mostly moderate to large (d = 0.30-1.02) and trended larger in the CPT group. Although the study was impacted by treatment fidelity issues, results provide preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of CPT in reducing self-reported PTSD symptoms in a population of veterans with MST, expanding on established literature that has demonstrated the effectiveness of CPT in treating PTSD related to sexual assault in civilian populations. PMID:23325750

  9. The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

    PubMed

    West, Christina E; Renz, Harald; Jenmalm, Maria C; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter; Prescott, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention. PMID:25567038

  10. Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Size of the Minimum Spanning Trees (MSTs) Forest and Branch Significance in MST-Based Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Andreia Sofia; Monteiro, Pedro T.; Carriço, João A; Ramirez, Mário; Francisco, Alexandre P.

    2015-01-01

    Trees, including minimum spanning trees (MSTs), are commonly used in phylogenetic studies. But, for the research community, it may be unclear that the presented tree is just a hypothesis, chosen from among many possible alternatives. In this scenario, it is important to quantify our confidence in both the trees and the branches/edges included in such trees. In this paper, we address this problem for MSTs by introducing a new edge betweenness metric for undirected and weighted graphs. This spanning edge betweenness metric is defined as the fraction of equivalent MSTs where a given edge is present. The metric provides a per edge statistic that is similar to that of the bootstrap approach frequently used in phylogenetics to support the grouping of taxa. We provide methods for the exact computation of this metric based on the well known Kirchhoff’s matrix tree theorem. Moreover, we implement and make available a module for the PHYLOViZ software and evaluate the proposed metric concerning both effectiveness and computational performance. Analysis of trees generated using multilocus sequence typing data (MLST) and the goeBURST algorithm revealed that the space of possible MSTs in real data sets is extremely large. Selection of the edge to be represented using bootstrap could lead to unreliable results since alternative edges are present in the same fraction of equivalent MSTs. The choice of the MST to be presented, results from criteria implemented in the algorithm that must be based in biologically plausible models. PMID:25799056

  11. Not seeing the forest for the trees: size of the minimum spanning trees (MSTs) forest and branch significance in MST-based phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Andreia Sofia; Monteiro, Pedro T; Carriço, João A; Ramirez, Mário; Francisco, Alexandre P

    2015-01-01

    Trees, including minimum spanning trees (MSTs), are commonly used in phylogenetic studies. But, for the research community, it may be unclear that the presented tree is just a hypothesis, chosen from among many possible alternatives. In this scenario, it is important to quantify our confidence in both the trees and the branches/edges included in such trees. In this paper, we address this problem for MSTs by introducing a new edge betweenness metric for undirected and weighted graphs. This spanning edge betweenness metric is defined as the fraction of equivalent MSTs where a given edge is present. The metric provides a per edge statistic that is similar to that of the bootstrap approach frequently used in phylogenetics to support the grouping of taxa. We provide methods for the exact computation of this metric based on the well known Kirchhoff's matrix tree theorem. Moreover, we implement and make available a module for the PHYLOViZ software and evaluate the proposed metric concerning both effectiveness and computational performance. Analysis of trees generated using multilocus sequence typing data (MLST) and the goeBURST algorithm revealed that the space of possible MSTs in real data sets is extremely large. Selection of the edge to be represented using bootstrap could lead to unreliable results since alternative edges are present in the same fraction of equivalent MSTs. The choice of the MST to be presented, results from criteria implemented in the algorithm that must be based in biologically plausible models. PMID:25799056

  12. The 2.5D MST for sound propagation through an array of acoustically rigid cylinders perpendicular to an impedance surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Aa, Bart; Forssén, Jens

    2015-07-01

    In this work a study of sound propagation through arrays of semi-infinitely long cylinders placed perpendicular to an impedance surface has been carried out. The cross sections of the structures are assumed to be invariant along the main axis of the cylinders, and the cylinders are considered rigid. It is further assumed that the structures are insonified by a monopole source placed above the impedance surface. To study such configurations, we introduce the two-and-a-half-dimensional multiple scattering theory (2.5D MST), which essentially solves the pressure in a three-dimensional domain by post-processing a set of precomputed solutions obtained in a two-dimensional domain. The total pressure can then be obtained by complex addition of four contributions: source-to-receiver, source-to-array-to-receiver, image source-to-receiver, and image source-to-array-to-receiver. The proposed method is validated using both analytical and numerical tools, showing very good agreement for all studied cases. Among other things, we show that a cylinder array placed on top of flat rigid ground can deteriorate the ground interference dips that exist without the array. In addition, we show that the characteristic response of the cylinder array, i.e. in terms of pass and stop bands, may be shifted up in frequency due to a projection phenomenon, which happens when the source or receiver is elevated along the main axis of the cylinders.

  13. Antiparasitic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kappagoda, Shanthi; Singh, Upinder; Blackburn, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect more than 2 billion people globally and cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly among the world's poorest people. This overview focuses on the treatment of the major protozoan and helminth infections in humans. Recent developments in antiparasitic therapy include the expansion of artemisinin-based therapies for malaria, new drugs for soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21628620

  14. [Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer Involving the Superior Mesenteric Artery].

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Hiroyoshi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro; Satoh, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Araki, Hiroyuki; Idani, Hitoshi; Ojima, Yasutomo; Harano, Masao; Kanazawa, Takashi; Tokumoto, Noriaki; Choda, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Michihiro; Miyoshi, Hisanobu; Okajima, Masazumi; Ninomiya, Motoki

    2015-11-01

    Multidisciplinary therapy is essential in the treatment of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer involving the superior mesenteric artery (BR-SMA). We analyzed the outcomes of multidisciplinary treatment for BR-SMA and evaluated the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy (NAT). We reviewed the clinical courses of 10 patients with BR-SMA. Seven patients were treated with preoperative neoadjuvant therapy (NAT group), and 3 patients underwent radical pancreaticoduodenectomy first (SF group). In the NAT group, the rate of R0 was 7/7 (100%), the induction rate of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) was 6/7 (86%), and the first recurrence sites were the lung in 4 patients, and the liver and peritoneum in one patient each, respectively. In the SF group, the rate of R0 was 2/3 (67%) because of a positive pathological dissecting peripancreatic margin in 1 case. The induction rate of AC was 3/3 (100%), and the first recurrence sites were the liver in 2 patients, the peritoneum in 1, and a local site in 1. The disease free survival of the NAT group (median survival time [MST] 19.3 months) was significantly better than that of the SF group (MST 5.7 months) (log rank test, p=0.002). The median overall survival of the NAT and SF groups was 51.6 months and 19.5 months, respectively (p=0.128). An R0 resection could be performed in all cases in the NAT group. The NAT extended disease-free survival. We conclude that NAT is recommended in the treatment of BR-SMA. PMID:26805071

  15. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  16. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  17. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. ... faster than normal cells in the body. Because radiation is most harmful to quickly growing cells, radiation ...

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to treat depression and some other mental illnesses. ... During ECT, the electric current triggers a seizure in the brain. Doctors believe that the seizure activity may help the brain "rewire" itself, which ...

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to treat depression and some other mental illnesses. Description During ECT, the electric current triggers a seizure in the brain. Doctors believe ...

  20. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nucleus is surrounded by electrons. In proton therapy, beams of fast-moving protons are used to destroy ... atoms to release proton, neutron, and helium ion beams. In this highly specialized form of radiosurgery , proton ...