Science.gov

Sample records for mung bean vigna

  1. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  2. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria. PMID:2241993

  3. Effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinbo; Li, Tong; Tang, Kexuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. It is recommended to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables to prevent chronic diseases related to free radical-induced oxidative stress. Different varieties of fruits and vegetables provide different vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids, minerals, and dietary fibers for optimal health benefits. Mung bean sprouts are one of the major vegetables in human diet. However, the profiles of phytochemicals and effect of germination on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts have not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts. Germination of mung beans dramatically increased vitamin C content in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner and reached the peak on day 8 of germination up to 285 mg/100 g DW, almost 24 times higher than the initial concentration in mung bean seeds (p < 0.05). On fresh weight basis, one serving of mung bean sprouts (about 104 g) provides 21.6 mg of vitamin C, which could meet 36% of Daily Value (DV). In addition, the germination dramatically increased total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner, up to 4.5 and 6.8 times higher than the original concentration of mung bean seeds, respectively. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside content was significantly increased in mung bean sprouts after germination. The total antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was increased by 6 times higher than that of mung bean seeds. Therefore, the germination of mung bean sprouts significantly increased phytochemical content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activity. PMID:23088738

  4. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  5. [Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase gene fragment from mung bean Vigna radiata using the polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A G; Bubiakina, V V; Tatarinova, T D; Zelenin, S M

    1998-01-01

    Two degenerate oligonucleotide sequence primers and polymerase chain reactions on total DNA have been utilized to clone on 651--bp gene fragment coding the central part of amino acid sequence of an earlier unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from mung bean. The deduced partial amino acid sequence for this aldehyde dehydrogenase shows about 65% sequence identity to ALDHs of Vibrio cholerae Rhodococcus sp., Alcaligenes eutrophus and about 45% sequence identity to mammalian ALDHs 1 and 2, ALDHs of Aspergillus niger and A, nidulans, the betain aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach. Alignment of the mung bean aldehyde dehydrogenase partial amino acid sequence with the sequence of 16 NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases has demonstrated that all strictly conserved amino acid residues and all three conservative regions are identical. PMID:9778740

  6. Transcriptome Sequencing of Mung Bean (Vigna radiate L.) Genes and the Identification of EST-SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liu, Chunji; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0%) and 23,235 (47.7%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 6,585 (8.3%) were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%), GAA/TTC (12.6%), AAAT/ATTT (6.8%), AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2%) and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%). A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or

  7. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation. PMID:25582183

  8. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. PMID:26073767

  9. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  10. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, [Formula: see text] generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  11. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth. PMID:27256894

  12. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H₂O₂ content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  13. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  14. Purification and characterization of an allosteric fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Lal, Ashish; Plaxton, William C; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2005-05-01

    Cytosolic fructose-1,6-P(2) (FBP) aldolase (ALD(c)) from germinated mung beans has been purified 1078-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 15.1 micromol FBP cleaved/min per mg of protein. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein-staining band of 40 kDa that cross-reacted strongly with rabbit anti-(carrot ALD(c))-IgG. The enzyme's native M(r) was determined by gel filtration chromatography to be 160 kDa, indicating a homotetrameric quaternary structure. This ALD is a class I ALD, since EDTA or Mg(2+) had no effect on its activity, and was relatively heat-stable losing 0-25% of its activity when incubated for 5 min at 55-65 degrees C. It demonstrated: (i) a temperature coefficient (Q(10)) of 1.7; (ii) an activation energy of 9.2 kcal/mol active site; and (iii) a broad pH-activity optima of 7.5. Mung bean ALD(c) is bifunctional for FBP and sedoheptulose-1,7-P(2) (K(m) approximately 17 microM for both substrates). ATP, ADP, AMP and ribose-5-P exerted inhibitory effects on the activity of the purified enzyme. Ribose-5-P, ADP and AMP functioned as competitive inhibitors (K(i) values=2.2, 3.1 and 7.5mM, respectively). By contrast, the addition of 2mM ATP: (i) reduced V(max) by about 2-fold, (ii) increased K(m)(FBP) by about 4-fold, and (iii) shifted the FBP saturation kinetic plot from hyperbolic to sigmoidal (h=1.0 and 2.6 in the absence and presence of 2mM ATP, respectively). Potent feedback inhibition of ALD(c) by ATP is suggested to help balance cellular ATP demands with the control of cytosolic glycolysis and respiration in germinating mung beans. PMID:15896364

  15. Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sarita; Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Varma, Ajit; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the overproducing mutant of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU (MTCC-12057) for significant drought tolerance in mung bean plants. Five mutants namely AU-M1, AU-M2, AU-M3, AU-M4 and AU-M5 were made after treatment of wild type strain with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutant strain AU-M4 was recorded for enhanced ACC deaminase (ACC-D) activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production and inorganic phosphate (Pi) solubilization compared to wild strain and other four mutant strains under drought condition. AU-M4 showed higher phosphate solubilization index (8.17) together with higher ACC-D activity (98 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (69.35 µg/ml) compared with the wild type P. simiae strain AU ACC-D activity (79 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (38.98 µg/ml) respectively. In this report, we investigated the effect of both wild and mutant type bacterial strain on mung bean plants under drought stress. Results showed that mutant AU-M4 and wild type strain AU inoculated plants exhibited superior tolerance against drought stress, as shown by their enhanced plant biomass (fresh weight), higher water content, higher proline accumulation and lower osmotic stress injury. Mutant AU-M4 and wild strain AU inoculated plants reduced the ethylene level by 59 and 45% respectively, compared to the control under stress condition. Furthermore, bacterial inoculated plants showed enhanced induced systemic drought tolerance by reducing stomata size and net photosynthesis resulting higher water content in mung bean plants that may help in survival of plants during drought condition. To mitigate the effects of drought stress, use of PGPR will be needed to ensure sufficient production of food from crop plants. Taking current leads available, concerted future research is needed in this area, particularly on field evaluation with application of potential microorganisms. PMID:26712619

  16. Ethylene and adventitious root formation in hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung-bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Batten, D J; Mullins, M G

    1978-01-01

    Rooting responses and ethylene production by hypocotyl cuttings from etiolated mung-bean seedlings treated with the auxins α-naphthaleneacetic acid, γ-(indole-3)-n-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4,5-trichloro-phenoxypropionic acid were determined. There was no relationship between the abilities of the auxins to induce root formation and their capacities for inducing ethylene production. Studies with mixtures of 3-indoleacetic acid, a poor stimulator of rooting but an effective inducer of ethylene production, and IBA, an effective rooting stimulator but a poor inducer of ethylene production, exposure of cuttings to ethylene or (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (Ethephon), hypobaric storage (150 mb) of treated cuttings, and exposure of auxin-treated cuttings to 7% CO2 also indicated that ethylene is not directly involved in initiation of adventitious roots in this plant material. PMID:24414045

  17. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of tropical mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars against chronic ozone stress: an insight to cultivar-specific response.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Agrawal, S B

    2015-05-01

    Surface-level ozone (O3) has been regarded as one of the most significant phytotoxic pollutants worldwide. Investigations addressing adverse impacts of elevated O3 on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), an important leguminous crop of the Indian subcontinent, are still limited. The present study analyzed the differences on the foliar injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidative defense system, physiology, and foliar protein profile of two tropical mung bean cultivars (HUM-2 and HUM-6) exposed to elevated O3 under near-natural conditions. Both cultivars were negatively affected by the pollutant, but the response was cultivar-specific. Results revealed that elevated O3 induced higher levels of ROS (O2 (·-) and H2O2) and lipid peroxidation leading to greater foliar injury in HUM-2 compared to HUM-6. Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency reduced under elevated O3 exposure and the extent of reduction was higher in HUM-2. Principal component analysis revealed that photosynthetic performance and quantum yield were drastically affected in HUM-2 as compared to HUM-6. Activities of antioxidative enzymes were also stimulated, suggesting generation of oxidative stress under elevated O3. HUM-6 showed higher induction of antioxidative enzymes than HUM-2. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed drastic reductions in the abundantly present ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large and small subunits and the decrease was higher in HUM-2. Altogether, results suggested that higher accumulation of ROS and limited induction of antioxidant defense system led to more leaf injury and impairment of photosynthesis in HUM-2 than HUM-6 depicting its higher sensitivity towards elevated O3. PMID:25326391

  18. Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Cai, Weixi; Wu, Tong; Xu, Baojun

    2016-06-15

    Total saponin content, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, condensed tannin content in hull, cotyledon and whole grain of both adzuki bean and mung bean were determined by colorimetric methods. Vitexin and isovitexin contents in mung bean were determined by HPLC. Antioxidant effects were evaluated with DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of beans were evaluated by protease and aldose reductase inhibitory assays, respectively. The results indicated that the bean hulls were the most abundant in phytochemicals and largely contributed antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-diabetic effects of whole grains. The result showed that mung bean hull was the most abundant with vitexin at 37.43 mg/g and isovitexin at 47.18 mg/g, respectively. Most of the phytochemicals and bioactivities were most predominantly contributed by the bean hulls with exception for condensed tannin of mung bean; which was more abundant in the cotyledon than its hull. PMID:26868587

  19. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions. PMID:25328209

  20. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A.; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m−1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean. PMID:24688532

  1. Tillage intensity and residue effects on early season evaporation and yield in mung bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early season evaporation losses from irrigated crops can significantly reduce water productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the Central Experiment Station of Uzbekistan's National Cotton Growing Research Institute (41.42 N, 69.49 E) on a silt loam soil with irrigated mung bean (Vigna rad...

  2. Supplementing iron bioavailability enhanced mung bean.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Vijayalakshmi; M, Amirthaveni; Tsou, Samson C S; S, Shanmugasundaram

    2008-01-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a major public health problem. The high incidence is either due to insufficient intake of iron or poor bio availability. Enhancing the bio availability is as important as increasing the intake. The absorption could be enhanced by including ascorbic acid and beta carotene containing fruits and vegetables into recipes of iron containing food preparations. The effect of supplementation of iron bio-availability enhanced mung bean preparations was studied on 75 women who were compared against 75 who served as controls and another 75 who consumed regular traditional recipes. The methodology included identification of suitable mung bean variety, assessing iron in vitro bio availability, mapping the anaemic women, estimating their iron levels, supplementation for one year and studying the effect of supplementation. Mung bean supplementation had increased serum protein levels from 5.36 to 6.73 g/dl, serum iron levels had increased from 16.6 to 46.7 microg/dl. The TIBC levels decreased from 555 to 508 microg/dl while serum ferritin levels increased from 3.56 to 5.94 microg/dl and Hb levels from 7.54 to 8.29 g/dl. Thus, improving the bioavailability of iron of food preparations, will improve the iron status of women. PMID:18296312

  3. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin

    2010-10-01

    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength. PMID:20564175

  4. Evidence for Orthologous Seed Weight Genes in Cowpea and Mung Bean Based on RFLP Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fatokun, C. A.; Menancio-Hautea, D. I.; Danesh, D.; Young, N. D.

    1992-01-01

    A well saturated genomic map is a necessity for a breeding program based on marker assisted selection. To this end, we are developing genomic maps for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 2N=22) and mung bean (Vigna radiata 2N=22) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Using these maps, we have located major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed weight in both species. Two unlinked genomic regions in cowpea contained QTLs accounting for 52.7% of the variation for seed weight. In mung bean there were four unlinked genomic regions accounting for 49.7% of the variation for seed weight. In both cowpea and mung bean the genomic region with the greatest effect on seed weight spanned the same RFLP markers in the same linkage order. This suggests that the QTLs in this genomic region have remained conserved through evolution. This inference is supported by the observation that a significant interaction (i.e., epistasis) was detected between the QTL(s) in the conserved region and an unlinked RFLP marker locus in both species. PMID:1361476

  5. Interactions of light and gravity on growth, orientation, and lignin biosynthesis in mung beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahns, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings grown on the third Space Transport Mission (STS-3) showed marked orientation problems (some of the stems elongated horizontally and many of the roots were growing upward) and had a lower lignin content than the ground based controls. This research was initiated to determine if the atypical growth characteristics of mung beans grown in microgravity could be simulated using horizontal clinostats. Most of the effort focused on the design, construction and testing of the clinostats. In order to closely approximate the growth conditions of the plants grown in the plant growth unit on STS-3, cylindrical lexan minichambers were constructed. Results showed that plants grown using these clinostats in the horizontal position exhibit similar growth characteristics to the plants grown on STS-3 (disorientation of both stems and roots), while the vertical stationary and vertical rotating controls exhibit normal growth.

  6. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. PMID:26794947

  7. It Is Not Just Folklore: The Aqueous Extract of Mung Bean Coat Is Protective against Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Li, Wei; Li, Jianhua; Jundoria, Arvin; Sama, Andrew E.; Wang, Haichao

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna Radiata) has been traditionally used in China both as nutritional food and herbal medicine against a number of inflammatory conditions since the 1050s. A nucleosomal protein, HMGB1, has recently been established as a late mediator of lethal systemic inflammation with a relatively wider therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions. Here we explored the HMGB1-inhibiting capacity and therapeutic potential of mung bean coat (MBC) extract in vitro and in vivo. We found that MBC extract dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced release of HMGB1 and several chemokines in macrophage cultures. Oral administration of MBC extract significantly increased animal survival rates from 29.4% (in saline group, N = 17 mice) to 70% (in experimental MBC extract group, N = 17 mice, P < 0.05). In vitro, MBC extract stimulated HMGB1 protein aggregation and facilitated both the formation of microtubule-associatedprotein-1-light-chain-3-(LC3-)containing cytoplasmic vesicles, and the production of LC3-II in macrophage cultures. Consequently, MBC extract treatment led to reduction of cellular HMGB1 levels in macrophage cultures, which was impaired by coaddition of two autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and 3-methyladenine). Conclusion. MBC extract is protective against lethal sepsis possibly by stimulating autophagic HMGB1 degradation. PMID:23193422

  8. Association of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase activity with the cytosolic pyruvate kinase of germinating mung beans.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Plaxton, W C

    1991-12-01

    The procedure of Malhotra and Kayastha ([1990] Plant Physiology 93: 194-200) for the purification to homogeneity of a phosphoenolpyruvate-specific alkaline phosphatase (PEP phosphatase) from germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata) was followed. Although a higher specific activity of 1.4 micromoles pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein was obtained, the final preparation was less than 10% pure as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Attempts to further purify the enzyme resulted in loss of activity. The partially purified enzyme contained significant pyruvate kinase activity (0.13 micromole pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein) when assayed at pH 7.2, but not at pH 8.5. The PEP phosphatase activity of the final preparation exhibited hysteresis; a lag time of 5 to 6 minutes was required before a steady-state reaction rate was attained. A western blot of the final preparation revealed an immunoreactive 57 kilodalton polypeptide when probed with monospecific rabbit polyclonal antibodies prepared against germinating castor bean cytosolic pyruvate kinase. No antigenic cross-reaction of the final preparation was observed with antibodies against castor bean leucoplast pyruvate kinase, or black mustard PEP-specific acid phosphatase. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final preparation resulted in a single PEP phosphatase activity band; when this band was excised and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting, a 57 kilodalton silver-staining polypeptide was obtained that strongly cross-reacted with the anti-(cytosolic pyruvate kinase) immunoglobulin G. It is suggested that mung bean PEP-specific alkaline phosphatase activity is due to cytosolic pyruvate kinase, in which pyruvate and ortho-phosphate are formed in the absence of ADP. PMID:16668551

  9. Association of Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphatase Activity with the Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase of Germinating Mung Beans 1

    PubMed Central

    Podestá, Florencio E.; Plaxton, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The procedure of Malhotra and Kayastha ([1990] Plant Physiology 93: 194-200) for the purification to homogeneity of a phosphoenolpyruvate-specific alkaline phosphatase (PEP phosphatase) from germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata) was followed. Although a higher specific activity of 1.4 micromoles pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein was obtained, the final preparation was less than 10% pure as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Attempts to further purify the enzyme resulted in loss of activity. The partially purified enzyme contained significant pyruvate kinase activity (0.13 micromole pyruvate produced per minute per milligram protein) when assayed at pH 7.2, but not at pH 8.5. The PEP phosphatase activity of the final preparation exhibited hysteresis; a lag time of 5 to 6 minutes was required before a steady-state reaction rate was attained. A western blot of the final preparation revealed an immunoreactive 57 kilodalton polypeptide when probed with monospecific rabbit polyclonal antibodies prepared against germinating castor bean cytosolic pyruvate kinase. No antigenic cross-reaction of the final preparation was observed with antibodies against castor bean leucoplast pyruvate kinase, or black mustard PEP-specific acid phosphatase. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the final preparation resulted in a single PEP phosphatase activity band; when this band was excised and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting, a 57 kilodalton silver-staining polypeptide was obtained that strongly cross-reacted with the anti-(cytosolic pyruvate kinase) immunoglobulin G. It is suggested that mung bean PEP-specific alkaline phosphatase activity is due to cytosolic pyruvate kinase, in which pyruvate and ortho-phosphate are formed in the absence of ADP. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668551

  10. Photocount statistics of ultra-weak photon emission from germinating mung bean.

    PubMed

    Rafieiolhosseini, Neda; Poplová, Michaela; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem; Alhossaini, Mahsa Rafiee; Cifra, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) is an endogenous bioluminescence phenomenon present in all biological samples with an active oxidative metabolism, even without an external pre-illumination. To verify the potential of UPE for non-invasive monitoring of metabolism and growth in germinating plants, the aim of this study was to investigate the UPE from a model system - germinating mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata) - and analyze the statistical properties of UPE during the growth in two different conditions of imbibition (pure water and 1% sucrose). We found that in all days and in both conditions, photocount distributions of UPE time series follow the negative binomial distribution whose parameters changed during the growth due to the increasing ratio of signal-to-detector dark count. Correspondingly for both groups, the mean values of UPE increased during the seedlings growth, while the values of Fano factor show a decreasing trend towards 1 during the 6day period. While our results do not show any significant difference in hypocotyl length and weight gain between the two groups of mung seedlings, there is an indication of a tiny suppressing effect of sucrose on UPE intensity. We believe that UPE can be exploited for a sensitive non-invasive analysis of oxidative metabolism during the plant development and growth with potential applications in agricultural research. PMID:27341637

  11. Evaluation and modeling of aerodynamic properties of mung bean seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbazi, Feizollah

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic properties of solid materials have long been used to convey and separate seeds and grains during post harvest operations. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of mung bean seeds as a function of moisture content and two grades referred to above and below a cut point of 4.8 mm in length. The results showed that as the moisture content increased from 7.8 to 25% (w.b.), the terminal velocity of seeds increased following a polynomial relationship, from 7.28 to 8.79 and 6.02 to 7.12 m s-1, for grades A and B, respectively. Seeds at grade A had terminal velocities with a mean value of 8.05 m s-1, while at grade B had a mean value of 6.46 m s-1. The Reynolds number of both grades increased linearly with the increase of seeds moisture content, while the drag coefficient decreased with the increase of moisture content. Mathematical relationships were developed to relate the change in seeds moisture content with the obtained values of aerodynamic properties. The analysis of variance showed that moisture content had a significant effect, at 1% probability level, on all the aerodynamics properties of mung beans.

  12. Draft genome sequence of adzuki bean, Vigna angularis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jae; Satyawan, Dani; Shim, Sangrea; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Hwang, Won Joo; Kim, Sue K; Lestari, Puji; Laosatit, Kularb; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Tae Joung; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kim, Moon Young; Ko, Jong-Min; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Varshney, Rajeev K; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) is a dietary legume crop in East Asia. The presumed progenitor (Vigna angularis var. nipponensis) is widely found in East Asia, suggesting speciation and domestication in these temperate climate regions. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of adzuki bean. The genome assembly covers 75% of the estimated genome and was mapped to 11 pseudo-chromosomes. Gene prediction revealed 26,857 high confidence protein-coding genes evidenced by RNAseq of different tissues. Comparative gene expression analysis with V. radiata showed that the tissue specificity of orthologous genes was highly conserved. Additional re-sequencing of wild adzuki bean, V. angularis var. nipponensis, and V. nepalensis, was performed to analyze the variations between cultivated and wild adzuki bean. The determined divergence time of adzuki bean and the wild species predated archaeology-based domestication time. The present genome assembly will accelerate the genomics-assisted breeding of adzuki bean. PMID:25626881

  13. Detection of Tannery Effluents Induced DNA Damage in Mung Bean by Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Izharul; Kumar, Mahadeo

    2014-01-01

    Common effluent treatment plant (CETP) is employed for treatment of tannery effluent. However, the performance of CETP for reducing the genotoxic substances from the raw effluent is not known. In this study, phytotoxic and genotoxic effects of tannery effluents were investigated in mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). For this purpose, untreated and treated tannery effluents were collected from CETP Unnao (UP), India. Seeds of mung bean were grown in soil irrigated with various concentrations of tannery effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) for 15 days. Inhibition of seed germination was 90% by 25% untreated effluent and 75% treated effluent, compared to the control. Plant growth was inhibited by 51% and 41% when irrigated with untreated and treated effluents at 25% concentration. RAPD technique was used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of tannery effluents (untreated and treated) irrigation on the mung bean. The RAPD profiles obtained showed that both untreated and treated were having genotoxic effects on mung bean plants. This was discernible with appearance/disappearance of bands in the treatments compared with control plants. A total of 87 RAPD bands were obtained using eight primers and 42 (48%) of these showed polymorphism. Irrigating plants with untreated effluent caused 12 new bands to appear and 18 to disappear. Treated effluent caused 8 new bands and the loss of 15 bands. The genetic distances shown on the dendrogram revealed that control plants and those irrigated with treated effluent were clustered in one group (joined at distance of 0.28), whereas those irrigated with untreated effluent were separated in another cluster at larger distance (joined at distance of 0.42). This indicates that treated effluent is less genotoxic than the untreated. Nei's genetic similarity indices calculated between the treatments and the control plants showed that the control and the plants irrigated with treated tannery effluent had a similarity index of 0.75, the control

  14. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2015-02-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally and widely used as an edible and medicinal plant in the South and Southeast Asia. Bruchid resistance mung bean has more potential in commercial use, but scarcely been evaluated for safety through standard in vivo toxicological studies. In the present study, subchronic oral toxicity studies of bruchid-resistant mung bean were designed and conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 90 days. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, food consumption, opthalmoscopic examination, hematology, clinical biochemistry, macroscopic findings, organ weights and histopathological examination were noted in animal administered diet containing bruchid-resistant mung bean. These results demonstrated that bruchid resistant mung bean is as safe as conventional mung bean. PMID:25533792

  15. Antihyperglycemic Effects of Fermented and Nonfermented Mung Bean Extracts on Alloxan-Induced-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah

    2012-01-01

    Mung bean was reported as a potential antidiabetic agent while fermented food has been proposed as one of the major contributors that can reduce the risk of diabetes in Asian populations. In this study, we have compared the normoglycemic effect, glucose-induced hyperglycemic effect, and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic effect of fermented and nonfermented mung bean extracts. Our results showed that fermented mung bean extracts did not induce hypoglycemic effect on normal mice but significantly reduced the blood sugar levels of glucose- and alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice. The serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were also lowered while insulin secretion and antioxidant level as measured by malonaldehyde (MDA) assays were significantly improved in the plasma of the fermented mung bean-treated group in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mouse. These results indicated that fermentation using Mardi Rhizopus sp. strain 5351 inoculums could enhance the antihyperglycemic and the antioxidant effects of mung bean in alloxan-treated mice. The improvement in the antihyperglycemic effect may also be contributed by the increased content of GABA and the free amino acid that are present in the fermented mung bean extracts. PMID:23091343

  16. In Vivo Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Fermented Mung Bean on Hypercholesterolemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Koh, Soo Peng

    2015-01-01

    Legumes have previously been reported with hypolipidemic effect caused by the presence of flavonoid. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of fermented mung bean on hypercholesterolemic mice. Blood from all mice was collected and subjected to serum lipid and liver profiles biochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR for atherosclerosis related gene expressions. Besides, livers were collected for antioxidant assays and histopathology evaluation. Fermented mung bean was found to reduce the level of serum lipid and liver enzyme profiles of hypercholesterolemic mice. Furthermore, liver antioxidant and nitric oxide levels were also significantly restored by fermented mung bean in a dosage dependent manner. The gene expression study indicated that Apoe and Bcl2a1a were upregulated while Npy and Vwf expressions were downregulated after the treatment. The effects of fermented mung bean were greater than nonfermented mung bean. These results indicated that fermented mung bean possessed antioxidants that lead to its hypolipidemic effect on hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:26074993

  17. Comparison of developmental gradients for growth, ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding activity in mung bean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basel, L. E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the developmental gradients along a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl of the growth rate, plasma membrane ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding protein (FCBP) activity to determine whether they are interrelated. The hook and four sequential 7.5 millimeter segments of the hypocotyl below the hook were cut. A plasma membrane-enriched fraction was isolated from each section by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for vanadate-sensitive ATPase and FCBP activity. Each gradient had a distinctive and different pattern. Endogenous growth rate was maximal in the second section and much lower in the others. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was maximal in the third section, but remained high in the older sections. Amounts of ATPase protein, shown by specific antibody binding, did not correlate with the amount of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in the three youngest sections. FCBP activity was almost absent in the first section, then increased to a maximum in the oldest sections. These data show that the growth rate is not determined by the ATPase activity, and that there are no fixed ratios between the ATPase and FCBP.

  18. Purification and Characterization of Tonoplast ATPase from Etiolated Mung Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, May Yun; Lin, Ya Hui; Chou, Wing Ming; Chung, Tsuey Ping; Pan, Rong Long

    1989-01-01

    The tonoplast ATPase from etiolated seedlings of Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) was isolated using a two-step detergent solubilization modified from Mandala and Taiz (S Mandala, L Taiz [1985] Plant Physiol 78: 327-333). After ultracentrifugation on 10 to 28% sucrose gradient, the ATPase showed a 31.6-fold purification over the initial specific activity of the starting tonoplast-enriched membranes. The purified ATPase used Mg2+-ATP as the preferred substrate. The tonoplast ATPase was isolated in a form with characteristics similar to that on its native membrane environment. Analysis by SDS-PAGE revealed two prominent bands with molecular weights of 78,000 (α subunit) and 64,000 (β subunit). The intensity of Coomassie blue staining showed a 1:1 stoichiometry for α and β subunits. The amino acid composition of α and β subunits also confirmed the suggested stoichiometry of the subunit composition of the tonoplast ATPase. Moreover, radiation inactivation analysis yielded a functional size of 414 ± 24 and 405 ± 25 kilodaltons for soluble and membrane bound tonoplast ATPases, respectively. It is possible that the functioning tonoplast ATPase may be in a form of αβ-heteromultimer. Images Figure 3 PMID:16666796

  19. Seed-borne nature of a begomovirus, Mung bean yellow mosaic virus in black gram.

    PubMed

    Kothandaraman, Satya Vijayalakshmi; Devadason, Alice; Ganesan, Malathi Varagur

    2016-02-01

    The yellow mosaic viruses (YMV) infecting legumes are considered to be the most devastating begomoviruses as they incite considerable yield loss. The yellow discoloration of pods and seeds of infected plants and symptom emergence in the very first trifoliate leaf of the plants in the field were suggestive that the virus may be seed borne, which was investigated in the present study. The distribution of the virus in various parts of the seeds of black gram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) plants naturally infected in the field was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analysis, and sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR amplicons from the seed parts from groups of ten seeds revealed the presence of mung bean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) in the seed coat, cotyledon, and embryonic axes. The presence of virion particles was confirmed through double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) even in a single whole seed. In confocal microscopy, positive fluorescent signals were obtained using coat protein gene-specific primers in the embryonic axes. However, in the growth tests performed with the same batch of seeds, there was no symptom development in the seedlings though the virus (both DNA A and B components) was detected in 32 % of tested seedlings. In this study, the MYMV was detected in seed coat, cotyledon, and embryo. This study revealed that the MYMV is a seed-borne virus. PMID:26646557

  20. The toxicity and invasive effects of QDs on mung bean development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Ruhua; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Gang; Lin, Guimiao; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni

    2014-09-01

    Objective: Nowadays, the nanomaterials have been applied in every aspects of our life, including cosmetics, fresh-keeping, antisepsis and medicines. However, we know little about the toxic effects of nanoparticles towards plants. In this thesis, we synthesized quantum dots (QDs), and then toxicity and invasive effects of QDs for mung beans were investigated. Methods: We synthesised red CdTe QDs in water sphase with L-Cystein stabilizers, then prepared different concentration of QDs solution to cultivate mung bean plant, the radical length of mung beans was measured after four days every day, after 7 days, the distribution of QDs in mung bean plant was recorded under the microscopic. Results: The result showed the QDs inhibited the growth of mung beans, the higher the concentration of QDs was, the greater the inhibition effect was. After 7 days, the radicle average lengths of mung beans in different concentrations of QDs solution - blank 0.1μmol/L 0.2μmol/L 0.5 μmol/L 1 μmol/L - were 19.350+/- 0.427, 14.050+/- 0.879, 10.525+/- 0.554, 7.250+/- 0.522, 7.650+/- 0.229. The QDs mostly adhered onto the root surface and hairs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the QDs synthesized with L-cystein have effects on the growth of mung beans. However, it is necessary to do more experiments to confirm the mechanism of the toxicity effect of QDs on plants.

  1. An ultrasensitive fluorescence method suitable for quantitative analysis of mung bean nuclease and inhibitor screening in vitro and vivo.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lan; Fan, Jialong; Tong, Chunyi; Xie, Zhenhua; Zhao, Chuan; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Bin

    2016-09-15

    Mung bean nuclease is a single stranded specific DNA and RNA endonuclease purified from mung bean sprouts. It yields 5'-phosphate terminated mono- and oligonucleotides. The activity level of this nuclease can act as a marker to monitor the developmental process of mung bean sprouts. In order to facilitate the activity and physiological analysis of this nuclease, we have developed a biosensing assay system based on the mung bean nuclease-induced single-stranded DNA scission and the affinity difference of graphene oxide for single-stranded DNA containing different numbers of bases. This end-point measurement method can detect mung bean nuclease in a range of 2×10(-4) to 4×10(-2) with a detection limit of 1×10(-4) unit/mL. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the assay for screening chemical antibiotics and metal ions, resulting in the identification of several inhibitors of this enzyme in vitro. Furthermore, we firstly report that inhibiting mung bean nuclease by gentamycin sulfate and kanamycin in vivo can suppress mung bean sprouts growth. In summary, this method provides an alternative tool for the biochemical analysis for mung bean nuclease and indicates the feasibility of high-throughput screening specific inhibitors of this nuclease in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27125839

  2. Engineering analysis of the high-density heterotrophic cultivation of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tamate, Haruka; Nakai, Ran; Nakamori, Yasuyuki; Esashi, Masahiro; Iwamoto, Yasushi; Tsukada, Yoshihiro; Saito, Mika; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the heterotrophic growth behavior of mung beans cultivated in an individual bed under water supply. The fresh weight of mung beans in the bed was estimated, and changes in temperature, and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were recorded during the cultivation period. The specific growth rate, oxygen uptake rate, and carbon dioxide evolution rate, based on the fresh weight in the bed, were calculated. Growth under heterotrophic cultivation can be classified into the following three stages. Reductions in specific oxygen uptake rate, specific carbon dioxide evolution rate, and specific energy production rate corresponded to that of specific growth rate. Indicators of biological activity related to oxygen and carbon dioxide were evaluated quantitatively for beds under high-density heterotrophic cultivation. Moreover, the results obtained from this study successfully demonstrate that there is a relationship between the growth of mung beans and indicators of biological activity. PMID:27121990

  3. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Germinated and Fermented Mung Bean on Ethanol-Mediated Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Ali, Norlaily; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Long, Kamariah; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Beh, Boon Kee; Koh, Soo Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2013-01-01

    Mung bean is a hepatoprotective agent in dietary supplements. Fermentation and germination processes are well recognized to enhance the nutritional values especially the concentration of active compounds such as amino acids and GABA of various foods. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of freeze-dried mung bean and amino-acid- and GABA-enriched germinated and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts were compared. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) levels, and serum biochemical profile such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglycerides (TG), and cholesterol and histopathological changes were examined for the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of these treatments. Germinated and fermented mung bean have recorded an increase of 27.9 and 7.3 times of GABA and 8.7 and 13.2 times of amino acid improvement, respectively, as compared to normal mung bean. Besides, improvement of antioxidant levels, serum markers, and NO level associated with better histopathological evaluation indicated that these extracts could promote effective recovery from hepatocyte damage. These results suggested that freeze-dried, germinated, and fermented mung bean aqueous extracts enriched with amino acids and GABA possessed better hepatoprotective effect as compared to normal mung bean. PMID:23484140

  4. Structure of 8Salpha globulin, the major seed storage protein of mung bean.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takafumi; Garcia, Roberta N; Adachi, Motoyasu; Maruyama, Yukie; Tecson-Mendoza, Evelyn Mae; Mikami, Bunzo; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2006-07-01

    The 8S globulins of mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] are vicilin-type seed storage globulins which consist of three isoforms: 8Salpha, 8Salpha' and 8Sbeta. The three isoforms have high sequence identities with each other (around 90%). The structure of 8Salpha globulin has been determined for the first time by X-ray crystallographic analysis and refined at 2.65 A resolution with a final R factor of 19.6% for 10-2.65 A resolution data. The refined 8Salpha globulin structure consisted of 366 of the 423 amino-acid residues (one subunit of the biological trimer). With the exception of several disordered regions, the overall 8Salpha globulin structure closely resembled those of other seed storage 7S globulins. The 8Salpha globulin exhibited the highest degree of sequence identity (68%) and structural similarity (a root-mean-square deviation of 0.6 A) with soybean beta-conglycinin beta (7S globulin). Their surface hydrophobicities are also similar to each other, although their solubilities differ under alkaline conditions at low ionic strength. This difference seems to be a consequence of charge-charge interactions and not hydrophobic interactions of the surfaces, based on a comparison of the electrostatic potentials of the molecular surfaces. The thermal stability of 8Salpha globulin is lower than that of soybean beta-conglycinin beta. This correlates with the cavity size derived from the crystal structure, although other structural features also have a small effect on the protein's thermal stability. PMID:16790939

  5. Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.

  6. Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L

    1990-06-01

    Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap. PMID:11537168

  7. Salmonella infections associated with mung bean sprouts 2000-2002: Epidemiological and environmental investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated 7 outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections linked to raw mung bean sprouts in 2000-2002 through case-control and cohort studies. All outbreaks were due to unusual phage types (PT) of SE and occurred in the United States (PT 33, 1, and 913), Canada (PT 11b and 913), and the...

  8. Phytotoxicity, Uptake, and Translocation of Fluorescent Carbon Dots in Mung Bean Plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Yinjian; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Zulang; Su, Wei; Chen, Shi; Liu, Yingliang; Zhuang, Jianle; Lei, Bingfu

    2016-08-10

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) have been widely studied in bioscience and bioimaging, but the effect of CDs on plants has been rarely studied. Herein, mung bean was adopted as a model plant to study the phytotoxicity, uptake, and translocation of red emissive CDs in plants. The incubation with CDs at a concentration range from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mL induced physiological response of mung bean plant and imposed no phytotoxicity on mung bean growth. The lengths of the root and stem presented an increasing trend up to the treatment of 0.4 mg/mL. Confocal imaging showed that CDs were transferred from the roots to the stems and leaves by the vascular system through the apoplastic pathway. The uptake kinetics study was performed and demonstrated that the CDs were abundantly incubated by mung beans during both germination and growth periods. Furthermore, in vivo visualization of CDs provides potential for their successful application as delivery vehicles in plants based on the unique optical properties. PMID:27425200

  9. Proximate composition and antinutritional factors in rice bean (Vigna umbellata).

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Malik, D; Dhindsa, K S

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen promising strains of Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) were analysed for their proximate compositions and antinutritional factors. Protein content in these varieties ranged from 17.50 to 23.10 per cent, ash from 3.06 to 4.48 per cent, ether extract from 2.4 to 3.9 per cent and crude fibre from 1.70 to 4.25 per cent. Trypsin inhibitor activity ranged from 112.63 to 163.98 units/g and polyphenols ranged from 0.58 to 1.19 per cent. Phytohemagglutinating activity was present in all the strains, except one, RB-32. Oligosaccharides, viz., raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, ranged from 0.32 to 0.91, 0.95 to 1.98 and 1.40 to 2.58 per cent, respectively. Attempts have been made to compare the results with a standard variety each of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), moong (Vigna radiata) and mash (Vigna mungo). PMID:3231596

  10. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Untreated, Germinated, and Fermented Mung Bean Aqueous Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Ho, Wan-Yong; Beh, Boon-Kee; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of untreated mung bean (MB), germinated mung bean (GMB), and fermented mung bean (FMB) was performed on both in vitro (inhibition of inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide(NO)) and in vivo (inhibition of ear oedema and reduction of response to pain stimulus) studies. Results showed that both GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro results showed that GMB and FMB were potent inflammatory mediator (NO) inhibitors at both 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. Further in vivo studies showed that GMB and FMB aqueous extract at 1000 mg/kg can significantly reduce ear oedema in mice caused by arachidonic acid. Besides, both 200 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg concentrations of GMB and FMB were found to exhibit potent antinociceptive effects towards hotplate induced pain. With these, it can be concluded that GMB and FMB aqueous extract exhibited potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. PMID:25045389

  12. Growth and anatomical parameters of adventitious roots formed on mung bean hypocotyls are correlated with galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides structure.

    PubMed

    Kollárová, K; Zelko, I; Henselová, M; Capek, P; Lišková, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains) and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends) on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA), while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation. PMID:22666154

  13. Polyamine and nitric oxide crosstalk: Antagonistic effects on cadmium toxicity in mung bean plants through upregulating the metal detoxification, antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a serious agricultural and environmental hazard. The study investigates cross-protection roles of putrescine (Put, 0.2 mM) and nitric oxide (sodium nitroprusside; SNP, 1 mM) in conferring Cd (CdCl2, 1.5 mM) tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) seedlings. Cadmium stress increased root and shoot Cd content, reduced growth, destroyed chlorophyll (chl), modulated proline (Pro) and reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), increased oxidative damage [lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2(∙-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity], methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity. Put and/or SNP reduced Cd uptake, increasd phytochelatin (PC) content, reduced oxidative damage enhancing non-enzymatic antioxidants (AsA and GSH) and activities of enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)]. Exogenous Put and/or SNP modulated endogenous polyamines, PAs (putrescine, Put; spermidine, Spd; spermine, Spm), and NO; improved glyoxalase system in detoxifying MG and improved physiology and growth where combined application showed better effects which designates possible crosstalk between NO and PAs to confer Cd-toxicity tolerance. PMID:26773834

  14. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha(-1)), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m(-1)). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha(-1) resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry. PMID:27379151

  15. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry. PMID:27379151

  16. Salmonella internalization in mung bean sprouts and pre- and postharvest intervention methods in a hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chongtao; Rymut, Susan; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-05-01

    Mung bean sprouts, typically consumed raw or minimally cooked, are often contaminated with pathogens. Internalized pathogens pose a high risk because conventional sanitization methods are ineffective for their inactivation. The studies were performed (i) to understand the potential of internalization of Salmonella in mung bean sprouts under conditions where the irrigation water was contaminated and (ii) to determine if pre- and postharvest intervention methods are effective in inactivating the internalized pathogen. Mung bean sprouts were grown hydroponically and exposed to green fluorescence protein-tagged Salmonella Typhimurium through maturity. One experimental set received contaminated water daily, while other sets received contaminated water on a single day at different times. For preharvest intervention, irrigation water was exposed to UV, and for postharvest intervention-contaminated sprouts were subjected to a chlorine wash and UV light. Harvested samples were disinfected with ethanol and AgNO3 to differentiate surface-associate pathogens from the internalized ones. The internalized Salmonella Typhimurium in each set was quantified using the plate count method. Internalized Salmonella Typhimurium was detected at levels of 2.0 to 5.1 log CFU/g under all conditions. Continuous exposure to contaminated water during the entire period generated significantly higher levels of Salmonella Typhimurium internalization than sets receiving contaminated water for only a single day (P < 0.05). Preintervention methods lowered the level of internalized Salmonella by 1.84 log CFU/g (P < 0.05), whereas postintervention methods were ineffective in eliminating internalized pathogens. Preintervention did not completely inactivate bacteria in sprouts and demonstrated that the remaining Salmonella Typhimurium in water became more resistant to UV. Because postharvest intervention methods are ineffective, proper procedures for maintaining clean irrigation water must be followed

  17. Ames Research Center views of Oats, Slash-Pine and Mung bean seedlings STS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Young oat seedlings are shown in a ground laboratory after being flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-3 in March of 1982. All plants were part of the experimental Plant Growth Unit. They appear to have grown to look similar to the control seedlings on earth. A few small roots can be seen growing upward from the soil (33915); Young slash-pine seedlings are shown upon returning from the STS-3 mission (33916); Mung bean seedlings are shown after their return from space aboard the STS-3 (37917).

  18. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    PubMed Central

    Illakkiam, Devaraj; Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. PMID:25184130

  19. A growth analysis of waterlogging damage in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, M. E.; Vanhoy, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) were grown for 2 weeks in gravel-vermiculite soilless mix in a growth chamber and subjected to a 1-week waterlogging period followed by a 1-week recovery period. Sequential harvests were made to determine the time course of effects of waterlogging and subsequent recovery on growth parameters by techniques of growth analysis. Root dry matter was the first to be affected, along with an increase in leaf dry matter and specific leaf weight. After a 1-week waterlogging period, specific leaf weight had more than doubled in the stressed plants. Leaf area declined in relation to the control plants as did the ratio of root dry matter to shoot dry matter. During the recovery period there was an increase in the dry matter allocation to the roots relative to the shoot. Specific leaf weight fell to control levels although the rate of leaf area elaboration did not increase during this time, suggesting a redistribution of stored assimilates from the leaves. Net assimilation rate increased during the waterlogging period, probably due to a restriction in root metabolism and reduced translocation out of the leaf rather than to an increase in photosynthesis. Net assimilation rate of waterlogged plants was severely reduced compared with control plants during the recovery period. Both relative growth rate and leaf area duration declined during the waterlogging period and declined further subsequent to the waterlogging treatment. The results illustrate the interrelationships between root and shoot carbon budgets in mung bean during response to the stress of waterlogging.

  20. Physicochemical characteristics of high pressure gelatinized mung bean starch during recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenhao; Guo, Hongmei; Wang, Peng; Tian, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wei; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Luo, Qingui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-10-20

    The changes in physicochemical and structural properties of Ultra high pressure (UHP) gelatinized mung bean starch were investigated during 0 to 196h retrogradation process by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). XRD analysis showed that the UHP-gelatinizated granules regenerated its original C-type crystallinity structures after retrogradation. The swelling power and solubility of native starch were increased with the increase in the assay temperatures from 50 to 90°C, while the changing trend of the retrogradated granules was more gradual over entire assay temperatures. In addition, retrogradated granules showed a progressive decrease in the light transmittance and an increase in the amount of resistant starch as the ageing time increased from 0 to 192h. DSC analysis suggested a slight increase in the transition temperatures (To, Tp and Tc) and the retrogradation enthalpy as the storage time increased. In contrast no endothermic transition peak could be observed using DSC after storage of heat-gelatinized mung bean starch gel. PMID:26256204

  1. Possible Role of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Activity of Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 on Symbiosis with Mung Bean and Determinate Nodule Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Sripakdi, Sudarat; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Teaumroong, Neung

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 forms symbiotic interactions with mung bean (Vigna radiata) and contains lrpL-acdS genes, which encode the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of plant ethylene synthesis. Since ethylene interferes with nodule formation in some legumes and plays a role in senescence in plant cells, BL3-enhancing ACC deaminase activity (BL3+) and defective mutant (BL3−) strains were constructed in order to investigate the effects of this enzyme on symbiosis and nodule senescence. Nodulation competitiveness was weaker in BL3− than in the wild-type, but was stronger in BL3+. The inoculation of BL3− into mung bean resulted in less plant growth, a lower nodule dry weight, and smaller nodule number than those in the wild-type, whereas the inoculation of BL3+ had no marked effects. However, similar nitrogenase activity was observed with all treatments; it was strongly detected 3 weeks after the inoculation and gradually declined with time, indicating senescence. The rate of plant nodulation by BL3+ increased in a time-dependent manner. Nodules occupied by BL3− formed smaller symbiosomes, and bacteroid degradation was more prominent than that in the wild-type 7 weeks after the inoculation. Changes in biochemical molecules during nodulation were tracked by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and the results obtained confirmed that aging processes differed in nodules occupied by BL3 and BL3−. This is the first study to show the possible role of ACC deaminase activity in senescence in determinate nodules. Our results suggest that an increase in ACC deaminase activity in this strain does not extend the lifespan of nodules, whereas the lack of this activity may accelerate nodule senescence. PMID:26657304

  2. Effect of Ethephon, Indole Butyric Acid, and Treatment Solution pH on Rooting and on Ethylene Levels within Mung Bean Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Mudge, K W; Swanson, B T

    1978-02-01

    Light-grown mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) cuttings were treated with buffered and nonbuffered solutions of Ethephon, indole butyric acid (IBA), and the combination of both. Ethephon treatment resulted in increased tissue ethylene levels with increasing solution pH, but had no effect on rooting. IBA treatment had no effect on tissue ethylene levels, but strongly promoted rooting. Combinations of Ethephon and IBA had no effect on rooting of mung bean cuttings beyond that obtained by IBA alone. PMID:16660274

  3. Identification of a digalactosyl ononitol from seeds of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Peterbauer, Thomas; Brereton, Ian; Richter, Andreas

    2003-09-10

    A digalactosyl ononitol was isolated from seeds of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis [Willd.] Ohwi et Ohasi). Analysis of hydrolysis products and NMR spectroscopy established its structure as O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-4-O-methyl-D-myo-inositol. PMID:14499579

  4. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  5. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  6. Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Singh, Narpinder; Sharma, Parul; Kaur, Seeratpreet

    2015-12-01

    The effect of xanthan and guar-gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches was studied. Mung bean starch showed the highest amylose content (43.4 %) followed by potato (23.2 %) and corn starch (15.5 %). Potato starch showed the highest swelling power (19.0 g/g) and solubility index (17.5 %) and exhibited the highest paste viscosities. Addition of both gums improved peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity and final viscosity for mung and corn starches; while for potato starch, guar gum increased peak and final viscosities and decreased hot paste viscosity while xanthan gum increased hot paste and final viscosities and decreased peak viscosity. The noodles made from mung bean starch showed the most desirable characteristics in terms of the lowest-cooking loss and adhesiveness. The gums increased noodle cooking time and decreased cooking loss, firmness and cohesiveness. PMID:26604384

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Is a Second Messenger in the Salicylic Acid-Triggered Adventitious Rooting Process in Mung Bean Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Changhua; Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Guijun; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2013-01-01

    In plants, salicylic acid (SA) is a signaling molecule that regulates disease resistance responses, such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypertensive response (HR). SA has been implicated as participating in various biotic and abiotic stresses. This study was conducted to investigate the role of SA in adventitious root formation (ARF) in mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L) hypocotyl cuttings. We observed that hypocotyl treatment with SA could significantly promote the adventitious root formation, and its effects were dose and time dependent. Explants treated with SA displayed a 130% increase in adventitious root number compared with control seedlings. The role of SA in mung bean hypocotyl ARF as well as its interaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also elucidated. Pretreatment of mung bean explants with N, N’-dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger for H2O2, resulted in a significant reduction of SA-induced ARF. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a specific inhibitor of membrane-linked NADPH oxidase, also inhibited the effect of adventitious rooting triggered by SA treatment. The determination of the endogenous H2O2 level indicated that the seedlings treated with SA could induce H2O2 accumulation compared with the control treatment. Our results revealed a distinctive role of SA in the promotion of adventitious rooting via the process of H2O2 accumulation. This conclusion was further supported by antioxidant enzyme activity assays. Based on these results, we conclude that the accumulation of free H2O2 might be a downstream event in response to SA-triggered adventitious root formation in mung bean seedlings. PMID:24386397

  8. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts. PMID:19343955

  9. Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Combined to Test Models for Cellulose Microfibrils in Mung Bean Cell Walls1

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Roger H.; Hill, Stefan J.; Harris, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    A synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering study of mung bean (Vigna radiata) primary cell walls was combined with published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data to test models for packing of (1→4)-β-glucan chains in cellulose microfibrils. Computer-simulated peak shapes, calculated for 36-chain microfibrils with perfect order or uncorrelated disorder, were sharper than those in the experimental diffractogram. Introducing correlated disorder into the models broaden the simulated peaks but only when the disorder was increased to unrealistic magnitudes. Computer-simulated diffractograms, calculated for 24- and 18-chain models, showed good fits to experimental data. Particularly good fits to both x-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance data were obtained for collections of 18-chain models with mixed cross-sectional shapes and occasional twinning. Synthesis of 18-chain microfibrils is consistent with a model for cellulose-synthesizing complexes in which three cellulose synthase polypeptides form a particle and six particles form a rosette. PMID:24154621

  10. Comparisons of the effects of a foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag on postural stability disturbance in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unstable support surfaces, i.e. foam pad, mung bean bag, and plastic bead bag, on postural stability disturbance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy young adults (11 male and 11 female; aged 21.09 ± 1.44 years; BMI 20.40 ± 1.40 kg/m2) participated in the study. The Balance Master™ was used to evaluate the limit of stability and the unilateral stance performance. Each participant was assessed while standing on the following surfaces: 1) a firm surface, 2) a foam pad, 3) a mung bean bag, and 4) a plastic bead bag. The order of surfaces was randomly assigned. [Results] The mung bean bag and plastic bead bag showed greater disturbances in limit of stability and unilateral stance than the foam pad. There was no significant difference in postural stability disturbance between the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag. [Conclusion] These results suggested that both the mung bean bag and plastic bead bag could be used as a low-cost tool for balance assessment instead of a foam pad in healthy young adults. PMID:27065085

  11. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-03-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  12. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  13. Amide-conjugated indole-3-acetic acid and adventitious root formation in mung bean cuttings

    SciTech Connect

    Norcini, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate further the relationship between amide-conjugated auxin and adventitious root formation. Indoleacetylaspartic acid (IAA-aspartate) was positively identified as the predominant conjugate isolated from mung bean cuttings after the cuttings has been treated with 10/sup -3/ M IAA. In cuttings treated with (1-/sup 14/C)IAA immediately after excision (0 hr), the percent of extractable /sup 14/C in IAA-aspartate in the hypocotyl sharply increased until 36 hr, then steadily declined. (/sup 14/C)IAA was completely metabolized between 12 and 24 hr. The rooting activities of IAA-L-aspartate, IAA-L-alanine, and IAA-glycine were determined at various stages of root formation; some cuttings were pretreated with 10/sup -3/ M IAA at 0 hr. Pretreated cuttings that were treated with IAA-glycine at 12, 24, 36 hr exhibited the greatest consistency between replications, the greatest number of long roots, and the longest roots. The conjugates did not stimulate rooting as effectively as IAA, yet like IAA, generally enhanced rooting the greatest when applied before the first cell division (24 hr).

  14. Characterization of the structure and DNA complexity of mung bean mitochondrial nucleoids.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Hsiao, Lin-June; Cheng, Ning; Litvinchuk, Alexandra; Dai, Hwa

    2011-03-01

    Electron microscopic images of mitochondrial nucleoids isolated from mung bean seedlings revealed a relatively homogeneous population of particles, each consisting of a chromatin-like structure associated with a membrane component. Association of F-actin with mitochondrial nucleoids was also observed. The mitochondrial nucleoid structure identified in situ showed heterogeneous genomic organization. After pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), a large proportion of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA remained in the well, whereas the rest migrated as a 50-200 kb smear zone. This PFGE migration pattern was not affected by high salt, topoisomerase I or latrunculin B treatments; however, the mobility of a fraction of the fast-moving DNA decreased conspicuously following an in-gel ethidium-enhanced UV-irradiation treatment, suggesting that molecules with intricately compact structures were present in the 50-200 kb region. Approximately 70% of the mitochondrial nucleoid DNA molecules examined via electron microscopy were open circles, supercoils, complex forms, and linear molecules with interspersed sigma-shaped structures and/or loops. Increased sensitivity of mtDNA to DNase I was found after mitochondrial nucleoids were pretreated with high salt. This result indicates that some loosely bound or peripheral DNA binding proteins protected the mtDNA from DNase I degradation. PMID:21347700

  15. PCNA interacts with Indian mung bean yellow mosaic virus rep and downregulates Rep activity.

    PubMed

    Bagewadi, Basavaraj; Chen, Shoajiang; Lal, Sunil K; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Mukherjee, Sunil K

    2004-11-01

    Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a conserved plant protein as well as an important replication factor, is induced in response to geminivirus infection in the resting cells of the phloem tissues. The biochemical role of PCNA in rolling circle replication (RCR) of geminivirus DNA has not been explored in detail. The initiation of RCR of the bipartite genome of a geminivirus, Indian mung bean yellow mosaic virus (IMYMV), is mainly controlled by viral protein Rep (or AL1 or AC1). The role of host PCNA in RCR of IMYMV was revealed by studying the physical and functional interactions between recombinant PCNA and recombinant IMYMV Rep. Pea nuclear PCNA as well as recombinant pea PCNA showed binding to recombinant Rep in experiments involving both affinity chromatography and yeast two-hybrid approaches. The contacting amino acid residues of PCNA seemed to be present throughout a wide region of the trimeric protein, while those of Rep appeared to be localized only in the middle part of the protein. The site-specific nicking-closing activity and the ATPase function of IMYMV Rep were impaired by PCNA. These observations lead to interesting speculations about the control of viral RCR and dynamic profiles of protein-protein interactions at the RCR origin of the geminiviruses. PMID:15479830

  16. Effect of the Defoliant Thidiazuron on Ethylene Evolution from Mung Bean Hypocotyl Segments

    PubMed Central

    Suttle, Jeffrey C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on ethylene evolution from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments was examined. Treatment of hypocotyl segments with concentrations of thidiazuron equal to or greater than 30 nanomolar stimulated ethylene evolution. Increased rates of ethylene evolution from thidiazuron-treated tissues could be detected within 90 minutes of treatment and persisted up to 30 hours after treatment. Radioactive methionine was readily taken up by thidiazuron-treated tissues and was converted to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and an acidic conjugate of ACC. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, cobalt chloride, and α-aminoisobutyric acid reduced ethylene evolution from treated tissues. An increase in the endogenous content of free ACC coincided with the increase in ethylene evolution following thidiazuron treatment. Uptake and conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene were not affected by thidiazuron treatment. No increases in the extractable activities of ACC synthase were detected following thidiazuron treatment. PMID:16663757

  17. Effect of the defoliant thidiazuron on ethylene evolution from mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    PubMed

    Suttle, J C

    1984-08-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on ethylene evolution from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments was examined. Treatment of hypocotyl segments with concentrations of thidiazuron equal to or greater than 30 nanomolar stimulated ethylene evolution. Increased rates of ethylene evolution from thidiazuron-treated tissues could be detected within 90 minutes of treatment and persisted up to 30 hours after treatment. Radioactive methionine was readily taken up by thidiazuron-treated tissues and was converted to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and an acidic conjugate of ACC. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, cobalt chloride, and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid reduced ethylene evolution from treated tissues. An increase in the endogenous content of free ACC coincided with the increase in ethylene evolution following thidiazuron treatment. Uptake and conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene were not affected by thidiazuron treatment. No increases in the extractable activities of ACC synthase were detected following thidiazuron treatment. PMID:16663757

  18. Growth of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella cells on mung bean sprouts in different commercial enrichment broths.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; D'Souza, Craig; Yang, Yishan; Heo, Da-Jeong; Kim, Si-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-12-01

    The ability of nine commercial broths to enrich healthy and 90% sanitizer-injured Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella cocktail on mung bean sprouts was evaluated to select an optimum broth for detection. Results showed that S. Typhimurium multiplied faster and reached a higher population in buffered peptone water (BPW), Salmonella AD media (AD) and ONE broth-Salmonella (OB), compared with other broths. Healthy and 90% sanitizer-injured Salmonella at low concentrations increased by 4.0 log CFU/ml in these three broths. However, no Salmonella growth was observed in lactose broth (LB). Further investigation showed that during incubation, pH of LB dropped from 6.7 to 4.2, due to production of lactic (66 mM) and acetic acids (62 mM) by lactic acid bacteria that were identified as dominant microbiota in bean sprouts. Though no cell membrane damage was detected by propidium monoazide combined with real-time PCR, it was found that LB inhibited Salmonella growth, especially from low inoculum levels. This study suggests that in consideration of effectiveness and cost, BPW would be a suitable enrichment broth to use for isolating and detecting Salmonella on mung bean sprouts, while using LB might cause false negative results in Salmonella detection by either PCR or standard cultural method. PMID:26338131

  19. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  20. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8. PMID:27239343

  1. Quantification of the In Vitro Radiosensitivity of Mung Bean Sprout Elongation to 6MV X-Ray: A Revised Target Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tzu Hwei; Kittipayak, Samrit; Lin, Yu Ting; Lin, Cheng Hsun; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a revised target model for quantifying the in vitro radiosensitivity of mung bean sprout elongation to 6-MV X-rays was developed. The revised target model, which incorporated the Poisson prediction for a low probability of success, provided theoretical estimates that were highly consistent with the actual data measured in this study. The revised target model correlated different in vitro radiosensitivities to various effective target volumes and was successfully confirmed by exposing mung beans in various elongation states to various doses of 6-MV X-rays. For the experiment, 5,000 fresh mung beans were randomly distributed into 100 petri dishes, which were randomly divided into ten groups. Each group received an initial watering at a different time point prior to X-ray exposure, resulting in different effective target volumes. The bean sprouts were measured 70 hr after X-ray exposure, and the average length of the bean sprouts in each group was recorded as an index of the mung bean in vitro radiosensitivity. Mung beans that received an initial watering either six or sixteen hours before X-ray exposure had the shortest sprout length, indicating that the maximum effective target volume was formed within that specific time period. The revised target model could be also expanded to interpret the “two-hit” model of target theory, although the experimental data supported the “one-hit” model. If the “two-hit” model was sustained, theoretically, the target size would be 2.14 times larger than its original size to produce the same results. PMID:26053016

  2. Enhancing the Mobilization of Native Phosphorus in the Mung Bean Rhizosphere Using ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Soil Fungi.

    PubMed

    Raliya, Ramesh; Tarafdar, Jagadish Chandra; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-04-27

    Phosphorus (P) is a limiting factor to plant growth and productivity in almost half of the world's arable soil, and its uptake in plants is often constrained because of its low solubility in the soil. To avoid repeated and large quantity application of rock phosphate as a P fertilizer and enhance the availability of native P acquisition by the plant root surface, in this study a biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticle was used. Zn acts as a cofactor for P-solubilizing enzymes such as phosphatase and phytase, and nano ZnO increased their activity between 84 and 108%. The level of resultant P uptake in mung bean increased by 10.8%. In addition, biosynthesized ZnO also improves plant phenology such as stem height, root volume, and biochemical indicators such as leaf protein and chlorophyll contents. In the rhizosphere, increased chlorophyll content and root volume attract microbial populations that maintain soil biological health. ICP-MS results showed ZnO nanoparticles were distributed in all plant parts, including seeds. However, the concentration of Zn was within the limit of the dietary recommendation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first holistic study focusing on native P mobilization using ZnO nanoparticles in the life cycle of mung bean plants. PMID:27054413

  3. Microbial diversity analysis of fermented mung beans (Lu-Doh-Huang) by using pyrosequencing and culture methods.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Yang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Kang, Ya-Huei; Watanabe, Koichi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwanese alternative medicine Lu-doh-huang (also called Pracparatum mungo), mung beans are mixed with various herbal medicines and undergo a 4-stage process of anaerobic fermentation. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to profile the bacterial community structure of Lu-doh-huang samples. Pyrosequencing of samples obtained at 7 points during fermentation revealed 9 phyla, 264 genera, and 586 species of bacteria. While mung beans were inside bamboo sections (stages 1 and 2 of the fermentation process), family Lactobacillaceae and genus Lactobacillus emerged in highest abundance; Lactobacillus plantarum was broadly distributed among these samples. During stage 3, the bacterial distribution shifted to family Porphyromonadaceae, and Butyricimonas virosa became the predominant microbial component. Thereafter, bacterial counts decreased dramatically, and organisms were too few to be detected during stage 4. In addition, the microbial compositions of the liquids used for soaking bamboo sections were dramatically different: Exiguobacterium mexicanum predominated in the fermented soybean solution whereas B. virosa was predominant in running spring water. Furthermore, our results from pyrosequencing paralleled those we obtained by using the traditional culture method, which targets lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, the microbial communities during Lu-doh-huang fermentation were markedly diverse, and pyrosequencing revealed a complete picture of the microbial consortium. PMID:23700436

  4. Microbial Diversity Analysis of Fermented Mung Beans (Lu-Doh-Huang) by Using Pyrosequencing and Culture Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Yang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Wei-Shen; Kang, Ya-Huei; Watanabe, Koichi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    In Taiwanese alternative medicine Lu-doh-huang (also called Pracparatum mungo), mung beans are mixed with various herbal medicines and undergo a 4-stage process of anaerobic fermentation. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to profile the bacterial community structure of Lu-doh-huang samples. Pyrosequencing of samples obtained at 7 points during fermentation revealed 9 phyla, 264 genera, and 586 species of bacteria. While mung beans were inside bamboo sections (stages 1 and 2 of the fermentation process), family Lactobacillaceae and genus Lactobacillus emerged in highest abundance; Lactobacillus plantarum was broadly distributed among these samples. During stage 3, the bacterial distribution shifted to family Porphyromonadaceae, and Butyricimonas virosa became the predominant microbial component. Thereafter, bacterial counts decreased dramatically, and organisms were too few to be detected during stage 4. In addition, the microbial compositions of the liquids used for soaking bamboo sections were dramatically different: Exiguobacterium mexicanum predominated in the fermented soybean solution whereas B. virosa was predominant in running spring water. Furthermore, our results from pyrosequencing paralleled those we obtained by using the traditional culture method, which targets lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, the microbial communities during Lu-doh-huang fermentation were markedly diverse, and pyrosequencing revealed a complete picture of the microbial consortium. PMID:23700436

  5. Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Extruded Instant Functional Rice Porridge Powder as Affected by the Addition of Soybean or Mung Bean.

    PubMed

    Mayachiew, Pornpimon; Charunuch, Chulaluck; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-12-01

    Legumes contain protein, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds, which provide various health benefits. In this study, soybean or mung bean was mixed in rice flour to produce by extrusion instant functional legume-rice porridge powder. The effects of the type and percentage (10%, 20%, or 30%, w/w) of legumes on the expansion ratio of the extrudates were first evaluated. Amino acid composition, color, and selected physicochemical (bulk density, water absorption index, and water solubility index), thermal (onset temperature, peak temperature, and transition enthalpy), and pasting (peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity) properties of the powder were determined. The crystalline structure and formation of amylose-lipid complexes and the total phenolics content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the powder were also measured. Soybean-blended porridge powder exhibited higher TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, amino acid, and fat contents than the mung bean-blended porridge powder. Incorporating either legume affected the product properties by decreasing the lightness and bulk density, while increasing the greenness and yellowness and the peak temperature and transition enthalpy. Expansion capacity of the extrudates increased with percentage of mung bean in the mixture but decreased as the percentage of soybean increased. Amylose-lipid complexes formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis results. Addition of soybean or mung bean resulted in significant pasting property changes of the porridge powder. PMID:26523755

  6. The switching of electron flux from the cyanide-insensitive oxidase to the cytochrome pathway in mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S B

    1988-01-01

    The activities of the mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus L.) mitochondrial cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cytochrome pathways have been measured simultaneously. The results show that electrons can be diverted both from the alternative pathway to the cytochrome pathway and from the cytochrome to the alternative pathway. The competition of the two pathways for the available electron flux is discussed. PMID:3342013

  7. Dielectric properties of cowpea weevil, black eyed peas and mung beans with respect to the development of radio frequency heat treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In developing radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) disinfestation treatments for chickpeas and lentils, large amounts of product infested with cowpea weevil must be treated to validate treatment efficacy. To accomplish this, black-eyed peas and mung beans are being considered for use as surrogate...

  8. Regiospecific Profiles of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Tomiyama, Yuka; Yoshida, Naoko; Shibata, Kyoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Regiospecific distributions of fatty acids (FA) of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) isolated from five cultivars of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) were investigated. The lipids comprised mainly PL (72.2-73.4 wt-%) and TAG (20.6-21.9 wt-%), whilst other components were detected in minor proportions (0.1-3.4 wt-%). The principal profiles of the FA distribution in the TAG and PL were evident in the beans among the five cultivars: unsaturated FA were predominantly distributed in the sn-2 position, whilst saturated FA primarily occupied the sn-1 or the sn-3 position in the these lipids. The results would be useful information to both producers and consumers for manufacturing traditional adzuki confectionaries such as wagashi in Japan. PMID:22253991

  9. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  10. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  11. Mining SNPs and Indels in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) by Ecotilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecotilling is a powerful genetic analysis tool. It can provide rapid identification of naturally occurring Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertion/deletions (indels) in a pool of accessions for a gene of interest. This technique eliminates the time consuming and expensive proced...

  12. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka. PMID:27441212

  13. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA. PMID:27112006

  14. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. PMID:26644460

  15. Characterization and Rooting Ability of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Conjugates Formed during Rooting of Mung Bean Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Wiesman, Z; Riov, J; Epstein, E

    1989-11-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is rapidly metabolized by mung bean cuttings during rooting. Twenty-four hours after application, less than 20% of the applied IBA remained in the free form and its level decreased continuously in the later stages of rooting. Indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid (IBAsp) and at least two high molecular weight conjugates were the major metabolites in IBA-treated cuttings. In the latter conjugates, at least part of the IBA moiety is attached to a high molecular weight constituent in an amide linkage. IBAsp level peaked 24 hours after application of IBA to the cuttings and then declined. The level of the high molecular weight conjugates increased continuously throughout the rooting process. The conjugates were active in inducing rooting of cuttings, with IBAsp being superior to free IBA. It is suggested that IBA conjugates, and particularly IBAsp, serve as the source of auxin during the later stages of rooting. PMID:16667115

  16. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval till end of shelf life. Different treatments given to sprouts resulted in differential effect on various parameters. The ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity were highest in ethanol vapours treated sprouts. There was a general decrease in polyphenol oxidase activity by various treatments. During storage ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of sprouts first increased and then decreased significantly, however, for polyphenol oxidase activity a progressive increase with increase in storage period was observed. The trends were similar at room and low temperature storage conditions. Thus, it can be concluded that the ethanol vapours significantly improved the ascorbic acid content, total phenols and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts, both at room as well as low temperature conditions of storage. PMID:24741164

  17. Control of Salmonella on sprouting mung bean and alfalfa seeds by using a biocontrol preparation based on antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxiong; Kostrzynska, Magdalaena; Dunfield, Kari; Warriner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the application of a combination of antagonistic bacteria and lytic bacteriophages to control the growth of Salmonella on sprouting mung beans and alfalfa seeds. Antagonistic bacteria were isolated from mung bean sprouts and tomatoes by using the deferred plate assay to assess anti-Salmonella activity. From the isolates screened, an Enterobacter asburiae strain (labeled "JX1") exhibited stable antagonistic activity against a broad range of Salmonella serovars (Agona, Berta, Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, Javiana, Montevideo, Muenchen, Newport, Saint Paul, and Typhimurium). Lytic bacteriophages against Salmonella were isolated from pig or cattle manure effluent. A bacteriophage cocktail prepared from six isolates was coinoculated with E. asburiae JX1 along with Salmonella in broth culture. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophage cocktail reduced the levels of Salmonella by 5.7 to 6.4 log CFU/ml. Mung beans inoculated with Salmonella and sprouted over a 4-day period attained levels of 6.72 + or - 0.78 log CFU/g. In contrast, levels of Salmonella were reduced to 3.31 + or - 2.48 or 1.16 + or - 2.14 log CFU/g when the pathogen was coinoculated with bacteriophages or E. asburiae JX1, respectively. However, by using a combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages, the levels of Salmonella associated with mung bean sprouts were only detected by enrichment. The biocontrol preparation was effective at controlling the growth of Salmonella under a range of sprouting temperatures (20 to 30 degrees Celsius) and was equally effective at suppressing the growth of Salmonella on sprouting alfalfa seeds. The combination of E. asburiae JX1 and bacteriophages represents a promising, chemical-free approach for controlling the growth of Salmonella on sprouting seeds. PMID:20051198

  18. Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and UV-B Absorbing Compounds in Mung Bean Using UV-B and Red LED Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang-Min; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Yue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mung bean has been reported to have antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. Various factors have important effects on the types and contents of plant chemical components. In order to study quality of mung bean from different light sources, mung bean seedlings were exposed to red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and ultraviolet-B (UV-B). Changes in the growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and the content of UV-B absorbing compounds were measured. The results showed that photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations were enhanced by red LEDs. The concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced by UV-B on the 20th day, while photosynthetic characteristics, plant length, and the concentrations of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b were reduced by UV-B on the 40th day; at the same time the values of the stem diameter, plant fresh weight, dry weight, and the concentrations of UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced. It is suggested that red LEDs promote the elongation of plant root growth and photosynthetic characteristics, while UV-B promotes horizontal growth of stems and the synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds. PMID:24678424

  19. Repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments for the inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mung bean and radish seeds.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Latiful; Sugiyama, Jun; Kawamoto, Shinnichi

    2009-01-01

    The majority of the seed sprout-related outbreaks have been associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective method to inactivate these organisms on the seeds prior to sprouting. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments with various chemicals to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 populations inoculated onto mung bean and radish seeds intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. The treatment time was 20 sec for quick hot and 20 sec for quick chilling in one repeat. Likewise up to five repeats were done throughout the experiments. The chemicals used for this study were electrolyzed acidic (EO) water, phytic acid (0.05%), oxalic acid (3%), surfcera(R), and alpha-torino water(R), and distilled water was used as control. The quick hot treatment was done with 75 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 60 degrees C, and the chilling temperature was 0 degrees C. The treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of this treatment in reducing populations of the pathogens and the effects of repeated quick hot-and-chilling treatments on germination yield. It was found that repeating treatment at 75 degrees C for two or three repeats with phytic acid and oxalic acid could reduce 4.38-log colony-forming unit (CFU)/g of E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. EO water and distilled water were found equally effective at 75 degrees C for four or five repeats to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in mung bean seeds. However, alpha-torino water(R) and surfcera(R) were not found effective in comparison to other sanitizers used in this experiment. Irrespective of sanitizer used, the germination yield of the mung bean seed was not affected significantly. On the other hand, distilled water, EO water, and alpha-torino water(R) at 75 degrees C for five repeats were found effective in reducing 5.80-log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in radish seeds; however, the

  20. Reconstructed mung bean trypsin inhibitor targeting cell surface GRP78 induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongwei; Zhao, Chao; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Yarui; Shan, Shuhua; Shi, Tonglin; Li, Jianguo

    2014-02-01

    Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) has been reported to be present on cell membranes of cancer cells but not the normal cells, serving as a potential anti-cancer target. In the present study, a fusion protein containing the GRP78 binding peptide WIFPWIQL and the active fragment of mung bean trypsin inhibitor was constructed, and its targeted anti-tumor effects were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the fusion protein specifically inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells but not in the normal cells. Mechanistically, these anti-tumor effects were attributed to induction of G1 phase arrest and activation of multiple apoptotic pathways. Importantly, the fusion protein could also suppress the growth of xenografted human colorectal carcinoma in vivo. Our study reveals that this fusion protein may be developed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of colon cancer, and holds important implications for developing other anti-cancer peptide drugs. PMID:24333163

  1. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  3. Genome sequencing of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) provides insight into high starch and low fat accumulation and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhixi; Chen, Chunhai; Luo, Longhai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Li, Yisong; Sun, Yudong; Li, Weiyu; Chen, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yueyang; Ai, Danjiao; Zhao, Jinyang; Shang, Cheng; Ma, Yong; Wu, Bin; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Li; Sun, Dongjing; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jinlong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hong-Qing; Wan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), an important legume crop, is grown in more than 30 countries of the world. The seed of adzuki bean, as an important source of starch, digestible protein, mineral elements, and vitamins, is widely used foods for at least a billion people. Here, we generated a high-quality draft genome sequence of adzuki bean by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled contig sequences reached to 450 Mb (83% of the genome) with an N50 of 38 kb, and the total scaffold sequences were 466.7 Mb with an N50 of 1.29 Mb. Of them, 372.9 Mb of scaffold sequences were assigned to the 11 chromosomes of adzuki bean by using a single nucleotide polymorphism genetic map. A total of 34,183 protein-coding genes were predicted. Functional analysis revealed that significant differences in starch and fat content between adzuki bean and soybean were likely due to transcriptional abundance, rather than copy number variations, of the genes related to starch and oil synthesis. We detected strong selection signals in domestication by the population analysis of 50 accessions including 11 wild, 11 semiwild, 17 landraces, and 11 improved varieties. In addition, the semiwild accessions were illuminated to have a closer relationship to the cultigen accessions than the wild type, suggesting that the semiwild adzuki bean might be a preliminary landrace and play some roles in the adzuki bean domestication. The genome sequence of adzuki bean will facilitate the identification of agronomically important genes and accelerate the improvement of adzuki bean. PMID:26460024

  4. Evaluation of real-time PCR coupled with immunomagnetic separation or centrifugation for the detection of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qianwang; Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yang, Yishan; Lee, Sang-Myun; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-04-01

    Fresh mung bean sprouts have been identified as a source of many Salmonella outbreaks worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate detection methodology for low levels of healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts using real-time PCR coupled with either immunomagnetic separation (PCR-IMS) or centrifugation (PCR-cen). Initially, three parameters of IMS; specificity/sensitivity, bacterial concentration and bead incubation time were optimized. Secondly, limit of detection (LOD) was determined for the optimized PCR-IMS and PCR-cen. These two methods were compared against PCR alone (PCR) and the standard culture method (ISO) for their ability to detect Salmonella using inoculated and uninoculated sprouts. Under optimum IMS conditions (10(5)CFU/ml for 30 min), capture efficiency of Salmonella in sprout suspensions was lower than 40%, most probably due to the non-specific binding of the background microbiota. PCR-IMS and PCR-cen had a similar LOD at 10(3)CFU/ml, which was one log unit lower than PCR. Enrichment of 10h was sufficient to detect 100% of the inoculated sprouts with both PCR-IMS and PCR-cen, which was significantly faster compared to PCR and the ISO method. Moreover, the validation study using uninoculated sprouts revealed that PCR-IMS and PCR-cen were equally effective on Salmonella detection, showing 98.3% accuracy. These results suggest that PCR-cen would be the effective and less costly method for the detection of both healthy and sanitizer-injured Salmonella on mung bean sprouts. PMID:26848949

  5. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L.) Based on Transcriptome Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Chen, Xin; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Zhenxing; Hao, Xiyu; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Liya; Yin, Fengxiang; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 9,301 (23.5%) were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%), AAG/CTT (8.1%) and AGAA/TTCT (20.0%) are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species. PMID:26950544

  6. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. PMID:25952846

  7. Inactivation of escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella on mung beans, alfalfa, and other seed types destined for sprout production by using an oxychloro-based sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M; Hora, R; Kostrzynska, M; Waites, W M; Warriner, K

    2006-07-01

    The efficacy of a stabilized oxychloro-based food grade sanitizer to decontaminate seeds destined for sprout production has been evaluated. By using mung bean seeds as a model system, it was demonstrated that the sanitizer could be used to inactivate a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella introduced onto beans at 10(3) to 10(4) CFU/g. Salmonella was more tolerant to stabilized oxychloro than was E. coli O157:H7, with sanitizer levels of >150 and >50 ppm, respectively, being required to ensure pathogen-free sprouts. The decontamination efficacy was also found to be dependent on treatment time (>8 h optimal) and the seed-to-sanitizer ratio (>1:4 optimal). Stabilized oxychloro treatment did not exhibit phytotoxic effects, as germination and sprout yields were not significantly (P > 0.05) different as compared with untreated controls. Although human pathogens could be effectively eliminated from mung beans, the aerobic plate count of native microflora on sprouts grown from treated seed was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the controls. The diversity of microbial populations (determined through 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) associated with bean sprouts was not significantly affected by the sanitizer treatment. However, it was noted that Klebsiella and Herbasprillum (both common plant endophytes) were absent in sprouts derived from decontaminated seed but were present in control sprouts. When a further range of seed types was evaluated, it was found that alfalfa, cress, flax, and soybean could be decontaminated with the stabilized oxychloro sanitizer. However, the decontamination efficacy with other seed types was less consistent. It appears that the rate of seed germination and putative activity of sanitizer sequestering system(s), in addition to other factors, may limit the efficacy of the decontamination method. PMID:16865888

  8. Effect of several germination treatments on phosphatases activities and degradation of phytate in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuwei; Xie, Weihua; Luo, Fengxia

    2012-10-01

    Two assays were conducted to investigate the changes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and azuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) phosphatases (phytase [Phy] and acid phosphatase [AcPh]) and the degradation of its substrates (inositol phosphate esters) during seed germination. The 1st assay was to establish the optimal germination conditions of faba bean and azuki bean to improve the endogenous phosphatases and increase the hydrolysis of phytate and, in the second assay, to determine the different lower phosphate esters of myo-inositol produced during the germination process. In the 1st assay, seeds were soaked for 12 and 24 h and germinated for 3 and 5 d with and without the addition of gibberellic acid (GA(3) ). In the second assay, seeds were soaked for 12 h and germinated for 1, 3, and 5 d with GA(3) . Phy (up to 3625 and 1340 U/kg) and AcPh (up to 9456 and 2740 U/g) activities, and inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) (8.23 and 7.46 mg/g), inositol pentaphosphate (IP5) (0.55 and 0.82 mg/g), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4) (0.26 and 0.01 mg/g) were detected in ungerminated faba bean and azuki bean, respectively. The germination process caused a significant increase of Phy and AcPh activities in faba bean (up to 147% and 210%) and azuki bean (up to 211% and 596%) and a reduction in the phytate phosphorus content (up to 81% and 63%, respectively). Phytate phosphorus content was affected only by soaking time in the case of faba bean. Finally, during the course of germination, IP6 and IP5 were rapidly degraded in faba bean (88% and 39%) and azuki bean (55% and 56%), and IP4 was only a short-living intermediate, which was increased during hydrolysis and degraded to inositol triphosphate. In this manner we could obtain a low-phytate, endogenous phosphatase-rich ingredient for enhancing human nutrition. PMID:22938099

  9. Effects of different media on the enrichment of low numbers of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in mung bean sprouts and on the development of the sprout microbiome.

    PubMed

    Margot, H; Tasara, T; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; Stephan, R

    2016-09-01

    Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in media only grew to levels of around 4logcfu/ml during enrichment, which could reduce the probability of detection. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum detected within the microbiome of non-enriched mung bean sprouts. During enrichment in EE-broth, Proteobacteria remained the most abundant phylum. In contrast, during enrichment in BPW the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased whereas Firmicutes increased when compared to the non-enriched mung bean sprout microbiome. The microbiome composition was not significantly influenced by the incubation temperature during enrichment in both BPW and EE-broth. This is the first study to examine the microbiome on sprouted mung bean seeds during BPW and EE enrichment and relates the bacterial community composition changes to the enrichment of pathogens. PMID:27240217

  10. De Novo Characterization of the Mung Bean Transcriptome and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adventitious Rooting in Seedlings Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Weng; Shi, Rui-Fang; Leng, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Adventitious rooting is the most important mechanism underlying vegetative propagation and an important strategy for plant propagation under environmental stress. The present study was conducted to obtain transcriptomic data and examine gene expression using RNA-Seq and bioinformatics analysis, thereby providing a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling adventitious rooting. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA samples from mung bean hypocotyls during adventitious rooting were sequenced. These three samples generated a total of 73 million, 60 million, and 59 million 100-bp reads, respectively. These reads were assembled into 78,697 unigenes with an average length of 832 bp, totaling 65 Mb. The unigenes were aligned against six public protein databases, and 29,029 unigenes (36.77%) were annotated using BLASTx. Among them, 28,225 (35.75%) and 28,119 (35.62%) unigenes had homologs in the TrEMBL and NCBI non-redundant (Nr) databases, respectively. Of these unigenes, 21,140 were assigned to gene ontology classes, and a total of 11,990 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG functional categories. A total of 7,357 unigenes were annotated to 4,524 KOs, and 4,651 unigenes were mapped onto 342 KEGG pathways using BLAST comparison against the KEGG database. A total of 11,717 unigenes were differentially expressed (fold change>2) during the root induction stage, with 8,772 unigenes down-regulated and 2,945 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 12,737 unigenes were differentially expressed during the root initiation stage, with 9,303 unigenes down-regulated and 3,434 unigenes up-regulated. A total of 5,334 unigenes were differentially expressed between the root induction and initiation stage, with 2,167 unigenes down-regulated and 3,167 unigenes up-regulated. qRT-PCR validation of the 39 genes with known functions indicated a strong correlation (92.3%) with the RNA-Seq data. The GO enrichment, pathway mapping, and gene expression profiles reveal

  11. Development of Combined Dry Heat and Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment with Mechanical Mixing for Inactivation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo on Mung Bean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Annous, Bassam A; Burke, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh sprouted beans. The sprouting conditions of mung bean seeds provide optimal conditions of temperature and relative humidity for any potential pathogenic contaminant on the seeds to grow. The lack of a kill step postsprouting is a major safety concern. Thus, the use of a kill step on the seeds prior to a sprouting step would enhance the safety of fresh sprouts. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined thermal and chlorine dioxide gas (3.5 mg/liter of air) treatment with mechanical mixing (tumbling) to eliminate Salmonella on artificially inoculated mung bean seeds. Although no viable Salmonella was recovered from seeds treated in hot water at 60°C for 2 h, these treated seeds failed to germinate. Dry heat treatments (55, 60, or 70°C) for up to 8 h reduced Salmonella populations in excess of 3 log CFU/g. The use of tumbling, while treating the seeds, resulted in up to 1.6 log CFU/g reduction in Salmonella populations compared with no tumbling. Dry heat treatment at 65°C for 18 h with tumbling resulted in a complete inactivation of Salmonella populations on inoculated seeds with low inoculum levels (2.83 log CFU/g) as compared with high inoculum levels (4.75 log CFU/g). The increased reductions in pathogenic populations on the seeds with the use of tumbling could be attributed to increased uniformity of heat transfer and exposure to chlorine dioxide gas. All treated seeds were capable of germinating, as well as the nontreated controls. These results suggest that this combined treatment would be a viable process for enhancing the safety of fresh sprouts. PMID:25951379

  12. Effectiveness of a novel spontaneous carvacrol nanoemulsion against Salmonella enterica Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds.

    PubMed

    Landry, Kyle S; Chang, Yuhua; McClements, David Julian; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2014-09-18

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness from consumption of sprouts have been linked to contaminated seeds prior to germination. Due to the long sprouting period at ambient temperatures and high humidity, germinating seeds contaminated with low pathogen levels (0.1logCFU/g) can result in sprouts with high numbers (≥10(8)CFU/g) of pathogens. Currently, the recommended treatment method involves soaking seeds in 20,000ppm (2%) calcium hypochlorite prior to germination. In this study, an alternative treatment involving soaking seeds in a carvacrol nanoemulsion was tested for its efficacy against Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis (ATCC BAA-1045) or EGFP expressing E. coli O157:H7 (ATCC 42895) contaminated mung bean and alfalfa seeds. The antimicrobial treatment was performed by soaking inoculated seed batches in the spontaneous nanoemulsion (4000 or 8000ppm) for 30 or 60min. The spontaneous nanoemulsion was formed by titrating the oil phase (carvacrol and medium chain triglycerides) and water-soluble surfactant (Tween 80®) into sodium citrate buffer. Following treatment, the numbers of surviving cells were determined by suspending the seeds in TSB and performing plate counts and/or Most Probable Number (MPN) enumeration. Treated seeds were sprouted and tested for the presence of the appropriate pathogen. This treatment successfully inactivated low levels (2 and 3logCFU/g) of S. Enteritidis and E. coli on either seed types when soaked for either 30 or 60min at nanoemulsion concentrations corresponding to 4000 (0.4%) or 8000 (0.8%) ppm carvacrol. Inoculated alfalfa seeds treated with 4000ppm nanoemulsion, required a 60min treatment time to show a similar 2-3 log reduction. Complete inactivation was confirmed by germinating treated seeds and performing microbiological testing. Total sprout yield was not compromised by any of the tested treatments. These results show that carvacrol nanoemulsions may be an alternative antimicrobial treatment method for

  13. Efficacy of chlorine and peroxyacetic acid on reduction of natural microflora, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocyotgenes and Salmonella spp. on mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Neo, Shan Yu; Lim, Pei Yan; Phua, Li Kai; Khoo, Gek Hoon; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-12-01

    Sprouts-related outbreaks have risen due to increased raw sprouts consumption. To minimize such cases, chemical sanitations are applied. While chlorine is commonly used, concerns with its effectiveness and health implication have prompted researchers to seek alternatives. Peroxyacetic acid (PAA) has shown efficacy in inactivating foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables, and hence could be considered as an alternative. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of chlorine and PAA in inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and natural microflora on mung bean sprouts. Resistance of non- and acid-adapted pathogens to these sanitizer treatments was also evaluated. Un-inoculated and inoculated sprouts were treated with chlorine at 106, 130 and 170 ppm and PAA at 25, 51 and 70 ppm for 90 and 180 s at room temperature. Overall, the greater log reductions were obtained with the increase in the sanitizer concentration. For 180 s, chlorine treatment at 170 ppm reduced 2.0, 1.3, 1.5, 0.9-logs and PAA treatment at 70 ppm resulted in 2.3, 1.8, 2.1, 1.1-log reductions for non-adapted E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and natural microflora, respectively. These results revealed that the efficacy of PAA was significantly better than or similar to that of chlorine. For acid-adapted cells, these sanitizer treatments were less effective with the ranges of 1.0-1.2-log reductions for chlorine and 1.1-1.6-log reductions for PAA compared to non-adapted cells, indicating that acid-adapted cells were more resistant to the sanitizing treatment. These data suggest that PAA may replace chlorine in the disinfection of mung bean sprouts and that acid-adapted pathogens should be used to design an effective sanitizing strategy. PMID:24010631

  14. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  15. Genotypic difference in (137)Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of (137)Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg(-1) dry weight ((137)Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of (137)Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed (137)Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to (137)Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less (137)Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the (137)Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land. PMID:27105146

  16. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    PubMed

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used. PMID:10646560

  17. Purification, cDNA cloning, and expression of GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase from mung beans.

    PubMed

    Leiter, H; Mucha, J; Staudacher, E; Grimm, R; Glössl, J; Altmann, F

    1999-07-30

    Substitution of the asparagine-linked GlcNAc by alpha1,3-linked fucose is a widespread feature of plant as well as of insect glycoproteins, which renders the N-glycan immunogenic. We have purified from mung bean seedlings the GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase (core alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase) that is responsible for the synthesis of this linkage. The major isoform had an apparent mass of 54 kDa and isoelectric points ranging from 6. 8 to 8.2. From that protein, four tryptic peptides were isolated and sequenced. Based on an approach involving reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, core alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase cDNA was cloned from mung bean mRNA. The 2200-base pair cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1530 base pairs that encoded a 510-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 56.8 kDa. Analysis of cDNA derived from genomic DNA revealed the presence of three introns within the open reading frame. Remarkably, from the four exons, only exon II exhibited significant homology to animal and bacterial alpha1,3/4-fucosyltransferases which, though, are responsible for the biosynthesis of Lewis determinants. The recombinant fucosyltransferase was expressed in Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus vector. The enzyme acted on glycopeptides having the glycan structures GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3(GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1- 6)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbet a1-4GlcNAcbeta1-Asn, GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3(GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1- 6)Manbeta1-4GlcNAcbet a1-4(Fucalpha1-6)GlcNAcbeta1-Asn, and GlcNAcbeta1-2Manalpha1-3[Manalpha1-3(Manalpha1-6 )Manalpha1-6]Manbeta1 -4GlcNAcbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-Asn but not on, e.g. N-acetyllactosamine. The structure of the core alpha1,3-fucosylated product was verified by high performance liquid chromatography of the pyridylaminated glycan and by its insensitivity to N-glycosidase F as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass

  18. Altered DNA conformations detected by mung bean nuclease occur in promoter and terminator regions of supercoiled pBR322 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sheflin, L G; Kowalski, D

    1985-01-01

    Mung bean nuclease was used to probe for recognizable DNA unwinding and unpairing in the plasmid pBR322. In negatively supercoiled DNA, but not relaxed DNA, cleavages occurred preferentially in non-coding regions of the genome. The types of nucleotide sequences cleaved and which non-coding regions were cleaved depended upon environmental conditions. At 37 degrees C, cleavages occurred in an 84 bp A+T-rich sequence in the terminator region of the ampicillin-resistance gene. Recognition is likely based on a novel DNA conformation which occurs in the longest, most dA+dT-rich region of pBR322. In the presence of 1 mM Mg2+, cleavages occurred in inverted repeated sequences in the promoter regions of the RNA primer for DNA replication and ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistance genes as well as the terminator of RNA-1. Potential loops of hairpin (cruciform) structures were cleaved. At 27 degrees C, cleavages occurred near a promoter activated by cAMP receptor protein in vitro and in the 3' non-coding region of the tetracycline-resistance gene. Thus, in supercoiled pBR322 DNA, recognizable DNA unwinding and unpairing occurs preferentially in regulatory regions for transcription and DNA replication. Images PMID:2995917

  19. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  20. Consumption of diets containing raw soya beans (Glycine max), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) or lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius) by rats for up to 700 days: effects on body composition and organ weights.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Buchan, W C; Armour, J C; Pusztai, A

    1995-01-01

    Feeding trials have been done with rats to assess the effects of long-term (700 d) consumption of diets based on raw cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata; moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content), lupin seeds (Lupinus angustifolius; low lectin and protease inhibitor content) or soya beans (Glycine max; high Kunitz inhibitor content, moderate Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, moderate lectin content) or diets containing low levels of raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris; high lectin content, low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content) on body weight and composition and organ weights. All the legume-based diets reduced feed conversion efficiency and growth rates during the initial 250 d. However, after 250 d the weight gains by rats given legume-based diets were similar to those of controls given the same daily feed intake. Long-term consumption of diets containing low levels of kidney bean significantly altered body composition of rats. The levels of lipid in the body were significantly reduced. As a result, carcasses of these rats contained a higher proportion of muscle/protein than did controls. Small-intestine relative weight was increased by short- and long-term consumption of the kidney-bean-based diet. However, the increase in relative pancreatic weight observed at 30 d did not persist long term. None of the other legume-based diets caused any significant changes in body composition. However, long-term exposure to a soya-bean- or cowpea-based diet induced an extensive increase in the relative and absolute weights of the pancreas and caused an increase in the incidence of macroscopic pancreatic nodules and possibly pancreatic neoplasia. Long-term consumption of the cowpea-, kidney-bean-, lupin-seed- or soya-bean-based diets by rats resulted in a significant increase in the relative weight of the caecum and colon. PMID:7857911

  1. Biosorptive uptake of ibuprofen by steam activated biochar derived from mung bean husk: Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, modeling and eco-toxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sandip; Bobde, Kiran; Aikat, Kaustav; Halder, Gopinath

    2016-11-01

    The present study explores the use of steam activated mung bean husk biochar (SA-MBHB) as a potential sorbent for the removal of non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen from aqueous solution. SA-MBHB was characterized by SEM, FTIR, BET, TGA, point of zero charge (pHPZC) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The relation between removal percentages of ibuprofen and parameters such as adsorbent dose (0.05 g-250 g), contact time (5 min-210 min), pH (2-10), speed of agitation (40-280 rpm), temperature (293-308 K) and initial ibuprofen concentration (5-100 ppm) was investigated and optimized by a series of batch sorption experiments. The optimized conditions achieved were: adsorbent dose 0.1 g/L, agitation speed 200 rpm, pH 2, initial ibuprofen concentration 20 mg L(-1), equilibrium time 120 min and temperature 20 °C for more than 99% adsorptive removal of ibuprofen. The equilibrium adsorption data were well fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model while kinetic data suggested the removal process to follow pseudo second order reaction. The adsorption phenomena were optimized and simulated by using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Effect of process variables viz. dose, agitation speed and pH on the sorbed amount of IBP was studied through a 2(3) full factorial central composite design (CCD). The comparative analysis was done for ibuprofen removal by constructing ANN model training using same experimental matrix of CCD. The growth of Scenedesmus abundans was also observed to be affected by the IBP solution whereas the biochar treated with IBP solution did not significantly affect the growth of the Scenedesmus abundans. The results revealed that SA-MBHB could be a cost-effective, efficient and non-hazardous adsorbent for the removal of ibuprofen from aqueous solution. PMID:27544645

  2. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  3. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  4. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars—“Dubai bean” and “Ningjiang-3”, which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively—were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  6. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. PMID:24503210

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W; Sloan, Daniel B; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  8. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Legume Vigna radiata and the Analysis of Recombination across Short Mitochondrial Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Alverson, Andrew J.; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W.; Sloan, Daniel B.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38–297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  9. The 32 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA) participates in the DNA replication of Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) by interacting with the viral Rep protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Karjee, Sumona; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Mung bean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a member of genus begomoviridae and its genome comprises of bipartite (two components, namely DNA-A and DNA-B), single-stranded, circular DNA of about 2.7 kb. During rolling circle replication (RCR) of the DNA, the stability of the genome and maintenance of the stem-loop structure of the replication origin is crucial. Hence the role of host single-stranded DNA-binding protein, Replication protein A (RPA), in the RCR of MYMIV was examined. Two RPA subunits, namely the RPA70 kDa and RPA32 kDa, were isolated from pea and their roles were validated in a yeast system in which MYMIV DNA replication has been modelled. Here, we present evidences that only the RPA32 kDa subunit directly interacted with the carboxy terminus of MYMIV-Rep both in vitro as well as in yeast two-hybrid system. RPA32 modulated the functions of Rep by enhancing its ATPase and down regulating its nicking and closing activities. The possible role of these modulations in the context of viral DNA replication has been discussed. Finally, we showed the positive involvement of RPA32 in transient replication of the plasmid DNA bearing MYMIV replication origin using an in planta based assay. PMID:17182628

  10. Characterization of an inducible C2 H2 -type zinc finger transcription factor VuSTOP1 in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) reveals differential regulation between low pH and aluminum tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Lou, He Qiang; Gong, Yu Long; Liu, Mei Ya; Cao, Meng Jie; Liu, Yu; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2015-10-01

    The rice bean (Vigna umbellata) root apex specifically secretes citrate through expression activation of Vigna umbellata Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion 1 (VuMATE1) under aluminum (Al(3+) ) stress. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating VuMATE1 expression remain unknown. We isolated and characterized a gene encoding Sensitive to Proton Rhizotoxicity1 (STOP1)-like protein, VuSTOP1, from rice bean. The role of VuSTOP1 in regulating VuMATE1 expression was investigated using the yeast one-hybrid assay. We characterized the function of VuSTOP1 in Al(3)  (+)  - and H(+) -tolerance using in planta complementation assays. We demonstrated that VuSTOP1 has transactivation potential. We found that VuSTOP1 expression is inducible by Al(3+) and H(+) stress. However, although VuSTOP1 binds to the promoter of VuMATE1, the inconsistent tissue localization patterns of VuSTOP1 and VuMATE1 preclude VuSTOP1 as the major factor regulating VuMATE1 expression. In addition, when a protein translation inhibitor increased expression of VuSTOP1, VuMATE1 expression was inhibited. In planta complementation assay demonstrated that VuSTOP1 could fully restore expression of genes involved in H(+) tolerance, but could only partially restore expression of AtMATE. We conclude that VuSTOP1 plays a major role in H(+) tolerance, but only a minor role in Al(3+) tolerance. The differential transcriptional regulation of VuSTOP1 and VuMATE1 reveals a complex regulatory system controlling VuMATE1 expression. PMID:25970766

  11. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). PMID:11052738

  12. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes. PMID:26155963

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Tonoplast from Chilling-Sensitive Etiolated Seedlings of Vigna radiata L. 12

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shizuo; Kawata, Takefumi; Uemura, Matsuo; Niki, Teruo

    1986-01-01

    Tonoplasts were isolated in a high purity from etiolated young seedlings of Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) utilizing a sucrose density gradient system. The excised hypocotyls were homogenized in a sorbitol-buffer system and the 3,600 to 156,000g pellets obtained after the differential centrifugations were suspended in a sorbitol medium and loaded on a linear sucrose density gradient. After centrifugation at 89,000g for 2 hours, tonoplasts were banded at the sample load/sucrose interface. Assessed by electron microscopy and marker enzymes, the purity and the quantity were found to be sufficient for biochemical and biophysical analyses. The tonoplasts were associated with NO3−-sensitive and vana-date-insensitive ATPase. The tonoplast ATPase was stimulated by proton ionophores such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone and gramicidin D, suggesting a proton-pumping enzyme. In the presence of ATP and Mg2+, a proton gradient was formed in the isolated tonoplast vesicles as assessed by fluorescence quenching of quinacrine. The tonoplasts contained several kinds of mannosylated or glycosylated glycoproteins and a major protein (65 kilodaltons) which was unique to the membranes. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664574

  14. Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine max) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Dorward, P M; Pusztai, A

    1993-12-01

    Pancreatic weights and composition were studied with rats fed diets containing raw legume seeds for up to 800 d. Rapid pancreatic enlargement was induced by dietary soybeans (Glycine max) (high Kunitz and Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor contents, moderate lectin content) during the initial 150 d. Over the next 200 d the rate of pancreatic growth was similar to that in controls. After 350 d a second period of rapid pancreatic growth occurred. Macroscopic pancreatic nodules were evident in a number of rats fed soybeans for 500 d or more. A similar pattern of pancreatic growth was observed in rats fed dietary cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) (high Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, low lectin content). Extensive pancreatic growth was also found in young rats fed moderate dietary levels of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) (low Bowman-Birk inhibitor content, high lectin content). However, the trophic effects diminished with time, and from 100 d onwards, little enlargement was evident. Consumption of a lupinseed (Lupinus angustifolius) diet (low trypsin inhibitor, low lectin content) did not cause pancreatic enlargement. The initial pancreatic growth induced by dietary soybeans seemed to be due to the lectins and trypsin inhibitors, whereas the second period of pancreatic growth was possibly due primarily to the trypsin inhibitors. PMID:7505319

  15. Effects of Black Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Extract on Proliferation and Differentiation of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytesinto Mature Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mina; Park, Jeong-Eun; Song, Seok-Bo; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on adipocytes, and to elucidate the cellular mechanisms. In order to examine the proliferation of preadipocytes and differentiating adipocytes, cell viability and DNA content were measured over a period of time. Lipid accumulation during cell differentiation and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of BAB on the transcriptional factors involved, with their anti-adipogenic effects, were also identified. We observed that BAB exhibits anti-adipogenic effects through the inhibition of proliferation, thereby lowering mRNA expression of C/EBPβ and suppressing adipogenesis during the early stage of differentiation. This, in turn, resulted in a reduction of TG accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treating the cells with BAB not only suppressed the adipogenesis-associated key transcription factors PPARγ and C/EBPα but also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of GLUT4, FABP4, LPL and adiponectin. The expression of lipolytic genes like ATGL and HSL were higher in the treatment group than in the control. Overall, the black adzuki bean extract demonstrated an anti-adipogenic property, which makes it a potential dietary supplement for attenuation of obesity. PMID:25569623

  16. Black Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Extract Protects Pancreatic β Cells and Improves Glucose Tolerance in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina; Kim, Dae Keun; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Adzuki beans have long been cultivated as a food and folk medicine in East Asia. In this study, we investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on pancreatic cells and determined their mechanism of action in impaired glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes. In addition, we performed functional gene annotation analysis to identify genes related to the regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin response. Treatment of pancreatic β cells with BAB extract (0.2 mg/mL) led to tolerance of the high glucose-induced glucotoxicity, resulting in a similar viability as cells maintained in normal glucose media. In addition, dietary supplementation with BAB extract significantly (P < .05) improved hyperglycemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in high-fat diet-induced glucose-intolerant obese C57BL/6J mice. Our results suggest that BAB extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, and lowers HOMA-IR by regulating insulin secretion and response, and by maintaining the integrity of pancreatic β cells exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:27070495

  17. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mina; Song, Seok-Bo; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a high-fat diet. Design The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD), a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD), or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2). Results The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides. PMID:26493717

  18. Effect of polyphenol-containing azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract on blood pressure elevation and macrophage infiltration in the heart and kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shin; Mukai, Yuuka; Yamate, Jyoji; Kato, Jun; Kurasaki, Masaaki; Hatai, Asako; Sagai, Masaru

    2008-01-01

    1. Hypertension is a major risk factor for myocardial infarction and renal damage, and it has also been shown to have pro-inflammatory actions that increase the formation of reactive oxygen species. Macrophage infiltration has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Azuki beans are known to contain pro-anthocyanidins, a group of polyphenolic bioflavonoids with remarkable radical-scavenging activities in vitro. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of polyphenol-containing azuki bean extract (ABE) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and macrophage infiltration in the heart and kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 2. Spontaneously hypertensive rats and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were divided into two groups fed either 0 or 0.8% ABE in their diets. Tail SBP and macrophage kinetics in the heart and kidney were examined. 3. The SBP of the SHR group was higher than that of age-matched WKY rats throughout the treatment period. After 8 weeks of treatment, the increased SBP in ABE-treated SHR was significantly less than that in untreated SHR. 4. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-stimulated superoxide (O2-) production was enhanced in the kidney and heart in SHR and WKY rats compared with levels in the absence of NADH or NADPH. The NADPH-stimulated superoxide (O2-) levels in the kidney in untreated SHR was significantly higher than that in untreated WKY rats. The (O2-) levels in ABE-treated SHR were significantly decreased compared with the untreated SHR group. 5. In immunohistochemical analyses, the number of macrophages in the heart and in the glomeruli and tubulointerstitium of the kidney was significantly higher in ABE-untreated SHR than in ABE-untreated WKY rats. Conversely, there was a significant decrease in the number of macrophages in ABE-treated SHR compared with the untreated SHR. There were significant positive

  19. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans ( Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  20. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans (Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  1. A facile biomimetic preparation of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles derived from seed extract of Vigna radiata and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Singh, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    The significant antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles draws the major attention toward the present nanobiotechnology. Also, the use of plant material for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a green technology. In this context, a non-toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of mung beans ( Vigna radiata). The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at around 440 nm. The different types of phytochemicals present in the seed extract synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each phytochemical is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The colloidal silver nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable, even after 5 months. XRD analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry and the TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 18 nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well-diffusion method and it was observed that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be useful for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  2. Munge Uid ‘N’ Grid Emporium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-02

    MUNGE (Munge Uid ‘N’ Grid Emporium) is a service for creating and validating credentials in order to allow a process to securely authenticate the UID and GID of another local or remote process within an administrative domain. Clients can create and validate these credentials without the use of root privileges or reserved ports.

  3. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    SciTech Connect

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  4. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  5. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  6. Ion Fluxes and Phytochrome Protons in Mung Bean Hypocotyl Segments

    PubMed Central

    Brownlee, Colin; Kendrick, Richard E.

    1979-01-01

    K+ [86Rb+] uptake by Phaseolus aureus Roxb. hypocotyl segments cut immediately below the hook is inhibited by the active form of phytochrome (Pfr). Short load-short wash experiments indicate that the inhibition of uptake occurs across the plasmalemma. A maximal inhibition of short term uptake occurs in 10 to 50 millimolar KCI. Low temperature had only a small effect on influx and the inhibition of influx from 50 millimolar KCI. A consideration of the electrochemical gradient for K+ suggests that passive K+ fluxes may predominate under these conditions. Red light induces small depolarizations of membrane potential in subhook cells. Far red light antagonizes this effect. Pfr inhibits efflux of K+[86Rb+] from subhook segments. This effect is also relatively insensitive to low temperature. This inhibition of efflux may reflect inhibition of a K+ -K+ exchange process, or reduced passive permeability of the plasmalemma to K+. In contrast, Pfr enhances short term uptake of K+[86Rb+] in apical hypocotyl hook segments of Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Short load-short wash experiments indicate that fluxes across the plasmalemma are modified by Pfr. A maximal enhancement of short term influx occurs in 50 millimolar KCI. Influx and the red light enhancement of influx from 50 millimolar KCI are relatively insensitive to low temperature. Pfr also enhances efflux of K+[86Rb+] from preloaded apical hook segments. This increased influx may reflect enhancement of a K+ -K+ exchange process or increased passive permeability of the plasmalemma to K+. PMID:16660933

  7. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  8. Determining radio frequency heating uniformity of mixed beans during disinfestation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since chickpeas and lentils are difficulty to artificially infest with live insects for radio frequency (RF) treatment validation, black-eyed peas and mung beans were selected to infest with insects before mixing with chickpeas and lentils. Temperature difference between black-eyed pea and chickpea ...

  9. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  10. Inhibitory effects of volatile antioxidants found in various beans on malonaldehyde formation in horse blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2005-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of aroma extracts isolated from dried soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans on malonaldehyde (MA) formation from horse blood plasma oxidized with Fenton's reagent was determined by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD). Aroma chemicals such as maltol, eugenol, benzyl alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, butyrolactone, and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, found in the aroma extracts of beans, were also examined for their inhibitory effect on the same system. Among the four aroma extracts tested, the aroma extract of soybeans exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. Extracts of soybeans, mung beans, azuki beans, and kidney beans inhibited MA formation by 58%, 47%, 40%, and 23%, respectively, at the level of 400 microg/mL, whereas, alpha-tocopherol and BHT inhibited MA formation by 52% and 70%, respectively, at the same level. Among the tested aroma chemicals, the antioxidant activity decreased in the following order: eugenol>maltol>1-octen-3-ol>benzyl alcohol>butyrolactone>1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. PMID:15721197

  11. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean. PMID:26069442

  12. Copper nanoparticle (CuNP) nanochain arrays with a reduced toxicity response: a biophysical and biochemical outlook on Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Satakshi; Chandra, Sourov; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2015-03-18

    Copper deficiency or toxicity in agricultural soil circumscribes a plant's growth and physiology, hampering photochemical and biochemical networks within the system. So far, copper sulfate (CS) has been used widely despite its toxic effect. To get around this long-standing problem, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized, characterized, and tested on mung bean plants along with commercially available salt CS, to observe morphological abnormalities enforced if any. CuNPs enhanced photosynthetic activity by modulating fluorescence emission, photophosphorylation, electron transport chain (ETC), and carbon assimilatory pathway under controlled laboratory conditions, as revealed from biochemical and biophysical studies on treated isolated mung bean chloroplast. CuNPs at the recommended dose worked better than CS in plants in terms of basic morphology, pigment contents, and antioxidative activities. CuNPs showed elevated nitrogen assimilation compared to CS. At higher doses CS was found to be toxic to the plant system, whereas CuNP did not impart any toxicity to the system including morphological and/or physiological alterations. This newly synthesized polymer-encapsulated CuNPs can be utilized as nutritional amendment to balance the nutritional disparity enforced by copper imbalance. PMID:25686266

  13. Mineral composition of some varieties of beans from Mediterranean and Tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Naccari, Clara; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Rastrelli, Luca; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this study has been evaluated the mineral composition (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Ba, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Sb, V, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, Na, K, Ca, Mg) of some varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata and V. angularis) from Mediterranean and Tropical areas of the world (Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast); the correlation between beans mineral composition in micro and macroelements and botanical and/or geographical origin; trace elements dietary intake by beans consumption. The results showed a correlation between beans mineral composition and their geographical origin, with higher values in Ivory Coast samples. Moreover, minerals content found confirmed the importance of these legumes in the diet for the significant content of essential micro and macroelements and a safe consumption of beans for the low residual levels of toxic metals. PMID:26940501

  14. Metal accumulation and growth response in Vigna radiata L. inoculated with chromate tolerant rhizobacteria and grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Rai, U N; Tewari, A; Singh, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inoculation of four chromate tolerant rhizobacterial strains previously isolated from rhizosphere of plants from chromium contaminated area in mung plant Vigna radiata grown on tannery sludge amended soil were evaluated. An increase of 138%, 88%, 256% and 54.14% in root length, shoot length, biomass and total chlorophyll, respectively was observed after 60 days of treatments by consortium. Similarly, a significant enhancement in Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in consortium inoculated plants as compared to non-inoculated plants. Results showed that rhizobacterial strain helps in ameliorating metal induced phytotoxicity, acquiring higher biomass and metal uptake in the plant may be useful in decontamination of metal from polluted soil. PMID:19784534

  15. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327bp encoding 109 amino acids w...

  16. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  17. De novo transcriptome assembly of two Vigna angularis varieties collected from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), a member of the family Fabaceae, is widely grown in Asia, from East Asia to the Himalayas. The adzuki bean is known as an ingredient that adds sweetness to diverse desserts made in Eastern Asian countries. Libraries prepared from two V. angularis varieties referred to as Taejin Black and Taejin Red were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession numbers of SRR3406660 and SRR3406553. After de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity, we obtained 324,219 and 280,056 transcripts from Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively. We predicted a total of 238,321 proteins and 179,519 proteins for Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively, by the TransDecoder program. We carried out BLASTP on the predicted proteins against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to predict the putative functions of identified proteins. Taken together, we provide transcriptomes of two adzuki bean varieties by RNA-Seq, which might be usefully applied to generate molecular markers. PMID:27257605

  18. Multiresidue analysis of 58 pesticides in bean products by disposable pipet extraction (DPX) cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Ziang; Li, Yanjie; Liu, Xiaochen; Li, Xuesheng; Zhou, Li; Pan, Canping

    2012-05-16

    A method based on disposable pipet extraction (DPX) sample cleanup and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection by selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) was established for 58 targeted pesticide residues in soybean, mung bean, adzuki bean and black bean. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and concentrated (nitrogen gas flow) prior to being aspirated into DPX tubes. Cleanup procedure was achieved in a simple DPX-Qg tube. Matrix-matched calibrations were analyzed, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) of this method ranged from 0.01 mg kg(-1) to 0.1 mg kg(-1) for all target compounds. Coefficients of determination of the linear ranges were between 0.9919 and 0.9998. Recoveries of fortified level 0.02 mg kg(-1) on soybean, mung bean, adzuki bean and black bean were 70.2-109.6%, 69.1-119.0%, 69.1-119.8%, and 69.0-120.8%, respectively, for all studied pesticides. Moreover, pesticide risk assessment for all the detected residues in 178 market samples at Beijing market area was conducted. A maximum 0.958% of ADI (acceptable daily intake) for NESDI (national estimated daily intake) and 55.1% of ARfD (acute reference dose) for NESTI (national estimated short-term intake) indicated low diet risk of these products. PMID:22394480

  19. Subgroups of the Cowpea Miscellany: Symbiotic Specificity within Bradyrhizobium spp. for Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Arachis hypogaea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum†

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Singleton, Paul W.

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobia classified as Bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. To delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). The most-probable-number counts of indigenous bradyrhizobia at three sites on Maui, Hawaii, were substantially different on the four hosts: highest on siratro, intermediate on cowpea, and significantly lower on both lima bean and peanut. Bradyrhizobia from single cowpea nodules from the most-probable-number assays were inoculated onto the four hosts. Effectiveness patterns of these rhizobia on cowpea followed a normal distribution but were strikingly different on the other legumes. The effectiveness profiles on siratro and cowpea were similar but not identical. The indigenous cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia were of only moderate effectiveness on siratro and were in all cases lower than the inoculant-quality reference strain. Between 5 and 51% of the bradyrhizobia, depending on site, failed to nodulate peanut, whereas 0 to 32% failed to nodulate lima bean. No significant correlation was observed between the relative effectiveness of the bradyrhizobia on cowpea and their corresponding effectiveness on either lima bean or peanut. At all sites, bradyrhizobia that were ineffective on cowpea but that effectively nodulated lima bean, peanut, or both were found. Eighteen percent or fewer of the bradyrhizobia were as effective on lima bean as the reference inoculant strain; 44% or fewer were as effective on peanut as the reference strain. Only 18% of all cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia tested were able to form N2-fixing nodules on both lima bean and peanut. These results indicate the need

  20. [Nutritional and taste properties of canned cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). I. Effect of the canning process].

    PubMed

    Lira, G M; Guerra, N B; Pessoa, D C

    1992-09-01

    The effects of canning in brine on cowpea quality (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) were determined. Beans were steamed-blanched at 100 degrees C for 2 minutes, and then canned and autoclaved at 121 degrees C for 10 minutes. These samples were compared to home-cooked cowpea samples through physicochemical, sensory and biological analyses. Significant reductions (p < or = 0.01) in canned bean composition as to values for protein, carbohydrate and fiber were determined when compared to cooked samples. The available methionine content was identical for both processes, but canned beans produced higher values of available lysine than cooked ones. Values for Net Protein Ratio (NPR)--3.19 showed that canning did not affect protein quality of canned beans. These results were similar to the ones found in home-cooked cowpeas (2.96). According to physicochemical analyses, quantitative losses did not seem to affect protein quality, and acceptance of product was found to be satisfactory to tasters. PMID:1342165

  1. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  2. Homo-phytochelatins are synthesized in response to cadmium in azuki beans.

    PubMed

    Oven, M; Raith, K; Neubert, R H; Kutchan, T M; Zenk, M H

    2001-07-01

    In a recent report, it was claimed that azuki beans (Vigna angularis) do not synthesize phytochelatins (PCs) upon exposure to cadmium, although glutathione (GSH), the substrate for PC synthesis, is present in this plant. This legume species thus would be the first exception in the plant kingdom that would fail to complex heavy metals by PCs. Here, we report that not GSH, but only homoglutathione can be detected in this plant and that homo-phytochelatins are formed when azuki beans are challenged with heavy metals such as cadmium. We also show that the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-oxidized GSH reductase recycling assay, used for GSH quantification in the recent study of heavy metal tolerance in azuki beans, reacts both with GSH and homoglutathione and therefore cannot be used when biological samples should be analyzed exclusively for GSH. PMID:11457978

  3. Evaluation of commercial kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of low levels of uninjured and injured Salmonella on duck meat, bean sprouts, and fishballs in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hazel Sin Yue; Zheng, Qianwang; Miks-Krajnik, Marta; Turner, Matthew; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of the commercial kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in comparison with the International Organization for Standardization method for detecting uninjured and sublethally injured Salmonella cells artificially inoculated at levels of 10(0) and 10(1) CFU/25 g on raw duck wing, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs. Injured cells were prepared by a heat treatment for duck wings and fishball samples and a chlorine treatment for bean sprout samples. Additionally, a validation study was performed on naturally contaminated food samples sold in Singapore. A total of 110 samples of each commodity were analyzed in this study. Regardless of inoculum levels, the detection by the commercial LAMP kit showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for both inoculated and uninoculated samples compared with the International Organization for Standardization method, with the exception of bean sprout samples. Only 20% of bean sprout samples inoculated with 10(0) CFU/25 g injured Salmonella cells were positive by using the commercial LAMP-based kit. However, all negative samples became positive following a secondary enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium with soy broth or after concentration by centrifugation. These results suggest that secondary enrichment or centrifugation should be considered as an additional step to increase the sensitivity of the commercial LAMP-based kit with low numbers of injured target cells in samples with high background microflora (such as mung bean sprouts). The validation study also showed that the commercial LAMP-based kit provided 91% sensitivity and 95% specificity for naturally contaminated samples. Thus, this study demonstrates that the commercial LAMP-based kit might be a cost-effective method, as this system could provide rapid, accurate detection of both uninjured and injured Salmonella cells on raw duck wings, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs in

  4. Application of different techniques to identify the effects of irradiation on Brazilian beans after six months storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.

    1998-06-01

    Four different techniques to detect the effect of irradiation in beans were investigated. Two types of Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar, were irradiated using a 60Co source with doses ranging from 10.0 kGy. After 6 months storage at ambient temperature the detection tests were carried out. Firstly, germination tests showed markedly reduced root growth and almost totally retarded shoot elongation of irradiated beans as compared to non-irradiated beans. Secondly, DNA fragmentation was studied using a microgel electrophoresis. Irradiated cells produced typical comets with DNA fragments migrating towards the anode. DNA of non-irradiated cells exhibited a limited migration. Thirdly, electron spin resonance for detection of cellulose radicals was tested, since it was expected that these free radicals are quite stable in solid and dry foods. However, only in beans irradiated with 10 kGy a small signal could be detected. Fourtly, thermoluminescence, a method to analyze mineral debris adhering to food, turned out to be a good choice to detect irradiation effects in beans, even after 6 months of storage. The results indicate that three of these four techniques proposed, can be used to detect the effect of irradiation in these two varieties of Brazilian beans at a dose level useful for insect disinfestation (1 kGy).

  5. Azuki bean cells are hypersensitive to cadmium and do not synthesize phytochelatins.

    PubMed

    Inouhe, M; Ito, R; Ito, S; Sasada, N; Tohoyama, H; Joho, M

    2000-07-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) as well as the original root tissues were hypersensitive to Cd (<10 microM). Repeated subculturings with a sublethal level of Cd (1-10 microM) did not affect the subsequent response of cells to inhibitory levels of Cd (10-100 microM). The azuki bean cells challenged to Cd did not contain phytochelatin (PC) peptides, unlike tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells that have a substantial tolerance to Cd (>100 microM). Both of the cell suspensions contained a similar level of reduced glutathione (GSH) when grown in the absence of Cd. Externally applied GSH to azuki bean cells recovered neither Cd tolerance nor PC synthesis of the cells. Furthermore, enzyme assays in vitro revealed that the protein extracts of azuki bean cells had no activity converting GSH to PCs, unlike tomato. These results suggest that azuki bean cells are lacking in the PC synthase activity per se, hence being Cd hypersensitive. We concluded that the PC synthase has an important role in Cd tolerance of suspension-cultured cells. PMID:10889252

  6. Composition, structure, morphology and physicochemical properties of lablab bean, navy bean, rice bean, tepary bean and velvet bean starches.

    PubMed

    Maaran, S; Hoover, R; Donner, E; Liu, Q

    2014-01-01

    The composition, morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of starches from lablab bean, navy bean, rice bean, tepary bean and velvet bean were examined. Starch yield (on a whole seed basis), total lipid, apparent amylose (AM) and starch damage were in the range 20.6-29.9%, 0.48-0.62%, 22.1-32.1% and 0.004-0.011%, respectively. Difference in amylopectin chain length distribution amongst the starches was marginal. The starches differed significantly with respect to granule morphology, molecular order, molecular orientation, double helical content, gelatinization parameters, swelling factor, AM leaching, thermal stability and enzyme hydrolysis. The results showed that interplay amongst differences in molecular order, double helical content, relative crystallinity, AM content, granule morphology and the extent of interaction between and amongst starch chains within the amorphous and crystalline domains, influenced thermal, rheological and digestibility properties. PMID:24444966

  7. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies. PMID:26758200

  8. Protecting beans from ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.

    1983-03-01

    A chemical treatment to protect navy beans from ozone damage increased yields by an average of more than 20% in 3 years of tests. An experimental antioxidant chemical, EDU, made by the DuPont company was tested as soil applications and sprays on several varieties and under a variety of soil and planting conditions. The average yield increases were between 16 and 24%. Chemical treatment also increased snap bean pod production by 12%.

  9. Assessment of the importance of alpha-amylase inhibitor-2 in bruchid resistance of wild common bean.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Keito; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Utsumi, Shigeru; Ishimoto, Masao

    2007-02-01

    Both alpha-amylase inhibitor-2 (alphaAI-2) and arcelin have been implicated in resistance of wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman). Near isogenic lines (NILs) for arcelin 1-5 were generated by backcrossing wild common bean accessions with a cultivated variety. Whereas seeds of a wild accession (G12953) containing both alphaAI-2 and arcelin 4 were completely resistant to Z. subfasciatus, those of the corresponding NIL were susceptible to infestation, suggesting that the principal determinant of resistance was lost during backcrossing. Three independent lines of transgenic azuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] expressing alphaAI-2 accumulated high levels of this protein in seeds. The expression of alphaAI-2 in these lines conferred protection against the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.), likely through inhibition of larval digestive alpha-amylase. However, although the seed content of alphaAI-2 in these transgenic lines was similar to that in a wild accession of common bean (G12953), it did not confer a level of resistance to Z. subfasciatus similar to that of the wild accession. These results suggest that alphaAI-2 alone does not provide a high level of resistance to Z. subfasciatus. However, alphaAI-2 is an effective insecticidal protein with a spectrum of activity distinct from that of alphaAI-1, and it may prove beneficial in genetic engineering of insect resistance in legumes. PMID:17186215

  10. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  11. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. PMID:26463703

  12. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.; Randive, Sonali D.; Garad, Krushnadeoray U.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat. PMID:25589877

  13. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    PubMed

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p < 0.01). Therefore, the mixing ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture. PMID:19266927

  14. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  15. Water Uptake by Dry Beans Observed by Micro-magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    KIKUCHI, KAORI; KOIZUMI, MIKA; ISHIDA, NOBUAKI; KANO, HIROMI

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Water uptake by dry kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ‘Rajma’) and adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) was traced using micro-magnetic resonance imaging in order to elucidate the channel of water entry, the manner of water delivery and the timing of swelling of the seeds. • Methods Magnetic resonance images of beans absorbing water were continuously measured with the single-point imaging method for 16 h or 20 h at 15-min intervals. With this technique, it was possible to detect and visualize the location of water in the beans, at a low water content, in the initial stages of water entry. • Key Results Water was taken up through a specified tissue, the lens, near the hilum, and distributed primarily to the testa. When water reached the radicle, it began to be incorporated into cotyledons with considerable swelling of the seeds. Water uptake took place within a short time for kidney beans. The initial process of water entry was associated with mechanical vibration of the seed. Rapid hydration of the testa and the swelling of the cotyledons were then observed. Water was supplied to cotyledons through the adaxial epidermis. In contrast, it took a long time, approx. 7 h, to activate the water channel of the lens for adzuki beans which have a tightly fitting testa. Steeping of the testa was not uniform, which induced temporary slanting before enlargement of the seed. • Conclusions The activation of the lens as the sole water channel, the delivery of water to the radicle within the testa, the swelling of the cotyledons, and the further increment of water are physiologically different processes during imbibition, and were separated by locating water in various tissues and by analysing the time course of water uptake using magnetic resonance imaging with the single-point imaging method. PMID:16845137

  16. Full of Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a genetics activity illustrating genetic variation, mutation, and influence of environmental factors on genotypic expression. Irridiated bean seeds are planted and observed (x-rayed by dentist's x-ray machine at different exposures and for different times). Questions to extend the activity are discussed. (Author/JN)

  17. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  18. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this agricultural…

  19. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    PubMed Central

    Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  20. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    PubMed

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under...

  4. Transport and partitioning of CO/sub 2/ fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes. [Vigna angularis; Glycine max; Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to investigate the contribution of nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO/sub 2/ fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO/sub 2/ fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Vigna angularis water extracts protect against ultraviolet b-exposed skin aging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Sun, Zheng-wang; Lee, Tae Youp; Song, Hyun Geun; Shin, Heon-Sub; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various pathological changes, such as thickened skin and wrinkle formation. In particular, UVB irradiation increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production and collagen degradation, leading to premature aging, termed photoaging. The azuki bean (Vigna angularis; VA) has been widely used as a food product as well as a traditional medicine. However, its activity needs additional study to confirm its functional application in foods and cosmetics for protecting skin. In this study, hot-water extract from VA (VAE) and its active component, rutin, were investigated to determine their antiphotoaging effects. VAE was found to have antioxidant activity. In UVB-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts cells with VAE and rutin treatments, MMP-1 production was significantly suppressed (90% and 47%, respectively). The effects of both topical and oral administration of VAE were tested in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. VAE suppressed wrinkle formation and skin thickness by promoting elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1 expression (118%, 156%, and 136%, respectively) and by diminishing MMP-1 production. These results suggest that VAE may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UVB radiation. PMID:25369199

  6. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pei; Moshelion, Menachem; Wu, XiaoHua; Halperin, Ofer; Wang, BaoGen; Luo, Jie; Wallach, Rony; Wu, Xinyi; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis) is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between different genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26579145

  7. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pei; Moshelion, Menachem; Wu, XiaoHua; Halperin, Ofer; Wang, BaoGen; Luo, Jie; Wallach, Rony; Wu, Xinyi; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis) is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between different genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26579145

  8. The normal mycoflora of commodities from Thailand. 2. Beans, rice, small grains and other commodities.

    PubMed

    Pitt, J I; Hocking, A D; Bhudhasamai, K; Miscamble, B F; Wheeler, K A; Tanboon-Ek, P

    1994-09-01

    Part of a comprehensive study of fungi occurring in commodities in Thailand, this paper reports results from 276 samples of mung beans, rice, sorghum and soybeans as well as other minor crops. Samples for major commodities were taken from farmers' stocks, middlemen and retail outlets, while those for minor crops were mostly from retail. Each sample was divided into two portions, one being examined in Bangkok and the second at North Ryde. Mycological examinations were carried out by direct plating after surface disinfection in chlorine. Media used were dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar, dichloran 18% glycerol agar, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar and dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar. Fungi were identified to species level and percentage infection of samples calculated. The dominant fungus found in mung beans was Fusarium semitectum, which was present in 40% of samples and at a high level (18% of all seeds) overall. Aspergillus flavus was also found in 40% of samples, but only in 2% of seeds overall. Lasiodiplodia theobromae was the only other fungus exceeding 1% total infection. The major fungi found in soybeans were A. flavus (67% of samples; 6% overall) and Cladosporium cladosporioides (49% of samples; 9% overall). Storage fungi were more common in soybeans than the other commodities, indicating longer or adverse storage. Paddy rice contained high levels of a wide variety of field fungi, notably Fusarium semitectum, Bipolaris oryzae, and Curvularia, Phoma and Colletotrichum species. However, probably due to the heat generated by milling, milled rice contained very few fungi, which were mostly of storage origin. Only 3% of particles examined contained internal fungi. Infection in sorghum was typical of oilseeds, dominated by Aspergillus flavus, which was present in 86% of samples, with an overall infection rate of 12%. Beans other than soybeans were infected by a wide range of field fungi, but at low levels, with less than half of seeds

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  10. Canning Quality and Color Retention in Black Beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black beans are Michigan’s most important dry bean seed type. There is a strong demand for Michigan grown black beans domestically and internationally. Black bean processing presents unique challenges because of the nature of black bean color. Atypical of other bean market classes, black beans are ...

  11. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-01-01

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 (238U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the 238U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). 238U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of 238U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of 238U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of 238U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of 238U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of 238U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of 238U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of 238U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that 238U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  12. Vigna pandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. New information A new species, Vigna pandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vigna yadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers. PMID:25829861

  13. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  14. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  15. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  16. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  17. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and...

  18. Sesquin, a potent defensin-like antimicrobial peptide from ground beans with inhibitory activities toward tumor cells and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-07-01

    An antifungal peptide with a molecular mass around 7 kDa and an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensin was isolated from ground beans (Vigna sesquipedalis cv. 'Ground Bean'). The peptide was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and on Mono S. It exerted an antifungal action on Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola; and an antibacterial action on Escherichia coli B, Proteus vulgaris, Mycobacterium phlei and Bacillus megaterium. The antimicrobial activity was inhibited in presence of the 5 mM CaCl2 and MgCl2, but no inhibition was observed in 5 mM NaCl. The peptide exerted antiproliferative activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and leukemia M1 cells, this activity could not be inhibited by the ions mentioned above. It also exhibited some inhibitory activity toward human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 reverse transcriptase. PMID:15949629

  19. Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liou, Kun-Pei; Huang, Bow-Shin; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1) and two new isoflavones (2,3) were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23), abscisic acid (25), and quercetin (40) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. PMID:22949828

  20. Turbulenzübergang in der Rohrströmung: Die Lösung eines alten Rätsels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckhardt, Bruno; Hof, Björn; Faisst, Holger

    2006-09-01

    Die Strömung von Flüssigkeiten und Gasen durch eine Röhre kann zwei Zustände annehmen. Einer ist laminar, also gleichmäßig geordnet, einer ist zeitlich-räumlich verwirbelt und turbulent. Mit dem Übergang zur Turbulenz nimmt der Strömungswiderstand drastisch zu. Vor etwa 120 Jahren beschrieb Osborne Reynolds bereits das Verhalten der Rohrströmung sehr genau. Er beobachtete, dass der Turbulenzübergang sehr empfindlich von äußeren Störungen abhängt, was bislang rätselhaft blieb. Dieses Rätsel konnte nun mit einer Kombination aus Computerstudien, Konzepten aus der nichtlinearen Dynamik und speziell entwickelten Experimenten gelöst werden.

  1. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  2. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Rajan; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Thakur, Neelam; Dutt, Som; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Shukle, Rich

    2014-08-10

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327 bp encoding 109 amino acids was cloned from rice bean seeds using degenerate primer set. BlastP search revealed that the RbTI encoded amino acid of approx 13.0 kDa and shared 99% homology each with BBI from Phaseolus parvulus, Vigna trilobata and Vigna vexilata. Phylogenetic tree also showed close relationship of RbTI with BBI from other members of Leguminaceae family. RbTI gene was further confirmed as intronless (GenBank accession no. KJ159908). The secondary and 3D-structural models for the RbTI were predicted with homology modeling. qRT-PCR studies revealed the highest RbTI expression in the seeds nearing maturity, whereas the low expression of the gene was noticed in young leaves. The isolated RbTI was successfully expressed in Escherichiacoli and the highest expression was recorded after 5.5h of induction. Study on the inhibitory activity of expressed protein against the gut proteases of Hessian fly larvae revealed 87% inhibition. The novel RbTI gene will further broaden the pool of plant defense genes and could be an ideal choice for developing transgenic crops resistant to insect pests with high economic value. In addition, it has the potential to be used as a probe for selection of insect- and pathogen-resistant genotypes. PMID:24905651

  3. Analysis of variation for white mold resistance in the BeanCAP snap bean panel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de Bary, is one of the most devastated diseases that infect snap and dry beans (Miklas et al. 2013). The USDA-NIFA supported Bean Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) has assembled and genotyped dry and a snap bean panels. The snap bean pa...

  4. Beans, Chickpeas May Help with Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... March 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Beans, chickpeas, peas, lentils: Humble foods that may pack a punch for ... team, prior research has shown that eating bean, lentils and other pulses makes people feel fuller. That's ...

  5. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  6. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  7. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  8. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  9. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal,...

  10. Phytohemagglutination Activity in Extruded Dry Bean Powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans are a highly nutritious food. Besides making beans palatable, cooking is required to denature lectin, a protein found in beans. If consumed raw or undercooked, lectin poisoning can occur. Symptoms of lectin poisoning include vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, and occur within hours of...

  11. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    PubMed

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food. PMID:27422785

  12. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  13. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K.; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Jackson, Scott A.; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis. PMID:25384727

  14. The transcriptome of common bean: nodules to beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  15. Genistein from Vigna angularis Extends Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Ahn, Dalrae; Kim, Ban Ji; Lee, So Yeon; Seo, Hyun Won; Cha, Youn-Soo; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Cha, Dong Seok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    The seed of Vigna angularis has long been cultivated as a food or a folk medicine in East Asia. Genistein (4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), a dietary phytoestrogen present in this plant, has been known to possess various biological properties. In this study, we investigated the possible lifespan-extending effects of genistein using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. We found that the lifespan of nematode was significantly prolonged in the presence of genistein under normal culture condition. In addition, genistein elevated the survival rate of nematode against stressful environment including heat and oxidative conditions. Further studies demonstrated that genistein-mediated increased stress tolerance of nematode could be attributed to enhanced expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). Moreover, we failed to find genistein-induced significant change in aging-related factors including reproduction, food intake, and growth, indicating genistein exerts longevity activity independent of affecting these factors. Genistein treatment also led to an up-regulation of locomotory ability of aged nematode, suggesting genistein affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. Our results represent that genistein has beneficial effects on the lifespan of C. elegans under both of normal and stress condition via elevating expressions of stress resistance proteins. PMID:25593647

  16. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  17. Starch characteristics of bean extrudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are one of the significant sources of food in the world. They are a rich source of carbohydrates (28-35%), even though they are better known for proteins (23-27%), fiber (2-5%), and minerals (4.21-5.17%). United States is the sixth-leading producer of dry edible...

  18. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  19. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (Genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae and cause some of the most economically important diseases of legume crops worldwide. Both viruses occur essentially wherever bean and cowpea (including Phaseolus...

  20. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  1. FOLATE CONTENT IN SELECT DRY BEAN GENOTYPES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry edible beans are a good natural source of folate (½-cup serving of cooked beans provide 35% daily value of folate). Recognized healthful benefits of folate in the human diet include reduced birth defects, decreased plasma homocysteine level which is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, reduc...

  2. Broadleaf weed control in lima beans.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadleaf weeds are particularly troublesome in lima beans due to the long growing season which extends beyond the period in which soil residual herbicides provide control. Weeds reduce yield and quality of lima beans, reduce harvest efficiency, and increase incidence of white mold. A study was co...

  3. Snap bean virus identification and management strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2000, a severe virus outbreak occurred in snap beans in Wisconsin and other neighboring snap bean production states. The epidemics have continued through 2005 and are the result of high populations of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) The most frequently detected viruses included Cucumber mosaic...

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  5. Bean Samples The Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the Lunar Module pilot.

  6. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  7. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    PubMed

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. PMID:24871476

  8. Release of ‘Croissant’ Pinto Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of ‘Croissant’, disease-resistant pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety. Croissant was developed at Colorado State University and tested in the Western Regional Bean Trials, Midwest Regional Performance Nursery, and Colorado Cr...

  9. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  10. Guidelines for Common Bean QTL Nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has become an important tool for the characterization and breeding of complex traits in crops plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A standard system for naming QTL in common bean is needed for effective referencing of new and previously identif...

  11. Weed competition and dry bean yield components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed competition can significantly reduce dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) yields and therefore the profitability for the producer. Depending on the dry bean variety produced, the yield components may be affected differently by the stress produced by weed competition. This research was conducted to ...

  12. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree,...

  18. Molecular modeling and inhibitory activity of cowpea cystatin against bean bruchid pests.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Juliana M; Franco, Octávio L; Rigden, Daniel J; Bloch, Carlos; Monteiro, Ana C S; Flores, Victor M Q; Jacinto, Tânia; Xavier-Filho, José; Oliveira, Antonia E A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Fernandes, Kátia V S

    2006-05-15

    Plant cystatins show great potential as tools to genetically engineer resistance of crop plants against pests. Two important potential targets are the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, which display major activities of digestive cysteine proteinases in midguts. In this study a cowpea cystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor found in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with a Ni-NTA agarose column. It strongly inhibited papain and proteinases from midguts of both A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus bruchids, as seen by in vitro assays. When the protein was incorporated into artificial seeds at concentrations as low as 0.025%, and seeds were consumed by the bruchids larva, dramatic reductions in larval weight, and increases in insect mortality were observed. Molecular modeling studies of cowpea cystatin in complex with papain revealed that five N-terminal residues responsible for a large proportion of the hydrophobic interactions involved in the stabilization of the enzyme-inhibitor complex are absent in the partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing of soybean cystatin. We suggest that this structural difference could be the reason for the much higher effectiveness of cowpea cystatin when compared to that previously tested phytocystatin. The application of this knowledge in plant protein mutation programs aiming at enhancement of plant defenses to pests is discussed. PMID:16470583

  19. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation.

    PubMed

    Difo, V H; Onyike, E; Ameh, D A; Njoku, G C; Ndidi, U S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work. PMID:26345026

  20. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar. PMID:24867807

  1. Immunological detection of bean common mosaic virus in French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Gupta, U P

    2010-09-01

    Bean common mosaic potyvirus (BCMV) is an important seed borne pathogen of French bean. Differential inoculation with bean common mosaic virus at cotylodonary trifoliate leaf stage and pre-flowering stage of crop growth revealed that cotyledonary leaf infection favored maximum disease expression. Under immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) the virus particles of filamentous structure having a diameter of 750 nm (l) and 15 nm (w) were observed. These particles gave positive precipitin tests with polyclonal antiserum of Potato virus Y. PMID:23100839

  2. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with the Accumulation of Distinct Sulfur γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dengqun; Cram, Dustin; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) accumulate γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-Glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing data at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulfur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately fourfold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was twofold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulfhydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methylcysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulfur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulfur amino acid γ-Glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo. PMID:23532826

  3. Locust bean gum: a versatile biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J

    2013-05-15

    Biopolymers or natural polymers are an attractive class of biodegradable polymers since they are derived from natural sources, easily available, relatively cheap and can be modified by suitable reagent. Locust bean gum is one of them that have a wide potentiality in drug formulations due to its extensive application as food additive and its recognized lack of toxicity. It can be tailored to suit its demands of applicants in both the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Locust bean gum has a wide application either in the field of novel drug delivery system as rate controlling excipients or in tissue engineering as scaffold formation. Through keen references of reported literature on locust bean gum, in this review, we have described critical aspects of locust bean gum, its manufacturing process, physicochemical properties and applications in various drug delivery systems. PMID:23544637

  4. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  5. The "white kidney bean incident" in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Haruko; Date, Kimie

    2014-01-01

    Lectin poisoning occurred in Japan in 2006 after a TV broadcast that introduced a new diet of eating staple foods with powdered toasted white kidney beans, seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris. Although the method is based on the action of a heat-stable α-amylase inhibitor in the beans, phaseolamin, more than 1,000 viewers who tried the method suffered from acute intestinal symptoms and 100 people were hospitalized. Lectins in the white kidney beans were suspected to be the cause of the trouble. We were asked to investigate the lectin activity remaining in the beans after the heat treatment recommended on the TV program. The test suggested that the heat treatment was insufficient to inactivate the lectin activity, which, combined with our ignorance of carbohydrate signaling in the intestine, was the cause of the problem. PMID:25117222

  6. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  7. Red kidney beans--to eat or not to eat?

    PubMed

    Venter, F S; Thiel, P G

    1995-04-01

    The importation of dry red kidney beans (a variety of the species Phaseolus vulgaris) for cultivation or consumption in South Africa is prohibited because of their potential toxicity to humans. It has been established that the haemagglutinating lectins (e.g. phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)) in kidney beans are responsible for this toxicity. Dry bean varieties available on the South African market for human consumption as well as locally produced (for this study) and imported dry red kidney beans and imported canned red kidney beans were compared. The PHA activity and the effect of heat thereon were measured, before and after overnight soaking. The PHA activity in extracts of uncooked and incompletely cooked red kidney beans was not higher than the levels measured in 50% of the other bean varieties included in the study. These findings indicate that the toxic potentials and health risks associated with red kidney beans are similar to those of other dry beans already commercially available to South Africans. PMID:7777998

  8. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater. PMID:26470357

  9. Potential of Vigna radiata (L.) sprouts in the management of inflammation and arthritis in rats: Possible biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwarlu, E; Reddy, K Purnima; Dilip, D

    2016-01-01

    Vigna radiata (Fabaceae) is an important pulse crop widespread throughout the tropics and warm temperature regions. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-inflammatory and in vivo antiarthritic activity of Vigna radiata sprouts in rats. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by membrane stabilization and protein denaturation method. Whereas, the antiarthritic activity of the ethanolic extract of the sprouts was evaluated by complete Freund's adjuvant model with diclofenac sodium as the standard drug. Body weights, paw volume, biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, total reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and lysosomal enzymes like cathepsin-D, N-acetyl β-D-glucosamindase and β-D-glucuronidase were estimated. Treatment with ethanolic extract of V. radiata exhibited significant membrane stabilization activity and protein denaturation activity, and significantly attenuated the biochemical changes induced by administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The findings of the present study suggest the possible role of Vigna radiata in the therapeutics of arthritis. PMID:26891551

  10. Preharvest herbicide treatments affect black bean desiccation, yield, and canned bean color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field trial was conducted near Richville, Michigan in 2013 and 2014 to evaluate the effects of preharvest herbicide treatments on desiccation, yield, and canned black bean quality and color. Three Type II black bean varieties, Zorro, Eclipse, and Zenith, were planted on two different dates in each...

  11. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Sayak; Dey, Avishek; Banik, Rahul; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV) is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control) and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731) of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by ‘SeqQC V2.2’ bioinformatics tool. PMID:26981413

  12. Bean with Tools on the Ocean of Storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Lunar Module pilot, pauses near a tool carrier during extravehicular activity (EVA) on the Moon's surface. Commander Charles Conrad Jr., who took the black and white photo, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor.

  13. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  14. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  15. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  16. Spherosomes of Castor Bean Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Robert A.; Liu, Kitty D. F.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1980-01-01

    The membrane components of the castor bean spherosomes were characterized. The storage triacylglycerols of isolated spherosomes were extracted with diethyl ether, and the membrane was isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. It had an apparent equilibrium density of 1.12 grams per cubic centimeter, and possessed an antimycin A-insensitive NADH cytochrome c reductase and an acid lipase. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol in roughly equal amounts were the major phospholipids. The membrane proteins were resolved into several major and minor protein bands of molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 70,000 by acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the protein pattern in the gel was different from those of the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial, and glyoxysomal membranes. The varying amounts of spherosomal components in the seed were followed throughout seed maturation and germination. A striking similarity existed in the developmental pattern of each of the spherosomal components. This finding suggests that the spherosome is synthesized and degraded as one individual unit. The spherosomes isolated from maturing seeds exhibited rapid hydrolysis of the storage lipid in vitro, thus raising the problem of cellular control in preventing in vivo autolysis of the spherosomes during seed maturation. Images PMID:16661355

  17. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Thillo, M. van

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  18. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  19. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed. PMID:1445392

  20. Standard nomenclature for common bean chromosomes and linkage groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several DNA-based linkage maps have been developed for common bean including the core common bean linkage map using the BAT93 x Jalo EEP558 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Correlation of common bean chromosomes to the genetic linkage groups was completed using RFLP markers to assign each l...

  1. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  3. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. Activities to Grow On: Buttons, Beads, and Beans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzolis, Amy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents new ideas for using buttons, beans, and beads as teaching manipulatives for elementary school children. The ideas include a button scavenger hunt, a button count, a cup puppet bean game, a numbers guessing game with beans in jars, and a bead stringing activity. (SM)

  8. Differential soil acidity tolerance of dry bean genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil acidity is a major yield limiting factors for bean production in the tropical regions. Using soil acidity tolerant genotypes is an important strategy in improving bean yields and reducing cost of production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of evaluating 20 dry bean geno...

  9. A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the Andean gene pool, including red mottled, kidney, cranberry, and yellow seed types are important in Africa and in the Americas. Andean dry bean breeding gains have lagged behind those of Mesoamerican beans. These differences may be due to a narrower genetic b...

  10. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  11. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  12. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    PubMed

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated. PMID:15586693

  13. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  14. Evaluation of the reaction oof interspecific hybrids of common bean and tepary bean to Bradyrhizobium y Rhizobium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interspecific hybrids between common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., and tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray, have the potential to increase bean production in regions where rainfall is limited. In 2014, an experiment was initiated using a split-plot design. The treatments included inoculation, ...

  15. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  16. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

  17. Virus diseases of peas, beans, and faba bean in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled; Pappu, Hanu; Kumari, Safaa G

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, pea, bean, and faba bean production is affected by around 17 major viruses. These viruses do not have the same ecology and consequently require a variety of different preventive measures to control them. Some of these viruses have a narrow host range, such as Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), and others, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a very wide host range. Such features are important when identifying sources of virus inoculum in a region, and the vectors can transmit viruses from natural reservoirs to the crop plants. Some of these viruses are seed borne and, consequently, can be disseminated long distances through infected seeds. Crop losses caused by these viruses are variable, depending on the sensitivity and susceptibility of the crop to infection. Host resistance genes have been identified for some of these viruses, but in others, such as FBNYV, no resistance genes in faba bean have been identified yet. Significant progress was made in developing precise methods for the identification of these viruses, and new virus problems are being identified every year. This chapter is not intended to be a review for pea, bean, and faba bean viruses, but rather focuses on the major viruses which affect these crops in the Mediterranean basin with focus on the progress made over the past two decades. PMID:22682174

  18. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...

  19. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  20. Investigating nitrogen deficiency in common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and soybean diverged from a common ancestor approximately 19 million years ago. The genome of P. vulgaris is approximately half the size of soybean, making it an excellent model for soybean genetics. Nitrogen (N) is often a growth-limiting nutrient, and N deficiency ...

  1. Registration of ‘Eldorado’ pinto bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eldorado’ (Reg. No. CV-302, PI 665012) pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which was developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch, was released in 2012 as an upright, full-season,disease-resistant cultivar. Eldorado, tested as MSU breeding line P07863, was developed using the single-seed-de...

  2. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the garlic aside. In a medium sauce pan, heat your cooking oil over medium high heat. Add the onions and sauté for 1 to ... When the beans begin to boil, reduce the heat to low, stir in the salt and oregano ...

  3. Forage potential of American potato bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing perennial leguminous vine that is native to the eastern half of the United States. In the wild, the plant prefers moist soils near bodies of water and full sunlight for at least part of the day. It grows well in waterlogged, acidi...

  4. Registration of 'Badillo' Light Red Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Badillo’, Reg. No. CV-294, PI658490, a multiple disease resistant light red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar adapted to the humid tropics, was developed and released in 2009 cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) Agricultural Experiment Station and the United States Depart...

  5. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding. PMID:26400359

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga vignae Strain BR 3299T, a Novel Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Alphaproteobacterium Isolated from a Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Edson Zilli, Jerri; Ribeiro Passos, Samuel; Leite, Jakson; Ribeiro Xavier, Gustavo; Gouvea Rumjaneck, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Microvirga vignae is a recently described species of root-nodule bacteria isolated from cowpeas grown in a Brazilian semiarid region. We report here the 6.4-Mb draft genome sequence and annotation of M. vignae type strain BR 3299. This genome information may help to understand the mechanisms underlying the ability of the organism to grow under drought and high-temperatures conditions. PMID:26159523

  7. Can leek interfere with bean plant-bean fly interaction? Test of ecological pest management in mixed cropping.

    PubMed

    Bandara, K A N P; Kumar, V; Ninkovic, V; Ahmed, E; Pettersson, J; Glinwood, R

    2009-06-01

    Effects of volatile odors from leek, Allium porum L., on the behavior of bean fly, Ophiomyia phaseoli (Tryon) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), were tested in laboratory olfactometer bioassays. Aqueous and solvent extracts (dichloromethane and methanol) of leek were repellent to adult flies. Whole leek plants were repellent and prevented attraction to the host plant, beans. Beans that had been exposed to volatiles from living leek plants for 7 d became repellent to the fly. Leek and several other crops were tested in field experiments to identify candidate crops for a mixed cropping system to minimize bean fly attack in beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. In a wet season field experiment, mixed cropping of bean with leek or three other vegetable crops did not significantly reduce bean fly infestation or infection with Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. compared with a mono crop, but significantly reduced plant death caused by both agents combined. In two dry season field experiments, mixed cropping of beans with leek significantly reduced adult bean fly settling, emergence, and death of bean plants compared with a mono crop. Bean yield per row was approximately 150% higher for the mixed crop, and economic returns were approximately Sri Lankan Rs. 180,000/ha, higher than for the mono crop. For the mono crop, the farmer had a monetary loss, which would become a small profit only if the costs of family labor are excluded. The study is an example of the first steps toward development of sustainable plant protection in a subsistence system. PMID:19610413

  8. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation. PMID:26476558

  9. Phytostabilization of mine waste: growth and physiological responses of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Shruti; Aery, N C

    2007-07-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out for phytoremediation of the Pb/Zn abandoned tailings (pH 3.2 and high metal content) of Rampura-Agucha Mines, Rajasthan. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea) was chosen as a test crop. On unamended tailings, the seeds of the test plant showed no germination. The tailing was amended with lime (3% on weight basis), 3% lime + NPK (diammonium phosphate at 60 kg/ha, muriate of potash at 40 kg/ ha) and 3% lime + FYM at 15 t/ha and used for experiments. Quantification of various parameters viz. shoot-root length, shoot-root dry weight, chlorophyll contents (a', 'b' and total) and peroxidase activity of test crop revealed T+ S + 3% lime + NPK to be the most suitable amelioration followed by FYM. The above treatments helped in improving the growth and productivity of the test plants by providing a favorable environment. PMID:18380090

  10. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops. PMID:23813339

  11. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. PMID:25142352

  12. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes. PMID:27173351

  13. Biofortified black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize/bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard (“Low”) and the other biofortified (“High”) in Fe (71 and 106 ug Fe/g, respectively) were used. Maize-bas...

  14. Bean Common Mosaic Virus and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus: Relationships, Biology, and Prospects for Control.

    PubMed

    Worrall, Elizabeth A; Wamonje, Francis O; Mukeshimana, Gerardine; Harvey, Jagger J W; Carr, John P; Mitter, Neena

    2015-01-01

    The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are major constraints on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production. Crop losses caused by BCMV and BCMNV impact severely not only on commercial scale cultivation of this high-value crop but also on production by smallholder farmers in the developing world, where bean serves as a key source of dietary protein and mineral nutrition. In many parts of the world, progress has been made in combating BCMV through breeding bean varieties possessing the I gene, a dominant gene conferring resistance to most BCMV strains. However, in Africa, and in particular in Central and East Africa, BCMNV is endemic and this presents a serious problem for deployment of the I gene because this virus triggers systemic necrosis (black root disease) in plants possessing this resistance gene. Information on these two important viruses is scattered throughout the literature from 1917 onward, and although reviews on resistance to BCMV and BCMNV exist, there is currently no comprehensive review on the biology and taxonomy of BCMV and BCMNV. In this chapter, we discuss the current state of our knowledge of these two potyviruses including fundamental aspects of classification and phylogeny, molecular biology, host interactions, transmission through seed and by aphid vectors, geographic distribution, as well as current and future prospects for the control of these important viruses. PMID:26111585

  15. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods. PMID:25029555

  16. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debastiani, R.; dos Santos, C. E. I.; Yoneama, M. L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  17. Functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) starch.

    PubMed

    Mélo, E A; Stamford, T L M; Silva, M P C; Krieger, N; Stamford, N P

    2003-08-01

    The study was carried out in order to determine and establish the functional characters of starch extracted from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urban) compared with cassava starch. Yam bean is a tropical tuber legume easily grown and holds a great potential as a new source of starch. Yam bean starch shows functional properties which are peculiar to those of most starch root crops. Gelatinization temperature (53-63 degrees C) and the pasting temperature (64.5 degrees C) are less than those of cereal starch, however, the swelling power is high (54.4 g gel/g dried starch). Yam bean starch paste presents a high viscosity profile, high retrogradation tendency and low stability on cooking. The functional properties of yam bean starch, similar to those of cassava starch, allows yam bean to be used as a potential new source of starch. PMID:12676508

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of mungbean Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 and a phylogenetic analysis of crops in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The entire mitogenome of the Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 was identified as a circular molecule of 401 262 bp length (DDBJ accession number: AP014716). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the NM92 mitogenome were found to be 27.48%, 27.41%, 22.63%, and 22.48%, respectively. The NM92 mitogenome encoded 3 rRNAs, 16 tRNAs and 33 proteins. Eight protein-coding genes (nad1, nad2, nad4, nad5, nad7, rps3, and rps10) centain introns. Among them, three (nad1, nad2, and nad5) are trans-spliced genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the 21 protein-coding genes of 16 crops. A species of gymnosperms, Cycas, was selected as the outgroup. This complete mitogenome sequence provides useful information to understand the cultivation of Vigna radiata and other crops. PMID:26469726

  19. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  20. Clinical complications of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Jain, S K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-06-01

    Kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), are common legumes, consumed worldwide. The delicacy of kidney beans is highly appreciable but, at the same time, their toxicity has raised an alarming concern. Kidney bean toxicity may be divided into two subcategories: toxicity caused by its lectins, saponins, phytates, and protease inhibitors or allergenicity induced by its allergenic proteins. The purpose of this review is to unravel the facts behind the different aspects of toxicity and allergenicity induced by kidney beans and try to fill the gaps that exist currently. PMID:23410632

  1. Genetic control of inflorescence in common bean.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S R; Ramalho, M A P; de F B Abreu, A; Pereira, L A

    2014-01-01

    The number of pods per common bean plant is a primary component of grain yield, which depends on the number of flowers produced and on the flower set. Thus, a larger number of flowers per plant would increase yield. Lines with inflorescences that had a large number of flowers compared to common bean plants now under cultivation were identified. We analyzed the genetic control of this trait and its association with grain yield. The cultivar BRSMG Talismã was crossed with 2 lines, L.59583 and L.59692, which have a large number of flowers. The F1, F2, and F3 generations were obtained. These generations were assessed together with the parents in a randomized block experimental design with 2 replications. The traits assessed included length of inflorescence, number of pods per inflorescence, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, 100-grain weight, and grain yield per plant. Mean genetic components and variance were estimated. The traits length of inflorescence and number of pods per inflorescence exhibited genetic control with predominance that showed an additive effect. In the 2 crosses, genetic control of grain yield and of its primary components showed that the allelic interaction of dominance was high. The wide variability in the traits assessed may be used to increase yield of the common bean plant by increasing the number of flowers on the plant. PMID:25501247

  2. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  3. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  4. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S.; Luthria, Devanand L.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, while pinto beans contained kaempferol and its 3-O-glycosides. Light red kidney bean contained traces of quercetin 3-O-glucoside and its malonates, but pink and dark red kidney beans contained the diglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Small red beans contained kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, while no flavonoids were detected in alubia, cranberry, great northern, and navy beans. This is the first report of the tentative identification of quercetin 3-O-pentosylhexoside and flavonoid glucoside malonates, and the first detailed detection of hydroxycinnamates, in common beans. PMID:25544796

  5. Wisconsin - Increased corn silage protein with intercropped lablab bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein supplements for livestock are costly. In recent research in southern WI, lablab bean grown with corn increased forage CP concentration over monoculture corn without compromising forage yield or potential milk production per acre. Corn was intercropped with each of three climbing beans: lab...

  6. Registration of ‘Snowdon’ White Kidney Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Snowdon’ white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI __), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2012 as an early-mid season, disease-resistant, bush bean cultivar. Snowdon was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F4 generation followed ...

  7. Combining Rust Resistance and Heat Tolerance in Snap Beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important crop in many countries both in economic and nutritional terms. However, diseases such as rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) and abiotic stresses including high temperatures limit its productivity in many areas in the tropics. Enhancing snap bean resistan...

  8. Exclusion of deer and yield of dry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yields of crops can be reduced due to predation by herbivores. Field grown Navy Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is susceptible to damage by deer. Seed of the Navy Bean cv. Aspen were sown in a sandy loam soil in May 2006. When plants reached the first trifoliate leaf stage exclusion cages were set a...

  9. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  10. A MOLECULAR MARKER LINKAGE MAP OF SNAP BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bush Blue Lake (BBL) snap beans are grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon for canning and freezing. While they have desirable processing and production traits compared to other snap beans, plant architecture, seed production traits, and white mold resistance need improvement. Previous breeding ...

  11. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant capacity in eight edible beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we explored the use of microwave as a fast method for the extraction of antioxidants from beans. Antioxidant capacity of the extracts from meat and the hull of eight common beans was determined, using the ß-carotene bleaching method. Microwave-assisted extraction was achieved using two ...

  12. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF COMMON BEAN CULTIVARS TO PHAKOPSORA PACHYRHIZI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow) has been reported on common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Asia, South Africa, and the United States. However, there is little information on the interaction of individual isolates of P. pachyrhizi with common bean germplasm. A set of 16 comm...

  13. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  14. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  15. 40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks under building and pulled out to sun dry beans on terraces to the north and south of building. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-3 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  16. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  17. Cucurbit leaf crumple virus Identified in Common Bean in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of Cucurbit leaf crumple virus in green beans in Florida suggests that this virus may be more widely distributed than previously known in the state and that green bean (and potentially other legumes) are potential reservoirs for Cucurbit leaf crumple virus....

  18. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) are a nutrient dense, low cost food and therefore are an excellent value for consumers (Drewnowski and Rehm, 2013). In spite of this value, long cooking times limit bean consumption. This is true in developing countries where cooking fuel is sometimes scarce and in d...

  19. The Polyphenolic Profiles of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items belonging to ten dry bean commercial market classes can be organized into six different group...

  20. REGISTRATION OF 'SILVER CLOUD' WHITE KIDNEY DRY BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver Cloud white kidney dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was developed by WSU and USDA-ARS. This cultivar provides a high yielding white kidney with mid season maturity and disease resistance for bean production areas of the Pacific Northwest. Silver Cloud has the combined I and bc-1 genes for res...

  1. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  2. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  3. Bean pod mottle virus movement in insect feeding resistant soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) impacts yield and seed quality. BPMV is vectored primarily by the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata) in Ohio. A 2-year experiment was carried out at two locations in Ohio to determine if resistance to insect feeding reduces disease incidence and spread in soybeans....

  4. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  5. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  6. Biology of the coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French beans.

    PubMed

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  7. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    PubMed Central

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  9. Diversity of the rust pathogen and common bean guides gene deployment for development of bean cultivars with durable rust resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sound approach for the development of common bean cultivars with durable rust resistance requires a comprehensive understanding of the great diversity of the bean rust pathogen and how this diversity affects each of the available rust resistance genes. Our virulence diversity studies of Uromyces a...

  10. Use of White Bean Instead of Red Bean May Improve Iron Bioavailability from a Tanzanian Complementary Food Mixture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the study presented, an in-vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was used to assess amount of bioavailable iron from a modified Tanzanian complementary food formulation. The main objective of the study was to determine whether a change from red bean to white bean in the complementary food rec...

  11. Registration of Common Bacterial Blight, Rust and Bean Common Mosaic Resistant Great Northern Bean Germplasm Line ABC - Weihing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Great northern common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm line ABC-Weihing was developed specifically for enhanced resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB), a major disease of common bean caused by the seedborne bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) and the brown-pigmented variant...

  12. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... protection organization (NPPO) of the Republic of Kenya has requested that the Animal and Plant...

  13. Protective mechanism of the Mexican bean weevil against high levels of alpha-amylase inhibitor in the common bean.

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, M; Chrispeels, M J

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha AI) protects seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against predation by certain species of bruchids such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis), but not against predation by the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus) or the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), insects that are common in the Americas. We characterized the interaction of alpha AI-1 present in seeds of the common bean, of a different isoform, alpha AI-2, present in seeds of wild common bean accessions, and of two homologs, alpha AI-Pa present in seeds of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and alpha AI-Pc in seeds of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), with the midgut extracts of several bruchids. The extract of the Z. subfasciatus larvae rapidly digests and inactivates alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc, but not alpha AI-2 or alpha AI-Pa. The digestion is caused by a serine protease. A single proteolytic cleavage in the beta subunit of alpha AI-1 occurs at the active site of the protein. When degradation is prevented, alpha AI-1 and alpha AI-Pc do not inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, although they are effective against the alpha-amylase of C. chinensis. Alpha AI-2 and alpha AI-Pa, on the other hand, do inhibit the alpha-amylase of Z. subfasciatus, suggesting that they are good candidates for genetic engineering to achieve resistance to Z. subfasciatus. PMID:8787024

  14. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  15. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-01

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity. PMID:12670155

  16. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo, Márcia do Vale Barreto

    2011-01-01

    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI – 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI – 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis – 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs. PMID:24031707

  17. Lifespan Extending and Stress Resistant Properties of Vitexin from Vigna angularis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kim, Mina; Song, Seuk Bo; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Sooncheon; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan. PMID:26535084

  18. Evaluation of anti-osteoarthritic activity of Vigna mungo in papain induced osteoarthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhaval V.; Sawant, Mrunal Ghag; Kaur, Ginpreet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vigna mungo hydroalcoholic extract (VMHA) by papain induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat model. Materials and Methods: OA was induced by intra-articular injection of papain (4% w/v) along with cysteine (0.03 M) on day 1, 4 and 7 in rats and VMHA was administered orally in three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) after last papain injection. The anti-osteoarthritic activity was evaluated by measuring knee joint diameter, grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time. Histopathological analysis and acute toxicity study were also performed. Results: VMHA improved inflammatory condition with all the doses, but significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inflammation was present only with 400 mg/kg dose. The grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time were also significantly (P < 0.05) improved at dose level of 100 mg/kg however other two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) were not found to be effective. VMHA did not show any mortality or any toxic clinical signs after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose. Conclusion: VMHA improved arthritic condition by significantly reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25821313

  19. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  20. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  1. Appraisal of gene action for indeterminate growth in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javed; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Ali, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the inheritance pattern of indeterminate growth in Vigna radiata, various related traits were studied. The techniques used for the purpose were generation mean and variance analyses. Narrow sense heritability estimates were also computed. Four out of fifty greengram accessions were selected during preliminary screen trial based on DDd2 and DDh2 values. Two cross combinations were made by utilizing four parents. Generation variance analysis demonstrated the engagement of additive and environmental components, with the pre-pondrance of additive gene action. Narrow sense heritability estimates (>67%) also supported the same. In generation mean analysis both cross combinations manifested non-allelic epistatic digenic interactions for the investigated traits except for plant height at first flower initiation and for seed yield per plant in one cross combination, where only additive and dominance components were important. For pyramiding the additive genes favoring determinate plant growth, higher harvest index and simultaneously purging the genes promoting twining growth habit escorted with low seed yield, any modified breeding scheme which could serve the said purpose may be opted. PMID:26388879

  2. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zain; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash

    2014-01-01

    Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29%) was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26%) was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80%) of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83%) and serine (5.45%) were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46%) was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results. PMID:25401158

  3. Lifespan Extending and Stress Resistant Properties of Vitexin from Vigna angularis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kim, Mina; Song, Seuk Bo; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Sooncheon; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-11-01

    Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan. PMID:26535084

  4. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Moray, C.; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  5. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = −0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  6. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva, F.V.; Simões-Araújo, J.L.; Silva Júnior, J.P.; Xavier, G.R.; Rumjanek, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. PMID:24031880

  7. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  8. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  9. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  10. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    PubMed

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution. PMID:27191550

  11. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  12. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  13. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties. PMID:25463718

  14. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  15. Comparison of Metabolic Profiles of Three Varieties of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we compared the amino acid (11), organic acid (3) and sugar (9) profiles of three different varieties of dry beans (black bean (BB), dark red bean (DRB), and cranberry bean (CB)). The efficiency of the two commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1...

  16. Release of ‘Beniquez’ White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed yield when susceptible bean cultivars are planted in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCM...

  17. Registration of PR1146-138 yellow dry bean germplasm line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. However, there have been no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean common...

  18. Development of the yellow common bean germplasm PR1146-138

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important market class in Haiti. There have been, however, no previous attempts to genetically improve this seed type for the Caribbean. Landrace varieties of yellow beans in Haiti are susceptible to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and bean commo...

  19. Identification of SSR markers linked to rust resistance in Andean common bean PI 260418

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean rust is a major disease of common bean that reduces yields and increase costs of dry and snap bean production in many parts of the world. Disease resistant cultivars offer the most effective, economical, and environmentally-friendly method of controlling bean rust. However, this strategy is com...

  20. Dry bean genotype evaluation for growth, yield components and phosphorus use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry beans along with rice are staple food for populations of South America. In this tropical region beans are grown on Oxisols and phosphorus is one of the most yield limiting factors for dry bean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate P use efficiency in 20 promising dry bean...

  1. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that...

  3. A New Anthracnose Resistance Gene in Andean Common Bean Cultivar Jalo Listras Pretas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthracnose is one of the most widespread and economically important diseases of common bean worldwide. Most anthracnose resistance genes in common bean are from beans of the Mesoamerican gene pool. The resistant reaction of the Andean common bean cultivar Jalo Listras Pretas to races 9, 64, 65 and ...

  4. Physical properties and fatty acid profiles of oils from black, kidney, Great Northern, and pinto beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four common beans (black bean, kidney bean, great northern, and pinto) were extracted with hexane and found to contain about 2% triglyceride oils. The fatty acids found in these bean oils were mainly linolenic (41.7-46 wt %), linoleic (24.1-33.4 wt %), palmitic (10.7-12.7 wt %) and oleic (5.2-9.5 wt...

  5. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    1988-01-01

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.

  6. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    PubMed

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-01-01

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean. PMID:27173211

  7. Characterization of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) proteins.

    PubMed

    Morales-Arellano, G Y; Chagolla-López, A; Paredes-López, O; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2001-03-01

    Seed proteins from Mexican yam bean seeds (Pachyrhizus erosus L.) were sequentially extracted according to the Osborne classification. Albumins were the major fraction (52.1-31.0%), followed by globulins (30.7-27.5%). The minor protein fraction was prolamins (0.8%). Defatting with chloroform/methanol remarkably affected the distribution of protein solubility classes; albumins were the most affected fraction (4.3-17.5%). Electrophoretic patterns of albumins showed bands at 55, 40, 35, and 31 kDa. After reduction of the globulin fraction exhibited two triplets, one from 35 to 31 kDa and the second from 19 to 21 kDa, these could be compared to the acid and basic polypeptides of 11S-like proteins. Prolamins showed one band at 31 kDa, and glutelins after reduction showed three main bands at 52, 27, and 14 kDa. Trypsin inhibitors were assayed in saline extracts; the values found (1232-2608 IU/g of meal) were lower than those of other legumes. In general, yam bean seed proteins showed an excellent balance of all essential amino acids; albumins contain the highest amount of essential amino acids. PMID:11312888

  8. Global Genetic Differentiation in a Cosmopolitan Pest of Stored Beans: Effects of Geography, Host-Plant Usage and Anthropogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  9. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori; Kagoshima, Kumiko; Toquenaga, Yukihiko; Arnqvist, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Genetic differentiation can be promoted allopatrically by geographic isolation of populations due to limited dispersal ability and diversification over time or sympatrically through, for example, host-race formation. In crop pests, the trading of crops across the world can lead to intermixing of genetically distinct pest populations. However, our understanding of the importance of allopatric and sympatric genetic differentiation in the face of anthropogenic genetic intermixing is limited. Here, we examined global sequence variation in two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus that uses different legumes as hosts. We analyzed 180 samples from 42 populations of this stored bean pest from tropical and subtropical continents and archipelagos: Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, Oceania and South America. For the mitochondrial genes, there was weak but significant genetic differentiation across continents/archipelagos. Further, we found pronounced differentiation among subregions within continents/archipelagos both globally and within Africa but not within Asia. We suggest that multiple introductions into Asia and subsequent intermixing within Asia have generated this pattern. The isolation by distance hypothesis was supported globally (with or without continents controlled) but not when host species was restricted to cowpeas Vigna unguiculata, the ancestral host of C. maculatus. We also document significant among-host differentiation both globally and within Asia, but not within Africa. We failed to reject a scenario of a constant population size in the recent past combined with selective neutrality for the mitochondrial genes. We conclude that mitochondrial DNA differentiation is primarily due to geographic isolation within Africa and to multiple invasions by different alleles, followed by host shifts, within Asia. The weak inter-continental differentiation is most likely due to frequent inter-continental gene

  10. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  11. Identification of QTL conditioning partial resistance to white mold in kidney bean line VA19 derived from an interspecific population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarlet-runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.), a representative species of the secondary gene pool of common bean, is a potential source of white mold resistance for improving dry bean and snap bean. VA19 is a light-red kidney bean line that possesses resistance to white mold putatively derived from...

  12. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Donal M; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  13. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  14. Determining radio frequency heating uniformity of mixed beans for disinfestation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chickpeas and lentils are two important legumes grown in the US and need phytosanitary treatments before exportation, but it is difficult to artificially infest them with live cowpea weevil for radio frequency (RF) treatment validation. To evaluate the more readily infested black-eyed peas and mung ...

  15. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  16. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems—biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  17. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit. PMID:27323025

  18. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems-biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  19. Carotenemia associated with green bean ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sale, Tanya A; Stratman, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carotenemia is a condition characterized by yellow discoloration of the skin and elevated blood carotene levels. Excessive and prolonged ingestion of carotene-rich, yellow- or orange-colored foods such as carrots and winter squash is the most common cause, but more rarely it may be associated with consumption of other foods as well as with hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, liver disease, or kidney disease. Though not uncommon in children, there are few reports in the pediatric literature since its early descriptions in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Awareness of carotenemia can help the provider resolve confusion with jaundice and avoid unnecessary worry and costly tests. Herein we describe carotenemia in an 8-month-old Caucasian girl secondary to increased consumption of commercial infant food green beans. PMID:15575851

  20. Dietary soya beans and kidney beans stimulate secretion of cholecystokinin and pancreatic digestive enzymes in 400-day-old Hooded-Lister rats but only soya beans induce growth of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; Alonso, R; Edwards, J E; Murray, S

    2000-04-01

    The effects of age on cholecystokinin (CCK) release, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and growth of the pancreas mediated by dietary kidney beans or soya beans were evaluated in trials with 30-, 90-, 250-, and 400-day-old rats. Soya beans increased blood CCK and caused hypersecretion of digestive enzymes and rapid pancreatic growth in all rats. Kidney beans also elevated circulating CCK and stimulated enzyme secretion. However, with 90-, 250-, and 400-day-old rats, the secretory responses were attenuated. Furthermore, kidney beans did not induce pancreatic growth in 250- and 400-day-old rats. PMID:10766458

  1. THE Bct-1 LOCUS FOR RESISTANCE TO BEET CURLY TOP VIRUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE RESISTANCE TO BEAN DWARF MOSAIC VIRUS IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host resistance provides effective control of some diseases induced by geminiviruses in common bean. A recessive gene bgm-1 conditions resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and is located on linkage group B3 near the bc-12 gene for resistance to Bean common mosaic virus. The dominan...

  2. Apollo 14 Lunar glass fragment known as Genesis bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A tiny green glass fragment taken from an Apollo 14 core tube sampling. Because of its scientific significance and shape, the fragment has been nicknamed the 'Genesis bean'. The main constituents are iron and magnesium.

  3. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  4. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module during the mission's first extravehicular activity, EVA-1, on November 19, 1969.

  5. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant.

    PubMed

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11(th) millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ(13)C analysis. PMID:26458981

  6. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    PubMed Central

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis. PMID:26458981

  7. View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View towards the northeast of coffee beans drying on the third floor with hopper and drum type dryer in background - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  8. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  9. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. PMID:27283664

  10. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p<0.001) soluble and bound condensed tannins compared to pinto beans. No differences (p>0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (p<0.05) differences in lectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  11. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada )

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  13. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  14. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  15. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    PubMed

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  16. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W.; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J.; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade. PMID:21750729

  17. Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of some food grain powder in meat model system.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Jha, S N; Ahmad, Tanbir

    2014-11-01

    In-vitro antioxidant activity of some food grains [sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata), mung bean, sprouted chana (Cicer arietinum), chana, corn (Zea mays), methi (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and rajma (Phaseolus vulgaris)] powder extracts (FGE) was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity (SA) method. Total phenolics and reducing power were also estimated in these extracts. The antioxidant potential of these extracts was also estimated in a meat model system. Total phenolics in FGE ranged from 66.9 ± 3.4 to 248.6 ± 11.1 mg TAE/gdw respectively which differed significantly (P < 0.01) among various groups. These extracts also showed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity (43.9 ± 1.1 % to 69.9 ± 2.9 %). The reducing powerOD700 was observed maximum (P < 0.01) in sprouted mung bean extract as compared to corn powder extract. The correlation between DPPH free radical SA v/s total phenolics was significant (P < 0.01) with R = 0.775. correlation between DPPH free radical SA v/s reducing power and total phenolics v/s reducing power was also significant (P < 0.01) with R value 0.907 and 0.682 respectively. FGE treated raw chicken breast meat showed better (P < 0.01) oxidative stability than control groups. PMID:26396344

  18. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    PubMed Central

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  19. Bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management for reduction of bean pod mottle virus.

    PubMed

    Krell, Rayda K; Pedigo, Larry P; Hill, John H; Rice, Marlin E

    2004-04-01

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) is a management concern for soybean, Glycine max (L.), producers in the North Central states because it can cause yield loss and reduce seed quality by induction of seed coat mottling. The main vector of BPMV is the bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster). An experiment was conducted in 2000 and 2001 at two locations in northwestern and central Iowa to test three insecticide treatments for suppression of bean leaf beetles, and subsequently, BPMV. Treatments of insecticide applications with lambda-cyhalothrin were 1) a single early-season application (23 g [AI] /ha) (2.5 oz/acre) at the VE-VC soybean developmental stage; 2) two early-season applications, the first the same as treatment 1 and a second at the same rate 9-13 d later; 3) a single early-season application the same as treatment 1, followed by a mid-season application (28 g [AI] /ha (3.2 oz/acre) at approximately R2 (flowering, near 15 July); and 4) an unsprayed control. Application of lambda-cyhalothrin after soybean emergence and again as first-generation bean leaf beetles emerged in northwestern Iowa in 2000 (treatment 3) significantly reduced beetle densities through mid-season, BPMV field incidence by 31.5%, and seed coat mottling by 31.2%, compared with the unsprayed control. Similar effects were measured at the same location when insecticide was applied twice at early season (treatment 2). Yield was 453.7 kg/ha (6.74 bu/acre) greater in treatment 2 and 525.20 kg/ha (7.80 bu/acre) greater in treatment 3 than in the unsprayed control at the northwestern site in 2000. At both locations in 2001 fewer treatment effects were observed, which was likely related to lower beetle populations in that year. Early-season insecticide sprays targeted at overwintered beetles on VC-VE reduced the initial population of vector insects and may have contributed to a lower first-generation population because of reduced overwintered beetle oviposition. In 1 year at one location there

  20. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  1. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors <2 mg/g. For the single-bean calibration the r(2) values were between 0.85 and 0.93 with standard errors of cross validation of 0.8-1.6 mg/g depending upon calibration. The results showed it was possible to develop NIRS calibrations to estimate the caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products. PMID:24070227

  2. Specificity patterns indicate that auxin exporters and receptors are the same proteins.

    PubMed

    Hössel, D; Schmeiser, C; Hertel, R

    2005-01-01

    A study of transport and action of synthetic auxin analogues can help to identify transporters and receptors of this plant hormone. Both aspects--transportability and action on growth--were tested with 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA) and compared across several plant species. 2-NOA stimulates elongation effectively at low concentrations in petioles of the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba L., in hypocotyls or internodes of the dicot legumes, mung bean (Vigna mungo L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.), in cotyledons of onion (Allium cepa L.) and in leaf bases of chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.), the latter two of the monocot order Asparagales. In contrast, elongation of coleoptile segments of maize (Zea mays L.) is poorly responsive to 2-NOA. Significant auxin-like transport of 2-NOA was observed in segments of mung bean hypocotyls, pea internodes, and chive leaf bases, but not in segments of the grass coleoptiles. Thus, for the two assays, elongation and polar transportability, the same difference in ligand specificity was observed between the grass and all other species assayed. This finding supports the hypothesis that a common protein mediates auxin efflux as well as auxin action on elongation. PMID:15666213

  3. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS... of the vessel COOL BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset...

  4. Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Dianpeng; Sung, Shijean, S.; Black, C.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose synthase pathway and acid invertase were active. UDPase activity was low and seemingly insufficient to compete for UDP during sucrose metabolism in seed development or germination. In contrast, both an acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase were active in seed development and germination. The set of adaptive enzymes identified in developing seeds were sucrose synthase, PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, plus acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase; and, the adaptive enzymes identified in germinating seeds included the same set of enzymes plus acid invertase. The set of maintenance enzymes identified during development, in the dry seed, and during germination were UDP-glucopyrophosphorylase, neutral invertase, ATP and UTP-dependent fructokinase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, ATP and UTP-dependent phosphofructokinase and sucrose-P synthase.

  5. Sucrose Metabolism in Lima Bean Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dian-Peng; Sung, Shi-Jean S.; Black, Clanton C.

    1989-01-01

    Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose synthase pathway and acid invertase were active. UDPase activity was low and seemingly insufficient to compete for UDP during sucrose metabolism in seed development or germination. In contrast, both an acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase were active in seed development and germination. The set of adaptive enzymes identified in developing seeds were sucrose synthase, PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, plus acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase; and, the adaptive enzymes identified in germinating seeds included the same set of enzymes plus acid invertase. The set of maintenance enzymes identified during development, in the dry seed, and during germination were UDP-glucopyrophosphorylase, neutral invertase, ATP and UTP-dependent fructokinase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, ATP and UTP-dependent phosphofructokinase and sucrose-P synthase. PMID:16666672

  6. Proteases and Peptidases of Castor Bean Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Raymond E.; Beevers, Harry

    1978-01-01

    The endosperm of castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis L.) contains two —SH-dependent aminopeptidases, one hydrolyzing l-leucine-β-naphthylamide optimally at pH 7.0, and the other hydrolyzing l-proline-β-naphthylamide optimally at pH 7.5. After germination the endosperm contains in addition an —SH-dependent hemoglobin protease, a serine-dependent carboxypeptidase, and at least two —SH-dependent enzymes hydrolyzing the model substrate α-N-benzoyl-dl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (BANA). The carboxypeptidase is active on a variety of N-carbobenzoxy dipeptides, especially N-carbobenzoxy-L-phenylalanine-l-alanine and N-carbobenzoxy-l-tyrosine-l-leucine. The pH optima for the protease, carboxypeptidase, and BANAase acivities are 3.5 to 4.0, 5.0 to 5.5, and 6 to 8, respectively. The two aminopeptidases increased about 4-fold in activity during the first 4 days of growth, concurrent with the period of rapid depletion of storage protein. Activities then declined as the endosperm senesced, but were still evident after 6 days. Senescence was complete by day 7 to 8. Hemoglobin protease, carboxypeptidase, and BANAase activities appeared in the endosperm at day 2 to 3, and reached peak activity at day 5 to 6. The data indicate that the aminopeptidases are involved in the early mobilization of endosperm storage protein, whereas protease, carboxypeptidase, and BANAase may take part in later turnover and/or senescence. PMID:16660598

  7. Major proteins of yam bean tubers.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A V; Sirju-Charran, G; Barnes, J A

    1997-09-01

    The tuberous roots of the Mexican yam bean, jicama, (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) contained large quantities of two acidic glycoproteins which accounted for more than 70% of the total soluble proteins (about 3 g per 100 g of tuber on a dry weight basis). The two major proteins, tentatively named YBG1 and YBG2, had apparent M(r)s of 28,000 and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. A third protein named YBP22 which accounted for 2-5% of the total soluble proteins had an M(r) of 22,000. YBG1 and YBG2 exhibited great similarity on the basis of their amino acid composition and had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminal region of YBG2 were DDLPDYVDWRDYGAVTRIKNQGQ which showed strong homology with the papain class of cysteine proteases. YBG1 and YBG2 were found to bind to a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column and were also stained positively by a sensitive glycoprotein stain. Both glycoproteins exhibited cysteine proteolytic activity. In contrast, YBP22 showed sequence homology with several known protease inhibitors, and a polyclonal antibody raised against this protein cross reacted with soybean trypsin inhibitor. PMID:9311151

  8. A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; More, L J; McKenzie, N H; Stewart, J C; Pusztai, A

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris), runner (Phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell types and were also highly toxic. Group b, which contained seeds from lima or butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), agglutinated only human and pronase-treated rat erythrocytes. These seeds did not support proper growth of the rats although the animals survived the 10 d experimental period. Group c consisted of seeds from lentils (Lens culinaris), peas (Pisum sativum), chick-peas (Cicer arietinum), blackeyed peas (Vigna sinensis), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), field or broad beans (Vicia faba) and aduki beans (Phaseolus angularis). These generally had low reactivity with all cells and were non-toxic. Group d, represented by soya (Glycine max) and pinto (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans, generally had low reactivity with all cells but caused growth depression at certain dietary concentrations. This growth depression was probably mainly due to antinutritional factors other than lectins. Lectins from group a seeds showed many structural and immunological similarities. However the subunit composition of the lectin from the tepary bean samples was different from that of the other bean lectins in this or any other groups. PMID:6615758

  9. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Shelby H.; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km2 soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha−1 yr−1 (30 kg P ha−1 yr−1 above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  10. Isolation of oligomannose-type glycans from bean glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Ye, J; Wold, F

    1993-02-15

    We have isolated individual oligosaccharyl-asparagine derivatives from the total soluble glycoproteins from kidney beens (Phaseolus vulgaris) and from lima beans (Phaseolus limensis). The protein/glycoprotein mixture was digested exhaustively by pronase, and the glycan-containing fractions were separated from free amino acids and peptides by gel filtration. The oligosaccharyl-asparagine derivatives were finally fractionated on Dowex 50 (C. C. Huang, H.E. Meyer, and R. Montgomery, Carbohydr. Res. 13, 127-137, 1970), and the individual fractions were characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and ion exchange chromatography. With the procedures described, only oligomannose derivatives were obtained from the beans. In the case of kidney beans, six different derivatives were observed and characterized, Man9GlcNAc2Asn, two positional isomers of Man8GlcNAc2Asn, two positional isomers of Man7GlcNAc2Asn, and Man6GlcNAc2Asn. Under identical conditions the lima beans yielded primarily the Man9GlcNAc2Asn derivative along with a small amount of the two Man8GlcNAc2Asn derivatives. The oligomannose structures can be isolated in reasonable quantities (2-20 mg) from about 200 g of dry beans. PMID:8465965

  11. Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dry bean and soybean intake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J W; Smith, B M; Washnock, C S

    1999-09-01

    Dry beans and soybeans are nutrient-dense, fiber-rich, and are high-quality sources of protein. Protective and therapeutic effects of both dry bean and soybean intake have been documented. Studies show that dry bean intake has the potential to decrease serum cholesterol concentrations, improve many aspects of the diabetic state, and provide metabolic benefits that aid in weight control. Soybeans are a unique source of the isoflavones genistein and diadzein, which have numerous biological functions. Soybeans and soyfoods potentially have multifaceted health-promoting effects, including cholesterol reduction, improved vascular health, preserved bone mineral density, and reduction of menopausal symptoms. Soy appears to have salutary effects on renal function, although these effects are not well understood. Whereas populations consuming high intakes of soy have lower prevalences of certain cancers, definitive experimental data are insufficient to clarify a protective role of soy. The availability of legume products and resources is increasing, incorporating dry beans and soyfoods into the diet can be practical and enjoyable. With the shift toward a more plant-based diet, dry beans and soy will be potent tools in the treatment and prevention of chronic disease. PMID:10479219

  12. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  13. Suppression of Bean Defense Responses by Pseudomonas syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobek, JL; Smith, JA; Lindgren, PB

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a model system to examine suppression of defense responses in bean by the compatible bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola. Previously, we have shown that there is a general mechanism for the induction of the bean defense genes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), and chitinase (CHT) by incompatible, compatible, and nonpathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that bean plants infiltrated with isolates of P. s. phaseolicola failed to produce transcripts for PAL, CHS, or CHI up to 120 hr after infiltration and CHT transcript accumulation was significantly delayed when compared to the incompatible P. syringae strains. Infiltration of bean plants with 108 cells per mL of P. s. phaseolicola NPS3121 8 hr prior to infiltration with an equal concentration of incompatible P. s. pv tabaci Pt11528 significantly reduced the typical profile of defense transcript accumulation when compared to plants infiltrated with Pt11528 alone. A corresponding suppression of phytoalexin accumulation was also observed. NPS3121 also suppressed PAL, CHS, CHI, and CHT transcript accumulation and phytoalexin production induced by Escherichia coli DH5[alpha] or the elicitor glutathione. Heat-killed NPS3121 cells or cells treated with protein synthesis inhibitors lost the suppressor activity. Taken together, these experiments suggest that NPS3121 has an active mechanism to suppress the accumulation of defense transcripts and phytoalexin biosynthesis in bean. PMID:12271016

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of green coffee: comparison of graded and defective beans.

    PubMed

    Ramalakshmi, K; Kubra, I R; Rao, L J M

    2007-06-01

    Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical characteristics such as bean density, brightness, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, and total soluble solids and also chemical composition, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, lipids, sucrose, total polyphenols, and proteins, were evaluated in defective as well as in graded green coffee beans. The physical parameters such as weight, density, and brightness of defective coffee beans were low compared to the graded beans, which is due to the presence of immature, broken, bleached, and black beans. Caffeine content was low in triage beans compared to graded beans. Chlorogenic acids, one of the composition in coffee responsible for antioxidant activity, was found to be intact (marginally high in some cases) in defective coffee beans. Hence, triage coffee beans can be evaluated as a source of antioxidant or radical scavenging conserve for food systems. PMID:17995751

  15. Pinto Bean Hull Extract Supplementation Favorably Affects Markers of Bone Metabolism and Bone Structure in Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean hulls are rich in phenolic compounds known to possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effect on bone health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of bean hull extract (BHE) from pinto beans on bone structure and serum markers in twelve-month-old male C57BL/6 mice fed e...

  16. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  17. Protein Content and Canning Quality of Historically Important Navy Bean Varieties in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navy beans are one of the most important dry bean market classes in the U.S, and from the late 1800s until 2005 they have been the most planted market class in Michigan. The Michigan State College Agricultural Experiment Station established the first dry bean breeding program in the country in 1907 ...

  18. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  19. Release of ‘XRAV-40-4’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by viral diseases. Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), a whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)]-transmitted begomovirus, can cause significant reduction in common bean seed yield when...

  20. Interplanting Annual Ryegrass, Wheat, Oat, and Corn to Mitigate Iron Deficiency in Dry Beans

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal. PMID:25536084

  1. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starches.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang-Kui; Jiang, Hongxin; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2014-08-01

    Physicochemical properties and digestibility of pinto bean, red kidney bean, black bean and navy bean starches were analyzed. All the common bean starches had oval and spherical granules with average diameter of 25.3-27.4 μm. Amylose contents were 32.0-45.4%. Black bean starch showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, whereas red kidney bean starch showed the lowest pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Pinto bean starch showed the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperatures, and the lowest gelatinization temperature range; whereas navy bean starch exhibited the lowest values. Amylopectin of red kidney bean had the highest molecular weight (Mw) and z-average gyration radius (Rz), whereas black bean amylopectin had the lowest values of Mw and Rz. The proportions of DP 6-12, DP 13-24, DP 25-36, and DP ≥ 37 and average branch-chain lengths were 23.30-35.21%, 47.79-53.53%, 8.99-12.65%, 6.39-13.49%, and 17.91-21.56, respectively. All the native bean starches were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. PMID:24751265

  2. Registration of common bacterial blight resistant cranberry dry bean germplasm line USCR-CBB-20

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bacterial blight is a serious disease of dry edible beans in warm humid climates. The disease is most prominent east of the continental divide in the U.S. Large seeded dry beans from the Andean gene pool, such as those in the cranberry bean market class are very susceptible to this disease. ...

  3. Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

  4. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    PubMed

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal. PMID:25536084

  5. Patterns of fructose, glucose, and sucrose accumulation in snap and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugars, including fructose, glucose, and sucrose contribute significantly to the flavor and consumer acceptance of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Little is known regarding differences in sugar content among dry bean and snap bean cultivars and the patterns of sugar accumulation with increasing ...

  6. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  7. Iron bioavailability to piglets from red and white common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols in foods may chelate dietary Fe and lower its bioavailability. Concentrations of phenols are substantially higher in red beans than in white beans. The aim of this study was to compare iron bioavailabilities from red and white beans in a piglet hemoglobin repletion model. Fe deficient cr...

  8. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  9. Biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using an aerobic bacterial strain SAG5 of Alcaligenes faecalis.

    PubMed

    Santal, Anita Rani; Singh, N P; Saharan, Baljeet Singh

    2011-10-15

    Distillery effluent retains very dark brown color even after anaerobic treatment due to presence of various water soluble, recalcitrant and coloring compounds mainly melanoidins. In laboratory conditions, melanoidin decolorizing bacteria was isolated and optimized the cultural conditions at various incubation temperatures, pH, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and combined effect of both carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimum decolorization (72.6 ± 0.56%) of melanoidins was achieved at pH 7.5 and temperature 37 °C on 5th day of cultivation. The toxicity evaluation with mung bean (Vigna radiata) revealed that the raw distillery effluent was environmentally highly toxic as compared to biologically treated distillery effluent, which indicated that the effluent after bacterial treatment is environmentally safe. This proves to be novel biological treatment technique for biodegradation and detoxification of melanoidin from distillery effluent using the bacterial strain SAG(5). PMID:21880418

  10. Crop genotype and a novel symbiotic fungus influences the root endophytic colonization potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Geeta; Singh, N; Marwaha, T S

    2009-01-01

    Effect of plant genotype on the root endophytic colonization ability of a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas striata was undertaken in this study. Use of a lac-Z tagged P. striata strain showed that, it can exist as an endophyte and the plant genotype determines the performance of the inoculated PGPR. The cultivars of Zea mays L. (maize) and Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) tested showed differential affinity to the PGPR (P. striata) as reflected by a significant variation in the root endophytic colonization ability of P. striata. Coinoculation with a novel symbiotic fungus Piriformospora indica was found to stimulate endophytic colonization of P. striata in both maize and mungbean. The root exudates of maize and mungbean cultivars showed variations in the total sugar and amino acid contents. However, no consistent relationship was recorded between the concentrations of these metabolites and endophytic colonization of the added PGPR. PMID:23572916

  11. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile. PMID:17926127

  12. Unique structural features of red kidney bean purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Cashikar, A G; Rao, M N

    1995-06-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme is a homodimer of 60 kDa subunits each containing one atom of zinc and iron in the active site. Circular dichroism spectral studies on the purified enzyme reveals that a large portion of the peptide backbone is in the unordered and beta-turn conformation. A unique feature of the red kidney bean acid phosphatase, which we have found, is that one of the two cysteines of each subunit is involved in the formation of an inter-subunit disulphide. The thiol group of the other cysteine is not necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Western blot analysis with antibodies raised against kidney bean acid phosphatase could not recognize acid phosphatases from other sources except from potato. This paper emphasizes the fact that acid phosphatases are functionally, but not structurally, conserved enzymes. PMID:7590853

  13. Hyperspectral imaging for differentiation of foreign materials from pinto beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Zemlan, Michael; Henry, Sam

    2015-09-01

    Food safety and quality in packaged products are paramount in the food processing industry. To ensure that packaged products are free of foreign materials, such as debris and pests, unwanted materials mixed with the targeted products must be detected before packaging. A portable hyperspectral imaging system in the visible-to-NIR range has been used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from pinto beans that have been mixed with foreign matter. Bands and band ratios have been identified as effective features to develop a classification scheme for detection of foreign materials in pinto beans. A support vector machine has been implemented with a quadratic kernel to separate pinto beans and background (Class 1) from all other materials (Class 2) in each scene. After creating a binary classification map for the scene, further analysis of these binary images allows separation of false positives from true positives for proper removal action during packaging.

  14. Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Ryuji; Jokura, Hiroko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Komai, Norio; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    Our previous study revealed the antihypertensive effects of green coffee bean extract (GCE) ingestion in spontaneously hypertensive rats. We suggested that this antihypertensive action was due to the fact that GCE contains chlorogenic acid (CQA) as a major phenolic compound, and CQA in turn contains ferulic acid as a metabolic component that acts on nitric oxide (NO) derived from the vascular endothelium. In this study, the effects of GCE on blood vessels were evaluated in healthy males. The subjects were 20 healthy males with reduced vasodilation responses measured by strain gauge plethysmograms (SPG) to ischemic reactive hyperemia. Of the 20 subjects, 10 (mean age, 37.2 years) ingested a test drink containing GCE (CQA: 140 mg/day), and the other 10 (mean age, 34.8 years) ingested a placebo drink for 4 months. During the ingestion period, SPG, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and serum biochemical parameters were measured, and acceleration plethysmograms (APG) were taken. The reactive hyperemia ratio (RHR) in the test drink group began to increase after ingestion for 1 month and was significantly higher (p <0.05) than that in the placebo group after ingestion for 3 months and 4 months. In addition, after ingestion for 4 months, the test drink group showed a significant decrease (p <0.01) in the plasma total homocysteine level compared with the pre-ingestion level. However, there were no significant differences in PWV or APG between the test drink group and the placebo drink group. The improvement in RHR after ingestion of a drink containing GCE suggested an improvement in vasoreactivity by this component. PMID:15785008

  15. Lectins in Castor Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Suzanne M.; Beevers, Harry

    1986-01-01

    The amounts of the two lectins (ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin) in tissues of castor bean seedlings were followed during germination and early growth. For measurement, lectins in extracts were separately eluted from Sepharose columns; an antibody to the agglutinin was also used to detect the lectins by immunodiffusion. The endosperm of the dry seed contains 3.5 mg total lectin (5.6% of the total seed protein), which declines by 50% by day 4 and more rapidly thereafter as the tissue is completely consumed. The cotyledons of the dry seed also contain lectins but the amounts are less than 1% of those in the endosperm, and, as in the endosperm, they are constituents of the albumin fraction of the isolated protein bodies. No lectins were detected in the green cotyledons of 10-day seedlings that had been exposed to light from day 5. The embryonic axes of 2-day seedlings contained very small amounts of lectins but they were not detectable in the aerial parts of seedlings grown for 3 weeks or in cells from endosperm grown in tissue culture. The ability of proteinases and glycosidases (isolated from endosperm of 4-day seedlings) to hydrolyze the lectins was examined. No hydrolysis of the two lectins was observed, but the subunits, separated by reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol, were hydrolyzed slowly by a proteinase and some release of mannose was observed in the presence of the glycosidases. Ricin was converted to its subunits by cysteine and an enzyme in an endosperm extract accelerated chain separation by glutathione. Images Fig. 3 PMID:16664561

  16. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. Methods A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing “bean health benefits” and “food behaviors.” Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. Results The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered ‘neutral’ to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Conclusions Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition. PMID:26820889

  17. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). He is wearing a pressure suit for this run of the M509 experiment, but other ASMU tests are done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  18. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1) to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC); (2) to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3) to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22072935

  19. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp).

    PubMed

    Nsa, Imade Y; Kareem, Kehinde T

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar "White" and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar "White" was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures. PMID:26483824

  20. Additive interactions of unrelated viruses in mixed infections of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    PubMed Central

    Nsa, Imade Y.; Kareem, Kehinde T.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of single infections and co-infections of three unrelated viruses on three cowpea cultivars (one commercial cowpea cultivar “White” and 2 IITA lines; IT81D-985 and TVu 76). The plants were inoculated with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV), genus Potyvirus, Cowpea mottle virus (CMeV), genus Carmovirus and Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), genus Sobemovirus singly and in mixture (double and triple) at 10, 20, and 30 days after planting (DAP). The treated plants were assessed for susceptibility to the viruses, growth, and yield. In all cases of infection, early inoculation resulted in higher disease severity compared with late infection. The virus treated cowpea plants were relatively shorter than buffer inoculated control plants except the IT81D-985 plants that were taller and produced more foliage. Single infections by CABMV, CMeV, and SBMV led to a complete loss of seeds in the three cowpea cultivars at 10 DAP; only cultivar White produced some seeds at 30 DAP. Double and triple virus infections led to a total loss of seeds in all three cowpea cultivars. None of the virus infected IITA lines produced any seeds except IT81D-985 plants co-infected with CABMV and SBMV at 30 DAP with a reduction of 80%. Overall, the commercial cultivar “White” was the least susceptible to the virus treatments and produced the most yield (flowers, pods, and seeds). CABMV was the most aggressive of these viruses and early single inoculations with this virus resulted in the premature death of some of the seedlings. The presence of the Potyvirus, CABMV in the double virus infections did not appear to increase disease severity or yield loss. There was no strong evidence for synergistic interactions between the viruses in the double virus mixtures. PMID:26483824

  1. Protein Bodies of Castor Bean Endosperm

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Raymond E.; Beevers, Harry

    1976-01-01

    Protein bodies in the endosperm of castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis L.) contain phytin globoids and protein crystalloids embedded in an amorphous proteinaceous matrix. The protein bodies are apparently surrounded by a single membrane. The protein bodies were isolated by grinding and centrifuging in glycerol. Such isolated protein bodies were almost identical (after cytological fixation) to those observed in situ, except that the globoids were lost. However, membrane-like structures appear to have surrounded the globoids. Histochemical analysis of the isolated protein bodies showed that carbohydrates (glycoproteins) are localized only in the matrix region. Addition of water to protein bodies in glycerol caused dissolution of the matrix, and release of the globoids and crystalloids. When the crystalloids were centrifuged on sucrose density gradients, they were recovered at an equilibrium density of 1.29 to 1.30 g/ml. The crystalloids were only slightly soluble in most aqueous buffers but were very soluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate, urea, or NaOH solutions. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and chromatography on ion exchange celluloses show that the protein bodies are composed of one major and several minor anodic proteins. The major protein, along with a few of the minor proteins, is localized in the crystalloids. The major protein (molecular weight 65,000) was converted by mercaptoethanol into subunits with molecular weights of 32,000 and 15,800. It is proposed that the protein is made up of two of the smaller subunits and one of the larger, linked by disulfide bridges. None of the crystalloid proteins appear to be glycosylated. The water-soluble matrix fraction is composed mainly of two proteins, with molecular weights of 12,500 and 10,300 on the gels. Neither is a glycoprotein, and neither can be reduced with mercaptoethanol to give subunits. The soluble fraction also contains other lesser components among which are

  2. [Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis caused by the dust of green coffee beans].

    PubMed

    Glauser, T; Bircher, A; Wüthrich, B

    1992-08-29

    In a 37-year-old worker employed in a coffee roastery who suffered from work-related rhinoconjunctivitis, allergologic investigations demonstrated sensitization to the dust of the green, unroasted coffee bean. This particular allergy is uncommon in Switzerland. The case is discussed and the literature on the subject is reviewed. PMID:1529315

  3. Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

  4. What Can Students Learn about Lab Safety from Mr. Bean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jeremy M.; Carr, June M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical laboratory safety education is often synonymous with boring, dry, drawn-out lectures. In an effort to challenge this norm and stimulate vivid learning opportunities about laboratory safety, college chemistry classes analyzed a short, humorous video clip of a character, named Mr. Bean, who visits a chemistry laboratory and commits several…

  5. Phosphorus stress in common bean: root transcript and metabolic responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth. Crop production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), the most important legume for human consumption, is often limited by low P in the soil. Functional genomics technologies were used to investigate global gene expression and metabolic respons...

  6. Pinto beans are a source of highly bioavailable copper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trace element copper (Cu)is a required nutrient in the diets of humans. It has been shown in animal studies to be essential for efficient absorption of iron, efficient oxygen utilization, and for aiding in free-radical degradation. Dry beans are potentially good sources of Cu; thus, the objectiv...

  7. The transcriptome of common bean: more than nodulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) is one of the most important grain legumes for direct human consumption. It comprises 50% of the grain legumes consumed worldwide and is important as a primary source of dietary protein in developing countries. We performed next generation sequencing (RNAseq) on five...

  8. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section 457.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...

  9. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155 Section 457.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  10. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155 Section 457.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  11. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155 Section 457.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  12. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section 457.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...

  13. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155 Section 457.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  14. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section 457.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...

  15. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section 457.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...

  16. Extrudability of four common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  17. Applications of common beans in food and biobased materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion method has been used to cook different food materials by employing the combination of high temperature, pressure and shearing stresses. Effects of extrusion cooking on functional, physicochemical and nutritional properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been reported for years...

  18. Fusarium Wilt and Yellows of Sugar Beet and Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central High Plains (Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming) is among the largest producer of dry edible beans and sugar beets in the United States. Sugar beet is an important cash crop in northeastern Colorado with approximately 30,000 acres planted and 944,000 tons harvested in 2012. Approximately 250...

  19. Cooking Up a Learning Community with Corn, Beans, and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes using cooking as a vehicle for creating community among three culturally diverse classrooms of prekindergartners and third graders. Notes how the choice of corn, beans, and rice in the cooking exercise planted the roots of understanding, tolerance, and compassion, and an appreciation of diversity. (SD)

  20. Enzymatic degradation of oligosaccharides in pinto bean flour.

    PubMed

    Song, Danfeng; Chang, Sam K C

    2006-02-22

    The use of dry edible beans is limited due to the presence of flatulence factors, the raffinose oligosaccharides. Our objective was to investigate the process for the removal of oligosaccharides from pinto bean using enzymatic treatment and to compare it to removal by soaking and cooking methods. Crude enzyme preparation was produced by six fungal species on wheat bran- and okara-based substrates with soy tofu whey. The loss of raffinose oligosaccharides after soaking pinto beans for 16 h at the room temperature was 10%, after cooking for 90 min was 52%, and after autoclaving for 30 min was 58%. On the other hand, the treatment using crude alpha-galactosidase (60 U mL(-1)) produced by Aspergillus awamori NRRL 4869 from wheat bran-based substrate with soy tofu whey on pinto bean flour for 2 h completely hydrolyzed raffinose oligosaccharides. These results supported that the enzymatic treatment was the most effective among various processing methods tested for removing the raffinose oligosaccharides, and hence, crude alpha-galactosidases from fungi have potential use in the food industry. PMID:16478251

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  3. Soybean N relations and bean leaf beetle larval feeding damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine if soil fertilizer nitrogen (N) input treatments would impact the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcate Förster) biology. The experiment was conducted in the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] phase of a long-term corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean rotation study. S...

  4. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you... contract price. The price stipulated in the processor contract for the grade factor or sieve size that is... yield used to determine the production guarantee and are those required by the bean processor...

  5. Diversity for cooking time in Andean dry bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diversity panel of 250 dry bean lines from the Andean gene pool was evaluated for cooking time. Cooking time ranged from 17 to 90 min with an average of 36 min. A faster cooking time was also correlated with a number of other seed characteristics, most notably, higher levels of boron and potassium...

  6. PLANT WATER STATUS INFLUENCES OZONE SENSITIVITY OF BEAN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted in a controlled environment chamber to determine the association between plant water status and ozone sensitivity. Bean plants were subjected to various water stress regimes for 4 to 10 days using a semipermeable membrane system which controlled plant water...

  7. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  8. Use of common beans as components in polymeric materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the research trends in recent years is to use natural renewable materials as "green" raw materials for industrial applications. Common beans are well known, widely available and relatively cheap. They contain polysaccharides, proteins, triglyceride oils, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic antio...

  9. RELATIVES OF COMMON BEAN WITH NUTRACEUTICAL, PHARMACEUTICAL, AND INDUSTRIAL USES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume group Phaseolinae has four genera which are effective nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and industrial crops. This group contains species ranging from large sub-tropical vines to small herbs found in the sub-tropical and temperate zones. Winged bean contains the specialty product, beta-sit...

  10. Toxic leukoencephalopathy due to yam bean seeds poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pin-Kuei; Wang, Pao-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is attributed to exposure to a wide variety of agents, including systemic chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, illicit drug abuse, and toxins from the environment. Diagnosis of this disease requires documented exposure to a toxin, neurobehavioral deficits, and typical neuroimaging abnormalities. Intoxication by compounds extracted from yam bean seeds may mimic cyanide poisoning but fail to respond to antidotal therapy. We report a 54-year-old Chinese woman who developed disturbed consciousness after eating 40 pieces of yam bean seeds. Head computed tomography obtained 24 hours after the episode was normal. However, magnetic resonance imaging obtained 20 days after the episode revealed symmetrical faint high signal over the bilateral periventricular white matter on T1-weighted image, which turned into diffuse and symmetrical bright high signal on FLAIR. The diagnosis of this patient was toxic leukoencephalopathy by yam bean seeds intoxication. The changes in brain images after yam bean seeds intoxication have not ever been reported. Physicians in Asia and the Pacific islands should have a high index of suspicion when they care for patients with acute confusion and a high anion gap metabolic acidosis but normal serum cyanide level. PMID:22735244

  11. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  12. Bean Pod Mottle Virus Spread in Insect Feeding Resistant Soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) reduces yield and seed quality in soybeans. No qualitative resistance to this virus has been found in soybean, although some tolerance is known. To test the hypothesis that virus incidence and movement would be reduced in soybeans with resistance to feeding by the viru...

  13. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds. PMID:27507478

  14. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown that either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.

  15. OZONE ALTERS THE CONCENTRATIONS OF NUTRIENTS IN BEAN TISSUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the impact of ozone on the nutrient concentrations in tissue from various organs of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Bush Bluelake 290). The plants were exposed to episodic concentrations of ozone in open-top field exposure chambers from soon af...

  16. Purification and characterization of arcelin seed protein from common bean.

    PubMed

    Osborn, T C; Burow, M; Bliss, F A

    1988-02-01

    Arcelin, a seed protein originally discovered in wild bean accessions, was purified, characterized, and compared to phaseolin, the major seed protein of common bean, and to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), the major bean seed lectin. Arcelin and PHA has several characteristics in common. Both were glycoproteins having similar subunit M(r), deglycosylated M(r), and amino acid compositions. The two proteins were related antigenically and they had the same developmental timing of accumulation. Arcelin also had some hemagglutinating activity, a characteristic associated with lectins. However, several features distinguished arcelin from PHA. Arcelin had a more basic isoelectric point than PHA, greater numbers of basic amino acid residues, additional cysteine residues, and one methionine residue, which PHA lacks. Native PHA protein is a tetramer of subunits, and although a small component of native arcelin protein was also tetrameric, most of the arcelin preparation was dimeric. The hemagglutinating activity of arcelin was specific only for some pronase-treated erythrocytes. It did not agglutinate native erythrocytes, nor did it bind to thyroglobulin or fetuin affinity resins as did PHA. Although arcelin has lectin-like properties, we believe the distinctions between arcelin and PHA warrant the designation of arcelin as a unique bean seed protein. PMID:16665920

  17. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plots for 2 years and recommendations by a university or seed company; or (ii) Two years of production... additional costs required to deliver the dry beans to those buyers. Discounts used to establish the net price... grade and price, or any other costs associated with normal harvesting, handling, and marketing of...

  18. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Recovery of Bush Beans from Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen loss can be a serious problem to vegetable growers in flood prone areas. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen application method on recovery from flood damage in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). There were three fertilizer treatments:1) normal - ½ N applied...

  19. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  20. Anthocyanin profile of Korean cultivated kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Choung, Myoung-Gun; Choi, Byoung-Rourl; An, Young-Nam; Chu, Yong-Ha; Cho, Young-Son

    2003-11-19

    This investigation was conducted to determine the structures and amounts of anthocyanins obtained from seed coats of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Korea. Anthocyanins in the seed coat of kidney bean were extracted with 1% HCl/20% CH(3)OH, and the crude anthocyanin extracts were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Five major anthocyanins were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, LC/ES-MS, and 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of these five anthocyanins were elucidated as cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Using RP-HPLC with photodiode array detection, each of the five anthocyanins was separated within 12 min by using a gradient elution. It was proved that the application of RP-HPLC could be an excellent method for determining the composition and contents of anthocyanins in kidney bean. The preponderance of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside are observed in red and black kidney beans, respectively. However, in this study, it is reported for the first time that the contents and composition of anthocyanins in speckled seed depend on the classes of speckle color. The contents of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, and total anthocyanins in seed coats of 16 kidney beans cultivated in Korea were in the ranges of 0-0.04, 0-2.61, 0-0.12, 0-0.17, 0-0.59 and 0-2.78 mg/g of dried seed coats, respectively. PMID:14611168

  1. Registration of PR0633-10 and PR0737-1 red mottled dry bean germplasm lines with resistance to BGYMB, BCMV, BCMNV, and common bacterial blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Central America and the Caribbean. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) pose a threat to common bean production throughout the world. The development an...

  2. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  3. Survival of Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh vegetables stored under moderate vacuum.

    PubMed

    Aytac, S A; Gorris, L G

    1994-11-01

    Storage at 6.5°C under moderate vacuum effectively prevented growth of Aeromonas hydrophila on chicory endive, but had only a limited inhibitory effect on the growth of the organism on mung bean sprouts. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on chicory endive was strongly stimulated under these conditions, whereas it was decreased on mung-bean sprouts. PMID:24421192

  4. Growth and development of plants flown on the STS-3 Space Shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Peterson, C.; Lemay, R.

    1984-01-01

    Pre-germinated pine seedlings and germinating oat and mung bean seeds were flown on the STS-3 Space Shuttle mission. Overall, the seedlings grew and developed well in space. Some oat and mung bean roots, however, grew upward. Lignin content was slightly lower in flight tissues and protein content was higher.

  5. Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Thushanthi; Young, Matthew R.; Zhang, Zhiying; Murphy, Gwen; Colburn, Nancy H.; Lanza, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl J.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Scope Aim of the study was to identify and monitor metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies that each had shown chemopreventive effects of dry bean consumption on colorectal neoplasia risk. Methods and Results Using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy +/− electrospray ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, serum metabolites of dry beans were measured in 46 men before and after a four-week dry bean-enriched diet (250 g/d) and 12 mice that received a standardized diet containing either 0 or 10% navy bean ethanol extract for 6 weeks; we also investigated fecal metabolites in the mice. The serum metabolites identified in these controlled feeding studies were then investigated in 212 polyp-free participants from the Polyp Prevention Trial who self-reported either increased (≥+31 g/d from baseline), high dry bean intake of ≥42 g/d in year 3 or low, unchanged dry bean consumption of <8 g/d; serum was analyzed from baseline and year 3. Serum pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine were elevated after dry bean consumption in human and mouse studies and reflected dry bean consumption in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Conclusions Serum levels of pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine are useful biomarkers of dry bean consumption. PMID:25641932

  6. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nicolai; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and polyphenol(s) (PP). We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g). PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID). PMID:25679229

  7. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination. PMID:26355953

  8. Registration of Great Northern Common Bean Cultivar NE1-06-12 with Enhanced Disease Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight and Bean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Great northern common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar NE1-06-12, developed by the University of Nebraska Agricultural Research Division and released in 2008, was bred specifically for enhanced resistance to common bacterial blight, a major disease of common bean caused by the seed borne bacter...

  9. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean was one of the first crops that benefited from the development and utilization of molecular markers in tagging major disease resistance genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Efficiency of MAS breeding in common bean is still hampered; however, due to the dominance, linkage phase, an...

  10. Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

  11. High-Throughput Metabolic Profiling of Diverse Green Coffea arabica Beans Identified Tryptophan as a Universal Discrimination Factor for Immature Beans

    PubMed Central

    Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans. PMID:23936381

  12. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    PubMed

    Setoyama, Daiki; Iwasa, Keiko; Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans. PMID:23936381

  13. 2007. Two genes from Phaseolus coccineus L. confer resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus in common bean. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132:530-533

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV), caused by a whitefly (Bemisia spp.) transmitted geminivirus, is an important disease that can limit common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida. Only a few genes are currently deployed in BGYMV resista...

  14. Effect of the roasting method on the content of 5-hydroxytryptamides of carboxylic acids in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Nebesny, E; Budryn, G

    2002-08-01

    Coffee beans of Coffea liberica (robusta) variety were roasted using convection and microwave heating. For roasting we used green coffee beans of 7.5% moisture content, and beans wetted to 10% moisture content and dried to 5% moisture content. The content of 5-hydroxytryptamides of carboxylic acids C-5-HT (determined by TLC) as the index of substances irritating alimentary canal was investigated in the roasted beans, depending on the bean treatment before roasting and applied roasting method. Analytical results show that predrying of the coffee beans caused 15-30% loss of C-5-HT, depending on the applied drying conditions. The content of C-5-HT in the roasted beans depended on the roasting method and preliminary treatment of the beans prior to roasting. A higher C-5-HT loss occurred in the case of beans subjected to two-stage processing, predrying and roasting. Convection roasting caused higher degradation of C-5-HT than microwave roasting. PMID:12224425

  15. Two Newly Described Begomoviruses of Macroptilium lathyroides and Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Idris, A M; Hiebert, E; Bird, J; Brown, J K

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Macroptilium lathyroides, a perennial weed in the Caribbean region and Central America, is a host of Macroptilium yellow mosaic Florida virus (MaYMFV) and Macroptilium mosaic Puerto Rico virus (MaMPRV). The genomes of MaYMFV and MaMPRV were cloned from M. lathyroides and/or field-infected bean and the DNA sequences were determined. Cloned A and B components for both viruses were infectious when inoculated to M. lathyroides and common bean. Comparison of the DNA sequences for cloned A and B components with well-studied begomovirus indicated that MaMPRV (bean and M. lathyroides) and MaYMFV (M. lathyroides) are unique, previously undescribed begomo-viruses from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis of viral A components indicated that the closest relative of MaYMFV are members of the Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) group, at 76 to 78% nucleotide identity, whereas the closest relative for the A component of MaMPRV was Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus at 78% nucleotide identity. In contrast, BGYMV is the closest relative for the B component of both MaYMFV and MaMPRV, with which they share approximately 68.0 and approximately 72% identity, respectively. The incongruent taxonomic placement for the bipartite components for MaMPRV indicates that they did not evolve entirely along a common path. MaYMFV and MaMPRV caused distinctive symptoms in bean and M. lathyroides and were transmissible by the whitefly vector and by grafting; however, only MaYMFV was mechanically transmissible. The experimental host range for the two viruses was similar and included species within the families Fabaceae and Malvaceae, but only MaYMFV infected Malva parviflora and soybean. These results collectively indicate that MaMPRV and MaYMFV are new, previously undescribed species of the BGYMV group, a clade previously known to contain only strains and isolates of BGYMV from the Caribbean region that infect Phaseolus spp. Both MaYMFV and MaMPRV may pose an economic threat to

  16. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  17. Bradyrhizobium manausense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vigna unguiculata grown in Brazilian Amazonian rainforest soils.

    PubMed

    Silva, Flavia V; De Meyer, Sofie E; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Barbé, Tatiane da Costa; Xavier, Gustavo R; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Rumjanek, Norma G; Willems, Anne; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-07-01

    Root nodule bacteria were trapped within cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in soils with different cultivation histories collected from the Amazonian rainforest in northern Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 3351(T), BR 3307, BR 3310, BR 3315, BR 3323 BR and BR 3361) isolated from cowpea nodules showed that they formed a distinct group within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was separate from previously identified type strains. Phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping genes (glnII, recA and rpoB) revealed that Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense CCBAU 23303(T) was the most closely related type strain (96% sequence similarity or lower). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles (predominant fatty acids being C16 : 0 and summed feature 8), the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, antibiotic resistance and physiological tests differentiated these novel strains from the most closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped the novel strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium together with Bradyrhizobium iriomotense strain EK05(T), with 94% and 96% sequence similarity, respectively. Based on these data, these six strains represent a novel species for which the name Brabyrhizobium manausense sp. nov. (BR 3351(T) = HAMBI 3596(T)), is proposed. PMID:24744018

  18. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Alessandra; Domont, Gilberto B; Pedrosa, Cristiana; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2003-09-10

    The major storage globulins (vicilins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and a semipurified cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was prepared by isoelectric precipitation. Some of the functional properties of these proteins, including solubility, foaming, and emulsifying capacities, were investigated and compared. The solubility of purified cowpea vicilin was reduced at pH 5.0, increasing markedly below and above this value. Pea vicilin exhibited poor solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, and CPI was little soluble in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. At neutral pH, the emulsifying activity indexes (EAI) of purified pea vicilin and CPI were 194 and 291 m(2)/g, respectively, which compare quite favorably to EAIs of 110 and 133 m(2)/g for casein and albumin, respectively. Remarkably, purified cowpea vicilin exhibited an EAI of 490 m(2)/g, indicating a very high emulsifying activity. Purified cowpea and pea vicilins exhibited lower foaming capacities and foam stablity indexes (FSI) than CPI. FSI values of 80 and 260 min were obtained for purified pea and cowpea vicilin, respectively, whereas a FSI value of 380 min was obtained for CPI. These results are discussed in terms of the possible utilization of purified vicilins or protein isolates from pea and cowpea in the food processing industry. PMID:12952435

  19. Identification and expression profiling of Vigna mungo microRNAs from leaf small RNA transcriptome by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sujay; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been characterized to date, predominantly from the plant species whose genome is well characterized. However, information on the variability of these regulatory RNAs in economically important but genetically less characterized crop species are limited. Vigna mungo is an important grain legume, which is grown primarily for its protein-rich edible seeds. miRNAs from this species have not been identified to date due to lack of genome sequence information. To identify miRNAs from V. mungo, a small RNA library was constructed from young leaves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic analysis of the small RNA reads led to the identification of 66 miRNA loci represented by 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 19 families and eight non-conserved miRNAs belonging to seven families. Besides, 13 novel miRNA candidates in V. mungo were also identified. Expression patterns of selected conserved, non-conserved, and novel miRNA candidates have been demonstrated in leaf, stem, and root tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and potential target genes were predicted for most of the conserved miRNAs. This information offers genomic resources for better understanding of miRNA mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation. PMID:24138283

  20. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976