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1

Sertoli cells as biochambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the present invention, there is provided a biological chamber system having a biochamber defined by outer walls of Sertoli cells. Also provided is a transplantation facilitator including a biochamber. A method of making biochambers by co-culturing facilitator cells and therapeutic cells and then aggregating the facilitator celes is also provided. Also provided is a method of transplanting cells by incorporating transplant cells into a biochamber and transplanting the biochamber containing the transplant cells.

Cameron, Don F. (Inventor); Sanberg, Paul R. (Inventor); Saporta, Samuel (Inventor); Hushen, Joelle J. (Inventor)

2004-01-01

2

Elicitation of metastasis associated protein 2 expression in the phagocytosis by murine testicular Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Efficient phagocytic clearance of apoptotic spermatogenic cells and residual bodies (RBs) by Sertoli cells (SCs) is crucial for functional mature spermatogenesis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this SCs function. Herein, we reported for the first time that SCs-expressing metastasis associated protein 2 (Mta2), a chromatin modifier playing a critical role in modifying DNA accessibility for transcriptional regulation, was steadily up-regulated when SCs were co-cultured with RBs. The most efficient stimulatory substrates for the inducement of phagocytosis-elicited Mta2 expression were RBs and fragments from apoptotic spermatocytes. Furthermore, one major result of this response is the transcriptional repression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene (Fshr) expression during phagocytosis, which should lead to a low level of circulated FSH because effects of FSH on spermatogenesis is fundamentally regulated by the down-regulation of Fshr after exposure to FSH. Given that high concentration of circulated FSH inhibits SCs phagocytic activity and impairment of MTA2 expression is associated with the abnormal high level of serum FSH, our present results suggest that the FSH/MTA2/Fshr cascade may serve as an indispensable negative feedback mechanism to help to maintain low level of circulated FSH, which is required for the normal occurrence of SCs phagocytosis. PMID:24583130

Zhu, Chao-Juan; Zhang, Shun; Liang, Yuan; Li, Wei

2014-03-14

3

Sertoli cell signaling by Desert hedgehog regulates the male germline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In mammals, testis development is initiated in the embryo in response to the expression of the sex determining gene, Sry, in Sertoli cell precursors. Subsequently, Sertoli cells are thought to play a central role in male-specific cell interactions, including those that occur during spermatogenesis. However, the molecular nature of these interactions is poorly understood. Desert hedgehog (Dhh) encodes a

Mark J Bitgood; Liya Shen; Andrew P McMahon

1996-01-01

4

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... starts in the female ovaries, usually in younger women. The cancer cells release a male sex hormone. As a result, the woman may develop symptoms such as: A deep voice Enlarged clitoris Facial hair Loss in breast size Stopping of menstrual periods Pain ...

5

GATA4 regulates Sertoli cell function and fertility in adult male mice  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor GATA4 is expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells and is required for proper development of the murine fetal testis. The role of GATA4 in adult testicular function, however, has remained unclear due to prenatal lethality of mice harboring homozygous mutations in Gata4. To characterize the function of GATA4 in the adult testis, we generated mice in which Gata4 was conditionally deleted in Sertoli cells using Cre-LoxP recombination with Amhr2-Cre. Conditional knockout (cKO) mice developed age-dependent testicular atrophy and loss of fertility, which coincided with decreases in the quantity and motility of sperm. Histological analysis demonstrated Sertoli cell vacuolation, impaired spermatogenesis, and increased permeability of the blood-testis barrier. RT-PCR analysis of cKO testes showed decreased expression of germ cell markers and increased expression of testicular injury markers. Our findings support the premise that GATA4 is a key transcriptional regulator of Sertoli cell function in adult mice. PMID:21172404

Kyrönlahti, Antti; Euler, Rosemarie; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Schoeller, Erica L.; Moley, Kelle H.; Toppari, Jorma; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

2011-01-01

6

Endocytic activity of Sertoli cells grown in bicameral culture chambers  

SciTech Connect

Immature rat Sertoli cells were cultured for 7 to 14 days on Millipore filters impregnated with a reconstituted basement membrane extract in dual-environment (bicameral) culture chambers. Electron microscopy of the cultured cells revealed the presence of rod-shaped mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Sertoli-Sertoli tight junctions, typical of these cells in vivo. The endocytic activity of both the apical and basal surfaces of the Sertoli cells was examined by either adding alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M) conjugated to 20 nm gold particles to the apical chamber or by adding /sup 125/I labeled alpha 2-M to the basal chamber. During endocytosis from the apical surface of Sertoli cells, the alpha 2-M-gold particles were bound initially to coated pits and then internalized into coated vesicles within 5 minutes. After 10 minutes, the alpha 2-M-gold was found in multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs) and by 30 minutes it was present in the lysosomes. The proportion of alpha 2-M-gold found within endocytic cell organelles after 1 hour of uptake was used to estimate the approximate time that this ligand spent in each type of organelle. The alpha 2-M-gold was present in coated pits, coated vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and lysosomes for approximately 3, 11, 22, and 24 minutes, respectively. This indicates that the initial stages of endocytosis are rapid, whereas MVBs and lysosomes are relatively long-lived.

Dai, R.X.; Djakiew, D.; Dym, M.

1987-07-01

7

Sertoli cells and development of seminiferous epithelium Marie-Thrse HOCHEREAU-de REVIERS M. COUROT  

E-print Network

Sertoli cells and development of seminiferous epithelium Marie-Thérèse HOCHEREAU-de REVIERS M., Nouzilly, 37380 Monnaie, France. Summary. Sertoli cells partially control the development of impuberal lambs results in a decrease in the total number of Sertoli cells/testis while that of stem cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Sertoli cell secreted growth factor. Cellular origin, paracrine and endocrine regulation of secretion.  

PubMed

Rat and human Sertoli cells in culture secrete a growth factor, Sertoli cell secreted growth factor (SCSGF). The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate other testicular cell types as additional sources of SCSGF, as well as their paracrine effect, and (2) to study the hormonal regulation of SCSGF secretion using an A431 cell growth assay. The Sertoli cell was the only testicular cell type tested that secreted SCSGF activity in vitro. Peritubular cells enhanced Sertoli cell attachment and SCSGF secretion. Spermatogenic cells had no effect. The secretion of SCSGF was specifically stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. Treatment with agents that increase intracellular cAMP levels and adenosine stimulated the secretion of mitogenic activity into Sertoli cell-conditioned medium by three- to fivefold. This growth factor, secreted by the Sertoli cell and regulated by FSH and testosterone, may play a critical role in the regulation of spermatogenesis. PMID:8390429

Shubhada, S; Glinz, M; Lamb, D J

1993-01-01

9

Clinicopathologic features of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors  

PubMed Central

Background: Ovarian Stertoli-Ledig cell tumor (SLCT) is a rare type of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary. The present study was to evaluate clinicalopahologic features and prognosis of patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor treated by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy during short term follow-up. Methods: A total of sixteen patients with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor treated at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Shanghai, China, between Jan 2001 and Dec 2011 were reviewed. The clinical data, treatment and prognosis were obtained from medical records. Results: The median age of the patients with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor was about 27.5 years old in non-menopausal women, while the median age of menopausal women was about 63 years old. The most common complaint was with hormonal-related symptoms in the form of secondary amenorrhea and infinity, features of virilization, abdominal mass or irregular vaginal bleeding. All of sixteen patients underwent surgical staging and all were found to have stage I disease at the time of diagnosis. Eleven patients with intermediate and two patients with poorly differentiated tumors received adjuvant chemotherapy. There were differences found in operative time, blood loss and postoperative recovery time between laparotomy and laparoscopy. There were no disease-related deaths and all patients were under complete remission at the last follow-up. Conclusions: Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors could happen in any period age of women. However, the tumors typically occur in the single side while still at the early stage, a favorable outcome could be achieved by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Laparoscopy has similar surgical effects as laparotomy, but has a number of advantages. PMID:25400781

Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zhu, Jia-Er; Huang, Wen; Zhu, Jin

2014-01-01

10

Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of "nurse" cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P<0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential. PMID:22975347

Zhang, Fenxi; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei; Ren, Tongming; Jing, Suhua; Lin, Juntang

2012-10-12

11

In vitro effects of simulated microgravity on Sertoli cell function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of space flights questions concerning the effects of microgravity (0×G) on human reproductive physiology have received great attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of 0×G on Sertoli cells. A Sertoli cell line from mouse testis (42GPA9) was analyzed for cytoskeletal and Sex Hormone Binding Globilin (SHBG) changes by immunohistochemistry, for antioxidant content by RT-PCR and for culture medium lactate concentrations by protein chemistry. Cells were cultured for 6, 24 and 48 h on a three-dimensional Random Positioning Machine (3D-RPM); static controls (1×G) were positioned on the supporting frame. At the end of each experiment, cultured cells were either fixed in paraformaldehyde or lysed and RNA-extracted or used for culture medium lactate measurements as needed. At 0×G, Sertoli cytoskeleton became disorganized, microtubules fragmented and SHBG undetectable already after 24 h, with alterations worsening by 48 h. It was evident that various antioxidant systems appreciably increased during the first 24 h but significantly decreased at 48 h. No changes occurred in the 1×G samples. Initially, 0×G seemed to disturb antioxidant protection strategies allowing the testes to support sperm production, thus generating an aging-like state of oxidative stress. Lactate production at 0×G slightly decreased after 24 h. Further experiments are needed in space to investigate upon steroidogenesis and germ cell differentiation within the testis, to rule out male infertility as a possible consequence, which could be a problem, as life expectancy increases.

Masini, M. A.; Prato, P.; Scarabelli, L.; Lanza, C.; Palmero, S.; Pointis, G.; Ricci, F.; Strollo, F.

2011-02-01

12

Morphometric studies on lipid inclusions in Sertoli cells during the spermatogenic cycle in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume and surface area of lipid inclusions often present in the cytoplasm of rat Sertoli cells was measured directly from semi-thin sections of perfusion-fixed testicular tissues using an image analyser linked to a light microscope. Sertoli cell nuclei were used as a reference for comparing any variations in the measured parameters of lipid inclusions during the rat spermatogenic cycle.

J. B. Kerr; R. A. Mayberry; D. C. Irby

1984-01-01

13

Long-term culture and analysis of cashmere goat Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells have important functions in the testis for spermatogenesis. Thus, Sertoli cell culture systems have been established in many animals, such as rat, mouse, human, dog, cow, and pig, but a goat culture has not been reported. This study describes the isolation and culture of Sertoli cells from 3- to 4-month-old cashmere goat (Capra hircus) testes. These proliferative cells were expanded for 20 passages and repeatedly cryopreserved in vitro, in contrast to previous study in human, of which maintain steady growth for up to seven passages and only passages 1 to 5 could be refrozen. The microstructure and ultrastructure of the culture were typical of Sertoli cells, bearing irregular nuclei and a cytoplasm that was rich in smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi, lysosomes, lipid drops, and glycogenosomes. By immunofluorescence analysis, the all cells expressed SRY-related HMG box gene 9 (Sox9). Growth curves and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were used to analyze the proliferation of the cultured cells. With increasing passage times, the proliferation of the Sertoli cells declined, but the transcription of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), stem cell factor (SCF), and ?1-integrin was constant. By flow cytometry, the cells retained the ability to proliferate after 5 yr of cryopreservation. Thus, cashmere goat Sertoli cells have significant proliferative potential in vitro, expressing germ cell regulatory factors and have important applications in studying Sertoli cell-germ cell interactions, spermatogenesis, reproductive toxicology, and male infertility. PMID:25164184

Su, Huimin; Luo, Fenhua; Bao, Jiajing; Wu, Sachula; Zhang, Xueming; Zhang, Yan; Duo, Shuguang; Wu, Yingji

2014-12-01

14

Testicular Sertoli cells influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} The proliferation of dramatic increased by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} VEGF receptor-2 expression of ECs was up-regulated by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} The MHC expression of ECs induced by INF-{gamma} and IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM induced by TNF-{alpha} decreased respectively after co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also didn't increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The major problem of the application of endothelial cells (ECs) in transplantation is the lack of proliferation and their immunogenicity. In this study, we co-cultured ECs with Sertoli cells to monitor whether Sertoli cells can influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured ECs. Sertoli cells were isolated from adult testicular tissue. ECs were divided into the control group and the experimental group, which included three sub-groups co-cultured with 1 x 10{sup 3}, 1 x 10{sup 4} or 1 x 10{sup 5} cell/ml of Sertoli cells. The growth and proliferation of ECs were observed microscopically, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) was examined by Western blotting. In another experiment, ECs were divided into the control group, the single culture group and the co-culture group with the optimal concentration of Sertoli cells. After INF-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} were added to the culture medium, MHC II antigen expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) were measured in the culture medium by ELISA. We demonstrated that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml Sertoli cells promoted the proliferation of co-cultured ECs more dramatically than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml of the Sertoli cells was most effective in the up-regulation of KDR expression in the co-cultured ECs (P < 0.05). Sertoli cells can effectively suppress INF-{gamma}-induced MHC II antigen expression in co-cultured ECs compared with single culture group (P < 0.05). TNF-{alpha} induced the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM in ECs. When co-cultured with Sertoli cells, their expressions were significantly lower than in the EC single culture group (P < 0.05). ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also did not significantly increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes compared to the single culture group (P < 0.05). Our results suggested that co-culturing with Sertoli cells can significantly promote the proliferation of ECs, accelerate post-transplant angiogenesis, while reduce EC immunogenicity and stimulus to lymphocytes.

Fan, Ping, E-mail: fanpinggoodluck@163.com [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)] [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); He, Lan; Pu, Dan; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhou, Wenxu; Sun, Yining; Hu, Nan [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)] [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

2011-01-21

15

Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

Zhang, Fenxi, E-mail: fxzhang0824@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China); Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guiyang Medical University, Guizhou 550004, People's Republic of China (China)] [Department of Histology and Embryology, Guiyang Medical University, Guizhou 550004, People's Republic of China (China); Ren, Tongming [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China)] [Department of Anatomy, Sanquan College, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China); Jing, Suhua [ICU Center, The Third Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China)] [ICU Center, The Third Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China); Lin, Juntang [Stem Cell Center, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China)] [Stem Cell Center, Xinxiang Medical University, Henan 453003, People's Republic of China (China)

2012-10-12

16

Sertoli cell morphological alterations in albino rats treated with etoposide during prepubertal phase.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells are very important to spermatogenesis homeostasis because they control germ cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Damages to Sertoli cells cause germ cell death and affect fertility. Etoposide is a potent chemotherapeutic drug largely used against a variety of cancers. However, this drug also kills normal cells, especially those undergoing rapid proliferation. In the testis, etoposide acts predominantly on intermediate and type B spermatogonia. Etoposide was shown to permanently alter Sertoli cell function when administered to prepubertal rats. Based on this, we decided to investigate whether etoposide can affect Sertoli cell morphology. For this, 25-day-old rats were treated with etoposide during 8 consecutive days and killed at 32, 45, 64, 127, and 180 days old. Testes were fixed in Bouin's liquid or in a mixture of 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 2% formaldehyde for analysis under light and electron microscopes, respectively. Sertoli cells showed morphological alterations such as the presence of chromatin clumps close to the nuclear membrane, nucleus displacement, and cytoplasmic vacuolization. Some Sertoli cells also showed nuclear and cytoplasmic degenerative characteristics, suggesting that etoposide causes severe damages to Sertoli cell. PMID:18482470

Stumpp, Taiza; Freymuller, Edna; Miraglia, Sandra M

2008-06-01

17

Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor of Ovary- A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Sertoli Leydig Cell Tumours (SLCTs) are rare, unilateral, sex cord stromal tumours of ovary, which constitute less than 1% of all the ovarian neoplasms. These tumours can be functionally diverse and they may have heterologous elements. We aim to report a case of a 25-year- old woman who presented with suprapubic pain of 5 days duration, a unilateral adnexal mass, hypertestosteronism without virilization. Intraoperative frozen section of the unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy specimen was suggestive of granulosa cell tumour. Histopathological examination, supplemented with alpha-inhibin immunohistochemistry, was diagnostic of Meyer’s type II SLCT. Clinical presentation, pathology and the diagnostic pitfalls in the present case have been presented with a brief review of literature. PMID:24783104

C.S, Rohini Dhanya; Padhi, Somanath; Varghese, Renu G’Boy

2014-01-01

18

The Warburg effect revisited--lesson from the Sertoli cell.  

PubMed

Otto Warburg observed that cancerous cells prefer fermentative instead of oxidative metabolism of glucose, although the former is in theory less efficient. Since Warburg's pioneering works, special attention has been given to this difference in cell metabolism. The Warburg effect has been implicated in cell transformation, immortalization, and proliferation during tumorigenesis. Cancer cells display enhanced glycolytic activity, which is correlated with high proliferation, and thus, glycolysis appears to be an excellent candidate to target cancer cells. Nevertheless, little attention has been given to noncancerous cells that exhibit a "Warburg-like" metabolism with slight, but perhaps crucial, alterations that may provide new directions to develop new and effective anticancer therapies. Within the testis, the somatic Sertoli cell (SC) presents several common metabolic features analogous to cancer cells, and a clear "Warburg-like" metabolism. Nevertheless, SCs actively proliferate only during a specific time period, ceasing to divide in most species after puberty, when they become terminally differentiated. The special metabolic features of SC, as well as progression from the immature but proliferative state, to the mature nonproliferative state, where a high glycolytic activity is maintained, make these cells unique and a good model to discuss new perspectives on the Warburg effect. Herein we provide new insight on how the somatic SC may be a source of new and exciting information concerning the Warburg effect and cell proliferation. PMID:25043918

Oliveira, Pedro F; Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Ana C; Cheng, C Yan; Alves, Marco G

2015-01-01

19

Late morfofunctional alterations of the Sertoli cell caused by doxorubicin administered to prepubertal rats  

PubMed Central

Background Doxorubicin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug used against a variety of cancers. It acts through interaction with polymerases and topoisomerase II and free radical production. Doxorubicin activity is not specific to cancer cells and can also damage healthy cells, especially those undergoing rapid proliferation, such as spermatogonia. In previous studies our group showed that etoposide, another topoisomarese II poison, causes irreversible damage to Sertoli cells. Thus, the aim of this study was to address the effects of doxorubicin on Sertoli cell morphology and function and on the seminiferous epithelium cycle when administered to prepubertal rats. Methods Prepubertal rats received the dose of 5?mg/Kg of doxorubicin, which was fractioned in two doses: 3?mg/Kg at 15dpp and 2?mg/Kg at 22dpp. The testes were collected at 40, 64 and 127dpp, fixed in Bouin’s liquid and submitted to transferrin immunolabeling for Sertoli cell function analysis. Sertoli cell morphology and the frequency of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were analyzed in PAS?+?H-stained sections. Results The rats treated with doxorubicin showed reduction of transferrin labeling in the seminiferous epithelium at 40 and 64dpp, suggesting that Sertoli cell function is altered in these rats. All doxorubicin-treated rats showed sloughing and morphological alterations of Sertoli cells. The frequency of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle was also affected in all doxorubicin-treated rats. Conclusions and discussion These data show that doxorubicin administration during prepuberty causes functional and morphological late damage to Sertoli cells; such damage is secondary to the germ cell primary injury and contributed to enhance the spermatogenic harm caused by this drug. However, additional studies are required to clarify if there is also a direct effect of doxorubicin on Sertoli cells producing a primary damage on these cells. PMID:22967030

2012-01-01

20

Testicular Sclerosing Sertoli Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Sertoli cell tumors are very rare testicular tumors, representing 0.4% to 1.5% of all testicular malignancies. They are subclassified as classic, large-cell calcifying, and sclerosing Sertoli cell tumors (SSCT) based on distinct clinical features. Only 42 cases of SSCTs have been reported in the literature. We present a case of a 23-year-old man diagnosed with SSCT.

Coleman, Sarah; Barazani, Yagil; Roma, Andres A; Sabanegh, Edmund

2014-01-01

21

The p38 MAPK pathway mediates interleukin-1-induced Sertoli cell proliferation.  

PubMed

We have reported earlier that interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a potent growth factor for immature Sertoli cells (somatic cells in the testis required for testicular development and later spermatogenesis) and that this effect is synergistic with the mitogenic effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The aim of the present study was to determine whether MAPK pathways are involved in mediating the mitogenic effect of IL-1 on Sertoli cells. Western blotting revealed that IL-1alpha activated p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK, but not ERK, in Sertoli cells from 8- or 9-day-old rat. The inhibitor of p38 MAPK SB203580 attenuated the IL-1alpha-induced proliferation of Sertoli cells, as assessed by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and supravital staining as well as by direct cell counting. We conclude that the p38 MAPK pathway mediates the proliferative effect of IL-1alpha on immature Sertoli cells in vitro. Since the mitogenic effect of FSH is mediated via ERK, the synergistic action of IL-1alpha and FSH may be explained by their different intracellular signalling pathways. Induction of IL-1 by inflammation, infection or other tissue injuries may result in testicular damage by interfering with normal Sertoli cell development and thus future spermatogenesis. PMID:16181786

Petersen, Cecilia; Svechnikov, Konstantin; Fröysa, Berit; Söder, Olle

2005-10-01

22

Sertoli cells in the testis of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Uraeotyphlus cf. narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): light and electron microscopic perspective.  

PubMed

The caecilians have evolved a unique pattern of cystic spermatogenesis in which cysts representing different stages in spermatogenesis coexist in a testis lobule. We examined unsettled issues relating to the organization of the caecilian testis lobules, including the occurrence of a fatty matrix, the possibility of both peripheral and central Sertoli cells, the origin of Sertoli cells from follicular cells, and the disengagement of older Sertoli cells to become loose central Sertoli cells. We subjected the testis of Ichthyophis tricolor (Ichthyophiidae) and Uraeotyphlus cf. narayani (Uraeotyphliidae) from the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, to light and transmission electron microscopic studies. Irrespective of the functional state of the testis, whether active or regressed, Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the lobules. The tall Sertoli cells adherent to the basal lamina with basally located pleomorphic nuclei extend deeper into the lobule to meet at the core. There they provide for association of germ cells at different stages of differentiation, an aspect that has earlier been misconceived as the fatty matrix. Germ cells up to the 4-cell stage remain in the intercalating region of the Sertoli cells and they are located at the apices of the Sertoli cells from the 8-cell stage onwards. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cell adherent to the basal lamina until spermiation. There are ameboid cells in the core of the lobules that appear to interact with the germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with the Sertoli cells. Adherence of the Sertoli cells to the basal lamina is a permanent feature of the caecilian testicular lobules. The ameboid cells in the core are neither Sertoli cells nor their degeneration products. PMID:14584033

Smita, Mathew; Oommen, Oommen V; George, Jancy M; Akbarsha, M A

2003-12-01

23

Ultrastructural study of crystalloids in Sertoli cells of the three-toed sloth ( Bradypus tridactylus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Crystalloids were found in Sertoli cells of the testis of the three-toed sloth by examination at the lightand electron-microscopic levels. Needle-, or spindle-shaped crystalloids, varying in length, were located in the basal part of the Sertoli cells. They consisted of bundles of filaments each measuring ~ 11 nm in diameter. Several filaments were packed hexagonally to form a bundle.

Yoshiro Toyama; Francisco Ureña Calderón; Rafael Quesada

1990-01-01

24

Reduced Immunogenicity of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Sertoli Cells  

PubMed Central

Sertoli cells constitute the structural framework in testis and provide an immune-privileged environment for germ cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) resemble embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and are generated from somatic cells by expression of specific reprogramming transcription factors. Here, we used C57BL/6 (B6) Sertoli cells to generate iPS cells (Ser-iPS cells) and compared the immunogenicity of Ser-iPS cells with iPS cells derived from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF-iPS cells). Ser-iPS cells were injected into syngeneic mice to test for their in vivo immunogenicity in teratoma assay. Teratoma assay allows assessing in vivo immunogenicity of iPS cells and of their differentiated progeny simultaneously. We observed that early-passage Ser-iPS cells formed more teratomas with less immune cell infiltration and tissue damage and necrosis than MEF-iPS cells. Differentiating Ser-iPS cells in embryoid bodies (EBs) showed reduced T cell activation potential compared to MEF-iPS cells, which was similar to syngeneic ES cells. However, Ser-iPS cells lost their reduced immunogenicity in vivo after extended passaging in vitro and late-passage Ser-iPS cells exhibited an immunogenicity similar to MEF-iPS cells. These findings indicate that early-passage Ser-iPS cells retain some somatic memory of Sertoli cells that impacts on immunogenicity of iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cells in vivo and in vitro. Our data suggest that immune-privileged Sertoli cells might represent a preferred source for iPS cell generation, if it comes to the use of iPS cell-derived cells for transplantation. PMID:25166861

Wang, Xiaoying; Qin, Jie; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Zenke, Martin

2014-01-01

25

Depletion of the p43 Mitochondrial T3 Receptor Increases Sertoli Cell Proliferation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Among T3 receptors, TR?1 is ubiquitous and its deletion or a specific expression of a dominant-negative TR?1 isoform in Sertoli cell leads to an increase in testis weight and sperm production. The identification of a 43-kDa truncated form of the nuclear receptor TR?1 (p43) in the mitochondrial matrix led us to test the hypothesis that this mitochondrial transcription factor could regulate Sertoli cell proliferation. Here we report that p43 depletion in mice increases testis weight and sperm reserve. In addition, we found that p43 deletion increases Sertoli cell proliferation in postnatal testis at 3 days of development. Electron microscopy studies evidence an alteration of mitochondrial morphology observed specifically in Sertoli cells of p43?/? mice. Moreover, gene expression studies indicate that the lack of p43 in testis induced an alteration of the mitochondrial-nuclear cross-talk. In particular, the up-regulation of Cdk4 and c-myc pathway in p43?/? probably explain the extended proliferation recorded in Sertoli cells of these mice. Our finding suggests that T3 limits post-natal Sertoli cell proliferation mainly through its mitochondrial T3 receptor p43. PMID:24040148

Fumel, Betty; Roy, Stéphanie; Fouchécourt, Sophie; Livera, Gabriel; Parent, Anne-Simone; Casas, François; Guillou, Florian

2013-01-01

26

Effect of oxidative stress on fluoride-induced apoptosis in primary cultured Sertoli cells of rats.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of oxidative stress on the apoptosis of Sertoli cells induced by sodium fluoride (NaF). Cell viability, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis were measured after the rat Sertoli cells were exposed to various concentrations of (0, 6, 12, and 24??g/ml) sodium fluoride in the presence and absence of 2?mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for 24?h. The present study showed that decrease in cell viability and excessive oxidative stress were observed in NaF-treated cells. The treatment with NAC restored the decreased cell viability and excessive oxidative stress. Moreover, fluoride exposure decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased apoptosis in Sertoli cells. NAC was also found to suppress a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the percentage of apoptosis in NaF-treated Sertoli cells. This study proved that oxidative stress probably play a major role in NaF-induced apoptosis of Sertoli cells. PMID:24521312

Yang, Yang; Huang, Hui; Ba, Yue; Cheng, Xue-Min; Cui, Liu-Xin

2015-02-01

27

Altered protein prenylation in Sertoli cells is associated with adult infertility resulting from childhood mumps infection  

PubMed Central

Mumps commonly affects children 5–9 yr of age, and can lead to permanent adult sterility in certain cases. However, the etiology of this long-term effect remains unclear. Mumps infection results in progressive degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium and, occasionally, Sertoli cell–only syndrome. Thus, the remaining Sertoli cells may be critical to spermatogenesis recovery after orchitis healing. Here, we report that the protein farnesylation/geranylgeranylation balance is critical for patients’ fertility. The expression of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPPS) was decreased due to elevated promoter methylation in the testes of infertile patients with mumps infection history. When we deleted GGPPS in mouse Sertoli cells, these cells remained intact, whereas the adjacent spermatogonia significantly decreased after the fifth postnatal day. The proinflammatory MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways were constitutively activated in GGPPS?/? Sertoli cells due to the enhanced farnesylation of H-Ras. GGPPS?/? Sertoli cells secreted an array of cytokines to stimulate spermatogonia apoptosis, and chemokines to induce macrophage invasion into the seminiferous tubules. Invaded macrophages further blocked spermatogonia development, resulting in a long-term effect through to adulthood. Notably, this defect could be rescued by GGPP administration in EMCV-challenged mice. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which mumps infection during childhood results in adult sterility. PMID:23825187

Wang, Xiu-Xing; Ying, Pu; Diao, Fan; Wang, Qiang; Ye, Dan; Jiang, Chen; Shen, Ning; Xu, Na; Chen, Wei-Bo; Lai, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Shan; Miao, Xiao-Li; Feng, Jin; Tao, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Yao, Bing; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Sha, Jia-Hao; Huang, Xing-Xu; Shi, Qing-Hua; Tang, Hong

2013-01-01

28

Altered protein prenylation in Sertoli cells is associated with adult infertility resulting from childhood mumps infection.  

PubMed

Mumps commonly affects children 5-9 yr of age, and can lead to permanent adult sterility in certain cases. However, the etiology of this long-term effect remains unclear. Mumps infection results in progressive degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium and, occasionally, Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Thus, the remaining Sertoli cells may be critical to spermatogenesis recovery after orchitis healing. Here, we report that the protein farnesylation/geranylgeranylation balance is critical for patients' fertility. The expression of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPPS) was decreased due to elevated promoter methylation in the testes of infertile patients with mumps infection history. When we deleted GGPPS in mouse Sertoli cells, these cells remained intact, whereas the adjacent spermatogonia significantly decreased after the fifth postnatal day. The proinflammatory MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways were constitutively activated in GGPPS(-/-) Sertoli cells due to the enhanced farnesylation of H-Ras. GGPPS(-/-) Sertoli cells secreted an array of cytokines to stimulate spermatogonia apoptosis, and chemokines to induce macrophage invasion into the seminiferous tubules. Invaded macrophages further blocked spermatogonia development, resulting in a long-term effect through to adulthood. Notably, this defect could be rescued by GGPP administration in EMCV-challenged mice. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which mumps infection during childhood results in adult sterility. PMID:23825187

Wang, Xiu-Xing; Ying, Pu; Diao, Fan; Wang, Qiang; Ye, Dan; Jiang, Chen; Shen, Ning; Xu, Na; Chen, Wei-Bo; Lai, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Shan; Miao, Xiao-Li; Feng, Jin; Tao, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Yao, Bing; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Li, Jian-Min; Sha, Jia-Hao; Huang, Xing-Xu; Shi, Qing-Hua; Tang, Hong; Gao, Xiang; Li, Chao-Jun

2013-07-29

29

Unilateral cryptorchidism induces morphological changes of testes and hyperplasia of Sertoli cells in a dog  

PubMed Central

Cryptorchidism is one of the most common genital defects in dogs. This study investigated the effects of abdominal cryptorchidism on morphology, cell proliferation, and Sertoli cell condition in a dog with spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the abdominal right testis and the scrotal left testis. Significant reductions in numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the cryptorchid testis. The size of the epididymal duct was smaller than that of the control testis. Based on Ki67 immunohistochemistry, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was significantly decreased in the cryptorchid testis. However, proliferative activity was increased in the epididymal duct. Based on GATA-4 immunohistochemistry, Sertoli cells were relatively resistant to cryptorchidism, and the proliferative activity of Sertoli cells was markedly increased in the cryptorchid testis than in the control testis. These results suggest that spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism causes morphological defects in spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the testis and changes the size of the efferent ductule of the epididymis. In addition, spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism increases proliferative activity of Sertoli cells, which may be a predisposing factor for Sertoli cell cancer in cryptorchid testes.

Moon, Joon Ho; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

2014-01-01

30

Selective Ablation of the Androgen Receptor in Mouse Sertoli Cells Affects Sertoli Cell Maturation, Barrier Formation and Cytoskeletal Development  

PubMed Central

The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR) in Sertoli cells (SC) (SCARKO mice) display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli) and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2). It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development. PMID:21152390

Willems, Ariane; Batlouni, Sergio R.; Esnal, Arantza; Swinnen, Johannes V.; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Sharpe, Richard M.; França, Luiz R.; De Gendt, Karel; Verhoeven, Guido

2010-01-01

31

Mono(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Rapidly Alters both Sertoli Cell Vimentin Filaments and Germ Cell Apoptosis in Young Rat Testes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is a widely studied Sertoli cell toxicant. Here we describe alterations in Sertoli cell vimentin filament distribution and the incidence of testicular germ cell apoptosis in young (28-day-old) Fischer rats that were treated with MEHP (2 g\\/kg, po) and killed 0, 3, 6, or 12 hr after exposure. A collapse in vimentin filaments was observed 3 hr

John H. Richburg; Kim Boekelheide

1996-01-01

32

Specific deficiency of Plzf paralog, Zbtb20, in Sertoli cells does not affect spermatogenesis and fertility in mice  

PubMed Central

Ztbt20 is a POK family transcription factor and primarily functions through its conserved C2H2 Krüppel type zinc finger and BTB/POZ domains. The present study was designed to define the function of the Zbtb20, in vivo, during mouse spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ZBTB20 protein was localized specifically in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. To investigate its role during spermatogenesis, we crossed Amh-Cre transgenic mice with Zbtb20 floxp mice to generate conditionally knockout mice (cKO) in which Zbtb20 was specifically deleted in Sertoli cells. The cKO mice were fertile and did not show any detectable abnormalities in spermatogenesis. Taken together, though specific deletion of transcription factor Zbtb20 in Sertoli cells has no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, its specific localization in Sertoli cells makes Zbtb20 a useful marker for the identification of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. PMID:25395169

Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Shi; Zhang, Yuanwei; Yang, Weimei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Liu; Wang, Zheng; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Cooke, Howard J.; Iqbal, Furhan; Shi, Qinghua

2014-01-01

33

Specific deficiency of Plzf paralog, Zbtb20, in Sertoli cells does not affect spermatogenesis and fertility in mice.  

PubMed

Ztbt20 is a POK family transcription factor and primarily functions through its conserved C2H2 Krüppel type zinc finger and BTB/POZ domains. The present study was designed to define the function of the Zbtb20, in vivo, during mouse spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ZBTB20 protein was localized specifically in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. To investigate its role during spermatogenesis, we crossed Amh-Cre transgenic mice with Zbtb20 floxp mice to generate conditionally knockout mice (cKO) in which Zbtb20 was specifically deleted in Sertoli cells. The cKO mice were fertile and did not show any detectable abnormalities in spermatogenesis. Taken together, though specific deletion of transcription factor Zbtb20 in Sertoli cells has no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, its specific localization in Sertoli cells makes Zbtb20 a useful marker for the identification of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. PMID:25395169

Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Shi; Zhang, Yuanwei; Yang, Weimei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Liu; Wang, Zheng; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Cooke, Howard J; Iqbal, Furhan; Shi, Qinghua

2014-01-01

34

Sertoli cell tumors associated with feminizing syndrome and spermatic cord torsion in two cryptorchid dogs.  

PubMed

The association of cryptorchidism, functional Sertoli cell tumors, and spermatic cord torsion has been rarely reported in the literature. Two dogs were admitted for bilateral skin alopecia and weight loss. Both animals were cryptorchid and displayed a pendulous preputial sheath, prostate hypertrophy, and increased levels of circulating oestrogen. Transabdominal palpation and ultrasonography revealed the presence of neoplastic retained gonads. During surgery, spermatic cord torsion was also detected in the enlarged neoplastic testes of both dogs. Histologic examination confirmed the presence of Sertoli cell tumors that were primarily responsible for the feminizing syndrome. Complete remission of all symptoms occurred within 3 months after orchiectomy. PMID:22705745

Quartuccio, Marco; Marino, Gabriele; Garufi, Giuseppe; Cristarella, Santo; Zanghì, Antonina

2012-06-01

35

Morphological and oxidative alterations on Sertoli cells cytoskeleton due to retinol-induced reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinol (vitamin A) is involved in several cellular processes, like cell division, differentiation, transformation and apoptosis. Although it has been shown that retinol is a limitant factor for all these processes, the precise mechanisms by which retinol acts are still unknown. In the present study we hypothesised that alterations in the cytoskeleton of Sertoli cells induced by retinol supplementation could

Ramatis Birnfeld de Oliveira; Fábio Klamt; Mauro A. A. Castro; Manuela Polydoro; Alfeu Zanotto Filho; Daniel Pens Gelain; Felipe Dal-Pizzol; José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira

2005-01-01

36

Sertoli cell function in albino rats treated with etoposide during prepubertal phase.  

PubMed

Sertoli cell plays a key role in spermatogenesis. Many studies refer that this cell is not harmed by the majority of anticancer treatments known to cause damage to the testis. However, in the previous study we observed that etoposide, an efficient chemotherapeutic drug, provokes an increase in numerical density of the Sertoli cells. This phenomenon suggests that this cell was harmed by etoposide. Thus, we decided to investigate a possible direct action of etoposide on Sertoli cells analyzing the function of this cell and relating it with the integrity and damage of the seminiferous epithelium. Prepubertal albino rats received 5 mg/kg of etoposide for eight consecutive days and were sacrificed in different ages. The control groups received 0.9% saline solution. The testes were fixed in Bouin's liquid for transferrin immunolabeling and testicular labeled tissue volume density measurement. Except for the younger rats, all the etoposide-treated rats showed diminution of transferrin immunolabeling in the seminiferous epithelium, and consequently, of total labeled testicular tissue volume density. We concluded that the diminution of transferrin labeling in the seminiferous epithelium was not associated with germ cell absence such as commonly reported. The results suggest etoposide impairs Sertoli cell function. PMID:16550346

Stumpp, Taiza; Freymüller, Edna; Miraglia, Sandra Maria

2006-09-01

37

Sertoli cell proliferation in the adult testis is induced by unilateral gonadectomy in African catfish.  

PubMed

Survival and development of male germ cells depends on their close contact with Sertoli cells. In the cystic spermatogenesis found in fish, one germ cell clone, initially a single undifferentiated spermatogonium type A, is enclosed by and accompanied through spermatogenesis by a group of Sertoli cells. Previous work showed that after forming such spermatogenic cysts, Sertoli cells proliferated mainly during the mitotic expansion of the spermatogonial clone in the cyst. Here, we used unilateral gonadectomy (ULG) as experimental model to study Sertoli cell proliferation at the start of cyst development in adult African catfish testis. Four days after surgery, we observed a particularly strong increase in the number of mitotic Sertoli cells along with a significant increase in the number of mitotic single type A spermatogonia. Proliferation of pairs of spermatogonia or of larger germ cell clones, however, did not change. At the same time, pituitary transcript levels of the three gonadotropin-subunits (cga, glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide; fshb, follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide; lhb, luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide) were not different between sham-operated and ULG males. However, expression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene gnrhr1 was significantly reduced after ULG, and Lh plasma levels were slightly elevated. In the testis remaining after ULG, Fsh receptor (fshr) mRNA levels increased significantly but luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (lhcgr) mRNA levels did not change. Circulating androgen levels did not differ between groups, but testicular androgen release increased significantly 2- to 3-fold after ULG. Considering the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh and the expression of the fshr gene by Leydig cells in catfish, we explain the absence of an effect of ULG on circulating androgen levels by an Fshr-mediated, compensatory increase in the steroid production of the remaining testis, perhaps supported in addition by the increased Lh plasma levels. Since Fsh is a major stimulator of mammalian Sertoli cell proliferation, we propose that ULG-induced activation of the Fsh signalling system also promoted Sertoli cell proliferation and - possibly as a consequence of that - proliferation of single type A spermatogonia, providing the basis for an increased spermatogenic capacity. PMID:22465554

Schulz, Rüdiger W; van Dijk, Wytske; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; García-López, Angel; de França, Luiz R; Bogerd, Jan

2012-05-15

38

Irradiation Selectively Inhibits Expression from the Androgen-Dependent Pem Homeobox Gene Promoter in Sertoli Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

How radiation blocks spermatogenesis in certain strains of rats, such as LBNF1, is not known. Because the block depends on androgen, we propose that androgen affects Sertoli cell function in irradiated LBNF1 rats, resulting in the failure of spermatogonial differentiation. To begin to identify genes that may participate in this irradiation- induced blockade of spermatogenesis, we investigated the expression of

SOURINDRA MAITI; MARVIN L. MEISTRICH; GENE WILSON; GUNAPALA SHETTY; MARCO MARCELLI; MICHAEL J. MCPHAUL; PATRICIA L. MORRIS; MILES F. WILKINSON

2010-01-01

39

Dynamin 2 is required for actin assembly in phagocytosis in Sertoli cells  

SciTech Connect

Dynamin 2 has been reported to be implicated in phagocytosis. However, the mode of action of dynamin is poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether dynamin 2 participates in actin assembly during phagocytosis in Sertoli cells. In the presence of dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, phagocytosis was reduced by 60-70% in Sertoli cells and macrophages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Sertoli cells treated with dynasore were unable to form phagocytic cups. In addition, dysfunction of dynamin 2 reduced both actin polymerization and recruitment of actin and dynamin 2 to phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P{sub 2}]-containing liposomes. The formation of dynamin 2-positive ruffles of Sertoli cells was decreased by 60-70% by sequestering PI(4,5)P{sub 2} either by expression of PH domain of PLC{delta} or treatment with neomycin. These results strongly suggest that dynamin 2 is involved in actin dynamics and the formation of dynamin 2-positive ruffles during phagocytosis.

Otsuka, Atsushi; Abe, Tadashi [Department of Neuroscience, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Masami [Department of Urology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Yagisawa, Hitoshi [Laboratory of Biological Signaling, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Harima Science Garden City, Kouto 3-chome, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Takei, Kohji [Department of Neuroscience, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroshi [Department of Neuroscience, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)], E-mail: hiroyama@md.okayama-u.ac.jp

2009-01-16

40

The Sertoli cell of the water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ) during the spermatogenic cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural features and morphometric evaluations of buffalo Sertoli cells are reported for the six phases of the spermatogenic cycle. The phases of the tubular seminiferous epithelium are identified according to characteristic cellular associations with completed spermiation as demarcation between two cycles. Average tubular diameter (245 µm) and epithelial height (61 µm) do not vary significantly during the cycle. The relative

Harcharan Singh Pawar; Karl-Heinz Wrobel

1991-01-01

41

CTNNB1 Signaling in Sertoli Cells Downregulates Spermatogonial Stem Cell Activity via WNT4  

PubMed Central

Constitutive activation of the WNT signaling effector CTNNB1 (?-catenin) in the Sertoli cells of the Ctnnb1tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2tm3(cre)Bhr/+ mouse model results in progressive germ cell loss and sterility. In this study, we sought to determine if this phenotype could be due to a loss of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) activity. Reciprocal SSC transplants between Ctnnb1tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2tm3(cre)Bhr/+ and wild-type mice showed that SSC activity is lost in Ctnnb1tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2tm3(cre)Bhr/+ testes over time, whereas the mutant testes could not support colonization by wild-type SSCs. Microarray analyses performed on cultured Sertoli cells showed that CTNNB1 induces the expression of genes associated with the female sex determination pathway, which was also found to occur in Ctnnb1tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2tm3(cre)Bhr/+ testes. One CTNNB1 target gene encoded the secreted signaling molecule WNT4. We therefore tested the effects of WNT4 on SSC-enriched germ cell cultures, and found that WNT4 induced cell death and reduced SSC activity without affecting cell cycle. Conversely, conditional inactivation of Wnt4 in the Ctnnb1tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2tm3(cre)Bhr/+ model rescued spermatogenesis and male fertility, indicating that WNT4 is the major effector downstream of CTNNB1 responsible for germ cell loss. Furthermore, WNT4 was found to signal via the CTNNB1 pathway in Sertoli cells, suggesting a self-reinforcing positive feedback loop. Collectively, these data indicate for the first time that ectopic activation of a signaling cascade in the stem cell niche depletes SSC activity through a paracrine factor. These findings may provide insight into the pathogenesis of male infertility, as well as embryonic gonadal development. PMID:22253774

Boyer, Alexandre; Yeh, Jonathan R.; Zhang, Xiangfan; Paquet, Marilène; Gaudin, Aurore; Nagano, Makoto C.; Boerboom, Derek

2012-01-01

42

Basolateral Uptake of Nucleosides by Sertoli Cells Is Mediated Primarily by Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1  

PubMed Central

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport. PMID:23639800

Klein, David M.; Evans, Kristen K.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Dantzler, William H.; Wright, Stephen H.

2013-01-01

43

Condensation behavior of the human x chromosome in male germ cells and Sertoli cells examined by flourescence in situ hybridisation  

SciTech Connect

The chromatin condensation behavior of the human x chromosome has been studied by FISH analysis in germ cells and Sertoli cells of the adult testes. Comparisons are made with previous findings for the human Y chromosome and for chromosome 7. In meiotic prophase, the X chromosome can be seen to extend greatly at zygotene and to contract through pachytene into the sex vesicle. Such extension, which has also been noted for the human Y chromosome at this state of meiosis, could be a prerequisite for XY pairing crossing-over. In patients with {open_quotes}Sertoli-cell-only{close_quotes} syndrome, the sex chromosomes, by in situ hybridization analysis, appear extremely contracted compared with their normal extended state seen in adult Sertoli cells of fertile men. By contrast, the state of expansion of chromosome 7 in Sertoli cells appears identical for sterile and fertile testes. This could suggest an association between gene-controlled germ cell losses and failure of expansion of the sex chromosome axes. The variable patterns of extension and contraction for the X and Y chromosome axes in germ cells and Sertoli cells might provide underlying clues to pattern of expression noted for sex-linked genes in the human testis.

Kofman-Alfaro, S.; Cervantes, A. [Servicio de Genetica (Mexico); Speed, R.M. [WGH, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

44

Concomitant Sertoli and Leydig Cell Tumor of the Testis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A rare intratubular gonadal stromal tumor was present in the testis of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaint of gradual enlargement of the left testis. Tumoral markers were negative and no extension was observed. The tumor comprised an intratubular mixture of two types of tumor cells with intercellular junctions: the predominant tumor cells were consistent with a Sertoli cell origin and cells comprising the minor population consistent with a Leydig cell origin. The patient is disease free after 6-month follow-up. The case is considered to be a testicular mixed tubular Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. It highlights a rare type of primary tumor of the testis that features a good prognosis. PMID:22114547

Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Elfatemi, Hinde; Bendahou, Mohcine; Tazi, Elmehdi; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

2011-01-01

45

Notch Signaling in Sertoli Cells Regulates Cyclical Gene Expression of Hes1 but Is Dispensable for Mouse Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated system dedicated to the continuous production of spermatozoa from spermatogonial stem cells, and the process largely depends on microenvironments created by Sertoli cells, unique somatic cells that reside within a seminiferous tubule. Spermatogenesis progresses with a cyclical program known as the “seminiferous epithelial cycle,” which is accompanied with cyclical gene expression changes in Sertoli cells. However, it is unclear how the cyclicity in Sertoli cells is regulated. Here, we report that Notch signaling, which is known to play an important role for germ cell development in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, is cyclically activated in Sertoli cells and regulates stage-dependent gene expression of Hes1. To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of stage-dependent Hes1 expression and the role of Notch signaling in mouse spermatogenesis, we inactivated Notch signaling in Sertoli cells by deleting protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1), using the cre-loxP system, and found that stage-dependent Hes1 expression was dependent on the activation of Notch signaling. Unexpectedly, however, spermatogenesis proceeded normally. Our results thus indicate that Notch signaling regulates cyclical gene expression in Sertoli cells but is dispensable for mouse spermatogenesis. This highlights the evolutionary divergences in regulation of germ cell development. PMID:22037762

Hasegawa, Kazuteru; Okamura, Yoshiaki

2012-01-01

46

Sertoli cell death by apoptosis in the immature rat testis following x-irradiation.  

PubMed

The importance of the morphological study of cell death has recently been emphasized by the recognition that the ultrastructural features of dying cells allow categorization of the death as either apoptosis or necrosis. This classification enables inferences to be drawn about the mechanism and biological significance of the death occurring in a particular set of circumstances. In this study, Sertoli cell death induced in the immature testis of three and four day old rats by 5 Gy (500 rads) x-irradiation was described by light and transmission electron microscopy with the objective of categorizing the death as apoptosis or necrosis. The testes were examined 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 h after irradiation. Following irradiation, there was a wave of apoptosis of the Sertoli cells starting in three to four hours and reaching a peak between four and eight hours. At 24 hours, only 61% of the expected number of Sertoli cells remained. These findings are in accord with recent ultrastructural reports that ionizing radiation induces cell death by apoptosis in rapidly proliferating cell populations. New insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cell death might thus be expected to stem from future elucidation of the general molecular events involved in triggering apoptosis. PMID:3368774

Allan, D J; Gobé, G C; Harmon, B V

1988-03-01

47

Effect of chloroquine on the formation of tight junctions in cultured immature rat Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Adjoining immature Sertoli cells in the seminiferous epithelium form a tight junctional complex leading to the development of the blood-testis barrier. Protease and antiprotease activities have been implicated in the process of formation of tight junctions. Here, we report the effect of chloroquine, an antimalarial drug with antiprotease activity, on the development of intercellular tight junctions in cultured immature rat Sertoli cells. For positive control, the classical lysosomotropic agent ammonium chloride was used. Sertoli cells were seeded in serum-free defined medium at a density of 3 x 10(6) cells/0.64-cm2 well on Matrigel-covered Millicell-HA filters. Chloroquine at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 microM was added to the outer chamber of the bicameral system on either day 1 or 7 of the culture. The formation of the tight junction was monitored by the measurement of the transepithelial resistance (TER) at 24-hour intervals using an impedance meter. TER in untreated controls was 50 ohms/cm2 on day 1; it increased progressively to 80 ohms/cm2 by day 7 and plateaued until day 12. The cells treated from day 1 with chloroquine also showed a dose-dependent progressive increase in TER until day 9, reaching 225 ohms/cm2 in cells treated with the 100 microM concentration. In comparison to controls, the increase in TER was significantly higher. In cells treated with chloroquine starting from day 7 of culture onwards, there was no observable difference in TER from the untreated control. These observations demonstrate that chloroquine and ammonium chloride increase the TER of immature Sertoli cells in the bicameral chamber. PMID:8792215

Okanlawon, A; Dym, M

1996-01-01

48

Sertoli cell therapy: a novel possible treatment strategy for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

By the year 2020, depression will be the 2nd most common health problem in the world. Current medications to treat depression are effective in less than 50% of patients. There is the need for novel treatments for depression to address the high rates of resistance to current treatment and the chronic residual symptoms in many patients treated for depression. The heterogeneity of major depressive disorder suggests that multiple neurocircuits and neurochemicals are involved in its pathogenesis thus, finding an alternative to neurotransmitter agonist- or antagonist-based treatments offers an important new approach. Cellular therapy is an emerging treatment strategy for multiple diseases, including depression. Based upon their in vivo function as "nurse cells" within the testis and the documented viability, efficacy, and safety of Sertoli cells transplanted into multiple tissues, including brain, the potential for these cells to provide a neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and trophic environment for neurons should be considered. It is proposed that the combination of self-protective, immunoregulatory and trophic properties of Sertoli cells may confer a unique potential for depression treatment and avoid many of the risks and challenges associated with stem cell therapies. At the very least, studies of the effects of Sertoli cell transplantation will add substantially to our understanding of the cellular and molecular processes that underlie depression. PMID:21454019

Loftis, J M

2011-07-01

49

Lycopene supplementation prevents reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis in Sertoli cells of adult albino rats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls  

PubMed Central

Sertoli cell proliferation is attenuated before attaining puberty and the number is fixed in adult testes. Sertoli cells determine both testis size and daily sperm production by providing physical and metabolic support to spermatogenic cells. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure disrupts functions of Sertoli cells causing infertility with decreased sperm count. On the other hand, lycopene is improving sperm count and motility by reducing oxidative stress in humans and animals. Hence we hypothesized that PCBs-induced infertility might be due to Sertoli cell apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress and lycopene might prevent PCBs-induced apoptosis by acting against oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, animals were treated with vehicle control, lycopene, PCBs and PCBs + lycopene for 30 days. After the experimental period, the testes and cauda epididymidis were removed for isolation of Sertoli cells and sperm, respectively. We observed increased levels of oxidative stress markers (H2O2 and LPO) levels, increased expression of apoptotic molecules (caspase-8, Bad, Bid, Bax, cytochrome C and caspase-3), decreased anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) molecule and elevated apoptotic marker activity (caspase-3) in Sertoli cells of PCBs-exposed animals. These results were associated with decreased sperm count and motility in PCBs exposed animals. On the other hand, lycopene prevented the elevation of Sertoli cellular apoptotic parameters and prevented the reduction of sperm parameters (count and motility). The data confirmed that lycopene as an antioxidant scavenged reactive oxygen substances, prevented apoptosis, maintained normal function in Sertoli cells and helped to provide physical and metabolic support for sperm production, thereby treating infertility in men. PMID:24179434

Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Elumalai, Perumal

2013-01-01

50

Impact of low molecular weight phthalates in inducing reproductive malfunctions in male mice: Special emphasis on Sertoli cell functions.  

PubMed

Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in a variety of products. Since they have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), effect of phthalates on human health is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated individual as well as combined mixture effects of three low molecular weight phthalates on the reproductive system of male mice, specifically on the Sertoli cell structure and function. In order to analyze the blood testes barrier (BTB) dynamics, primary culture of Sertoli cells from 3-weeks old male mice was used for mimicking typical tight junction structures. Male mice were exposed to long-term (45days) and combined mixture of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), diphenyl phthalate (DPP), and dimethyl isophthalate (DMIP) between pre-pubertal to adult stage. Our data showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in the rates of transcription of certain prominent Sertoli cell specific genes like transferrin, testin and occludin. Moreover, we also observed significant decreases in the expression of proteins like 3?-HSD, connexin-43 and occludin in testicular lysates of treated animals (p<0.05). The transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the test compounds significantly altered the structural integrity of Sertoli cells. The significant changes of Sertoli cell tight junction structure by test compounds were associated with phosphorylation of ERK. Taken together, our study suggests that low molecular weight phthalates may affect male fertility by altering both structural and functional integrity of Sertoli cells in testes. PMID:25268316

Kumar, Narender; Srivastava, Swati; Roy, Partha

2014-09-28

51

Ultrastructural study of crystalloids in Sertoli cells of the three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).  

PubMed

Crystalloids were found in Sertoli cells of the testis of the three-toed sloth by examination at the light- and electron-microscopic levels. Needle-, or spindle-shaped crystalloids, varying in length, were located in the basal part of the Sertoli cells. They consisted of bundles of filaments each measuring approximately 11 nm in diameter. Several filaments were packed hexagonally to form a bundle. The center-to-center distance between individual filaments of a bundle was approximately 17 nm. Periodical lateral projections emanated from the filaments. Cross sections of crystalloids showed that the projections radiated from each filament in three directions, forming an equilateral triangle with a side length of approximately 15 nm. Scattered polyribosomes were found between and around the bundles. PMID:2317847

Toyama, Y; Calderón, F U; Quesada, R

1990-03-01

52

Ligand-dependent contribution of RXR? to cholesterol homeostasis in Sertoli cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that mice expressing retinoid X receptor ? (RXR?) impaired in its transcriptional activation function AF-2 (Rxrbaf20 mutation) do not display the spermatid release defects observed in RXR?-null mutants, indicating that the role of RXR? in spermatid release is ligand-independent. In contrast, like RXR?-null mutants, Rxrbaf20 mice accumulate cholesteryl esters in Sertoli cells (SCs) due to reduced ABCA1 transporter-mediated

Bénédicte Mascrez; Norbert B. Ghyselinck; Mitsuhiro Watanabe; Jean-Sébastien Annicotte; Pierre Chambon; Johan Auwerx; Manuel Mark

2004-01-01

53

Improved survival and function of rat cryopreserved islets by coculture with sertoli cells.  

PubMed

In order to investigate how to improve the function and survival of cryopreserved islets, we cocultured cryopreserved thawed rat islets with rat Sertoli cells. After thawing, the islets were divided into the Sertoli cell coculture group and the control group. Using light and transmission electron microscopes, we examined the morphology of islets and measured their apoptosis index (AI) and insulin release stimulation index (SI). Moreover, we measured apoptosis protein and mRNA by western-blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cytokine concentrations in supernatant by ELISA. We examined islet graft survival time in diabetic mice and detected insulin in grafts by immunohistochemistry. We found that the morphology, AI, and SI of the coculture group were all significantly improved. The relative expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 P20, P11, and caspase-7 in the coculture group were lower than those in the control group. Compared with the control group, the expression level of Bax was decreased, but that of Bcl-2 was increased. After transplantation, islet survival in the coculture group was similar to that of fresh islets but longer than that in the control group. These results suggest that coculture with rat Sertoli cells significantly improves the yield and function of rat cryopreserved thawed islets by effectively reducing islet apoptosis. PMID:21371055

Li, Yang; Xue, Wujun; Tian, Xiaohui; Ding, Xiaoming; Tian, Puxun; Feng, Xinshun; Song, Yong; Luo, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbao; Wang, Xiaohong; Ding, Chenguang

2011-06-01

54

Sp1 and Egr1 regulate transcription of the Dmrt1 gene in Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Dmrt1 is a recently described gene that is specifically expressed in the gonads and is required for postnatal testis differentiation. Here, we describe the transcriptional mechanisms regulating the Dmrt1 proximal promoter in testicular Sertoli cells. A genomic clone containing exon 1 of the rat Dmrt1 gene and more than 9 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence was isolated and characterized. Several prominent transcriptional start sites were identified, with the major site located 102 bases from the translational start. The Dmrt1 5' flanking region from -5000 to +74 was transcriptionally active in primary Sertoli cells, and deletion analysis of this fragment identified 2 major regions needed for full Dmrt1 promoter function. These regions were located between -3200 and -2000 base pairs (bp) and downstream of -150 bp relative to the major transcriptional start site. DNase I footprint analysis of the region downstream of -150 bp revealed 3 regions that are bound by proteins from Sertoli cell nuclear extracts. Site-directed mutagenesis of these regions identified 2 elements that activate the Dmrt1 promoter and 2 that repress it. The positive elements bind the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Egr1, suggesting that these transcription factors play a critical role in Dmrt1 regulation in the testis. PMID:11870074

Lei, Ning; Heckert, Leslie L

2002-03-01

55

Dmrt1 Expression Is Regulated by Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Phorbol Esters in Postnatal Sertoli Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dmrt1 is a recently described gene that is expressed exclusively in the testis and is required for postnatal testis differentiation. Here we describe the expression of Dmrt1 in postnatal rat testis and Sertoli cells. RNase protection analysis was used to examine Dmrt1 mes- senger RNA (mRNA) levels in intact testis during postnatal devel- opment and in primary cultures of Sertoli

JIANG KAI CHEN; LESLIE L. HECKERT

2001-01-01

56

Response of the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis to withdrawal of androgen: evidence for direct effect upon intercellular spaces associated with Sertoli cell junctional complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological response of the Sertoli cells to partial or complete withdrawal of testosterone was studied in adult rats following hypophysectomy or administration of ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS), a toxicant known to destroy selectively the Leydig cells of the testis. To assess the role of germ cells in effecting changes to Sertoli cells following withdrawal of testosterone, germ cell-deficient rats with

J. B. Kerr; G. N. Savage; M. Millar; R. M. Sharpe

1993-01-01

57

Decreased expression of mouse Rbm3, a cold-shock protein, in Sertoli cells of cryptorchid testis.  

PubMed

Physiological scrotal hypothermia is necessary for normal spermatogenesis and fertility in mammals. Human RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) is structurally highly similar to the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (Cirp), and both mRNAs are induced in human cells at the scrotal temperature (32 degrees C). We report here the cloning of mouse Rbm3 cDNA, which encoded an 18-kd protein with 94% identity in amino acid sequence to that of human RBM3. In the testis of adult mice, Rbm3 mRNA and protein were detected in Sertoli cells, but not germ cells, of seminiferous tubules at all stages. The expression was not observed in Sertoli cells of fetuses, but was observed in newborn and older mice. In the TAMA26 mouse Sertoli cell line, the Rbm3 expression level was increased or decreased within 12 hours after temperature shift from 37 degrees C to 32 degrees C or 39 degrees C, respectively. In contrast to Cirp, the cold-induced growth suppression of TAMA26 cells was not affected by suppression of the Rbm3 expression. When mouse testis was exposed to heat stress by experimental cryptorchidism, the level of Rbm3 was decreased in Sertoli cells. Rbm3 may play important roles distinct from those played by Cirp in spermatogenesis and cryptorchidism by regulating the gene expression in Sertoli cells. PMID:10793079

Danno, S; Itoh, K; Matsuda, T; Fujita, J

2000-05-01

58

Sertoli cell tumor associated with polyomavirus infection in a Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae).  

PubMed

A 3-yr-old male Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) died after 2 wk of lethargy, emaciation, feather loss, and abdominal distension. The bird was housed in an aviary for breeding, but it had shown loss of fertility in the previous breeding season. Necropsy revealed a gross, firm, and yellow mass involving the left testis. Histologically, the mass was a mixed form, intratubular and diffuse, Sertoli cell tumor. Some neoplastic cells had intranuclear inclusion bodies that immunoelectron microscopy proved to be polyomavirus particle aggregates. There were no viral inclusions in other tissues. The possible role of infection in the pathogenesis of the tumor is discussed. PMID:12713186

Rossi, Giacomo; Ceccherelli, Renato; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Tarantino, Chiara

2003-01-01

59

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced cytotoxicity accompanied by oxidative stress in rat Sertoli cells: Possible role of mitochondrial fractions of Sertoli cells  

SciTech Connect

TCDD, as an endocrine disruptor, is known to impair testicular functions and fertility. To elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying the testicular effects of TCDD, the potential toxicity of TCDD on Sertoli cells was investigated. Furthermore, the study aims to delineate whether mitochondrial fractions of Sertoli cells are involved in mediating the testicular effects of TCDD. Adult rat Sertoli cells were incubated with (5, 10 or 15 nM) of TCDD for 6, 12 or 24 h. Cell viability, lactate and LDH leakage into media along with lipid peroxidation, ROS generation, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, {gamma}-GT and {beta}-glucuronidase activities, GSH content and {Delta}{psi}{sub m} were measured. Superoxide anion production, COX and cardiolipin content were measured in mitochondrial fractions. Cell viability was significantly decreased while lactate and LDH leakage into media were increased. ROS generation along with lipid peroxidation was also increased. SOD, CAT, GPx, GR activities and GSH content were significantly decreased. {gamma}-GT and {beta}-glucuronidase activities were also decreased. Superoxide anion production was increased while COX activity and cardiolipin content were decreased in mitochondrial fractions. Moreover, the {Delta}{psi}{sub m} was significantly decreased as measured in Sertoli cells. In conclusion, TCDD impairs Sertoli cell functions and this effect is, at least in part, attributed to oxidative stress. We have also found that TCDD increases mitochondrial superoxide anion production and decreases {Delta}{psi}{sub m}, COX activity and mitochondrial cardiolipin content. Our findings suggest that mitochondria may play an important role in ROS production, leading to the TCDD-induced oxidative stress response and resulting toxicological consequences in rat Sertoli cells.

Aly, Hamdy A.A., E-mail: hamdyaali@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Khafagy, Rasha M. [Physics Department, Girls College for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

2011-05-01

60

Gene expression profiling of rat spermatogonia and Sertoli cells reveals signaling pathways from stem cells to niche and testicular cancer cells to surrounding stroma  

PubMed Central

Background Stem cells and their niches are studied in many systems, but mammalian germ stem cells (GSC) and their niches are still poorly understood. In rat testis, spermatogonia and undifferentiated Sertoli cells proliferate before puberty, but at puberty most spermatogonia enter spermatogenesis, and Sertoli cells differentiate to support this program. Thus, pre-pubertal spermatogonia might possess GSC potential and pre-pubertal Sertoli cells niche functions. We hypothesized that the different stem cell pools at pre-puberty and maturity provide a model for the identification of stem cell and niche-specific genes. We compared the transcript profiles of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells from pre-pubertal and pubertal rats and examined how these related to genes expressed in testicular cancers, which might originate from inappropriate communication between GSCs and Sertoli cells. Results The pre-pubertal spermatogonia-specific gene set comprised known stem cell and spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers. Similarly, the pre-pubertal Sertoli cell-specific gene set comprised known niche gene transcripts. A large fraction of these specifically enriched transcripts encoded trans-membrane, extra-cellular, and secreted proteins highlighting stem cell to niche communication. Comparing selective gene sets established in this study with published gene expression data of testicular cancers and their stroma, we identified sets expressed genes shared between testicular tumors and pre-pubertal spermatogonia, and tumor stroma and pre-pubertal Sertoli cells with statistic significance. Conclusions Our data suggest that SSC and their niche specifically express complementary factors for cell communication and that the same factors might be implicated in the communication between tumor cells and their micro-enviroment in testicular cancer. PMID:21232125

2011-01-01

61

Actin dynamics regulate subcellular localization of the F-actin-binding protein PALLD in mouse Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells undergo terminal differentiation at puberty to support all phases of germ cell development, which occurs in the mouse beginning in the second week of life. By ?18 days postpartum (dpp), nearly all Sertoli cells have ceased proliferation. This terminal differentiation is accompanied by the development of unique and regionally concentrated filamentous actin (F-actin) structures at the basal and apical aspects of the seminiferous epithelium, and this reorganization is likely to involve the action of actin-binding proteins. Palladin (PALLD) is a widely expressed F-actin-binding and bundling protein recently shown to regulate these structures, yet it is predominantly nuclear in Sertoli cells at puberty. We found that PALLD localized within nuclei of primary Sertoli cells grown in serum-free media but relocalized to the cytoplasm upon serum stimulation. We utilized this system with in vivo relevance to Sertoli cell development to investigate mechanisms regulating nuclear localization of this F-actin-binding protein. Our results indicate that PALLD can be shuttled from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and that this relocalization occurred following depolymerization of the F-actin cytoskeleton in response to cAMP signaling. Nuclear localization was reduced in Hpg-mutant testes, suggesting the involvement of gonadotropin signaling. We found that PALLD nuclear localization was unaffected in testis tissues from LH receptor and androgen receptor-mutant mice. However, PALLD nuclear localization was reduced in the testes of FSH receptor-mutant mice, suggesting that FSH signaling during Sertoli cell maturation regulates this subcellular localization. PMID:24989903

Niedenberger, Bryan A; Chappell, Vesna A; Otey, Carol A; Geyer, Christopher B

2014-10-01

62

The total number of Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testes of men across various age groups - a stereological study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate the total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells in testes from male subjects across the human lifespan, using an optimized stereological method for cell-counting. In comparison with many other organs, estimation of the total cell numbers in the testes is particularly sensitive to methodological problems. Therefore, using the optical fractionator technique and a sampling design specifically optimized for human testes, we estimated the total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testes from 26 post mortem male subjects ranging in age from 16 to 80?years. The mean unilateral total number of Sertoli cells was 407?×?10(6) [range: 86?×?10(6) to 665?×?10(6) , coefficient of variation (CV)?=?0.33], and the mean unilateral total number of Leydig cells was 99?×?10(6) (range: 47?×?10(6) to 245?×?10(6) , CV?=?0.48). There was a significant decline in the number of Sertoli cells with age; no such decline was found for Leydig cells. Quantitative stereological analysis of post mortem tissue may help understand the influence of age or disease on the number of human testicular cells. PMID:25545958

Petersen, Peter M; Seierøe, Karina; Pakkenberg, Bente

2015-02-01

63

Differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells from peri-pubertal testes of three different bovine breeds  

PubMed Central

Sub-fertility is one of the most common problems observed in crossbred males, but the etiology remains unknown in most of the cases. Although proteomic differences in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma between breeds have been investigated, the possible differences at the sperm precursor cells and supporting/nourishing cells have not been studied. The present study reports the differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells in crossbred and purebred bulls. Testis was removed by unilateral castration of 12 peri-pubertal bulls (10 months age), four each from crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Tharparkar), exotic purebred [Holstein Friesian (HF)] and indigenous purebred [Tharparkar (TP)] bulls. Spermatogenic and Sertoli cells were isolated and subjected to proteomic analysis. Protein extracts from the Sertoli and spermatogenic cells of each breed were analyzed with 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and analyzed with Decyder™ software. Compared to HF, 26 protein spots were over expressed and 14 protein spots were under expressed in spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls. Similarly, 7 protein spots were over expressed and 15 protein spots were under expressed in the spermatogenic cells of TP bulls compared to that of crossbred bulls. Out of 12 selected protein spots identified through mass spectrometry, Phosphatidyl ethanolamine binding protein was found to be over expressed in the spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls compared to TP bulls. The protein, gamma actin was found to be over expressed in the Sertoli cells of HF bulls, whereas Speedy Protein-A was found to be over expressed in Sertoli cells of crossbred bulls. It may be concluded that certain proteomic level differences exist in sperm precursor cells and nourishing cells between breeds, which might be associated with differences in the fertility among these breeds. PMID:25364731

Tripathi, Utkarsh K.; Aslam, Muhammad K. M.; Pandey, Shashank; Nayak, Samiksha; Chhillar, Shivani; Srinivasan, A.; Mohanty, T. K.; Kadam, Prashant H.; Chauhan, M. S.; Yadav, Savita; Kumaresan, Arumugam

2014-01-01

64

Mouse Sertoli cells sustain de novo generation of regulatory T cells by triggering the notch pathway through soluble JAGGED1.  

PubMed

FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are central to the maintenance of immunological homeostasis and tolerance. It has long been known that Sertoli cells are endowed with immune suppressive properties; however, the underlying mechanisms as well as the effective nature and role of soluble factors secreted by Sertoli cells have not been fully elucidated as yet. We hypothesized that conditioned medium from primary mouse Sertoli cells (SCCM) may be able and sufficient to induce Tregs. By culturing CD4(+)CD25(-)EGFP(-) T splenocytes purified from FOXP3-EGFP knock-in mice in SCCM, here we show, by flow cytometry and suppression assay, the conversion of peripheral CD4(+)FOXP3(-) T cells into functional CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Tregs. We also demonstrate that the Notch/Jagged1 axis is involved in regulating the de novo generation of Tregs although this process is transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-B) dependent. In particular, we identified by Western blot analysis a soluble form of JAGGED1 (JAG1) in SCCM that significantly influences the induction of Tregs, as demonstrated by performing the conversion assay in presence of a JAG1-specific neutralizing antibody. In addition, we show that SCCM modulates the Notch pathway in converted Tregs by triggering the recruitment of the Notch-specific transcription factor CSL/RBP-Jk to the Foxp3 promoter and by inducing the Notch target gene Hey1, as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and by real time-RT-PCR experiments, respectively. Overall, these results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in Sertoli cell-mediated immune tolerance and provide a novel approach to generate ex vivo functional Tregs for therapeutic purpose. PMID:24478388

Campese, Antonio Francesco; Grazioli, Paola; de Cesaris, Paola; Riccioli, Anna; Bellavia, Diana; Pelullo, Maria; Padula, Fabrizio; Noce, Claudia; Verkhovskaia, Sofia; Filippini, Antonio; Latella, Giovanni; Screpanti, Isabella; Ziparo, Elio; Starace, Donatella

2014-03-01

65

Large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors of the testes in pediatrics  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The aim of this review is to describe the clinical, biochemical, radiographic, histological, and functional characteristics of large-cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumors of the testes (LCCSCTs). We describe the two main syndromes associated with these tumors: Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS) caused mainly by mutations in the STK11 (aka LKB1) gene, which encodes a serine–threonine kinase, and Carney complex (CNC), which is most often caused by PRKAR1A mutations, the gene encoding regulatory subunit type 1 of protein kinase A. Recent findings Relatively few patients have been reported in the literature with LCCSCTs. In children they often present as prepubertal and/or peripubertal gynecomastia. Although these tumors are very rare, they occur with higher frequency among patients with PJS and CNC. Orchiectomy was often performed in the past; however, these tumors are overwhelmingly benign and, unless there are significant hormonal changes or pain and/or mass effects, there is no need for surgery. Tumors that lead to hyperestrogenemia may be treated efficiently with aromatase inhibitors; any change in appearance should prompt evaluation for malignancy. Summary The detection of LCCSCTs may point to an underlying genetic multiple neoplasia syndrome such as PJS or CNC. Surgery is rarely indicated and aromatase inhibitors constitute an effective treatment for those cases that are associated with gynecomastia and/or advanced skeletal age. PMID:22732638

Gourgari, Evgenia; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Stratakis, Constantine A.

2014-01-01

66

SRY induced TCF21 genome-wide targets and cascade of bHLH factors during Sertoli cell differentiation and male sex determination in rats.  

PubMed

Male sex determination is initiated through the testis-determining factor SRY that promotes Sertoli cell differentiation and subsequent gonadal development. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene Tcf21 was identified as one of the direct downstream targets of SRY. The current study was designed to identify the downstream targets of TCF21 and the potential cascade of bHLH genes that promote Sertoli cell differentiation. A modified ChIP-Chip comparative hybridization analysis identified 121 direct downstream binding targets for TCF21. The gene networks and cellular pathways potentially regulated by these TCF21 targets were identified. One of the main bHLH targets for TCF21 was the bHLH gene scleraxis (Scx). An embryonic ovarian gonadal cell culture was used to examine the functional role of Sry, Tcf21, and Scx to promote an in vitro sex reversal and induction of Sertoli cell differentiation. SRY and TCF21 were found to induce the initial stages of Sertoli cell differentiation, whereas SCX was found to induce the later stages of Sertoli cell differentiation associated with pubertal development using transferrin gene expression as a marker. Therefore, a cascade of SRY followed by TCF21 followed by SCX appears to promote, in part, Sertoli cell fate determination and subsequent differentiation. The current observations help elucidate the initial molecular events involved in the induction of Sertoli cell differentiation and testis development. PMID:23034159

Bhandari, Ramji K; Schinke, Ellyn N; Haque, Md M; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Skinner, Michael K

2012-06-01

67

SERTOLI CELLS IN THE BOAR TESTIS: CHANGES DURING DEVELOPMENT AND COMPENSATORY HYPERTROPHY AFTER HEMICASTRATION AT DIFFERENT AGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in Sertoli cell numbers and testicular structure during normal development and during compensatory hypertrophy were assessed in crossbred Meishan x White Composite males. Boars were assigned at birth to unilateral castration at 1, 10, 56 or 112 days, or remained as intact controls through 22...

68

Loss of Sertoli-germ cell adhesion determines the rapid germ cell elimination during the seasonal regression of the seminiferous epithelium of the large hairy armadillo Chaetophractus villosus.  

PubMed

The armadillo Chaetophractus villosus is a seasonal breeder whose seminiferous epithelium undergoes rapid regression with massive germ cell loss, leaving the tubules with only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. Here, we addressed the question of whether this regression entails 1) the disassembly of cell junctions (immunolocalization of nectin-3, Cadm1, N-cadherin, and beta-catenin, and transmission electron microscopy [TEM]); 2) apoptosis (immunolocalization of cytochrome c and caspase 3; TUNEL assay); and 3) the involvement of Sertoli cells in germ cell phagocytosis (TEM). We showed a dramatic reduction in the extension of vimentin filaments associated with desmosomelike junctions at the interface between Sertoli and germ cells, and an increased diffusion of the immunosignals of nectin-3, Cadm1, N-cadherin, and beta-catenin. Together, these results suggest loss of Sertoli-germ cell adhesion, which in turn might determine postmeiotic cell sloughing at the beginning of epithelium regression. Then, loss of Sertoli-germ cell adhesion triggers cell death. Cytochrome c is released from mitochondria, but although postmeiotic cells were negative for late apoptotic markers, at advanced regression spermatocytes were positive for all apoptotic markers. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed cytoplasmic engulfment of cell debris and lipid droplets within Sertoli cells, a sign of their phagocytic activity, which contributes to the elimination of the residual meiocytes still present in the latest regression phases. These findings are novel and add new players to the mechanisms of seminiferous epithelium regression occurring in seasonal breeders, and they introduce the armadillo as an interesting model for studying seasonal spermatogenesis. PMID:24451984

Luaces, Juan Pablo; Rossi, Luis Francisco; Sciurano, Roberta Beatriz; Rebuzzini, Paola; Merico, Valeria; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Merani, Maria Susana; Garagna, Silvia

2014-03-01

69

A chimerical phagocytosis model reveals the recruitment by Sertoli cells of autophagy for the degradation of ingested illegitimate substrates  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis and autophagy are typically dedicated to degradation of substrates of extrinsic and intrinsic origins respectively. Although overlaps between phagocytosis and autophagy were reported, the use of autophagy for ingested substrate degradation by nonprofessional phagocytes has not been described. Blood-separated tissues use their tissue-specific nonprofessional phagocytes for homeostatic phagocytosis. In the testis, Sertoli cells phagocytose spermatid residual bodies produced during germ cell differentiation. In the retina, pigmented epithelium phagocytoses shed photoreceptor tips produced during photoreceptor renewal. Spermatid residual bodies and shed photoreceptor tips are phosphatidylserine-exposing substrates. Activation of the tyrosine kinase receptor MERTK, which is implicated in phagocytosis of phosphatidylserine-exposing substrates, is a common feature of Sertoli and retinal pigmented epithelial cell phagocytosis. The major aim of our study was to investigate to what extent phagocytosis by Sertoli cells may be tissue specific. We analyzed in Sertoli cell cultures that were exposed to either spermatid residual bodies (legitimate substrates) or retina photoreceptor outer segments (illegitimate substrates) the course of the main phagocytosis stages. We show that whereas substrate binding and ingestion stages occur similarly for legitimate or illegitimate substrates, the degradation of illegitimate but not of legitimate substrates triggers autophagy as evidenced by the formation of double-membrane wrapping, MAP1LC3A-II/LC3-II clustering, SQSTM1/p62 degradation, and by marked changes in ATG5, ATG9 and BECN1/Beclin 1 protein expression profiles. The recruitment by nonprofessional phagocytes of autophagy for the degradation of ingested cell-derived substrates is a novel feature that may be of major importance for fundamentals of both apoptotic substrate clearance and tissue homeostasis. PMID:23439251

Yefimova, Marina G.; Messaddeq, Nadia; Harnois, Thomas; Meunier, Annie-Claire; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Noblanc, Anaïs; Weickert, Jean-Luc; Cantereau, Anne; Philippe, Michel; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Benzakour, Omar

2013-01-01

70

A sertoli cell-specific knockout of connexin43 prevents initiation of spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

The predominant testicular gap junctional protein connexin43 (cx43) is located between neighboring Sertoli cells (SCs) and between SCs and germ cells. It is assumed to be involved in testicular development, cell differentiation, initiation, and maintenance of spermatogenesis with alterations of its expression being correlated with various testicular disorders. Because total disruption of the cx43 gene leads to perinatal death, we generated a conditional cx43 knockout (KO) mouse using the Cre/loxP recombination system, which lacks the cx43 gene solely in SCs (SCCx43KO), to evaluate the SC-specific functions of cx43 on spermatogenesis in vivo. Adult SCCx43KO(-/-) mice showed normal testis descent and development of the urogenital tract, but testis size and weight were drastically lower compared with heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Histological analysis and quantitation of mRNA expression of germ cell-specific marker genes revealed a significant reduction in the number of spermatogonia but increased SC numbers/tubule with only a few tubules left showing normal spermatogenesis. Thus, SC-specific deletion of cx43 mostly resulted in an arrest of spermatogenesis at the level of spermatogonia or SC-only syndrome and in intratubular SC clusters. Our data demonstrate for the first time that cx43 expression in SCs is an absolute requirement for normal testicular development and spermatogenesis. PMID:17591950

Brehm, Ralph; Zeiler, Martina; Rüttinger, Christina; Herde, Katja; Kibschull, Mark; Winterhager, Elke; Willecke, Klaus; Guillou, Florian; Lécureuil, Charlotte; Steger, Klaus; Konrad, Lutz; Biermann, Katharina; Failing, Klaus; Bergmann, Martin

2007-07-01

71

A Wt1-Dmrt1 transgene restores DMRT1 to sertoli cells of Dmrt1(-/-) testes: a novel model of DMRT1-deficient germ cells.  

PubMed

DMRT1 is an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional factor expressed only in the postnatal testis, where it is produced in Sertoli cells and germ cells. While deletion of Dmrt1 in mice demonstrated it is required for postnatal testis development and fertility, much is still unknown about its temporal- and cell-specific functions. This study characterized a novel mouse model of DMRT1-deficient germ cells that was generated by breeding Dmrt1-null (Dmrt1(-/-)) mice with Wt1-Dmrt1 transgenic (Dmrt1(+/-;tg)) mice, which express a rat Dmrt1 cDNA in gonadal supporting cells by directing it from the Wilms tumor 1 locus in a yeast artificial chromosome transgene. Like Dmrt1(-/-) mice, male Dmrt1(-/-) transgenic mice (Dmrt1(-/-;tg)) were infertile, while female mice were fertile. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis showed transgenic DMRT1 expressed in supporting cells of the newborn gonads of both sex and in Sertoli cells of the testis afterbirth. Sertoli cells were evaluated by electron microscopy, revealing that maturation of Dmrt1(-/-;tg) Sertoli cells was incomplete. Morphological analysis of testes from 42-day-old mice showed that, compared to Dmrt1(-/-) mice, Dmrt1(-/-;tg) mice have improved seminiferous tubule structure, with lumens present in many. Immunohistochemistry of the polarity markers ESPIN and NECTIN-2 showed that DMRT1 in Sertoli cells is required for NECTIN-2 expression and influences organization of ectoplasmic specializations. Further functional analyses of the transgene on a Dmrt1(-/-) background showed that it did not rescue the decrease in Dmrt1(-/-) testis size, but when expressed on a wild-type background, exogenous DMRT1 prevented the normal age-related decline in testis size and enhanced sperm progressive motility. The studies suggest that DMRT1 in Sertoli cells regulates tubule morphology, spermatogenesis, and sperm function via its effects on Sertoli cell maturation and polarity. Furthermore, expression and function of transgenic DMRT1 in Sertoli cells establishes a novel mouse model of DMRT1-deficient germ cells generated by breeding Dmrt1-null mice with Wt1-Dmrt1 transgenic mice (rescue; Dmrt1(-/-;tg)). PMID:23255335

Agbor, Valentine A; Tao, Shixin; Lei, Ning; Heckert, Leslie L

2013-02-01

72

Thyroid hormone inhibits the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cell via PI3K signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Accumulating researches show that thyroid hormone (TH) inhibits Sertoli cells (SCs) proliferation and stimulates their functional maturation in prepubertal rat testis, confirming that TH plays a key role in testicular development. However, the mechanism under the T3 regulation of piglet SC proliferation remains unclear. In the present study, in order to investigate the possible mechanism of T3 on the suppression of SC proliferation, the expression pattern of TR?1 and cell cycle-related molecules, effect of T3 on SC proliferation, and the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway on the T3-mediated SC proliferation in piglet testis were explored. Our results demonstrated that TR?1 was expressed in all tested stages of SCs and decreased along with the ages. T3 inhibited the proliferation of SCs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and T3 treatment downregulated the expressions of cell cycling molecules, such as cyclinA2, cyclinD1, cyclinE1, PCNA, and Skp2, but upregulated the p27 expression in SCs. Most importantly, the suppressive effects of T3 on SC proliferation seemed dependent on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and pre-stimulation of PI3K could enhance such suppressive effects. Together, our findings demonstrate that TH inhibits the proliferation of piglet SCs via the suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25284282

Sun, Yan; Yang, WeiRong; Luo, HongLin; Wang, XianZhong; Chen, ZhongQiong; Zhang, JiaoJiao; Wang, Yi; Li, XiaoMin

2015-01-01

73

Effects of Relatively Low Levels of Mono(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate on Cocultured Sertoli Cells and Gonocytes from Neonatal Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), one of the abundant man-made environmental chemicals, induces testicular damage in both developing and adult animals. However, the nature and mechanism underlying the action of phthalates on testicular development remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we used cocultures of neonatal Sertoli cells and gonocytes (precursors of spermatogonia) to characterize in detail the effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Ling-Hong Li; William F. Jester; Joanne M. Orth

1998-01-01

74

An Integrative Omics Strategy to Assess the Germ Cell Secretome and to Decipher Sertoli-Germ Cell Crosstalk in the Mammalian Testis  

PubMed Central

Mammalian spermatogenesis, which takes place in complex testicular structures called seminiferous tubules, is a highly specialized process controlled by the integration of juxtacrine, paracrine and endocrine information. Within the seminiferous tubules, the germ cells and Sertoli cells are surrounded by testicular fluid (TF), which probably contains most of the secreted proteins involved in crosstalk between these cells. It has already been established that germ cells can modulate somatic Sertoli cell function through the secretion of diffusible factors. We studied the germ cell secretome, which was previously considered inaccessible, by analyzing the TF collected by microsurgery in an “integrative omics” strategy combining proteomics, transcriptomics, genomics and interactomics data. This approach identified a set of proteins preferentially secreted by Sertoli cells or germ cells. An interaction network analysis revealed complex, interlaced cell-cell dialog between the secretome and membranome of seminiferous cells, mediated via the TF. We then focused on germ cell-secreted candidate proteins, and we identified several potential interacting partners located on the surface of Sertoli cells. Two interactions, APOH/CDC42 and APP/NGFR, were validated in situ, in a proximity ligation assay (PLA). Our results provide new insight into the crosstalk between germ cells and Sertoli cells occurring during spermatogenesis. Our findings also demonstrate that this “integrative omics” strategy is powerful enough for data mining and highlighting meaningful cell-cell communication events between different types of cells in a complex tissue, via a biological fluid. This integrative strategy could be applied more widely, to gain access to secretomes that have proved difficult to study whilst avoiding the limitations of in vitro culture. PMID:25111155

Lavigne, Régis; Hernio, Nolwen; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Pineau, Charles

2014-01-01

75

An integrative omics strategy to assess the germ cell secretome and to decipher sertoli-germ cell crosstalk in the Mammalian testis.  

PubMed

Mammalian spermatogenesis, which takes place in complex testicular structures called seminiferous tubules, is a highly specialized process controlled by the integration of juxtacrine, paracrine and endocrine information. Within the seminiferous tubules, the germ cells and Sertoli cells are surrounded by testicular fluid (TF), which probably contains most of the secreted proteins involved in crosstalk between these cells. It has already been established that germ cells can modulate somatic Sertoli cell function through the secretion of diffusible factors. We studied the germ cell secretome, which was previously considered inaccessible, by analyzing the TF collected by microsurgery in an "integrative omics" strategy combining proteomics, transcriptomics, genomics and interactomics data. This approach identified a set of proteins preferentially secreted by Sertoli cells or germ cells. An interaction network analysis revealed complex, interlaced cell-cell dialog between the secretome and membranome of seminiferous cells, mediated via the TF. We then focused on germ cell-secreted candidate proteins, and we identified several potential interacting partners located on the surface of Sertoli cells. Two interactions, APOH/CDC42 and APP/NGFR, were validated in situ, in a proximity ligation assay (PLA). Our results provide new insight into the crosstalk between germ cells and Sertoli cells occurring during spermatogenesis. Our findings also demonstrate that this "integrative omics" strategy is powerful enough for data mining and highlighting meaningful cell-cell communication events between different types of cells in a complex tissue, via a biological fluid. This integrative strategy could be applied more widely, to gain access to secretomes that have proved difficult to study whilst avoiding the limitations of in vitro culture. PMID:25111155

Chalmel, Frédéric; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Régis; Hernio, Nolwen; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Pineau, Charles

2014-01-01

76

Interleukin-6 disrupts blood-testis barrier through inhibiting protein degradation or activating phosphorylated ERK in Sertoli cells  

PubMed Central

It has been recently ascribed to several inflammatory cytokines (i.e. TGF-?3, TNF-?, and IL-1) a functional role in regulating Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics. In the testis, IL-6 inhibits meiotic DNA synthesis during the seminiferous epithelium cycle, reduces sperm motility and influences the secretion of transferrin and inhibin B by Sertoli cells. Also, it has been shown that IL-6 affects tight junction permeability in Sertoli cells, but, little is known about its role in regulating the BTB. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which IL-6 affects BTB dynamics. We show that IL-6 perturbs the integrity of the BTB, and alters the normal localization and steady-state levels of BTB integral membrane proteins. We demonstrated that IL-6 regulates the BTB by inhibiting the degradation of BTB constitutive proteins and activating ERK-MAPK pathways. Our results provide mechanistic insight into the roles of IL-6 in regulating BTB dynamics. PMID:24584780

Zhang, Huijuan; Yin, Yimeng; Wang, Guishuan; Liu, Zhimin; Liu, Lin; Sun, Fei

2014-01-01

77

Upregulation of heat shock protein 32 in Sertoli cells alleviates the impairments caused by heat shock-induced apoptosis in mouse testis.  

PubMed

Heat stress results in apoptosis in testicular germ cells. A small heat shock protein (hsp), hsp32, is induced by heat stress in the testis, but little is known about its definitive function in physiological processes. To clarify the underlying role of hsp32, hsp32 expression and related signals in the heat shock pathway were analysed in mouse testes and Sertoli cells after heat stress in vivo and in vitro; meanwhile, expression of hsp32 was silenced only in the Sertoli cells using three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to further verify the functional role of hsp32 in Sertoli cells, and hsp32-derived carbon monoxide (CO) contents in cultured media were analysed to clarify whether hsp32-derived CO involve in the apoptosis regulation mechanisms. The results from the in vivo experiment showed that the high expression levels of hsp32 (P < 0.05) were observed whether chronic, moderate or acute, transient heat exposure. The in vitro experiment showed that acute, transient heat exposure resulted in increases in Sertoli cells apoptosis (P < 0.01), the expression of hsp32 and caspase-3 activity; hsp32-siRNA knockdown of hsp32 expression resulted in upregulated apoptosis (P < 0.01) and caspase-3 activity (P < 0.01) in the Sertoli cells and hyperthermia increases CO (P < 0.01) release by Sertoli cells. The results suggested that upregulating hsp32 in Sertoli cells inhibits caspase-3 activity and alleviates heat-induced impairments in mouse testis; hsp32-derived CO may involve in the regulation mechanism. PMID:23188493

Li, Lian; Han, Zhao-Yu; Li, Cheng-Min; Jiang, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Gen-Lin

2013-05-01

78

Melatonin alters the glycolytic profile of Sertoli cells: implications for male fertility.  

PubMed

Melatonin co-operates with insulin in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Within the testis, glucose metabolism in the somatic Sertoli cells (SCs) is pivotal for spermatogenesis. Since the effects of melatonin on male reproductive physiology remain largely unknown, we hypothesized that melatonin may affect spermatogenesis by modulating SC metabolism, interacting with insulin. To test our hypothesis, rat SCs were maintained in culture for 24 h in the presence of insulin, melatonin or both and metabolite production/consumption was determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR). Protein levels of glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were determined by western blot. LDH activity was also assessed. SCs treated with melatonin showed an increase in glucose consumption via modulation of GLUT1 levels, but decreased LDH protein expression and activity, which resulted in lower lactate production. Moreover, SCs exposed to melatonin produced and accumulated less acetate than insulin-exposed cells. The combined treatment (insulin plus melatonin) increased acetate production by SCs, but intracellular acetate content remained lower than in insulin exposed cells. Finally, the intracellular redox state, as reflected by intracellular lactate/alanine ratio, was maintained at control levels in SCs by melatonin exposure (i.e. melatonin, alone or with insulin, increased the lactate/alanine ratio versus cells treated with insulin). Furthermore, SCs exposed to insulin plus melatonin produced more lactate and maintained the protein levels of some glycolysis-related enzymes and transporters at control levels. These findings illustrate that melatonin regulates SCs metabolism, and thus may affect spermatogenesis. Since lactate produced by SCs provides nutritional support and has an anti-apoptotic effect in developing germ cells, melatonin supplementation may be an effective therapy for diabetic male individuals facing subfertility/infertility. PMID:25205674

Rocha, Cátia S; Martins, Ana D; Rato, Luís; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G

2014-11-01

79

Copy Number Variants in Patients with Severe Oligozoospermia and Sertoli-Cell-Only Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A genetic origin is estimated in 30% of infertile men with the common phenotypes of oligo- or azoospermia, but the pathogenesis of spermatogenic failure remains frequently obscure. To determine the involvement of Copy Number Variants (CNVs) in the origin of male infertility, patients with idiopathic severe oligozoospermia (N?=?89), Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (SCOS, N?=?37)) and controls with normozoospermia (N?=?100) were analysed by array-CGH using the 244A/400K array sets (Agilent Technologies). The mean number of CNVs and the amount of DNA gain/loss were comparable between all groups. Ten recurring CNVs were only found in patients with severe oligozoospermia, three only in SCOS and one CNV in both groups with spermatogenic failure but not in normozoospermic men. Sex-chromosomal, mostly private CNVs were significantly overrepresented in patients with SCOS. CNVs found several times in all groups were analysed in a case-control design and four additional candidate genes and two regions without known genes were associated with SCOS (P<1×10?3). In conclusion, by applying array-CGH to study male infertility for the first time, we provide a number of candidate genes possibly causing or being risk factors for the men's spermatogenic failure. The recurring, patient-specific and private, sex-chromosomal CNVs as well as those associated with SCOS are candidates for further, larger case-control and re-sequencing studies. PMID:21559371

Tüttelmann, Frank; Simoni, Manuela; Kliesch, Sabine; Ledig, Susanne; Dworniczak, Bernd; Wieacker, Peter; Röpke, Albrecht

2011-01-01

80

Sertoli-leydig cell tumour of ovary with menorrhagia: a rare case report.  

PubMed

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours (SLCTs) are rare sex cord stromal neoplasms of ovary accounting for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumours. These are found in women of all age groups (2-75 y), but are most common in reproductive age group with an average age of 25 y. Mostly these are unilateral, confined to ovaries and usually stage I at the time of clinical diagnosis. The common presenting complaints in these patients are due to either mass occupying lesion (mostly pelviabdominal mass and/or pain) or hormonal production (mostly androgen and more rarely oestrogen). Androgenic manifestations, seen in 80% of patients with SLCT, are virilism, hirsutism, receding hairline, breast atrophy, clitoromegaly, acne, hoarseness of voice, etc. Estrogenic manifestations are precocious puberty, abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal vaginal bleeding, menstrual irregularities, generalised oedema, weight gain, breast hypertrophy, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps and endometrial carcinoma. Histologically these are classified (WHO) as well-differentiated, intermediately differentiated, poorly differentiated, with heterologous components and retiform type. Prognosis depends upon degree of tumour differentiation (grading) and tumour extent (staging). We herein report an unusual case of SLCT of ovary with oestrogenic manifestation of menorrhagia. PMID:25478358

Kanade, Umesh Sidheshwar; Dantkale, Sunita Sanjay; Narkhede, Rahul Ravindra; Kurawar, Rupali Ramrao; Bansode, Shubhada Yadavrao

2014-10-01

81

UPF2, a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor, is required for prepubertal Sertoli cell development and male fertility by ensuring fidelity of the transcriptome.  

PubMed

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) represents a highly conserved RNA surveillance mechanism through which mRNA transcripts bearing premature termination codons (PTCs) are selectively degraded to maintain transcriptomic fidelity in the cell. Numerous in vitro studies have demonstrated the importance of the NMD pathway; however, evidence supporting its physiological necessity has only just started to emerge. Here, we report that ablation of Upf2, which encodes a core NMD factor, in murine embryonic Sertoli cells (SCs) leads to severe testicular atrophy and male sterility owing to rapid depletion of both SCs and germ cells during prepubertal testicular development. RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analyses revealed impaired transcriptomic homeostasis in SC-specific Upf2 knockout testes, characterized by an accumulation of PTC-containing transcripts and the transcriptome-wide dysregulation of genes encoding splicing factors and key proteins essential for SC fate control. Our data demonstrate an essential role of UPF2-mediated NMD in prepubertal SC development and male fertility. PMID:25503407

Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Yuan, Shuiqiao; Porse, Bo T; Yan, Wei

2015-01-15

82

Roundup disrupts male reproductive functions by triggering calcium-mediated cell death in rat testis and Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is the primary active constituent of the commercial pesticide Roundup. The present results show that acute Roundup exposure at low doses (36 ppm, 0.036 g/L) for 30 min induces oxidative stress and activates multiple stress-response pathways leading to Sertoli cell death in prepubertal rat testis. The pesticide increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by opening L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels as well as endoplasmic reticulum IP3 and ryanodine receptors, leading to Ca(2+) overload within the cells, which set off oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. Similarly, 30 min incubation of testis with glyphosate alone (36 ppm) also increased (45)Ca(2+) uptake. These events were prevented by the antioxidants Trolox and ascorbic acid. Activated protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases such as ERK1/2 and p38MAPK play a role in eliciting Ca(2+) influx and cell death. Roundup decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased the amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyls. Also, exposure to glyphosate-Roundup stimulated the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, ?-glutamyltransferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, supporting downregulated GSH levels. Glyphosate has been described as an endocrine disruptor affecting the male reproductive system; however, the molecular basis of its toxicity remains to be clarified. We propose that Roundup toxicity, implicated in Ca(2+) overload, cell signaling misregulation, stress response of the endoplasmic reticulum, and/or depleted antioxidant defenses, could contribute to Sertoli cell disruption in spermatogenesis that could have an impact on male fertility. PMID:23820267

de Liz Oliveira Cavalli, Vera Lúcia; Cattani, Daiane; Heinz Rieg, Carla Elise; Pierozan, Paula; Zanatta, Leila; Benedetti Parisotto, Eduardo; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina; Zamoner, Ariane

2013-12-01

83

Starvation is more efficient than the washing technique for purification of rat Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells (SCs), one of the most important components of seminiferous tubules, are vital for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. In recent years, numerous in vitro studies have shown the potential and actual activities of SCs. However, pure SCs are necessary for various in vitro studies. In this study, we have evaluated the efficiency of the starvation method for SC purification as compared with the washing method. Seminiferous tubule-derived cells (STDCs) of rats' testes underwent two different techniques for SC purification. In the first group (washing group), the medium was changed every 3-4 d, and cells were washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline that lacked CaC12 and MgSO4 (PBS(-)) before the addition of fresh medium. In the second group (starvation), the medium was changed every 7-8 d. Primary culture (P0), passage 1 (P1), and passage 2 (P2) cells were analyzed for the expression of SC-specific genes, vimentin, Wilm's tumor 1 (WT1), germ cell gene (vasa), Leydig cell marker, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (Hsd17b3), and a marker of peritubular myoid cells, alpha smooth muscle actin (?Sma), by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. Gene expression analysis showed that P0 cells expressed all tested genes except Hsd17b3. The starvation method caused significant downregulation of vasa and ?Sma expression in P0, P1, and P2 cells, whereas vimentin and WT1 were upregulated. In contrast, the washing method was less effective than the starvation method for the removal of germ and pretubular myoid cells (p?cells in SC cultures, starvation has a stronger effect and is a suitable, affordable technique for SC purification. We propose that starvation is an efficient, inexpensive method that can be used for purification of SCs in animal species. PMID:24789729

Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Mohammad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Sedighi-Gilani, Mohammadali; Mokarizadeh, Aram

2014-09-01

84

Aquaporin-4 as a molecular partner of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in rat Sertoli cells.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells (SCs) form the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that controls the microenvironment where the germ cells develop. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays an essential role to male fertility and it was recently suggested that it may promote water transport. Interestingly, Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is widely expressed in blood barriers, but was never identified in SCs. Herein we hypothesized that SCs express CFTR and AQP4 and that they can physically interact. Primary SCs cultures from 20-day-old rats were maintained and CFTR and AQP4 mRNA and protein expression was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The possible physical interaction between CFTR and AQP4 was studied by co-immunoprecipitation. We were able to confirm the presence of CFTR at mRNA and protein level in cultured rat SCs. AQP4 mRNA analysis showed that cultured rat SCs express the transcript variant c of AQP4, which was followed by immunodetection of the correspondent protein. The co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed a direct interaction between AQP4 and CFTR in cultured rat SCs. Our results suggest that CFTR physically interacts with AQP4 in rat SCs evidencing a possible mechanism by which CFTR can control water transport through BTB. The full enlightenment of this particular relation between CFTR and AQP4 may point towards possible therapeutic targets to counteract male subfertility/infertility in men with Cystic Fibrosis and mutations in CFTR gene, which are known to impair spermatogenesis due to defective water transport. PMID:24657265

Jesus, Tito T; Bernardino, Raquel L; Martins, Ana D; Sá, Rosália; Sousa, Mário; Alves, Marco G; Oliveira, Pedro F

2014-04-18

85

Mixture effects of nonylphenol and di-n-butyl phthalate (monobutyl phthalate) on the tight junctions between Sertoli cells in male rats in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The estrogenic chemical nonylphenol (NP) and the antiandrogenic agent di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are regarded as widespread environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) which at high doses in some species of laboratory animals have adverse effects on male reproduction and development. Given the ubiquitous coexistence of various classes of EEDs in the environment, their combined effects warrant investigation. In this study, we attempted to clarify the interactions of NP and DBP on tight junctions (TJs) between rat Sertoli cells. In the in vitro experiment, monobutyl phthalate (MBP), the active metabolite of DBP, was used instead of DBP. Sertoli cells were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, and treated with NP and MBP, singly or combined. The morphology of Sertoli cells, and structure and functionality of TJs were measured. In the in vivo experiment, rats were gavaged on postnatal day 23-35 with a single or combined NP and DBP treatment. Testicular weight and morphology of TJs were recorded. These data indicated that NP and DBP/MBP, either in single or in combination, induced the structural and function changes of Sertoli cell tight junctions, both in vivo and in vitro. The combined effect on the regulation of TJ proteins at both the protein and gene levels was correlated to the effect exerted by NP, suggesting that the structure and function of Sertoli cells were more sensitive to exposure to NP than MBP. PMID:25200483

Hu, Yang; Wang, Ruoyu; Xiang, Zou; Qian, Weiping; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Dongmei

2014-12-01

86

Organic anion transporter 6 (Slc22a20) specificity and Sertoli cell-specific expression provide new insight on potential endogenous roles.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporter 6 (Oat6; Slc22a20), a member of the OAT family, was demonstrated previously to mediate the transport of organic anions (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291:F314-F321, 2006). In the present study, we sought to further delineate the function of murine Oat6 (mOat6) by analyzing the effect of select organic anions on mOat6-mediated transport by using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably expressing mOat6 (CHO-mOat6). When examined, kinetic analysis demonstrated that the mechanism of inhibition of mOat6 and mOat3 was competitive. Homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 2,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate, hippurate, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) each significantly reduced mOat6 activity with inhibitory constant (K(i)) values of 3.0 +/- 0.5, 48.9 +/- 10.3, 61.4 +/- 7.1, 59.9 +/- 4.9, and 38.8 +/- 3.1 microM, respectively. Comparison to K(i) values determined for mOat3 (67.8 +/- 7.2, 134.5 +/- 27.0, 346.7 +/- 97.9, 79.3 +/- 4.0, and 3.8 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively) revealed that there are significant differences in compound affinity between each transporter. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobials and reduced folates were without effect on mOat6-mediated uptake. Investigation of testicular cell type-specific expression of mOat6 by laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed significant mRNA expression in Sertoli cells, but not in Leydig cells or spermatids. Overall, these data should aid further refinements to the interpretation and modeling of the in vivo disposition of OAT substrates. Specifically, expression in Sertoli cells suggests Oat6 may be an important determinant of blood-testis barrier function, with Oat6-mediated transport of estrone sulfate and DHEAS possibly representing a critical step in the maintenance of testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:20519554

Schnabolk, Gloriane W; Gupta, Bhawna; Mulgaonkar, Aditi; Kulkarni, Mrugaya; Sweet, Douglas H

2010-09-01

87

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) Perturbs Male Rat Sertoli Cell Blood-Testis Barrier Function by Affecting F-Actin Organization via p-FAK-Tyr407: An in Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Environmental toxicants such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) have been implicated in male reproductive dysfunction, including reduced sperm count and semen quality, in humans. However, the underlying mechanism(s) remains unknown. Herein PFOS at 10–20 ?M (?5–10 ?g/mL) was found to be more potent than bisphenol A (100 ?M) in perturbing the blood-testis barrier (BTB) function by disrupting the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier without detectable cytotoxicity. We also delineated the underlying molecular mechanism by which PFOS perturbed Sertoli cell BTB function using an in vitro model that mimics the BTB in vivo. First, PFOS perturbed F-actin organization in Sertoli cells, causing truncation of actin filaments at the BTB. Thus, the actin-based cytoskeleton was no longer capable of supporting the distribution and/or localization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the cell-cell interface necessary to maintain BTB integrity. Second, PFOS was found to perturb inter-Sertoli cell gap junction (GJ) communication based on a dye-transfer assay by down-regulating the expression of connexin-43, a GJ integral membrane protein. Third, phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr407 was found to protect the BTB from the destructive effects of PFOS as shown in a study via an overexpression of an FAK Y407E phosphomimetic mutant. Also, transfection of Sertoli cells with an FAK-specific microRNA, miR-135b, to knock down the expression of phosphorylated FAK-Tyr407 was found to worsen PFOS-mediated Sertoli cell tight junction disruption. In summary, PFOS-induced BTB disruption is mediated by down-regulating phosphorylated FAK-Tyr407 and connexin-43, which in turn perturbed F-actin organization and GJ-based intercellular communication, leading to mislocalization of actin-regulatory and adhesion proteins at the BTB. PMID:24169556

Wan, Hin-Ting; Mruk, Dolores D.; Wong, Chris K. C.

2014-01-01

88

In vitro effect of nanosilver on gene expression of superoxide dismutases and nitric oxide synthases in chicken sertoli cells.  

PubMed

To evaluate effects of different concentrations of nanosilver colloid on the cell culture of Sertoli cells, the proportion of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide (NO) production and genes expression of superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2) and nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS) were measured. Sertoli cells were incubated at concentrations of 25, 75 and 125 ppm nanosilver for 48 h. There was progressive lipid peroxidation in treatments according to increasing of nanosilver. Lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde levels, was significantly elevated by the highest concentration of silver colloid (125 ppm), although antioxidant capacity, as measured by ferric ion reduction, was unaffected. Nitrite, as an index of NO production was reduced only in 125 ppm of nanosilver. Expression of SOD1 gene was reduced in nanosilver-treated cells at all concentrations, whereas expression of SOD2 gene was reduced only in cells treated with 125 ppm nanosilver. Expression of iNOS gene was progressively increased with higher concentrations of nanosilver. Expression of eNOS gene was also increased in 125 ppm of nanosilver. In conclusion, toxic effects of nanosilver could be due to high lipid peroxidation and suppression of antioxidant mechanisms via reduced expression of SOD genes and increased expression of NOS genes. PMID:25229128

Hassanpour, H; Mirshokraei, P; Khalili Sadrabad, E; Esmailian Dehkordi, A; Layeghi, S; Afzali, A; Mohebbi, A

2015-02-01

89

The enhancement of neural stem cell survival and growth by coculturing with expanded Sertoli cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells (SCs) have been described as the "nurse cells" of testis to provide essential growth factors and to create a proper environment for the development of other cells (e.g., germinal and neural stem cell). However, the physiological functions of the SCs obtained from different culture conditions are different in a coculturing system, and thus the optimal SC culturing condition should be investigated in vitro. In this paper, primary Sertoli cells were isolated from a 12-day-old mouse and expanded in two different culture conditions: a two dimensional (2D) plastic tissue disc and a three dimensional (3D) microcarrier culture system. They were then cocultured with neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from 14-day-old mouse embryos. The metabolic activities of SCs(2D) (SCs in 2D) and SCs(3D) (SCs in 3D) and the amount of proteins secreted from two culturing systems were compared. The results show that the metabolic activity and the amount of secreted proteins from SCs(3D) were higher than both from SCs(2D). Three coculturing groups: NSCs+SC(2D), NSCs+SC(3D), and NSCs +SC-conditioned medium (SCCM, control group) were also compared regarding cell morphology and the numbers of neurons, neural outgrowths and neurospheres. The quantity of neurons, neural outgrowths and neurospheres were the highest in the NSCs+SC(3D) group. SCs cultured in the 3D system had a strong trophic effect on NSCs and enhanced their survival and growth. Besides, the mRNA of trophic and nutritive factors such as Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Interleukin-1 ? (IL-1 ?) secreted by the SCs from both 2D and 3D culture system were analyzed by real time-PCR and gel assay. The mRNA transcription of GDNF and IL-1? is more apparent in the 3D culture system than that from the 2D one. The coculturing system of NSCs+SC(3D) is a promising candidate for future neural stem cell transplantation. PMID:22109810

Shi, Bingyang; Deng, Lei; Shi, Xiaolin; Dai, Sheng; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Yonghong; Bi, Jingxiu; Guo, Meijin

2012-01-01

90

p,p?-DDE Induces Apoptosis of Rat Sertoli Cells via a FasL-Dependent Pathway  

PubMed Central

One,1-dichloro-2,2 bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p?-DDE), the major metabolite of 2,2-bis(4-Chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), is a known persistent organic pollutant and male reproductive toxicant. It has antiandrogenic effect. However, the mechanism by which p,p?-DDE exposure causes male reproductive toxicity remains unknown. In the present study, rat Sertoli cells were used to investigate the molecular mechanism involved in p,p?-DDE-induced toxicity in male reproductive system. The results indicated that p,p?-DDE exposure at over 30 ?M showed the induction of apoptotic cell death. p,p?-DDE could induce increases in FasL mRNA and protein, which could be blocked by an antioxidant agent, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). In addition, caspase-3 and -8 were activated by p,p?-DDE treatment in these cells. The activation of NF-?B was enhanced with the increase of p,p?-DDE dose. Taken together, these results suggested that exposure to p,p?-DDE might induce apoptosis of rat Sertoli cells through a FasL-dependent pathway. PMID:19644561

Shi, Yuqin; Song, Yang; Wang, Yinan; Liang, Xianmin; Hu, Yafei; Guan, Xia; Cheng, Jin; Yang, Kedi

2009-01-01

91

Chlamydia muridarum Infection-Induced Destruction of Male Germ Cells and Sertoli Cells Is Partially Prevented by Chlamydia Major Outer Membrane Protein-Specific Immune CD4 cells.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are increasingly prevalent worldwide. Male chlamydial infections are associated with urethritis, epididymitis and orchitis; however the role of Chlamydia in prostatitis and male factor infertility remains controversial. Using a model of C. muridarum infection in male C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the effects of chlamydial infection on spermatogenesis and determined the potential of immune T cells to prevent infection-induced outcomes. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells significantly reduced the infectious burden in the penile urethra, epididymis and vas deferens. Infection disrupted seminiferous tubules causing loss of germ cells at 4 and 8 weeks post infection, with the most severely affected tubules containing only Sertoli cells. Increased mitotic proliferation, DNA repair, and apoptosis in spermatogonial cells and damaged germ cells was evident in atrophic tubules. Activated caspase 3 (casp3) staining revealed increased (6-fold) numbers of Sertoli cells with abnormal morphology that were casp3 positive in tubules of infected mice indicating increased levels of apoptosis. Sperm count and motility were both decreased in infected mice and there was a significant decrease in morphologically normal spermatozoa. Assessment of the spermatogonial stem cell population revealed a decrease in promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) positive cells in the seminiferous tubules. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of immune CD4 cells, particularly Th2-like cells, prior to infection prevented these effects on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells. These data suggest that chlamydial infection adversely affects spermatogenesis and male fertility and that vaccination can potentially prevent the spread of infection and these adverse outcomes. PMID:25472923

Sobinoff, Alexander P; Dando, Samantha J; Redgrove, Kate A; Sutherland, Jessie M; Stanger, Simone J; Armitage, Charles W; Timms, Peter; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Beagley, Kenneth W

2014-12-01

92

Sertoli cells in culture secrete paracrine factor(s) that inhibit peritubular myoid cell proliferation: identification of heparinoids as likely candidates  

SciTech Connect

Conditioned medium from Sertoli cells, prepared from testes of 20-day-old rats, contains component(s) that inhibit the incorporation of (3H)-thymidine into DNA of peritubular myoid cells (PMC) and inhibit the proliferation of PMC. These components are trypsin-resistant, heat-stable compounds having a molecular weight less than 30,000. The active inhibitory components in Sertoli cell conditioned medium are inactivated by treatment with heparinase, but not by treatment with hyaluronidase or chondroitin sulfate lyases. Addition of heparin or heparan sulfate results in inhibition of DNA synthesis by PMC in a dose-dependent manner, whereas other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) examined (hyaluronic acid, keratan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate) have no detectable effects. Heparin and heparan sulfate are unique among GAGs tested in inhibiting the characteristic multilayer growth pattern of PMC following the attainment of confluence in serum-rich medium. On the basis of these and other data presented, it is concluded that heparin and other heparin-like GAGs synthesized by Sertoli cells are implicated in the modulation of growth of PMC in vitro during co-culture. It is postulated that heparin may play a similar role in maintaining the quiescent peritubular myoid cell phenotype in vivo.

Tung, P.S.; Fritz, I.B. (Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1991-06-01

93

Effect of rosmarinic acid on sertoli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after exposure to electromagnetic fields.  

PubMed

Rosmarinic acid belongs to the group of polyphenols; it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities and help to prevent cell damage caused by free radicals. The objective was to study the effect of Rosmarinic acid on sertolli cells apoptosis and serum antioxidant levels in rats after they were exposed to electromagnetic fields. Male Wistar rats (n=40) were allocated into three groups: control group (n=10) that received 5 cc normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily by gavage method, Rosmarinic acid group that received 5mg/rat (gavage) (n=10), electromagnetic fields (EMF) group that had exposure with 50 hz (n=20) which was subdivided to two groups of 10; EMF group and treatment group. Treatment group received 5mg/rat (gavage) Rosmarinic acid daily for 6 weeks, respectively. However, the control group just received an equal volume of distilled water daily (gavage). On the 42nd day of research, 5 cc blood was collected to measure testosterone hormones, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), levels from whole group's analysis. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and sertoli cells apoptosis significantly decreased in the group that received 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05) in comparison with experimental groups. Level of testosterone, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), significantly increased in groups that received Rosmarinic acid (P<0.05). Since in our study 5mg/rat of Rosmarinic acid showed significantly preventive effect on cell damages especial sertoli cells apoptosis that caused with EMF, it seems that using Rosmarinic acid as food additive can be effective for supporting people living under EMF environmental pollution. PMID:24311872

Hajhosseini, Laleh; Khaki, Arash; Merat, Ehsan; Ainehchi, Nava

2013-01-01

94

Extratesticular interstitial and Sertoli cell tumors in previously neutered dogs and cats: A report of 17 cases  

PubMed Central

Primary neoplasms derived from testicular tissue and in an extratesticular location are extremely rare. Clinical and surgical information was collected and verified from 15 different submitting practices for 12 dogs and 5 cats that spontaneously developed neoplasms of testicular origin after castration. Eleven dogs had Sertoli cell tumors in an extratesticular location. One dog and all 5 cats had an extratesticular interstitial cell tumor. Six animals (1 dog, 5 cats) had developed secondary sexual characteristics that reversed after removal of the tumor. All had a palpable mass in the scrotum or at the site of the original prescrotal incision. No animals died of neoplasia-related disease and no metastases were identified. Several possibilities, including the presence of embryological ectopic tissue or the presence of testicular tissue transplanted during castration, are considered as causal. PMID:16933553

Doxsee, Angela L.; Yager, Julie A.; Best, Susan J.; Foster, Robert A.

2006-01-01

95

The PGD2 pathway, independently of FGF9, amplifies SOX9 activity in Sertoli cells during male sexual differentiation  

PubMed Central

Activation by the Y-encoded testis determining factor SRY and maintenance of expression of the Sox9 gene encoding the central transcription factor of Sertoli cell differentiation are key events in the mammalian sexual differentiation program. In the mouse XY gonad, SOX9 upregulates Fgf9, which initiates a Sox9/Fgf9 feedforward loop, and Sox9 expression is stimulated by the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) producing lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS, or PTDGS) enzyme, which accelerates commitment to the male pathway. In an attempt to decipher the genetic relationships between Sox9 and the L-Pgds/PGD2 pathway during mouse testicular organogenesis, we found that ablation of Sox9 at the onset or during the time window of expression in embryonic Sertoli cells abolished L-Pgds transcription. By contrast, L-Pgds-/- XY embryonic gonads displayed a reduced level of Sox9 transcript and aberrant SOX9 protein subcellular localization. In this study, we demonstrated genetically that the L-Pgds/PGD2 pathway acts as a second amplification loop of Sox9 expression. Moreover, examination of Fgf9-/- and L-Pgds-/- XY embryonic gonads demonstrated that the two Sox9 gene activity amplifying pathways work independently. These data suggest that, once activated and maintained by SOX9, production of testicular L-PGDS leads to the accumulation of PGD2, which in turn activates Sox9 transcription and nuclear translocation of SOX9. This mechanism participates together with FGF9 as an amplification system of Sox9 gene expression and activity during mammalian testicular organogenesis. PMID:19429785

Moniot, Brigitte; Declosmenil, Faustine; Barrionuevo, Francisco; Scherer, Gerd; Aritake, Kosuke; Malki, Safia; Marzi, Laetitia; Cohen-Solal, Anne; Georg, Ina; Klattig, Jürgen; Englert, Christoph; Kim, Yuna; Capel, Blanche; Eguchi, Naomi; Urade, Yoshihiro; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte; Poulat, Francis

2009-01-01

96

Early Postnatal Exposure to a Low Dose of Decabromodiphenyl Ether Affects Expression of Androgen and Thyroid Hormone Receptor-Alpha and Its Splicing Variants in Mouse Sertoli Cells  

PubMed Central

Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) adversely affects reproduction and development. Our previous study showed that postnatal exposure to a low dose of decaBDE (0.025 mg/kg body weight/day) by subcutaneous injection on postnatal days (PNDs) 1 through 5 leads to reductions in testicular size and number of Sertoli cells and sperm, while higher dose of decaBDE (2.5 mg/kg body weight/day) had no significant differences about these. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism of these effects on mouse testes following postnatal exposure to a low decaBDE dose. We hypothesized that postnatal exposure to decaBDE may alter levels of serum thyroid hormones (THs) and testosterone, or the level of TH receptor alpha (Thra) transcripts and its splicing variants and androgen receptor (Ar) in Sertoli cells, adversely affecting spermatogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we examined serum TH and testosterone levels and the levels of transcripts of the Ar, Thra and its splicing variants, and Thra splicing factors (Hnrnpa1, Srsf1, and Hnrnph1) with qPCR in isolated mouse Sertoli cells exposed postnatally to decaBDE (0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 mg/kg). Levels of serum testosterone and transcripts encoding Ar, Thra, and its variant, Thra1, declined significantly in Sertoli cells of mice exposed to 0.025 mg decaBDE/kg. No significant differences in serum TH level or Thra2, Hnrnph1, or Srsf1 transcript levels were observed between control and decaBDE-exposed mice. However, the Thra1:Thra2 and Hnrnpa1:Srsf1 ratios were altered in Sertoli cells of mice exposed to 0.025 mg decaBDE/kg but not in cells exposed to 0.25 or 2.5 mg decaBDE/kg. These results indicate that postnatal exposure to a low dose of decaBDE on PNDs 1 through 5 lowers the testosterone level and the levels of Ar and Thra transcripts in Sertoli cells, accompanied by an imbalance in the ratios of Thra splicing variants, resulting in smaller testicular size and impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:25479311

Miyaso, Hidenobu; Nakamura, Noriko; Naito, Munekazu; Hirai, Shuichi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Itoh, Masahiro; Mori, Chisato

2014-01-01

97

EB1 Regulates Tubulin and Actin Cytoskeletal Networks at the Sertoli Cell Blood-Testis Barrier in Male Rats: An In Vitro Study.  

PubMed

During spermatogenesis, developing germ cells are transported across the seminiferous epithelium. Studies propose that because microtubules (MTs) serve as the tracks for transporting cell organelles, they may also serve a similar function in the transport of developing germ cells. Polarized MTs may provide the tracks along which polarized actin microfilaments, which act as vehicles to transport cargo, such as preleptotene spermatocytes through the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and spermatids across the epithelium. Yet the molecular mechanism(s) underlying these events remain unknown. Using an established in vitro Sertoli cell system to study BTB function, we demonstrated herein that a MT regulatory protein end-binding protein 1 (EB1) regulates the MT- and also the actin-based cytoskeleton of the Sertoli cell BTB in the rat. EB1 serves as a coordinator between the two cytoskeletons by regulating MT polymerization and actin filament bundling to modulate germ cell transport at the Sertoli cell BTB. A knockdown of EB1 by RNA interference was found to perturb the tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, as evidenced by mislocalization of junctional proteins critical for barrier function to facilitate spermatocyte transport, which was likely achieved by two coordinated events. First, EB1 knockdown resulted in changes in MT polymerization, thereby perturbing MT organization in Sertoli cells in which polarized MT no longer stretched properly across the cell cytosol to serve as the tracks. Second, EB1 knockdown perturbed actin organization via its effects on the branched actin polymerization-inducing protein called Arp3 (actin-related protein 3), perturbing microfilament bundling capability based on a biochemical assay, thereby causing microfilament truncation and misorganization, disrupting the function of the vehicle. This reduced actin microfilament bundling capability thus perturbed TJ-protein distribution and localization at the BTB, destabilizing the TJ barrier, leading to its remodeling to facilitate spermatocyte transport. In summary, EB1 provides a functional link between tubulin- and actin-based cytoskeletons to confer spermatocyte transport at the BTB. PMID:25456071

Tang, Elizabeth I; Mok, Ka-Wai; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

2015-02-01

98

The role of connexins in the differentiation of NT2 cells in Sertoli-NT2 cell tissue constructs grown in the rotating wall bioreactor.  

PubMed

Neural transplantation is developing as a successful treatment for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. The human Ntera-2/D1 (NT2) cell line is an attractive alternative to the use of human fetal neurons as a cell source for transplantation. We have explored combining NT2 cells, as a neuronal source, and Sertoli cells, which may act as a graft facilitator to enhance neuronal survival and differentiation, and ameliorate the host immune response, into a tissue construct for use in cell replacement therapy for neurodegenerative disease. This Sertoli-NT2-aggregated cell (SNAC) tissue construct is formed in the high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor. NT2 cells differentiate to dopaminergic NT2N neurons within the SNAC tissue construct without retinoic acid. We report here that the gap junction protein connexin 43 is decreased among differentiated NT2N neurons. Inhibition of connexin 43 with 18beta glycyrrhetinic acid and carbenoxolone, a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative, during formation of the SNAC tissue constructs disrupts the differentiation of NT2 cells. Therefore, connexin 43 is important in the differentiation of NT2 cells in the SNAC tissue construct. PMID:16328273

Shamekh, R; Cameron, D F; Willing, A E; Saporta, S

2006-04-01

99

Cytokines, Polarity Proteins, and Endosomal Protein Trafficking and Signaling—The Sertoli Cell Blood–Testis Barrier System In Vitro as a Study Model  

PubMed Central

Endosomal signaling is emerging as one of the most important cellular events that regulate signaling function in mammalian cells or an epithelium in response to changes in environment such as the presence of stimuli mediated by cytokines, toxicants, heat, ions during growth and development, and other cellular processes such as cytokinesis and spermatogenesis. Recent studies have shown that protein endocytosis—the initial step of endosomal signaling—involves the participation of polarity proteins, such as partitioning defective protein 6 (Par6), Cdc42 and 14-3-3 (also known as Par5), which in turn is regulated by cytokines (e.g., TGF-?2, TGF-?3) and testosterone at the Sertoli cell blood–testis barrier (BTB) in the mammalian testis. In this short method paper, we provide a detailed protocol of assessing protein endocytosis, the initial and also the most critical step of endosomal signaling at the Sertoli cell BTB. This biochemical endocytosis assay summarizes our experience for the last decade, which should likely be performed in conjunction with the dual-labeled immunofluorescence analysis to assess protein endocytosis. While we are using a Sertoli cell in vitro system that mimics the BTB in vivo, this approach should be applicable to virtually all mammalian cells. PMID:24359954

Xiao, Xiang; Wong, Elissa W.P.; Lie, Pearl P.Y.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Wong, Chris K.C.; Cheng, C. Yan

2014-01-01

100

Performance and mechanism of neuroleukin in the growth and survival of sertoli cell-induced neurons in a coculture system.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells (SCs), which are recognized as the "nurse cells" of the testis due to their important biofunctions, have been used in cotransplantation with neurons in cell therapy. However, it is not clear whether SCs influence neuronal communication and survival. In this study, we showed that approximately 60% of cortical neural stem cells (NSCs) cocultured with SCs differentiated into mature neurons. In addition, the neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival rates were significantly enhanced in the coculture system compared with differentiated neurons induced by a differentiation medium. The neuroleukin (NLK) secretion of SCs was also identified at the RNA and protein level, and the roles of NLK in neuromorphology and physiological regulation were systematically investigated for the first time. These results not only highlight the significance of paracrine regulation of NSCs by SCs but also confirm the role NLK plays in the differentiation and survival of NSCs. Finally, we proposed a possible hypothesis for the mechanism of NLK in the growth and survival of SC-induced neurons based on Western blotting results, which is that NLK secreted by SCs activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/Erk, Jak/Stat, and PI3K/Akt pathways, but not the NF-?B pathway, in neurons resulting in their growth and survival. PMID:23394468

Deng, Lei; Shi, Bingyang; Zhuang, Yingping; Chu, Ju; Shi, Xiaolin; Zhang, Siliang; Guo, Meijin

2014-03-01

101

Genes involved in nonpermissive temperature-induced cell differentiation in Sertoli TTE3 cells bearing temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T-antigen  

SciTech Connect

Sertoli TTE3 cells, derived from transgenic mice bearing temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 large T (tsSV40LT)-antigen, proliferated continuously at a permissive temperature (33 deg C) whereas inactivation of the large T-antigen by a nonpermissive temperature (39 deg C) led to differentiation as judged by elevation of transferrin. To clarify the detailed mechanisms of differentiation, we investigated the time course of changes in gene expression using cDNA microarrays. Of the 865 genes analyzed, 14 genes showed increased levels of expression. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of p21{sup waf1}, milk fat globule membrane protein E8, heat-responsive protein 12, and selenoprotein P were markedly elevated. Moreover, the differentiated condition induced by the nonpermissive temperature significantly increased mRNA levels of these four genes in several cell lines from the transgenic mice bearing the oncogene. The present results regarding changes in gene expression will provide a basis for a further understanding of molecular mechanisms of differentiation in both Sertoli cells and cell lines transformed by tsSV40LT-antigen.

Tabuchi, Yoshiaki [Division of Molecular Genetics, Life Scientific Research Center, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)]. E-mail: ytabu@ms.toyama-mpu.ac.jp; Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshihisa [Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-0872 (Japan); Obinata, Masuo [Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-0872 (Japan)

2005-04-15

102

Dose-dependent effects of caffeine in human Sertoli cells metabolism and oxidative profile: Relevance for male fertility.  

PubMed

Caffeine is a widely consumed substance present in several beverages. There is an increasing consumption of energetic drinks, rich in caffeine, among young individuals in reproductive age. Caffeine has been described as a modulator of cellular metabolism. Hence, we hypothesized that it alters human Sertoli cells (hSCs) metabolism and oxidative profile, which are essential for spermatogenesis. For that purpose, hSCs were cultured with increasing doses of caffeine (5, 50, 500?M). Caffeine at the lowest concentrations (5 and 50?M) stimulated lactate production, but only hSCs exposed to 50?M showed increased expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). At the highest concentration (500?M), caffeine stimulated LDH activity to sustain lactate production. Notably, the antioxidant capacity of hSCs decreased in a dose-dependent manner and SCs exposed to 500?M caffeine presented a pro-oxidant potential, with a concurrent increase of protein oxidative damage. Hence, moderate consumption of caffeine appears to be safe to male reproductive health since it stimulates lactate production by SCs, which can promote germ cells survival. Nevertheless, caution should be taken by heavy consumers of energetic beverages and food supplemented with caffeine to avoid deleterious effects in hSCs functioning and thus, abnormal spermatogenesis. PMID:25486098

Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Bernardino, Raquel L; Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Ana C; Silva, Joaquina; Barros, Alberto; Sousa, Mário; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

2015-02-01

103

Regulation of expression of Sertoli cell glucose transporters 1 and 3 by FSH, IL1 beta, and bFGF at two different time-points in pubertal development.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells are necessary to provide adequate levels of lactate for germ cell development. Lactate production is hormonally regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and by a large set of intratesticular regulators such as interleukin-1 beta (IL1 beta) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Little is known regarding the critical step in the production of this metabolite, viz., the entrance of glucose into the cell as mediated by GLUTs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3 and its possible regulation by FSH, IL1 beta, and bFGF in Sertoli cells at two different time-points in sexual development. Sertoli cells retaining the ability to undergo mitosis (obtained from 8-day-old rats) and in the process of terminal differentiation (obtained from 20-day-old rats) were examined. Testicular tissue sections and Sertoli cell monolayers obtained from 8- and 20-day-old rats showed positive immunostaining for GLUT1 and GLUT3 proteins. GLUT1 and GLUT3 mRNA levels were detected at the two ages analyzed. Treatment of Sertoli cells obtained from 8- and 20-day-old rats with FSH, IL1 beta, and bFGF for various periods of time (12, 24, and 48 h) increased GLUT1 without changing GLUT3 mRNA levels. Our results thus show that Sertoli cells express GLUT1 and GLUT3 throughout pubertal development, and that, in Sertoli cells, only GLUT1 is regulated by hormones during pubertal development. Hormonal regulation of GLUT1 expression and consequently glucose uptake and lactate production may be a key molecular event in the regulation of spermatogenesis by hormones. PMID:18802725

Galardo, María Noel; Riera, María Fernanda; Pellizzari, Eliana Herminia; Chemes, Héctor Edgardo; Venara, Marcela Cristina; Cigorraga, Selva Beatriz; Meroni, Silvina Beatriz

2008-11-01

104

SOX9 and SF1 are involved in cyclic AMP-mediated upregulation of anti-Mullerian gene expression in the testicular prepubertal Sertoli cell line SMAT1.  

PubMed

In Sertoli cells, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression is upregulated by FSH via cyclic AMP (cAMP), although no classical cAMP response elements exist in the AMH promoter. The response to cAMP involves NF-?B and AP2; however, targeted mutagenesis of their binding sites in the AMH promoter do not completely abolish the response. In this work we assessed whether SOX9, SF1, GATA4, and AP1 might represent alternative pathways involved in cAMP-mediated AMH upregulation, using real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), targeted mutagenesis, luciferase assays, and immunocytochemistry in the Sertoli cell line SMAT1. We also explored the signaling cascades potentially involved. In qPCR experiments, Amh, Sox9, Sf1, and Gata4 mRNA levels increased after SMAT1 cells were incubated with cAMP. Blocking PKA abolished the effect of cAMP on Sox9, Sf1, and Gata4 expression, inhibiting PI3K/PKB impaired the effect on Sf1 and Gata4, and reducing MEK1/2 and p38 MAPK activities curtailed Gata4 increase. SOX9 and SF1 translocated to the nucleus after incubation with cAMP. Mutations of the SOX9 or SF1 sites, but not of GAT4 or AP1 sites, precluded the response of a 3,063-bp AMH promoter to cAMP. In conclusion, in the Sertoli cell line SMAT1 cAMP upregulates SOX9, SF1, and GATA4 expression and induces SOX9 and SF1 nuclear translocation mainly through PKA, although other kinases may also participate. SOX9 and SF1 binding to the AMH promoter is essential to increase the activity of the AMH promoter in response to cAMP. PMID:21693691

Lasala, Celina; Schteingart, Helena F; Arouche, Nassim; Bedecarrás, Patricia; Grinspon, Romina P; Picard, Jean-Yves; Josso, Nathalie; di Clemente, Nathalie; Rey, Rodolfo A

2011-09-01

105

Isolation of murine valve endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Normal valve structures consist of stratified layers of specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with valve interstitial cells (VICs) and surrounded by a monolayer of valve endothelial cells (VECs). VECs play essential roles in establishing the valve structures during embryonic development, and are important for maintaining life-long valve integrity and function. In contrast to a continuous endothelium over the surface of healthy valve leaflets, VEC disruption is commonly observed in malfunctioning valves and is associated with pathological processes that promote valve disease and dysfunction. Despite the clinical relevance, focused studies determining the contribution of VECs to development and disease processes are limited. The isolation of VECs from animal models would allow for cell-specific experimentation. VECs have been isolated from large animal adult models but due to their small population size, fragileness, and lack of specific markers, no reports of VEC isolations in embryos or adult small animal models have been reported. Here we describe a novel method that allows for the direct isolation of VECs from mice at embryonic and adult stages. Utilizing the Tie2-GFP reporter model that labels all endothelial cells with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we have been successful in isolating GFP-positive (and negative) cells from the semilunar and atrioventricular valve regions using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Isolated GFP-positive VECs are enriched for endothelial markers, including CD31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and retain endothelial cell expression when cultured; while, GFP-negative cells exhibit molecular profiles and cell shapes consistent with VIC phenotypes. The ability to isolate embryonic and adult murine VECs allows for previously unattainable molecular and functional studies to be carried out on a specific valve cell population, which will greatly improve our understanding of valve development and disease mechanisms. PMID:25177896

Miller, Lindsey J; Lincoln, Joy

2014-01-01

106

The Role of Death Receptor Signaling in Testicular Germ-Cell Apoptosis Triggered by Mono(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (MEHP)Induced Sertoli Cell Injury and Its Implications for Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this review is to highlight the participation of members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily of proteins, particularly FasL and Fas, in triggering apoptosis of distinct testicular germ-cell subtypes after mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell injury. Despite the well-recognized expression of FasL and Fas in the testis, their functional role in this tissue and the cellular

John H. Richburg

2006-01-01

107

A novel DICER1 mutation identified in a female with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and multinodular goiter: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Germ-line mutations in the micro-ribonucleic acid processing gene DICER1 have been shown to predispose to a subset of benign tumors susceptible to malignant transformation, including ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, nontoxic multinodular goiter, multilocular cystic nephroma and pleuropulmonary blastoma, which can occur in children and young adults. This may be due to reduced Dcr-1 homolog expression in carriers of germline mutations, which causes impairment of micro-ribonucleic acid processing and deregulates the growth and differentiation of target cells, leading to an increased risk of tumorigenesis. Many carriers of germ-line DICER1 mutations remain unaffected, but development of tumors within carriers is associated with varying prognoses. Case presentation Despite the Dcr-1 homolog syndrome phenotype being incompletely defined, a DICER1 mutation was suspected when a girl (case 1 patient) of Danish ethnicity presented with both an ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and a multinodular goiter at the age of 13 years. In addition, family history included a male sibling (case 2 patient) who also had a multinodular goiter and had undergone a hemithyroidectomy at the age of 14 years. Subsequent DICER1 screening of the girl identified two novel mutations in exon 21 - a nonsense (c.3647C>A, p.Ser1216*) and a missense (c.3649T>A, p.Tyr1217Asn) mutation. The siblings had inherited the mutations from their father and paternal grandfather, which both currently were asymptomatic, indicating reduced penetrance of the nonsense mutation. Analysis of the parents revealed that the mutations were present in cis, making the contribution of the missense mutation less significant. Conclusion We report a novel pathogenic DICER1 mutation (p.Ser1216*) in a Danish family associated with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and a multinodular goiter. A multinodular goiter was diagnosed in the siblings during childhood. Clinicians should be aware of a potential germ-line DICER1 mutation when evaluating multinodular goiter in young patients with or without a family history of thyroid diseases. PMID:24708902

2014-01-01

108

Abnormalities of Germ Cell Maturation and Sertoli Cell Cytoskeleton in Androgen Receptor 113 CAG Knock-In Mice Reveal Toxic Effects of the Mutant Protein  

PubMed Central

An unresolved question in the study of the polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders is the extent to which partial loss of normal function of the mutant protein contributes to the disease phenotype. To address this, we studied Kennedy disease, a degenerative disorder of lower motor neurons caused by a CAG/glutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (Ar) gene. Signs of partial androgen insensitivity, including testicular atrophy and decreased fertility, are common in affected males, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we describe a knock-in mouse model that reproduces the testicular atrophy, diminished fertility, and systemic signs of partial androgen insensitivity that occur in Kennedy disease patients. Using this model, we demonstrate that the testicular pathology in this disorder is distinct from that mediated by loss of AR function. Testes pathology in 113 CAG knock-in mice was characterized by morphological abnormalities of germ cell maturation, decreased solubility of the mutant AR protein, and alterations of the Sertoli cell cytoskeleton, changes that are distinct from those produced by AR loss-of-function mutation in testicular feminization mutant mice. Our data demonstrate that toxic effects of the mutant protein mediate aspects of the Kennedy disease phenotype previously attributed to a loss of AR function. PMID:16400023

Yu, Zhigang; Dadgar, Nahid; Albertelli, Megan; Scheller, Arno; Albin, Roger L.; Robins, Diane M.; Lieberman, Andrew P.

2006-01-01

109

Murine Mueller cells are progenitor cells for neuronal cells and fibrous tissue cells  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian Mueller cells have been reported to possess retinal progenitor cell properties and generate new neurons after injury. This study investigates murine Mueller cells under in vitro conditions for their capability of dedifferentiation into retinal progenitor cells. Mueller cells were isolated from mouse retina, and proliferating cells were expanded in serum-containing medium. For dedifferentiation, the cultured cells were transferred to serum-replacement medium (SRM) at different points in time after their isolation. Interestingly, early cell passages produced fibrous tissue in which extracellular matrix proteins and connective tissue markers were differentially expressed. In contrast, aged Mueller cell cultures formed neurospheres in SRM that are characteristic for neuronal progenitor cells. These neurospheres differentiated into neuron-like cells after cultivation on laminin/ornithine cell culture substrate. Here, we report for the first time that murine Mueller cells can be progenitors for both, fibrous tissue cells and neuronal cells, depending on the age of the cell culture.

Florian, Christian; Langmann, Thomas; Weber, Bernhard H.F. [Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, Christian [Institute of Human Genetics, University of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: Christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

2008-09-19

110

Treatment of High Risk Sertoli–Leydig Cell Tumors of the Ovary Using a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Analog  

PubMed Central

Sertoli–Leydig cell tumors are rare ovarian neoplasms. We report two unusual cases with bilateral SLCTs suggesting evidence of genetic predisposition and at high risk of recurrence. To reduce this risk, we exploited the use of GnRH analog to lower gondadotropin and potentially directly inhibit the tumors through expressed GnRH receptors. We used it as maintenance antitumor therapy for 2 years after completion of chemotherapy, to cover the period of risk for recurrence. Both patients remain in complete remission at >2 years after completing leuprorelin therapy. Of note, both patients carry DICER1 mutations, frequently found in pleuropulmonary blastoma syndrome. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: E16–E18. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23193086

Lashkari, Harsha Prasada; Nash, Ruth; Albanese, Assunta; Okoye, Bruce; Millar, Robert; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

2013-01-01

111

Telomere sister chromatid exchange in telomerase deficient murine cells  

SciTech Connect

We have recently demonstrated that several types of genomic rearrangements (i.e., telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), genomic-SCE, or end-to-end fusions) were more often detected in long-term cultured murine telomerase deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells than in freshly prepared murine splenocytes, even through they possessed similar frequencies of critically short telomeres. The high rate of genomic rearrangements in telomerase deficient ES cells, when compared to murine splenocytes, may reflect the cultured cells' gained ability to protect chromosome ends with eroded telomeres allowing them to escape 'end crisis'. However, the possibility that ES cells were more permissive to genomic rearrangements than other cell types or that differences in the microenvironment or genetic background of the animals might consequentially determine the rate of T-SCEs or other genomic rearrangements at critically short telomeres could not be ruled out.

Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

2005-01-01

112

Embryonic Stem Cell Virus, a Recombinant Murine Retrovirus with Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus and vectors derived from it is restricted in undifferentiated mouse embryonal carcinoma and embryonal stem (ES) cells. We have developed a retroviral vector, the murine embryonic stem cell virus (MESV), that is active in embryonal carcinoma and ES cells. MESV was derived from a retroviral mutant [PCC4-cell-passaged myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (PCMV)] expressed in

Manuel Grez; Ercan Akgun; Frank Hilberg; Wolfram Ostertag

1990-01-01

113

The Wilms Tumor Gene, Wt1, Is Critical for Mouse Spermatogenesis via Regulation of Sertoli Cell Polarity and Is Associated with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia in Humans  

PubMed Central

Azoospermia is one of the major reproductive disorders which cause male infertility in humans; however, the etiology of this disease is largely unknown. In the present study, six missense mutations of WT1 gene were detected in 529 human patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), indicating a strong association between WT1 mutation and NOA. The Wilms tumor gene, Wt1, is specifically expressed in Sertoli cells (SCs) which support spermatogenesis. To examine the functions of this gene in spermatogenesis, Wt1 was deleted in adult testis using Wt1flox and Cre-ERTM mice strains. We found that inactivation of Wt1 resulted in massive germ cell death and only SCs were present in most of the seminiferous tubules which was very similar to NOA in humans. In investigating the potential mechanism for this, histological studies revealed that the blood–testis barrier (BTB) was disrupted in Wt1 deficient testes. In vitro studies demonstrated that Wt1 was essential for cell polarity maintenance in SCs. Further studies found that the expression of cell polarity associated genes (Par6b and E-cadherin) and Wnt signaling genes (Wnt4, Wnt11) were downregulated in Wt1 deficient SCs, and that the expression of Par6b and E-cadherin was regulated by Wnt4. Our findings suggest that Wt1 is important in spermatogenesis by regulating the polarity of SCs via Wnt signaling pathway and that WT1 mutation is one of the genetic causes of NOA in humans. PMID:23935527

Wang, Ya Qing; Chen, Min; Zhang, Jun; Hao, Jian Xiu; Wang, Yan Bo; Sha, Ri Na; Huang, Yi; Liu, Xiao; Hu, Jing Chu; Sun, Guang Qing; Li, Hong Gang; Xiong, Cheng Liang; Xie, Jun; Jiang, Zhi Mao; Cai, Zhi Ming; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Huff, Vicki; Gui, Yao Ting; Gao, Fei

2013-01-01

114

Exploring the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)/15d-?(12,14)PGJ(2) system in hamster Sertoli cells: regulation by FSH/testosterone and relevance to glucose uptake.  

PubMed

We have previously described a stimulatory effect of testosterone on cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, and the involvement of PGs in the modulation of testosterone production in Leydig cells of the seasonal breeder Syrian hamster. In this study, we investigated the existence of a COX2/PGs system in hamster Sertoli cells, its regulation by testosterone and FSH, and its effect on glucose uptake. COX2 expression was observed in Sertoli cells of both reproductively active and inactive adult hamsters. Testosterone and the plasma membrane-impermeable testosterone-BSA significantly induced COX2 expression, mitogen activated protein kinases 1/2 (MAPK1/2) phosphorylation and 15d-?(12,14)PGJ(2) production in Sertoli cells purified from photoperiodically regressed hamsters. These actions were abolished by the antiandrogen bicalutamide and by the inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MEK1/2) U0126, suggesting that testosterone exerts its stimulatory effect on COX2/PGs through a non-classical mechanism that involves the presence of androgen receptors and MAPK1/2 activation. FSH also stimulated COX2/PGs via MAPK1/2 phosphorylation. FSH and testosterone stimulate, whereas 15d-?(12,14)PGJ(2) via PPAR? inhibits, [2,6-(3)H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(3)H]-2-DOG) uptake. Meloxicam, a selective COX2 inhibitor, further increases [(3)H]-2-DOG uptake in the presence of FSH or testosterone. Thus, in addition to their positive effect, FSH and testosterone may also exert an indirect negative regulation on glucose uptake which involves the COX2/15d-?(12,14)PGJ(2)/PPAR? system. Overall, these results demonstrate the presence of a COX2/PG system in hamster Sertoli cells which might act as a local modulator of FSH and testosterone actions. PMID:22974512

Matzkin, María Eugenia; Pellizzari, Eliana Herminia; Rossi, Soledad Paola; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Cigorraga, Selva Beatriz; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz

2012-11-01

115

Hexavalent chromium at low concentration alters Sertoli cell barrier and connexin 43 gap junction but not claudin-11 and N-cadherin in the rat seminiferous tubule culture model  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to toxic metals, specifically those belonging to the nonessential group leads to human health defects and among them reprotoxic effects. The mechanisms by which these metals produce their negative effects on spermatogenesis have not been fully elucidated. By using the Durand's validated seminiferous tubule culture model, which mimics the in vivo situation, we recently reported that concentrations of hexavalent chromium, reported in the literature to be closed to that found in the blood circulation of men, increase the number of germ cell cytogenetic abnormalities. Since this metal is also known to affect cellular junctions, we investigated, in the present study, its potential influence on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins present at this level such as connexin 43, claudin-11 and N-cadherin. Cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers expressed the three junctional proteins and ZO-1 for at least 12 days. Exposure to low concentrations of chromium (10 ?g/l) increased the trans-epithelial resistance without major changes of claudin-11 and N-cadherin expressions but strongly delocalized the gap junction protein connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells. The possibility that the hexavalent chromium-induced alteration of connexin 43 indirectly mediates the effect of the toxic metal on the blood–testis barrier dynamic is postulated. - Highlights: ? Influence of Cr(VI) on the Sertoli cell barrier and on junctional proteins ? Use of cultured seminiferous tubules in bicameral chambers ? Low concentrations of Cr(VI) (10 ?g/l) altered the trans-epithelial resistance. ? Cr(VI) did not alter claudin-11 and N-cadherin. ? Cr(VI) delocalized connexin 43 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells.

Carette, Diane [INSERM U 1065, Team 5 “Physiopathology of Germ Cell Control: Genomic and Non Genomic Mechanisms” C3M, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); UMR S775, University Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saints Pères, 75006, Paris (France); Perrard, Marie-Hélène, E-mail: marie-helene.durand@ens-lyon.fr [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon I, CNRS, INRA, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon (France); Prisant, Nadia [University of Versailles/St Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); UMR S775, University Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saints Pères, 75006, Paris (France); Gilleron, Jérome; Pointis, Georges [INSERM U 1065, Team 5 “Physiopathology of Germ Cell Control: Genomic and Non Genomic Mechanisms” C3M, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Segretain, Dominique [University of Versailles/St Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); UMR S775, University Paris Descartes, 45 rue des Saints Pères, 75006, Paris (France); Durand, Philippe [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon I, CNRS, INRA, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon (France); Kallistem SAS Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)

2013-04-01

116

Improving in vitro Sertoli cell/gonocyte co-culture model for assessing male reproductive toxicity: Lessons learned from comparisons of cytotoxicity versus genomic responses to phthalates  

SciTech Connect

Gonocytes exist in the neonatal testis and represent a transient population of male germ-line stem cells. It has been shown that stem cell self-renewal and progeny production is probably controlled by the neighboring differentiated cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo known as niches. Recently, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) Sertoli cell/gonocyte co-culture (SGC) model with ECM overlay, which creates an in vivo-like niche and supports germ-line stem cell functioning within a 3D environment. In this study, we applied morphological and cytotoxicity evaluations, as well as microarray-based gene expression to examine the effects of different phthalate esters (PE) on this model. Known in vivo male developmentally toxic PEs (DTPE) and developmentally non-toxic PEs (DNTPE) were evaluated. We observed that DTPE induced significantly greater dose-dependent morphological changes, a decrease in cell viability and an increase in cytotoxicity compared to those treated with DNTPE. Moreover, the gene expression was more greatly altered by DTPE than by DNTPE and non-supervised cluster analysis allowed the discrimination of DTPE from the DNTPE. Our systems-based GO-Quant analysis showed significant alterations in the gene pathways involved in cell cycle, phosphate transport and apoptosis regulation with DTPE but not with DNTPE treatment. Disruptions of steroidogenesis related-gene expression such as Star, Cyp19a1, Hsd17b8, and Nr4a3 were observed in the DTPE group, but not in the DNTPE group. In summary, our observation on cell viability, cytotoxicity, and microarray-based gene expression analysis induced by PEs demonstrate that our in vitro 3D-SGC system mimicked in vivo responses for PEs and suggests that the 3D-SGC system might be useful in identifying developmental reproductive toxicants.

Yu Xiaozhong; Hong, Sung Woo [Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States); Moreira, Estefania G. [Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States); Dept of Physiological Sciences, State University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina, PR (Brazil); Faustman, Elaine M. [Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States)], E-mail: faustman@u.washington.edu

2009-09-15

117

Improving in vitro Sertoli cell/Gonocyte co-culture model for assessing male reproductive toxicity: lessons learned from comparisons of cytotoxicity versus genomic responses to phthalates  

PubMed Central

Gonocytes exist in the neonatal testis and represent a transient population of male germ-line stem cells. It has been shown that stem cell self-renewal and progeny production is probably controlled by the neighboring differentiated cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo known as niches. Recently, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) Sertoli cell/Gonocyte coculture (SGC) model with ECM overlay, which creates an in vivo-like niche and supports germ-line stem cell functioning within a 3D environment. In this study, we applied morphological and cytotoxicity evaluations, as well as microarray-based gene expression to examine the effects of different phthalate esters (PE) on this model. Known in vivo male developmentally toxic PEs (DTPE) and developmentally nontoxic PEs (DNTPE) were evaluated. We observed that DTPE induced significantly greater dose-dependent morphological changes, a decrease in cell viability and an increase in cytotoxicity compared to those treated with DNTPE. Moreover, gene expression was more greatly altered by DTPE than by DNTPE and non-supervised cluster analysis allowed the discrimination of DTPE from the DNTPE. Our systems-based GO-Quant analysis showed significant alterations in gene pathways involved in cell cycle, phosphate transport and apoptosis regulation with DTPE but not with DNTPE treatment. Disruptions of steroidogenesis related-gene expression such as Star, Cyp19a1, Hsd17b8, and Nr4a3 were observed in the DTPE group, but not in the DNTPE group. In summary, our observation on cell viability, cytotoxicity, and microarray-based gene expression analysis induced by PEs demonstrate that our in vitro 3D-SGC system mimicked in vivo responses for PEs and suggests that the 3D-SGC system might be useful in identifying developmental reproductive toxicants. PMID:19560483

Yu, Xiaozhong; Hong, SungWoo; Moreira, Estefania G; Faustman, Elaine M

2009-01-01

118

Sertoli cell dedifferentiation in human cryptorchidism and gender reassignment shows similarities between fetal environmental and adult medical treatment estrogen and antiandrogen exposure.  

PubMed

Studies over the last years show an increase in testicular cancer, hypospadias and cryptorchidism in industrial countries, leading to the concept of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). It is hypothesized that TDS is caused by estrogen and antiandrogen exposure during fetal life, accompanied by incomplete maturation of testicular Sertoli cells (SC). However, it is not known if SC disruption is a primary cause or a response to fetal Leydig cell testosterone production changes. To determine if SC differentiation is directly affected by estrogens, we compared SC maturation between adult gender reassignment cases exposed to estrogen and antiandrogen therapy, and those of typical TDS in adult cryptorchidism. We found similar expression of immature SC markers M2A antigen, inhibin bodies and Anti Mullerian Hormone, and the absence of maturation marker androgen receptor in SC of both types of patients. These data supports the occurrence of true SC dedifferentiation caused by estrogen exposure in adult humans. Our data also suggests that SC maturation is directly disrupted in TDS. PMID:24012888

Nistal, Manuel; Gonzalez-Peramato, Pilar; De Miguel, Maria P

2013-12-01

119

SYNCHRONIZATION OF RAPID GLOBIN EXPRESSION IN MURINE ERYTHROLEUKEMIC CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The addition of butyric acid (BA) to murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) produces the expression of primarily A and E2 hemoglobins while DMSO incubation produces the expression of primarily A hemoglobin. Preincubation of MELC with DMSO followed by BA induction accelerates the exp...

120

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors: hormonal profile after dynamic test with GnRH analogue: triptorelin represents a useful tool to evaluate tumoral hyperandrogenism.  

PubMed

Abstract We report the case of a 15-year-old woman with signs of hyperandrogenism affected by a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT). In our patient, blood analysis showed a high testosterone (T) level (T: 8.53?nmol/L; nv?

Turra, J; Granzotto, M; Gallea, M; Faggian, D; Conte, L; Litta, P; Vettor, R; Mioni, R

2015-01-01

121

Virilizing Leydig-Sertoli Cell Ovarian Tumor Associated with Endometrioid Carcinoma of the Endometrium in a Postmenopausal Patient: Case Report and General Considerations  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are rare tumors mostly occurring in young women. Here we report an unusual case of a SLCT with simultaneous occurrence of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in a woman in menopause. Case report A 67-year-old woman presented with progressive signs of virilization. Blood tests showed increased levels of testosterone, delta-4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). DHEA-sulphate, 17?-estradiol, estrone, and sex-hormone binding globulin serum levels were within the normal range. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid mass of 2.7 × 2.9 cm in the right ovary set against the background of the uterus. The patient underwent bilateral salpingo-oophoretomy with hysterectomy. The mass in the right ovary was a differentiated SLCT. Incidentally, the endometrium revealed an endometrioid adenocacinoma. Following surgical treatment the plasma androgens dropped to normal levels, and signs and symptoms of virilization improved. Conclusion SLCT should be suspected in postmenopausal women who present rapid progressive androgen excess symptoms with hyperandrogenemia. PMID:23133317

Di Giacinto, Paola; Chioma, Laura; Vancieri, Giuseppe; Guccione, Laura; Cicerone, Elena; Ulisse, Salvatore; Mariani, Stefania; Autore, Camillo; Fabbri, Andrea; Gnessi, Lucio; Moretti, Costanzo

2012-01-01

122

Human pontine glioma cells can induce murine tumors.  

PubMed

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), with a median survival of only 9 months, is the leading cause of pediatric brain cancer mortality. Dearth of tumor tissue for research has limited progress in this disease until recently. New experimental models for DIPG research are now emerging. To develop preclinical models of DIPG, two different methods were adopted: cells obtained at autopsy (1) were directly xenografted orthotopically into the pons of immunodeficient mice without an intervening cell culture step or (2) were first cultured in vitro and, upon successful expansion, injected in vivo. Both strategies resulted in pontine tumors histopathologically similar to the original human DIPG tumors. However, following the direct transplantation method all tumors proved to be composed of murine and not of human cells. This is in contrast to the indirect method that included initial in vitro culture and resulted in xenografts comprising human cells. Of note, direct injection of cells obtained postmortem from the pons and frontal lobe of human brains not affected by cancer did not give rise to neoplasms. The murine pontine tumors exhibited an immunophenotype similar to human DIPG, but were also positive for microglia/macrophage markers, such as CD45, CD68 and CD11b. Serial orthotopic injection of these murine cells results in lethal tumors in recipient mice. Direct injection of human DIPG cells in vivo can give rise to malignant murine tumors. This represents an important caveat for xenotransplantation models of DIPG. In contrast, an initial in vitro culture step can allow establishment of human orthotopic xenografts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon observed with direct xenotransplantation remains an open question. PMID:24777482

Caretti, Viola; Sewing, A Charlotte P; Lagerweij, Tonny; Schellen, Pepijn; Bugiani, Marianna; Jansen, Marc H A; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Navis, Anna C; Horsman, Ilona; Vandertop, W Peter; Noske, David P; Wesseling, Pieter; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Nazarian, Javad; Vogel, Hannes; Hulleman, Esther; Monje, Michelle; Wurdinger, Thomas

2014-06-01

123

Murine Cell Glycolipids Customization by Modular Expression of Glycosyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Functional analysis of glycolipids has been hampered by their complex nature and combinatorial expression in cells and tissues. We report an efficient and easy method to generate cells with specific glycolipids. In our proof of principle experiments we have demonstrated the customized expression of two relevant glycosphingolipids on murine fibroblasts, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA-3), a marker for stem cells, and Forssman glycolipid, a xenoantigen. Sets of genes encoding glycosyltansferases were transduced by viral infection followed by multi-color cell sorting based on coupled expression of fluorescent proteins. PMID:23798992

Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Buschbeck, Marcus; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

2013-01-01

124

CMT3 alters mitochondrial function in murine osteoclast lineage cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs 1–10) were developed as non-antibiotic inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). We previously demonstrated that MMP inhibition alone is insufficient to explain the pro-apoptotic action of CMTs in osteoclast lineage cells and we have explored additional mechanisms of action. We compared the characteristics of apoptosis in RAW264.7 murine monocyte and osteoclast cultures treated with pharmacologically relevant concentrations

Simon Holmes; Susan Smith; Lee Borthwick; James Dunford; Mike Rogers; Nick Bishop; Peter S. Grabowski

2008-01-01

125

Nanoelectroablation therapy for murine basal cell carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoelectroablation is a new, non-thermal therapy that triggers apoptosis in tumors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low energy, ultrashort, high voltage pulses ablate the tumor with little or no scar. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoelectroablation eliminates 99.8% of the BCC but may leave a few remnants behind. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pilot clinical trials on human BCCs are ongoing and leave no remnants in most cases. -- Abstract: When skin tumors are exposed to non-thermal, low energy, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), apoptosis is initiated both in vitro and in vivo. This nanoelectroablation therapy has already been proven effective in treating subdermal murine allograft tumors. We wanted to determine if this therapy would be equally effective in the treatment of autochthonous BCC tumors in Ptch1{sup +/-}K14-Cre-ER p53 fl/fl mice. These tumors are similar to human BCCs in histology and in response to drug therapy . We have treated 27 BCCs across 8 mice with either 300 pulses of 300 ns duration or 2700 pulses of 100 ns duration, all at 30 kV/cm and 5-7 pulses per second. Every nsPEF-treated BCC began to shrink within a day after treatment and their initial mean volume of 36 {+-} 5 (SEM) mm{sup 3} shrunk by 76 {+-} 3% over the ensuing two weeks. After four weeks, they were 99.8% ablated if the size of the treatment electrode matched the tumor size. If the tumor was larger than the 4 mm wide electrode, multiple treatments were needed for complete ablation. Treated tumors were harvested for histological analysis at various times after treatment and exhibited apoptosis markers. Specifically, pyknosis of nuclei was evident as soon as 2 days after nsPEF treatment, and DNA fragmentation as detected via TUNEL staining was also evident post treatment. Nanoelectroablation is effective in triggering apoptosis and remission of radiation-induced BCCs with a single 6 min-long treatment of 2700 pulses.

Nuccitelli, Richard, E-mail: rich@bioelectromed.com [BioElectroMed Corp., 849 Mitten Rd., Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States)] [BioElectroMed Corp., 849 Mitten Rd., Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Tran, Kevin; Athos, Brian; Kreis, Mark; Nuccitelli, Pamela [BioElectroMed Corp., 849 Mitten Rd., Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States)] [BioElectroMed Corp., 849 Mitten Rd., Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Chang, Kris S.; Epstein, Ervin H. [The Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609 (United States)] [The Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609 (United States); Tang, Jean Y. [The Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609 (United States) [The Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, CA 94609 (United States); Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2012-08-03

126

Cyclosporine A induces apoptosis in murine tubular epithelial cells: Role of caspases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclosporine A induces apoptosis in murine tubular epithelial cells: Role of caspases.BackgroundThe pathogenesis of cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity has not been completely elucidated.MethodsThe ability of CsA to induce apoptosis in cultured murine tubular epithelial cells and its regulation by the cell microenvironment and inhibitors of caspases were studied.ResultsThis study found that CsA induces apoptotic death in murine proximal tubular epithelial

Alberto Ortiz; Corina Lorz; Marina Catalán; Arturo Ortiz; Santiago Coca; Jesus Egido

1998-01-01

127

Establishment and Characterization of New Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines.  

PubMed

The establishment of two new breast cancer cell lines, MXT(+) and MXT(-), derived from the murine breast cancer models MXT-M-3, 2 MC (hormone-sensitive) and MXT-M-3, 2 (ovex) MC (hormone-insensitive), is described. Characterization of the cell lines was performed by investigation of morphology, steroid hormone receptor state, growth kinetics, and drug response as well as by cytogenetic analysis. MXT(+) contains estrogen receptors (ER; 6.9 fmol/mg protein) as well as progesterone receptors (PgR; 9.2 fmol/mg protein) and therefore is inhibited by tamoxifen (Tam). MXT(-) proved to be ER(-) but PgR(+) (23.4 fmol/mg protein) and, as expected, resistant against Tam.The sensitivity of MXT(+) and MXT(-) against a pattern of therapeutically established anti-breast cancer drugs (cDDP, cisplatin; JM-8, carboplatin; DX, adriamycin; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; MTX, methotrexate; VLB vinblastine) was studied by use of a computerized, kinetic chemosensitivity assay based on quantification of biomass by staining cells with crystal violet. For each compound the inhibition profile reflecting cytostatic, transient cytotoxic, or cytocidal drug effects as well as development of resistance was evaluated. The following order of activity was found: MTX >, VLB >/= DX > cDDP >/= 5-FU > JM-8. The test data of 5-FU, VLB, cDDP, and Tam on MXT(+) as well as on MXT(-) were compared with those from studies on ER(+) and ER(-) human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D, and MDA-MB-231, respectively). They revealed comparable inhibition profiles and sensitivities of human and murine breast cancer cell lines, an indication that the results achieved in combined in vitro-/in vivo tests by use of the murine test models MXT(+), MXT(-), MXT-M-3, 2 MC, and MXT-M-3, 2(ovex) MC are relevant for therapy in humans. PMID:12007108

Bernhardt, Günther; Beckenlehner, Karin; Spruss, Thilo; Schlemmer, Richard; Reile, Herta; Schönenberger, Helmut

2002-05-01

128

Establishment and characterization of new murine breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

The establishment of two new breast cancer cell lines, MXT+ and MXT-, derived from the murine breast cancer models MXT-M-3,2 MC (hormone-sensitive) and MXT-M-3,2 (ovex) MC (hormone-insensitive), is described. Characterization of the cell lines was performed by investigation of morphology, steroid hormone receptor state, growth kinetics, and drug response as well as by cytogenetic analysis. MXT+ contains estrogen receptors (ER; 6.9 fmol/mg protein) as well as progesterone receptors (PgR; 9.2 fmol/mg protein) and therefore is inhibited by tamoxifen (Tam). MXT- proved to be ER- but PgR+ (23.4 fmol/mg protein) and, as expected, resistant against Tam. The sensitivity of MXT+ and MXT- against a pattern of therapeutically established anti-breast cancer drugs (cDDP, cisplatin; JM-8, carboplatin; DX, adriamycin; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; MTX, methotrexate; VLB vinblastine) was studied by use of a computerized, kinetic chemosensitivity assay based on quantification of biomass by staining cells with crystal violet. For each compound the inhibition profile reflecting cytostatic, transient cytotoxic, or cytocidal drug effects as well as development of resistance was evaluated. The following order of activity was found: MTX > VLB > or = DX > cDDP > or = 5-FU > JM-8. The test data of 5-FU, VLB, cDDP, and Tam on MXT+ as well as on MXT- were compared with those from studies on ER+ and ER- human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T-47-D, and MDA-MB-231, respectively). They revealed comparable inhibition profiles and sensitivities of human and murine breast cancer cell lines, an indication that the results achieved in combined in vitro-/in vivo tests by use of the murine test models MXT+, MXT-, MXT-M-3,2 MC, and MXT-M-3,2(ovex) MC are relevant for therapy in humans. PMID:12043456

Bernhardt, Günther; Beckenlehner, Karin; Spruss, Thilo; Schlemmer, Richard; Reile, Herta; Schönenberger, Helmut

2002-03-01

129

Multivariate proteomic analysis of murine embryonic stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation signaling  

E-print Network

Multivariate proteomic analysis of murine embryonic stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation soluble cytokines and insoluble matrix factors, are known to influence murine embryonic stem cell self stimulation of mouse embryonic stem cells by fibronectin, laminin, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and fibro

Zandstra, Peter W.

130

Generation of Eosinophils from Cryopreserved Murine Bone Marrow Cells  

PubMed Central

Eosinophils are produced in the bone marrow from CD34+ eosinophil lineage–committed progenitors, whose levels in the bone marrow are elevated in a variety of human diseases. These findings suggest that increased eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor production is an important process in disease-associated eosinophilia. The pathways central to the biology of the eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor remain largely unknown. Thus, developing new methods to investigate the regulators of eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor differentiation is needed to identify potential therapeutic targets to specifically inhibit eosinophil production. We tested cytokine regimens to optimize liquid cultures for the study of eosinophil lineage–committed progenitor and eosinophil precursor differentiation into mature eosinophils. Stem cell factor (but not fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand) was required for optimal yield of eosinophils. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of cell preservation and scale on the culture, successfully culturing functional eosinophils from fresh and frozen murine bone marrow cells and in a standard-sized and 96-well culture format. In summary, we have developed an adaptable culture system that yields functionally competent eosinophils from murine low-density bone marrow cells and whose cytokine regime includes expansion of progenitors with stem cell factor alone with subsequent differentiation with interleukin 5. PMID:25551463

Schollaert, Kaila L.; Stephens, Michael R.; Gray, Jerilyn K.; Fulkerson, Patricia C.

2014-01-01

131

Cytomegalovirus infection of murine testicular interstitial Leydig cells.  

PubMed Central

We studied the susceptibility of mouse testicular interstitial Leydig cells to cytomegalovirus both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo studies included intratesticular and intraperitoneal infection of 6-week-old mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV); the in vitro studies involved an MCMV-Leydig cell interaction using a Leydig tumor cell line (I-10). MCMV-specific antigens were detected in interstitial Leydig cells in sections of MCMV-inoculated testes by an indirect immunofluorescence test. MCMV DNA was also localized in the same testes cells derived from mice, which received intratesticular and intraperitoneal MCMV inoculations, respectively, by in situ DNA-RNA hybridization. Cytopathic effects were seen in MCMV-infected I-10 cell cultures 2 or more days after exposure to MCMV. The infected cells showed intranuclear inclusions characteristic of cytomegalovirus when stained with May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain. The indirect immunofluorescence test was also positive with MCMV-infected I-10 cells. MCMV DNA was detected in these cells by in situ DNA-RNA cytohybridization, and the presence of viral particles in MCMV-infected I-10 cells was confirmed by electron microscopy. Thus, we conclude that the interstitial Leydig cell is susceptible to MCMV infection both in vivo and in vitro. Images PMID:6302003

Baskar, J F; Stanat, S C; Huang, E S

1983-01-01

132

Incorporation of Murine Brain Progenitor Cells into the Developing Mammalian Retina  

E-print Network

fluorescent protein (GFP)­express- ing murine brain progenitor cells were transplanted into de- veloping hippocampus retain the capacity to generate mature neurons when transplanted into the adult brain. FurthermoreIncorporation of Murine Brain Progenitor Cells into the Developing Mammalian Retina Samantha J. Van

Sakaguchi, Donald S.

133

Murine Norovirus Transcytosis across an In Vitro Polarized Murine Intestinal Epithelial Monolayer Is Mediated by M-Like Cells  

PubMed Central

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the causative agent of the vast majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the inability to culture human NoVs and the inability to orally infect a small animal model, little is known about the initial steps of viral entry. One particular step that is not understood is how NoVs breach the intestinal epithelial barrier. Murine NoV (MNV) is the only NoV that can be propagated in vitro by infecting murine macrophages and dendritic cells, making this virus an attractive model for studies of different aspects of NoV biology. Polarized murine intestinal epithelial mICcl2 cells were used to investigate how MNV interacts with and crosses the intestinal epithelium. In this in vitro model of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), MNV is transported across the polarized cell monolayer in the absence of viral replication or disruption of tight junctions by a distinct epithelial cell with microfold (M) cell properties. In addition to transporting MNV, these M-like cells also transcytose microbeads and express an IgA receptor. Interestingly, B myeloma cells cultured in the basolateral compartment underlying the epithelial monolayer did not alter the number of M-like cells but increased their transcytotic activity. Our data demonstrate that MNV can cross an intact intestinal epithelial monolayer in vitro by hijacking the M-like cells' intrinsic transcytotic pathway and suggest a potential mechanism for MNV entry into the host. PMID:24049163

Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B.; Liu, Thomas; Blanco, Luz P.; Auble, Heather; Payne, Hilary C.

2013-01-01

134

Non-Apoptotic Toxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward Murine Cells  

PubMed Central

Although P. aeruginosa is especially dangerous in cystic fibrosis (CF), there is no consensus as to how it kills representative cell types that are of key importance in the lung. This study concerns the acute toxicity of the sequenced strain, PAO1, toward a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Toxicity requires brief contact with the target cell, but is then delayed for more than 12 h. None of the classical toxic effectors of this organism is required and cell death occurs without phagocytosis or acute perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton. Apoptosis is not required for toxicity toward either RAW 264.7 cells or for alveolar macrophages. Transcriptional profiling shows that encounter between PAO1 and RAW 264.7 cells elicits an early inflammatory response, followed by growth arrest. As an independent strategy to understand the mechanism of toxicity, we selected variant RAW 264.7 cells that resist PAO1. Upon exposure to P. aeruginosa, they are hyper-responsive with regard to classical inflammatory cytokine production and show transient downregulation of transcripts that are required for cell growth. They do not show obvious morphologic changes. Although they do not increase interferon transcripts, when exposed to PAO1 they dramatically upregulate a subset of the responses that are characteristic of exposure to g-interferon, including several guanylate-binding proteins. The present observations provide a novel foundation for learning how to equip cells with resistance to a complex challenge. PMID:23358229

Roy, Sanhita; Bonfield, Tracey; Tartakoff, Alan M.

2013-01-01

135

The dynamics of murine mammary stem/progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The stem/progenitor cells in the murine mammary gland are a highly dynamic population of cells that are responsible for ductal elongation in puberty, homeostasis maintenance in adult, and lobulo-alveolar genesis during pregnancy. In recent years understanding the epithelial cell hierarchy within the mammary gland is becoming particularly important as these different stem/progenitor cells were perceived to be the cells of origin for various subtypes of breast cancer. Although significant advances have been made in enrichment and isolation of stem/progenitor cells by combinations of antibodies against cell surface proteins together with flow cytometry, and in identification of stem/progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation and self-renewal using mammary fat pad reconstitution assay and in vivo genetic labeling technique, a clear understanding of how these different stem/progenitors are orchestrated in the mammary gland is still lacking. Here we discuss the different in vivo and in vitro methods currently available for stem/progenitor identification, their associated caveats, and a possible new hierarchy model to reconcile various putative stem/progenitor cell populations identified by different research groups.

DONG, Qiaoxiang; SUN, Lu-Zhe

2014-01-01

136

Reversion of murine sarcoma virus transformed mouse cells: variants without a rescuable sarcoma virus.  

PubMed

Murine sarcoma virus transformed mouse 3T3 cells, which are negative for murine leukemia virus and which yield sarcoma virus after superinfection with murine leukenmia virus, spotaneously give rise to flat variants front which murine sarcoma virus can no longer be rescued. The revertants support leukemia viruis growth and show an enhanced sensitivity to murine sarcoma superinfection and, like normal cells, do not release RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. Because revertants could be obtained with high frequency from progeny of single transformed cells, each cell that containts the sarconma virus genome seems to have the capacity to suppress or eliminate an RNA tumor virus native to its species of origin. PMID:4338196

Fischinger, P J; Nomura, S; Peebles, P T; Haapala, D K; Bassin, R H

1972-06-01

137

An ES-Like Pluripotent State in FGF-Dependent Murine iPS cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data demonstrates that stem cells can exist in two morphologically, molecularly and functionally distinct pluripotent states; a naïve LIF-dependent pluripotent state which is represented by murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and an FGF-dependent primed pluripotent state represented by murine and rat epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We find that derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) under EpiSC culture conditions

Bruno di Stefano; Christa Buecker; Federica Ungaro; Alessandro Prigione; Hsu-Hsin Chen; Maaike Welling; Maureen Eijpe; Gustavo Mostoslavsky; Paul Tesar; James Adjaye; Niels Geijsen; Vania Broccoli; Martin Pera

2010-01-01

138

Toxicity of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles on Murine Fibroblast Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Introduction: One of the major contributing factors, which may cause failure of endodontic treatment, is the presence of residual microorganisms in the root canal system. For years, most dentists have been using calcium hydroxide (CH) as the intracanal medicament between treatment sessions to eliminate remnant microorganisms. Reducing the size of CH particles into nanoparticles enhances the penetration of this medicament into dentinal tubules and increases their antimicrobial efficacy. This in vitro study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles and conventional CH on fibroblast cell line using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Methods and Materials: This study was conducted on L929 murine fibroblast cell line by cell culture and evaluation of the direct effect of materials on the cultured cells. Materials were evaluated in two groups of 10 samples each at 24, 48 and 72 h. At each time point, 10 samples along with 5 positive and 5 negative controls were evaluated. The samples were transferred into tubes and exposed to fibroblast cells. The viability of cells was then evaluated. The Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Cytotoxicity of both materials decreased over time and for conventional CH was lower than that of nanoparticles. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: The cytotoxicity of CH nanoparticles was similar to that of conventional CH. PMID:25598810

Dianat, Omid; Azadnia, Sina; Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali

2015-01-01

139

Immunomodulatory function of murine NK cell activity by alginate.  

PubMed

The in vivo immunomodulatory function of the activity of murine natural killer (NK) cells induced by high mannuronic acid-containing alginate (HMA) was examined. HMA was injected i.p at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg. The NK activity was 3 times higher with 100 mg/kg HMA than the baseline. In addition, in vitro studies of splenocytes cultured with HMA for 20 h showed a significant increase in NK activity at E:T ratio of 100:1; a 160% and 210% increase at 10 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. There was a six fold increase in interferon-gamma production in a postculture of splenocytes with 100 microg/mL HMA. HMA had no suppressive effects on the lymphocyte function in the presence or absence of mitogens. This suggests that HMA is useful in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16350856

Son, Eun-Wha; Yang, Kwang-Hee; Rhee, Dong-Kwon; Pyo, Suhkneung

2005-11-01

140

Stable expression of nephrin and localization to cell-cell contacts in novel murine podocyte cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable expression of nephrin and localization to cell-cell contacts in novel murine podocyte cell lines.Background. Cell culture of podocytes has become an indispensable tool in the study of podocyte biology. To date, however, podocyte cell lines with stable expression of the crucial slit diaphragm protein nephrin and localization of nephrin to cell-cell contacts are not available.MethodsConditionally immortalized cells were grown

DANIEL SCHIWEK; NICOLE ENDLICH; LAWRENCE HOLZMAN; HARRY HOLTHöFER; WILHELM KRIZ; KARLHANS ENDLICH

2004-01-01

141

High-dimensional analysis of the murine myeloid cell system.  

PubMed

Advances in cell-fate mapping have revealed the complexity in phenotype, ontogeny and tissue distribution of the mammalian myeloid system. To capture this phenotypic diversity, we developed a 38-antibody panel for mass cytometry and used dimensionality reduction with machine learning-aided cluster analysis to build a composite of murine (mouse) myeloid cells in the steady state across lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. In addition to identifying all previously described myeloid populations, higher-order analysis allowed objective delineation of otherwise ambiguous subsets, including monocyte-macrophage intermediates and an array of granulocyte variants. Using mice that cannot sense granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor GM-CSF (Csf2rb(-/-)), which have discrete alterations in myeloid development, we confirmed differences in barrier tissue dendritic cells, lung macrophages and eosinophils. The methodology further identified variations in the monocyte and innate lymphoid cell compartment that were unexpected, which confirmed that this approach is a powerful tool for unambiguous and unbiased characterization of the myeloid system. PMID:25306126

Becher, Burkhard; Schlitzer, Andreas; Chen, Jinmiao; Mair, Florian; Sumatoh, Hermi R; Teng, Karen Wei Weng; Low, Donovan; Ruedl, Christiane; Riccardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Poidinger, Michael; Greter, Melanie; Ginhoux, Florent; Newell, Evan W

2014-12-01

142

DNA repair in murine embryonic stem cells and differentiated cells  

SciTech Connect

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are rapidly proliferating, self-renewing cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers to form the embryo proper. Since these cells are critical for embryo formation, they must have robust prophylactic mechanisms to ensure that their genomic integrity is preserved. Indeed, several studies have suggested that ES cells are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents and readily undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells from the population. Other evidence suggests that DNA damage can cause premature differentiation in these cells. Several laboratories have also begun to investigate the role of DNA repair in the maintenance of ES cell genomic integrity. It does appear that ES cells differ in their capacity to repair damaged DNA compared to differentiated cells. This minireview focuses on repair mechanisms ES cells may use to help preserve genomic integrity and compares available data regarding these mechanisms with those utilized by differentiated cells.

Tichy, Elisia D. [Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)], E-mail: tichyed@email.uc.edu; Stambrook, Peter J. [Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

2008-06-10

143

Expression of murine interleukin 7 in a murine glioma cell line results in reduced tumorigenicity in vivo.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the immunoregulatory effect of local and continuous secretion of interleukin 7 (IL-7) from murine glioma cells (203-glioma) engineered by murine IL-7 gene transfection. Secretion of IL-7 from glioma cells did not result in morphology or growth rate changes but did reduce tumorigenicity in vivo in proportion to the amount of IL-7 produced. This reduction in tumorigenicity could be reversed in a dose-dependent fashion by injection of anti-IL-7 neutralizing monoclonal antibody at the tumor site. Mice immunized with IL-7-producing glioma cells showed a specific immune response to 203-glioma but not to two other syngeneic cell lines (B-16, a melanoma, and YM-12, a fibrosarcoma). IL-7-producing glioma cells were not rejected in mice depleted of CD8+ cells but were rejected in mice depleted of CD4+ or NK1.1+ cells. These results suggest that CD8+ T cells may play an important role in tumor rejection. Images PMID:1570303

Aoki, T; Tashiro, K; Miyatake, S; Kinashi, T; Nakano, T; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H; Honjo, T

1992-01-01

144

Tellurite-induced oxidative stress leads to cell death of murine hepatocarcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data regarding tellurium (Te) toxicity are scarce. Studies on its metabolism, performed mainly in bacteria, underline a major\\u000a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated whether tellurite undergoes redox cycling leading to ROS formation\\u000a and cancer cell death. The murine hepatocarcinoma Transplantable Liver Tumor (TLT) cells were challenged with tellurite either\\u000a in the presence or in the absence of

Juan M. Sandoval; Philippe Levêque; Bernard Gallez; Claudio C. Vásquez; Pedro Buc Calderon

2010-01-01

145

Echinacea pupurea extracts modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function  

PubMed Central

Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea extracts would enhance murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation leading to increased immune responses. The fate and function of DCs from C57Bl/6 mice was evaluated following 48 h exposure to E. purpurea root and leaf extracts. Flow cytometry revealed that the polysaccharide-rich root extract increased the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 surface biomarkers whereas the alkylamide-rich leaf extract inhibited expression of these molecules. Production of IL-6 and TNF-? increased in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to the root, but not leaf, extract. In contrast, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2. While both extracts decreased the uptake of ovalbumin by BMDCs, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the antigen-specific activation of naïve CD4+ T cells from OT II/Thy1.1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that E. purpurea can be immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-inflammatory depending on the portion of the plant and extraction method. PMID:20149833

Benson, Jenna M.; Pokorny, Amanda J.; Rhule, Ava; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B.; Shepherd, David M.

2010-01-01

146

Echinacea purpurea extracts modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function.  

PubMed

Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea extracts would enhance murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation leading to increased immune responses. The fate and function of DCs from C57Bl/6 mice was evaluated following 48h exposure to E. purpurea root and leaf extracts. Flow cytometry revealed that the polysaccharide-rich root extract increased the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 surface biomarkers whereas the alkylamide-rich leaf extract inhibited expression of these molecules. Production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha increased in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to the root, but not leaf, extract. In contrast, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2. While both extracts decreased the uptake of ovalbumin by BMDCs, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the antigen-specific activation of naïve CD4(+) T cells from OT II/Thy1.1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that E. purpurea can be immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-inflammatory depending on the portion of the plant and extraction method. PMID:20149833

Benson, Jenna M; Pokorny, Amanda J; Rhule, Ava; Wenner, Cynthia A; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Shepherd, David M

2010-05-01

147

Localization of Label-Retaining Cells in Murine Vocal Fold Epithelium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Epithelial homeostasis is critical for vocal fold health, yet little is known about the cells that support epithelial self-renewal. As a known characteristic of stem cells is that they are slow-cycling in vivo, the purpose of this prospective controlled study was to identify and quantify slow-cycling cells or putative stem cells in murine…

Leydon, Ciara; Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Roenneburg, Drew A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

2011-01-01

148

Purification of murine pulmonary type II cells for flow cytometric cell cycle analysis.  

PubMed

Mice are widely used as animal models for in vivo lung disease. Despite this fact, few methods exist for isolation of type II pneumocytes from mouse lung, limiting the study of alveolar epithelial characteristics in these models. This study investigated several methods for labeling murine lung cell suspensions for flow cytometric identification and sorting of type II pneumocytes. Crude lung cell suspensions were prepared after intratracheal instillation of Dispase and were labeled using phosphine alone or in combination with Helix pomatia lectin, Maclura pomifera lectin, or anti-murine-CD32. Crude cell suspensions yielded 17.4 million cells per animal with 19.5% type II pneumocytes by Pap staining. Ultrastructural evaluation of the sorted cell pellets (1-1.5 million cells each) demonstrated optimal type II cell purity in preparations labeled with phosphine and anti-CD32 (94.3% type II cells, 0.4% macrophages, 2.8% Clara cells, and 2.5% other). Nuclear suspensions appropriate for cell cycle analysis were produced by sorting the type II cells directly into hypotonic propidium iodide, and these preparations clearly demonstrated a substantial increase in S-phase type II cells during proliferative repair of BHT-induced acute lung injury. PMID:7621777

Harrison, J H; Porretta, C P; Leming, K

1995-01-01

149

Intravenous anesthetic propofol suppresses leukotriene production in murine dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Leukotrienes, divided into cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are important mediators of asthmatic responses, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a chemotactic and chemokinetic agent for leukocytes, are potent lipid mediators generated from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). Leukotrienes are also considered to have immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory actions. Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic widely used for anesthesia and sedation that is alleged to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the effect of propofol on leukotriene production by dendritic cells (DC). In murine bone marrow-derived DC, propofol significantly suppressed CysLT and LTB4 production after short-term stimulation with zymosan. The protein levels of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and 5-LO, or arachidonic acid release from plasma membranes, were not affected by the presence of propofol. Although zymosan treatment induced or enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p-38 MAPK, and JNK, which presumably up-regulates the activity of 5-LO, the presence of propofol had no additional effect on the phosphorylation status of any of these MAPKs. Similarly, zymosan significantly increased the concentration of intracellular calcium, which is the most crucial activator of 5-LO, but no additional concentration changes were observed with the addition of propofol. Lastly, in an in-vitro cell-free ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange assay, propofol significantly inhibited the 5-LO activity of purified human recombinant 5-LO enzyme with an IC50 of ~7.5 µM. Thus, propofol's inhibition of 5-LO is not likely restricted to the circumstances surrounding the production of leukotrienes from DC, but applicable to other types of immune and non-immune cells that produce leukotrienes. The 5-LO-inhibiting activity of propofol may, at least in part, contribute to the well-known anti-inflammatory activity of propofol. PMID:22953970

Inada, Takefumi; Ueshima, Hironobu; Shingu, Koh

2013-01-01

150

Gene Expression Fluctuations in Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells with Cell Cycle Progression  

PubMed Central

Evolving data suggests that marrow hematopoietic stem cells show reversible changes in homing, engraftment and differentiation phenotype with cell cycle progression. Furthermore, marrow stem cells are a cycling population. Traditional concepts hold that the system is hierarchical, but the information on the lability of phenotype with cycle progression suggests a model in which stem cells are on a reversible continuum. Here we have investigated mRNA expression in murine lineage negative Stem Cell Antigen-1 positive stem cells of a variety of cell surface epitopes and transcription regulators associated with stem cell identity or regulation. At isolation these stem cells expressed almost all cell surface markers, and transcription factors studied, including receptors for G-CSF, GM-CSF and IL-7. When these stem cells were induced to transit cell cycle in vitro by exposure to interleukin-3 (IL-3), Il-6, IL-11 and steel factor some (CD34,CD45R c-kit, Gata-1, Gata-2, Ikaros and Fog) showed stable expression over time, despite previously documented alterations in phenotype, while others showed variation of expression between and within experiments. These included Sca-1, Mac-1, c-fms and c-mpl. Tal-1,endoglin and CD4 showed variation between experiments. These studies indicate that defined marrow stem cells express a wide variety of genes at isolation and with cytokine induced cell cycle transit show marked and reversible phenotype lability. Altogether, the phenotypic plasticity of gene expression for murine stem cells indicates a continuum model of stem cell regulation and extends the model to reversible expression with cell cycle transit of mRNA for cytokine receptors and stem cell markers. PMID:17894410

Dooner, Gerri J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Dooner, Mark S.; Johnson, Kevin W.; Quesenberry, Peter J.

2009-01-01

151

Differential effects of chemical inducers on expression of beta globin genes in murine erythroleukemia cells.  

PubMed Central

Murine erythroleukemia cells are induced to erythrodifferentiate by polar compounds such as dimethyl sulfoxide and hexamethylene bisacetamide as well as by fatty acids such as butyric acid and propionic acid. The effect of these inducers on the expression of two beta globin genes, betamaj and betamin, during the course of differentiation of the cells has been examined. After 4 days of culture with hexamethylene bisacetamide or dimethyl sulfoxide, the betamaj-containing hemoglobin (Hbmaj) predominates. By contrast, in the presence of butyric acid or propionic acid, after 4 days of culture, relatively equal amounts of Hbmaj and Hbmin are found. When cultured with dimethyl sulfoxide or hexamethylene bisacetamide, murine erythroleukemia cells synthesize more betamaj than betamin, while about equal amounts of the two globins are synthesized in the presence of butyric acid. When poly(A)-containing RNA from the cells exposed to different inducers is translated in a wheat germ cell-free system, the ratio of betamaj to betamin synthesized reflects that in whole cells. In a strain of murine erythroleukemia cells resistant to dimethyl sulfoxide (DR-10), the preferential stimulation of betamaj synthesis by hexamethylene bisacetamide of the betamin synthesis by butyric acid is more pronounced than with the dimethyl sulfoxide-sensitive cells (DS-19). These data suggest that polar compounds and fatty acids cause different expression of the betamaj and betamin genes in murine erythroleukemia cells. Images PMID:265555

Nudel, U; Salmon, J E; Terada, M; Bank, A; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

1977-01-01

152

Ionizing Radiation and Busulfan Induce Premature Senescence in Murine Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of murine bone marrow (BM) cells to ionizing radiation (IR; 4 Gy) resulted in >95% inhibition of the frequency of various day types of cobblestone area-forming cells in association with the induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic stem cell alike cells (Lin ScaI c-kit cells; IR: 64.8 0.4% versus control: 20.4 0.5%; P < 0.001) and progenitors (Lin ScaI c-kit

Aimin Meng; Yong Wang; Gary Van Zant; Daohong Zhou

2003-01-01

153

Cyclic-radiation response of murine fibrosarcoma cells grown as pulmonary nodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation age response of murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells grown as pulmonary nodules in CâHf\\/Kam mice was determined. FSa cells were irradiated in vivo either with 10 Gy as 14 day-old lung tumors (i.e., artificial macrometastases) prior to cell separation or with 5 Gy as single cells trapped in the lungs of recipient mice (i.e., artificial micrometastases) following cell separation

David J. Grdina; Nancy Hunter

1982-01-01

154

Behavior of Murine Renal Carcinoma Cells Grown in Ectopic or Orthotopic Sites in Syngeneic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether the organ microenvironment modulates the metastatic behavior and the response to doxorubicin (DXR) in murine renal carcinoma (RENCA) cells. Tumor cells were injected into kidney (orthotopic) and subcutis (ectopic) of syngeneic mice. Lung metastases developed in up to 57% (17\\/30) of animals having kidney tumors but not in those with skin tumors. Tumors growing in the kidney

Kwang-Sung Ahn; Yoo-Sun Jung; Jhingook Kim; Hyunah Lee; Sung-Soo Yoon

2001-01-01

155

Anti-inflammatory effects of kolaviron modulate the expressions of inflammatory marker genes, inhibit transcription factors ERK1/2, p-JNK, NF-?B, and activate Akt expressions in the 93RS2 Sertoli cell lines.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory effects of kolaviron (Kol-v) have been demonstrated in several experimental models. The ability of Kol-v to modulate the expressions of inflammatory genes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Sertoli cell line, 93RS2 was investigated in this study. Kol-v decreased the expressions of inflammatory genes TNF-?, Tlr-4, and Nf?b1 and has synergistic effect on LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expressions at high concentrations (25-100 ?M). At lower concentrations (5-15 µM), the expressions of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-1? were down-regulated by Kol-v except Tgf?1 that was up-regulated. The LPS-induced decrease in the expression of the anti-inflammatory genes IL-3, IL-4, and IL-10 was blocked by Kol-v at all concentrations of Kol-v tested. The LPS-induced phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase family members (ERK1/2, and p-JNK), decreased I?B? expression, and decreased Akt phosphorylation was blocked by Kol-v. Our results highlight the potential for Kol-v at lower concentration to ameliorate cellular damage caused by local inflammation. PMID:25542212

Abarikwu, Sunny O

2015-03-01

156

Expression of adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in murine renal intercalated cells.  

PubMed

Neurons influence renal function and help to regulate fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and ion excretion. Intercalated cells (ICCs) are distributed throughout the renal collecting ducts and help regulate acid/base equilibration. Because ICCs are located among principal cells, it has been difficult to determine the effects that efferent nerve fibers have on this cell population. In this study, we examined the expression of neurotransmitter receptors on the murine renal epithelial M-1 cell line. We found that M-1 cells express a2 and b2 adrenergic receptor mRNA and the b2 receptor protein. Further, b2 receptor-positive cells in the murine cortical collecting ducts also express AQP6, indicating that these cells are ICCs. M-1 cells were found to express m1, m4 and m5 muscarinic receptor mRNAs and the m1 receptor protein. Cells in the collecting ducts also express the m1 receptor protein, and some m1-positive cells express AQP6. Acetylcholinesterase was detected in cortical collecting duct cells. Interestingly, acetylcholinesterase-positive cells neighbored AQP6-positive cells, suggesting that principal cells may regulate the availability of acetylcholine. In conclusion, our data suggest that ICCs in murine renal collecting ducts may be regulated by the adrenergic and cholinergic systems. PMID:25069412

Jun, Jin-Gon; Maeda, Seishi; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Tanaka, Koichi; Hayakawa, Tetsu; Seki, Makoto

2014-12-01

157

Expression of Adrenergic and Cholinergic Receptors in Murine Renal Intercalated Cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Neurons influence renal function and help to regulate fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and ion excretion. Intercalated cells (ICCs) are distributed throughout the renal collecting ducts and help regulate acid/base equilibration. Because ICCs are located among principal cells, it has been difficult to determine the effects that efferent nerve fibers have on this cell population. In this study, we examined the expression of neurotransmitter receptors on the murine renal epithelial M-1 cell line. We found that M-1 cells express a2 and b2 adrenergic receptor mRNA and the b2 receptor protein. Further, b2 receptor-positive cells in the murine cortical collecting ducts also express AQP6, indicating that these cells are ICCs. M-1 cells were found to express m1, m4 and m5 muscarinic receptor mRNAs and the m1 receptor protein. Cells in the collecting ducts also express the m1 receptor protein, and some m1-positive cells express AQP6. Acetylcholinesterase was detected in cortical collecting duct cells. Interestingly, acetylcholinesterase-positive cells neighbored AQP6-positive cells, suggesting that principal cells may regulate the availability of acetylcholine. In conclusion, our data suggest that ICCs in murine renal collecting ducts may be regulated by the adrenergic and cholinergic systems. PMID:25069412

JUN, Jin-Gon; MAEDA, Seishi; KUWAHARA-OTANI, Sachi; TANAKA, Koichi; HAYAKAWA, Tetsu; SEKI, Makoto

2014-01-01

158

Plant nitrate reductase gene fragments enhance nitrite production in activated murine macrophage cell lines.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase (NR) gene fragments (1.1 kb and 800 bp) from the barley plant were incorporated into pSV2neo and transfected by electroporation into a variety of cell lines of different functionality. Only transfected murine macrophage cell lines demonstrated appreciably enhanced NO2- production (i.e., NR activity) both in the presence and absence of exogenous nitrate (NO3-). Addition of NO3- caused the greatest increase in NO2- production when macrophages were primed with interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transfection of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages led to isolation of several novel neomycin-resistant subpopulations designated NR10(1), NR10(2) (both containing the 1.1 kb NR fragment) and NR800(5) (containing the 800 bp NR fragment). Similarly transfected nonleukocytic and leukocytic stem cell lines showed no significant NO2- production. Outside of the macrophage cell lines, only the murine T cell line EL-4 showed evidence of mild nitrite production enhancement. The mechanism of enhanced NO2- formation in NR transfected murine macrophages is unknown. However, study of these novel cells may lead to greater understanding of the expression of a plant NR in mammalian cells and highly controlled production of a cytotoxic molecule (NO2-) in macrophages. PMID:8198585

Bruno, J G; Parker, J E; Kiel, J L

1994-05-30

159

Intrapulmonary Administration of CCL21 Gene-Modified Dendritic Cells Reduces Tumor Burden in Spontaneous Murine Bronchoalveolar Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antitumor efficiency of dendritic cells transduced with an adenovirus vector expressing secondary lymphoid chemokine (CCL21) was evaluated in a murine model of spontaneous bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma. The transgenic mice (CC-10 TAg) express the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the Clara cell promoter, develop bilateral, multifocal, and pulmonary adenocarcinomas, and die at 4 months as a result of progressive

Seok-Chul Yang; Raj K. Batra; Sven Hillinger; Karen L. Reckamp; Robert M. Strieter; Steven M. Dubinett; Sherven Sharma

160

Involvement of a chromatin modifier in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell injury: Probably an indirect action via the regulation of NF?B/FasL circuitry  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •MTA1 expression is upregulated in SCs upon MEHP treatment. •Knockdown of MTA1 in SCs impairs the MEHP-induced NF?B signaling activation. •Knockdown of MTA1 inhibits recruitment of NF?B onto FasL promoter in MEHP-treated SCs. -- Abstract: The Fas/FasL signaling pathway, controlled by nuclear factor-?B (NF?B) at the transcriptional level, is critical for triggering germ cell apoptosis in response to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)-induced Sertoli cell (SC) injury, but the exact regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we discovered that expression level of Metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex, was upregulated in SCs during the early recovery after MEHP exposure. This expression change was in line with the dynamic changes in germ cell apoptosis in response to MEHP treatment. Furthermore, a knockdown of MTA1 by RNAi in SCs was found to impair the MEHP-induced early activation of NF?B pathway and abolish the recruitment of NF?B onto FasL promoter, which consequently diminished the MEHP-triggered FasL induction. Considering that Fas/FasL is a well characterized apoptosis initiating signaling during SCs injury, our results point to a potential “switch on” effect of MTA1, which may govern the activation of NF?B/FasL cascade in MEHP-insulted SCs. Overall, the MTA1/NF?B/FasL circuit may serve as an important defensive/repairing mechanism to help to control the germ cell quality after SCs injury.

Chen, Shiwei [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China)] [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Dong, Yushu [Department of Neurosurgery, 463rd Hospital of PLA, Shenyang 110042 (China)] [Department of Neurosurgery, 463rd Hospital of PLA, Shenyang 110042 (China); Xu, Chun; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Yongjie; Jiang, Cheng [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China)] [Department of Urology, 174th Hospital of PLA, Fujian 361001 (China); Hou, Wugang, E-mail: gangwuhou@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China)] [Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China); Li, Wei, E-mail: liweipepeyato@163.com [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China)] [Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032 (China)

2013-11-01

161

Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNF?-induced cell death.  

PubMed

Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNF?. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNF? became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNF? treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNF? treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNF?-induced cell death. PMID:25619136

Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-Ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

2015-02-20

162

Donor age and cell passage affects differentiation potential of murine bone marrow-derived stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a widely researched adult stem cell population capable of differentiation into various lineages. Because many promising applications of tissue engineering require cell expansion following harvest and involve the treatment of diseases and conditions found in an aging population, the effect of donor age and ex vivo handling must be understood in order to develop clinical techniques and therapeutics based on these cells. Furthermore, there currently exists little understanding as to how these two factors may be influenced by one another. Results Differences in the adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity of murine MSCs harvested from donor animals of different age and number of passages of these cells were observed. Cells from younger donors adhered to tissue culture polystyrene better and proliferated in greater number than those from older animals. Chondrogenic and osteogenic potential decreased with age for each group, and adipogenic differentiation decreased only in cells from the oldest donors. Significant decreases in differentiation potentials due to passage were observed as well for osteogenesis of BMSCs from the youngest donors and chondrogenesis of the cells from the oldest donors. Conclusion Both increasing age and the number of passages have lineage dependent effects on BMSC differentiation potential. Furthermore, there is an obvious interplay between donor age and cell passage that in the future must be accounted for when developing cell-based therapies for clinical use. PMID:18957087

Kretlow, James D; Jin, Yu-Qing; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie; Hong, Tan-Hui; Zhou, Guangdong; Baggett, L Scott; Mikos, Antonios G; Cao, Yilin

2008-01-01

163

Direct inhibitory effects of simvastatin on matrix accumulation in cultured murine mesangial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct inhibitory effects of simvastatin on matrix accumulation in cultured murine mesangial cells.Background.3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzymeA(HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have been demonstrated to suppress glomerular injuries in various renal diseases. These agents inhibit in vitro proliferation of several cell types, including mesangial cells. This effect indicates the ability to ameliorate mesangioproliferative lesions, independent of the improvement of hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand, it is

Fumiaki Nogaki; Eri Muso; Masatomo Yashiro; Kenji Kasuno; Tadashi Kamata; Takahiko Ono; Shigetake Sasayama

1999-01-01

164

Stage-Specific Oligonucleotide Uptake in Murine Bone Marrow B-Cell Precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated phosphodies- ter and phosphorothioate oligonucleotides were used in four-color flow cytometry with murine bone marrow cells stained with monoclonal antibody specific for the ditferenti- ation markers 8220. S7 (CD43), and BP-l to show possible stage-specific oligonucleotide,uptake. Relatively low uptake was observed among pre-Pro- and early Pro-B cells. Late Pro-B- and pre-B cells had increased oligonucleotide uptake, whereas

Qiuyan Zhao; Thomas Waldschmidt; Eric Fisher; Charles J. Herrera; Arthur M. Krieg

2010-01-01

165

Antiangiogenic Effect of ZD1839 against Murine Renal Cell Carcinoma (RENCA) in an Orthotopic Mouse Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: ZD1839 (IressaTM) is a selective epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). We evaluated the antitumor and antiangiogenesis activities of ZD1839 in a murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) model. Materials and Methods: The effect of ZD1839 on the cellular proliferation of RENCA cells in vitro was measured by colorimetric assay. For the in vivo studies, RENCA cells were adsorbed

Hea Young Oh; Soo Mee Kwon; Sun Il Kim; Yang Won Jae; Sung Joon Hong

2005-01-01

166

COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIFFERENT EMISSION PARTICLES IN MURINE PULMONARY EPITHELIAL CELLS AND MACROPHAGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Comparative Toxicity of Different Emission Particles in Murine Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and Macrophages. T Stevens1, M Daniels2, P Singh2, M I Gilmour2. 1 UNC, Chapel Hill 27599 2Experimental Toxicology Division, NHEERL, RTP, NC 27711 Epidemiological studies have shown ...

167

Murine 5T multiple myeloma cells induce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple myeloma is a B cell malignancy. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bone marrow samples of patients with multiple myeloma display an enhanced angiogenesis. The mechanisms involved seem to be multiple and complex. We here demonstrate that the murine 5T multiple myeloma models are able to induce angiogenesis in vitro by using a rat aortic ring assay and in

E Van Valckenborgh; H De Raeve; L Devy; S Blacher; C Munaut; A Noël; E Van Marck; I Van Riet; B Van Camp; K Vanderkerken

2002-01-01

168

METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MURINE HEPATOMA CELL BIOASSAY-DIRECTED ISOLATION OF CANCER CHEMOPREVENTIVE AGENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of a murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cell line over a decade ago for the isolation of phase II enzyme inducing agents by a group from Johns Hopkins University led to the identification of sulforaphane as a major cancer chemopreventive agent in broccoli. We have found that choices among...

169

Epigen is induced during the interleukin-13-stimulated cell proliferation in murine primary airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Airway remodeling in bronchial asthma is characterized by epithelial detachment and proliferation, subepithelial fibrosis, increased smooth muscle mass, and goblet cell hyperplasia. These features are mediated by T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines including interleukin (IL)-13. However, the direct effects of IL-13 on the functions of airway epithelial cells are not fully understood. Murine primary airway epithelial (MPAE) cells were cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system. AG1478, a specific inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, was used to examine whether EGFR was involved in the IL-13-stimulated proliferation of MPAE cells. The expressions of EGFR ligands were investigated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analyses. The cell counting in cross-sections and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assays revealed a significant increase in the number of MPAE cells cultured with IL-13 compared with a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control. AG1478 abolished the IL-13-stimulated proliferation of MPAE cells. The expression of epigen, one of the EGFR ligands, was enhanced in MPAE cells cultured with IL-13. The findings suggest that EGFR is involved in the IL-13-stimulated proliferation of MPAE cells, and that epigen is important for the proliferation process in airway remodeling. PMID:21867383

Taniguchi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Aoki, Shigehisa; Toda, Shuji; Izuhara, Kenji; Hamasaki, Yuhei

2011-10-01

170

Antibodies to murine CD40 stimulate normal B lymphocytes but inhibit proliferation of B lymphoma cells.  

PubMed

A rat anti-mouse CD40 antiserum has been prepared by hyperimmunisation of Lewis rats with a highly purified preparation of the recombinant extracellular domain of murine CD40. This antiserum specifically binds CD40-expressing L cell transfectants, but not untransfected L cells, and induces vigorous proliferation of highly purified small dense B cells obtained from the spleens of unstimulated mice. Anti-CD40-induced B cell proliferation can be augmented by the addition of IL-4 and is inhibited by purified recombinant soluble mouse CD40. Interestingly the same anti-CD40 antiserum specifically inhibits the in vitro growth of A.20 murine B lymphoma cells. The specificity of this inhibition can be demonstrated by reversing the effect with purified recombinant soluble mouse CD40. These data implicate CD40 as a possible target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of B lymphomas. PMID:7504979

Heath, A W; Chang, R; Harada, N; Santos-Argumedo, L; Gordon, J; Hannum, C; Campbell, D; Shanafelt, A B; Clark, E A; Torres, R

1993-12-01

171

Novel Murine Dendritic Cell Lines: A Powerful Auxiliary Tool for Dendritic Cell Research  

PubMed Central

Research in vitro facilitates discovery, screening, and pilot experiments, often preceding research in vivo. Several technical difficulties render Dendritic Cell (DC) research particularly challenging, including the low frequency of DC in vivo, thorough isolation requirements, and the vulnerability of DC ex vivo. Critically, there is not as yet a widely accepted human or murine DC line and in vitro systems of DC research are limited. In this study, we report the generation of new murine DC lines, named MutuDC, originating from cultures of splenic CD8? conventional DC (cDC) tumors. By direct comparison to normal WT splenic cDC subsets, we describe the phenotypic and functional features of the MutuDC lines and show that they have retained all the major features of their natural counterpart in vivo, the splenic CD8? cDC. These features include expression of surface markers Clec9A, DEC205, and CD24, positive response to TLR3 and TLR9 but not TLR7 stimuli, secretion of cytokines, and chemokines upon activation, as well as cross-presentation capacity. In addition to the close resemblance to normal splenic CD8? cDC, a major advantage is the ease of derivation and maintenance of the MutuDC lines, using standard culture medium and conditions, importantly without adding supplementary growth factors or maturation-inducing stimuli to the medium. Furthermore, genetically modified MutuDC lines have been successfully obtained either by lentiviral transduction or by culture of DC tumors originating from genetically modified mice. In view of the current lack of stable and functional DC lines, these novel murine DC lines have the potential to serve as an important auxiliary tool for DC research. PMID:23162549

Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Grosjean, Frédéric; Duval, Anaïs; Rosa, Muriel; Lavanchy, Christine; Ashok, Devika; Haller, Sergio; Otten, Luc A.; Steiner, Quynh-Giao; Descombes, Patrick; Luber, Christian A.; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Szeles, Lajos; Reith, Walter; Acha-Orbea, Hans

2012-01-01

172

Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits the phosphoinositide hydrolysis in murine Leydig tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of ANP to inhibit the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides was examined in [3H] myoinositol-labeled intact murine Leydig tumor (MA-10) cells. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) both in a time- and dose- dependent manner in MA-10 cells. ANP inhibited the AVP-induced formation of IP1, IP2, and IP3 in

Madan L. Khurana; Kailash N. Pandey

1996-01-01

173

Serial analysis of gene expression in murine fetal thymocyte cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTL-1, -3 and -10 are three murine day 14 fetal thymocyte cell lines produced in order to model developmental stages within early (CD3-CD4-CD8-) thymocyte differentiation. In this study, we used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) method to perform a systematic analysis of transcripts present in these three cell lines. A total of 77,313 SAGE tags were sequence identified

Feng-Qi Zhao; Zong-Mei Sheng; Mark M. Tsai; Alan E. Hubbs; Ruixue Wang; Timothy J. O'Leary; David J. Izon; Jeffery K. Taubenberger

2002-01-01

174

Effect of Insulin-Dependent Cytoplasmic Regulator on Murine Melanoma KML Cell Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-dependent cytoplasmic regulator (IDR), the activity of which correlates with the insulin level in blood, was isolated from rat liver and fractionated on a Sephadex G-25 column. Radioautography established that IDR stimulates by 30% proliferation of murine melanoma KML cells in culture. This is indicated by3H-thymidine incorporation into the cell nucleus. It is proposed that insulin stimulates proliferation of the

M. S. Akhmatov; N. N. Kuznetsova; Z. Z. Gizatullina; G. L. Saifullina

2000-01-01

175

Distinct Organ-Dependent Mechanisms for the Control of Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection by Natural Killer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiviral mechanisms by which natural killer (NK) cells control murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection inthespleensandliversofC57BL\\/6miceweremeasured,revealingdifferentmechanismsofcontrolindifferent organs. Three days postinfection, MCMV titers in the spleens of perforin 0\\/0 mice were higher than in those of perforin 1\\/1 mice, but no elevation of liver titers was found in perforin 0\\/0 mice. NK cell depletion in MCMV-infected perforin 0\\/0 mice resulted only in an

CHIN H. TAY; ANDRAYMOND M. WELSH

1997-01-01

176

Development and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive murine T-cell lines and clones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several Histoplasma capsulatum-reactive murine cloned T-cell lines (TCLs) were isolated from spleens of C57BL/6 mice immunized with viable H. capsulatum yeast cells, using the methodology of Kimoto and Fathman (1980). These T-cells were characterized phenotypically as Thy-1.2(+) Lyt-1(+) L3T4(+) Lyt-2(-), that is, as the helper/inducer phenotype. The cloned T cells proliferate in response to histoplasmin and, in some cases, to heterologous fungal anigens. Upon injection of mice with the antigen, the T-cells mediate local delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and, after stimulation, release regulatory lymphokines.

Deepe, George S., Jr.; Smith, James G.; Denman, David; Bullock, Ward E.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

1986-01-01

177

Modulatory Effects and Action Mechanisms of Tryptanthrin on Murine Myeloid Leukemia Cells  

PubMed Central

Leukemia is the disorder of hematopoietic cell development and is characterized by an uncoupling of cell proliferation and differentiation. There is a pressing need for the development of novel tactics for leukemia therapy as conventional treatments often have severe adverse side effects. Tryptanthrin (6,12-dihydro-6,12-dioxoindolo-(2,1-b)-quinazoline) is a naturally-occurring, weakly basic alkaloid isolated from the dried roots of medicinal indigo plants (Ban-Lan-Gen). It has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. However, its modulatory effects and action mechanisms on myeloid cells remain poorly understood. In this study, tryptanthrin was shown to suppress the proliferation of the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced the growth of WEHI-3B JCS cells in vivo in syngeneic BALB/c mice. However, it exhibited no significant direct cytotoxicity on normal murine peritoneal macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis showed an obvious cell cycle arrest of the tryptanthrin-treated WEHI-3B JCS cells at the G0/G1 phase. The expression of cyclin D2, D3, Cdk 2, 4 and 6 genes in WEHI-3B JCS cells was found to be down-regulated at 24 h as measured by RT-PCR. Morphological and functional studies revealed that tryptanthrin could induce differentiation in WEHI-3B JCS cells, as shown by the increases in vacuolation, cellular granularity and NBT-reducing activity in tryptanthrin-treated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that tryptanthrin might exert its anti-tumor effect on the murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells by causing cell cycle arrest and by triggering cell differentiation. PMID:19887046

Chan, Hoi-Ling; Yip, Hon-Yan; Mak, Nai-Ki; Leung, Kwok-Nam

2009-01-01

178

Peptide nucleic acids targeting ?-globin mRNAs selectively inhibit hemoglobin production in murine erythroleukemia cells  

PubMed Central

In the treatment of hemoglobinopathies, amending altered hemoglobins and/or globins produced in excess is an important part of therapeutic strategies and the selective inhibition of globin production may be clinically beneficial. Therefore the development of drug-based methods for the selective inhibition of globin accumulation is required. In this study, we employed peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to alter globin gene expression. The main conclusion of the present study was that PNAs designed to target adult murine ?-globin mRNA inhibit hemoglobin accumulation and erythroid differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells with high efficiency and fair selectivity. No major effects were observed on cell proliferation. Our study supports the concept that PNAs may be used to target mRNAs that, similar to globin mRNAs, are expressed at very high levels in differentiating erythroid cells. Our data suggest that PNAs inhibit the excess production of globins involved in the pathophysiology of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:25405921

MONTAGNER, GIULIA; GEMMO, CHIARA; FABBRI, ENRICA; MANICARDI, ALEX; ACCARDO, IGEA; BIANCHI, NICOLETTA; FINOTTI, ALESSIA; BREVEGLIERI, GIULIA; SALVATORI, FRANCESCA; BORGATTI, MONICA; LAMPRONTI, ILARIA; BRESCIANI, ALBERTO; ALTAMURA, SERGIO; CORRADINI, ROBERTO; GAMBARI, ROBERTO

2015-01-01

179

Peptide nucleic acids targeting ?-globin mRNAs selectively inhibit hemoglobin production in murine erythroleukemia cells.  

PubMed

In the treatment of hemoglobinopathies, amending altered hemoglobins and/or globins produced in excess is an important part of therapeutic strategies and the selective inhibition of globin production may be clinically beneficial. Therefore the development of drug-based methods for the selective inhibition of globin accumulation is required. In this study, we employed peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) to alter globin gene expression. The main conclusion of the present study was that PNAs designed to target adult murine ?-globin mRNA inhibit hemoglobin accumulation and erythroid differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells with high efficiency and fair selectivity. No major effects were observed on cell proliferation. Our study supports the concept that PNAs may be used to target mRNAs that, similar to globin mRNAs, are expressed at very high levels in differentiating erythroid cells. Our data suggest that PNAs inhibit the excess production of globins involved in the pathophysiology of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:25405921

Montagner, Giulia; Gemmo, Chiara; Fabbri, Enrica; Manicardi, Alex; Accardo, Igea; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Finotti, Alessia; Breveglieri, Giulia; Salvatori, Francesca; Borgatti, Monica; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bresciani, Alberto; Altamura, Sergio; Corradini, Roberto; Gambari, Roberto

2015-01-01

180

Stimulation of cell proliferation in the subventricular zone by synthetic murine pheromones  

PubMed Central

Adult neurogenesis in female mice is known to be enhanced by exposure to soiled bedding from males, although the identity of the relevant chemosignals has remained unknown. Here we show that the previously recognized male murine pheromones, the farnesenes and 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT), strongly increase cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult female mice, but not younger female mice. In addition, we found that a unique female murine pheromone, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, facilitates similar changes in males. SBT stimulated cell proliferation in the SVZ of only adult females and not in young adult or pre- and post-puberty females. Our study suggests that pheromonal communication between males and females is enhancing reproductive success by controlling the estrous cycle and by promoting cell proliferation in a reciprocal manner. PMID:23964214

Koyama, Sachiko; Soini, Helena A.; Foley, John; Novotny, Milos V.; Lai, Cary

2013-01-01

181

Differential gene expression in the murine gastric fundus lacking interstitial cells of Cajal  

PubMed Central

Background The muscle layers of murine gastric fundus have no interstitial cells of Cajal at the level of the myenteric plexus and only possess intramuscular interstitial cells and this tissue does not generate electric slow waves. The absence of intramuscular interstitial cells in W/WV mutants provides a unique opportunity to study the molecular changes that are associated with the loss of these intercalating cells. Method The gene expression profile of the gastric fundus of wild type and W/WV mice was assayed by murine microarray analysis displaying a total of 8734 elements. Queried genes from the microarray analysis were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Twenty-one genes were differentially expressed in wild type and W/WV mice. Eleven transcripts had 2.0–2.5 fold higher mRNA expression in W/WV gastric fundus when compared to wild type tissues. Ten transcripts had 2.1–3.9 fold lower expression in W/WV mutants in comparison with wild type animals. None of these genes have ever been implicated in any bowel motility function. Conclusions These data provides evidence that several important genes have significantly changed in the murine fundus of W/WV mutants that lack intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and have reduced enteric motor neurotransmission. PMID:12795813

Daigo, Yataro; Takayama, Ichiro; Ponder, Bruce AJ; Caldas, Carlos; Ward, Sean M; Sanders, Kenton M; Fujino, Masayuki A

2003-01-01

182

Growth Inhibition of Murine Melanoma Cells by Antibodies to a Cell Surface Glycoprotein Implicated in Retinoic Acid Action1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that treatment of S91-C2 murine mela noma cells with 0-a\\\\\\\\-trans-retinoic acid (RA) results in growth inhibition, enhanced activity of siaiyltransferase, and increased glycosylation of a M, 160,000cell surface sialoglycoprotein(gpl60). None of these effects could be detected in mutant clones (e.g., S91-C154) selected from the S91-C2 cells for resistance to RA-induced growth inhibition. These findings suggest that

Reuben Lotan; Yarda Deutsch; Israel Â

183

Analysis of apoptosis in murine embryonic stem cells  

E-print Network

Currently, efforts to generate transgenic swine using embryonic germ (EG) cells are hampered by the loss of the cells to apostasis in vitro. Yet, due to complex culture conditions, it is difficult to study apostasis directly in these cells. A...

Weaks, Regina Lanell

2012-06-07

184

Potent Inhibition of Junín Virus Infection by Interferon in Murine Cells  

PubMed Central

The new world arenavirus Junín virus (JUNV) is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, a lethal human infectious disease. Adult laboratory mice are generally resistant to peripheral infection by JUNV. The mechanism underlying the mouse resistance to JUNV infection is largely unknown. We have reported that interferon receptor knockout mice succumb to JUNV infection, indicating the critical role of interferon in restricting JUNV infection in mice. Here we report that the pathogenic and vaccine strains of JUNV were highly sensitive to interferon in murine primary cells. Treatment with low concentrations of interferon abrogated viral NP protein expression in murine cells. The replication of both JUNVs was enhanced in IRF3/IRF7 deficient cells. In addition, the vaccine strain of JUNV displayed impaired growth in primary murine cells. Our data suggested a direct and potent role of host interferon response in restricting JUNV replication in mice. The defect in viral growth for vaccine JUNV might also partially explain its attenuation in mice. PMID:24901990

Huang, Cheng; Walker, Aida G.; Grant, Ashley M.; Kolokoltsova, Olga A.; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Seregin, Alexey V.; Paessler, Slobodan

2014-01-01

185

Formation of dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo(alpha)pyrene in cultured human and murine skin cells.  

PubMed

The formation of the 7, 8-a and 9, 10-dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene, which are believed to play a role in the chemical induction of tumors, was investigated in cultures of human and murine origin. It was found that cultures of mouse (strain C3Hz) epidermal and skin fibroblastic cells showed inducible benzo(a)pyrene metabolism towards dihydrodiol metabolites, after pre-incubation with benz(a)anthracene. This was consistent with the increased in vivo formation of dihydrodiol metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene after injection with 3-methylcholanthrene. In contrast, in human cell cultures the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene to the dihydrodiol metabolites was not enhanced after pre-exposure to benz(a)anthracene. This was the case in low-passage skin fibroblasts, primary epidermal skin cells, and primary keratinocytes from hair follicles. Moreover, other inducers of microsomal oxygenases, such as phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene, were also unable to increase benzo(a)pyrene metabolism towards the dihydrodiol compounds. In view of these results, obtained using in vitro human and murine model systems, we may conclude that human and murine skin cell culture systems respond differently to pre-treatment with inducers of microsomal monooxygenases with respect to the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive dihydrodiol metabolites. The possible implications for the human in vivo situation are discussed. PMID:7202342

Hukkelhoven, M W; Vromans, E; Vermorken, A J; Bloemendal, H

1982-01-01

186

Stem-cell-based Tissue Engineering of Murine Teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teeth develop from reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme cells and epithelium, where the epithelium provides the instructive information for initiation. Based on these initial tissue interactions, we have replaced the mesenchyme cells with mesenchyme created by aggregation of cultured non-dental stem cells in mice. Recombinations between non-dental cell-derived mesenchyme and embryonic oral epithelium stimulate an odontogenic response in the stem cells.

A. Ohazama; S. A. C. Modino; I. Miletich; P. T. Sharpe

2004-01-01

187

Activation-induced cellular accumulation of histamine in immature but not mature murine mast cells.  

PubMed

Mast cell activation involves the rapid release of inflammatory mediators, including histamine, from intracellular granules. The cells are capable of regranulation and multiple rounds of activation. The goal of this study was to determine if there are changes in the content of pre-formed mast cell mediators after a round of activation. After 24 h, the histamine content of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), but not that of peritoneal mast cells, exceeded the amount in resting cells. Accumulation of histamine in BMMC peaked at 72 h of activation, and returned toward preactivation levels by 96 h. The increase in histamine content was accompanied by an increase in the gene expression of histidine decarboxylase. No increases in beta hexosaminidase or murine mast cell protease-6 were observed. These findings indicate that BMMC respond to activation by increasing total cell-associated histamine content. This increase may be important to the response of these cells upon subsequent exposure to antigens. PMID:18408884

Fitz, L J; Brennan, A; Wood, C R; Goldman, S J; Kasaian, M T

2008-05-01

188

The Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line EKVX Produces an Infectious Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus  

PubMed Central

The cell lines of the NCI-60 panel represent different cancer types and have been widely utilized for drug screening and molecular target identification. Screening these cell lines for envelope proteins or gene sequences related to xenotropic murine leukemia viruses (X-MLVs) revealed that one cell line, EKVX, was a candidate for production of an infectious gammaretrovirus. The presence of a retrovirus infectious to human cells was confirmed by the cell-free transmission of infection to the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Amplification and sequencing of additional proviral sequences from EKVX confirmed a high degree of similarity to X-MLV. The cell line EKVX was established following passage of the original tumor cells through nude mice, providing a possible source of the X-MLV found in the EKVX cells. PMID:22355448

Cmarik, Joan L.; Troxler, Jami A.; Hanson, Charlotte A.; Zhang, Xiang; Ruscetti, Sandra K.

2011-01-01

189

Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of adult murine prostate stem cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY The successful isolation and cultivation of prostate stem cells will allow us to study their unique biological properties and their application in therapeutic approaches. Here we provide step-by-step procedures on the basis of previous work in our laboratory for: the harvesting of primary prostate cells from adolescent male mice by a modified enzymatic procedure; the isolation of an enriched population of prostate stem cells through cell sorting; the cultivation of prostate stem cells in vitro; and characterization of these cells and their stem-like activity, including in vivo tubule regeneration. Normally it will take approximately 8 hours to harvest prostate cells, isolate the stem cell enriched population, and set up the in vitro sphere assay. It will take up to 8 weeks to analyze the unique properties of the stem cells, including their regenerative capacity in vivo. PMID:20360765

Lukacs, Rita U.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lawson, Devon A.; Cheng, Donghui; Witte, Owen N.

2010-01-01

190

Simvastatin inhibits NF-?B signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and ameliorates acute murine colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors exert pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo, and are associated with the risk reduction of colorectal cancer. It remains unknown, however, whether statin is effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and on an experimental murine colitis model, and elucidated

Jong Yeul Lee; Joo Sung Kim; Jung Mogg Kim; Nayoung Kim; Hyun Chae Jung; In Sung Song

2007-01-01

191

TLR9 cooperates with TLR4 to increase IL12 release by murine dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are expressed on the surface or intracellularly by dendritic cells (DC) and recognize specifically different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Increasing evidence suggests that TLR expressed by DC can cooperate to synergize their functions. Here, we describe the cooperation of TLR9 and TLR4 triggering of murine bone marrow derived DC by CpG oligonucleotides and LPS, respectively. The simultaneous

Gabi Theiner; Susanne Rößner; Alexander Dalpke; Konrad Bode; Thomas Berger; André Gessner; Manfred B. Lutz

2008-01-01

192

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate to a Cardiomyocyte Phenotype in the Adult Murine Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Cellular cardiomyoplasty has been proposed as an alternative strategy for augmenting the function of diseased myocardium. We investigated the potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from adult bone marrow to undergo myogenic differentiation once transplanted into the adult murine myocardium. Methods and Results—A small bone marrow aspirate was taken from the iliac crest of healthy human volunteers, and hMSCs

Catalin Toma; Mark F. Pittenger; Kevin S. Cahill; Barry J. Byrne; Paul D. Kessler

2002-01-01

193

Age Response to X-Radiation of Murine Lymphoma Cells Synchronized in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of a transplantable murine lymphoma line were partially synchronized in vivo by administration of a single dose of 0.5 mg of hydroxyurea per lymphoma-bearing mouse. At various times after administration of hydroxy-urea, the femurs of the lymphomatous mice were X-irradiated, and the number of lymphoma colony-forming units per femur were then assayed by the spleen-colony technique. A well-defined age

F. Mauro; H. Madoc-Jones

1969-01-01

194

Arachidonic acid metabolism in murine lymphoma cell sublines differing in radiation sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

14C arachidonic acid incorporation and 14C radioactivity release as well as prostaglandin (PG) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) synthesis were measured in the pair of murine lymphoma L5178Y (LY) cell sublines differing in radiation sensitivity. Both LY sublines, LY-R (resistant) and LY-S (sensitive), incorporated exogenous arachidonic acid and released it from membrane phospholipids. Ca2+ ionophores (ionomycin and A23187) but not PMA

Barbara Sochanowicz; Irena Szumiel

1996-01-01

195

979. The Gene Expression and Function of Adenoviral E3Genes in Murine Tumour Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently developed a number of immunocompetent murine tumour models that enabled the evaluation of adenoviruses with classical E3 deletions, dl309 (E3B deleted (RIDa\\/RIDb complex and 14.7kD)) and dl704 (E3 gp19K deleted). The E3B genes protect infected cells from tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and Fas mediated apoptosis, and internalizes epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, E3 gp19K prevents newly

Richard J. Hill; Gunnel K. Hallden; Yaohe Wang; Jennelle Francis; Catherine Simpson; David H. Kirn; Nicholas R. Lemoine

2004-01-01

196

Murine CLCA5 is uniquely expressed in distinct niches of airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The murine mCLCA5 protein is a member of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family and is suspected to play a role in airway mucus cell differentiation. Although mCLCA5 mRNA was previously found in total lung extracts, the expressing cells and functions in the naive murine respiratory tract are unknown. Therefore, mCLCA5 protein expression was identified by immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy using entire lung sections of naive mice. Moreover, we determined mRNA levels of functionally related genes (mClca3, mClca5, Muc5ac and Muc5b) and quantified mCLCA5-, mCLCA3- and CC10-positive cells and periodic acid-Schiff-positive mucus cells in naive, PBS-treated or Staphylococcus aureus-infected mice. We also investigated mCLCA5 protein expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus lung infection models. Finally, we determined species-specific differences in the expression patterns of the murine mCLCA5 and its human and porcine orthologs, hCLCA2 and pCLCA2. The mCLCA5 protein is uniquely expressed in highly select bronchial epithelial cells and submucosal glands in naive mice, consistent with anatomical locations of progenitor cell niches. Under conditions of challenge (PBS, S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, influenza virus), mRNA and protein expression strongly declined with protein recovery only in models retaining intact epithelial cells. In contrast to mice, human and porcine bronchial epithelial cells do not express their respective mCLCA5 orthologs and submucosal glands had fewer expressing cells, indicative of fundamental differences in mice versus humans and pigs. PMID:25212661

Dietert, Kristina; Mundhenk, Lars; Erickson, Nancy A; Reppe, Katrin; Hocke, Andreas C; Kummer, Wolfgang; Witzenrath, Martin; Gruber, Achim D

2015-03-01

197

Optimization of Gene Transfection in Murine Myeloma Cell Lines using Different Transfection Reagents.  

PubMed

Purification and isolation of cellular target proteins for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production is a difficult and time-consuming process. Immunization of mice with murine cell lines stably transfected with genes coding for xenogenic target molecules is an alternative method for mouse immunization and MAb production. Here we present data on transfection efficiency of some commercial reagents used for transfection of murine myeloma cell lines. Little is known about transfectability of murine myeloma cell lines by different transfection reagents. Mouse myeloma cell lines (SP2/0, NS0, NS1, Ag8, and P3U1) were transfected with pEGFP-N1 vector using Lipofectamine 2000, jetPEI and LyoVec commercial transfection reagents in different combinations. The transfection permissible HEK293-FT cell line was used as a control in transfection procedure. Transfected cells, expressing the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP), were analyzed by flow cytometry 48 hrs post transfection. Our results showed transfection efficiency of 71%, 57% and 22% for HEK293-FT, 5.5%, 3.4% and 1% for SP2/0, 55.7%, 21.1% and 9.3% for NS0, 8.2%, 6% and 5.5% for NS1, 22%, 49.2% and 5.5% for Ag8 and 6.3%, 21.5% and 4.6% for P3U1 cell lines after transfection with Lipofectamine 2000, jetPEI and LyoVec reagents, respectively. Our data indicate that NS0 and Ag8 are efficiently transfected by Lipofectamine 2000 and jetPEI reagents. Finally, we propose Ag8 and NS0 cell lines as suitable host cells for efficient expression of target genes which can be used for mouse immunization and MAb production. PMID:23408356

Shabani, Mahdi; Hemmati, Sheyda; Hadavi, Reza; Amirghofran, Zahra; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Shokri, Fazel

2010-07-01

198

Optimization of Gene Transfection in Murine Myeloma Cell Lines using Different Transfection Reagents  

PubMed Central

Purification and isolation of cellular target proteins for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production is a difficult and time-consuming process. Immunization of mice with murine cell lines stably transfected with genes coding for xenogenic target molecules is an alternative method for mouse immunization and MAb production. Here we present data on transfection efficiency of some commercial reagents used for transfection of murine myeloma cell lines. Little is known about transfectability of murine myeloma cell lines by different transfection reagents. Mouse myeloma cell lines (SP2/0, NS0, NS1, Ag8, and P3U1) were transfected with pEGFP-N1 vector using Lipofectamine 2000, jetPEI and LyoVec commercial transfection reagents in different combinations. The transfection permissible HEK293-FT cell line was used as a control in transfection procedure. Transfected cells, expressing the Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP), were analyzed by flow cytometry 48 hrs post transfection. Our results showed transfection efficiency of 71%, 57% and 22% for HEK293-FT, 5.5%, 3.4% and 1% for SP2/0, 55.7%, 21.1% and 9.3% for NS0, 8.2%, 6% and 5.5% for NS1, 22%, 49.2% and 5.5% for Ag8 and 6.3%, 21.5% and 4.6% for P3U1 cell lines after transfection with Lipofectamine 2000, jetPEI and LyoVec reagents, respectively. Our data indicate that NS0 and Ag8 are efficiently transfected by Lipofectamine 2000 and jetPEI reagents. Finally, we propose Ag8 and NS0 cell lines as suitable host cells for efficient expression of target genes which can be used for mouse immunization and MAb production. PMID:23408356

Shabani, Mahdi; Hemmati, Sheyda; Hadavi, Reza; Amirghofran, Zahra; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Shokri, Fazel

2010-01-01

199

CD133 is a marker for long-term repopulating murine epidermal stem cells.  

PubMed

Maintenance, repair, and renewal of the epidermis are thought to depend on a pool of dedicated epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs). Like for many somatic tissues, isolation of a nearly pure population of stem cells is a primary goal in cutaneous biology. We used a quantitative transplantation assay, using injection of keratinocytes into subcutis combined with limiting dilution analysis, to assess the long-term repopulating ability of putative murine EpiSC populations. Putative EpiSC populations were isolated by FACS sorting. The CD133(+) population and the subpopulation of CD133(+) cells that exhibits high mitochondrial membrane potential (D?m(hi)) were enriched for long-term repopulating EpiSCs versus unfractionated cells (3.9- and 5.2-fold, respectively). Evidence for self-renewal capacity was obtained by serial transplantation of long-term epidermal repopulating units derived from CD133(+) and CD133(+)??m(hi) keratinocytes. CD133(+) keratinocytes were multipotent and produced significantly more hair follicles than CD133(-) cells. CD133(+) cells were a subset of the previously described integrin ?6(+)CD34(+) bulge cell population, and 28.9±8.6% were label-retaining cells. Thus, murine keratinocytes within the CD133(+) and CD133(+)??m(hi) populations contain EpiSCs that regenerate the epidermis for the long term, are self-renewing, multipotent, and label-retaining cells. PMID:22763787

Charruyer, Alexandra; Strachan, Lauren R; Yue, Lili; Toth, Alexandra S; Cecchini, Gary; Mancianti, Maria L; Ghadially, Ruby

2012-11-01

200

Age-associated Characteristics of Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of age-associated functional changes in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We studied aging HSCs at the clonal level by isolating CD34 2 \\/low c-Kit 1 Sca-1 1 lineage marker- negative (CD34 2 KSL) cells from the bone marrow of C57BL\\/6 mice. A population of CD34 2 KSL cells gradually expanded as age increased. Regardless of age, these cells

Kazuhiro Sudo; Hideo Ema; Yohei Morita; Hiromitsu Nakauchi

201

Nimesulide alters cell recruitment into mitosis in murine intestinal crypts without influencing the cell production rate.  

PubMed

The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that exhibit COX-2 selectivity is associated with fewer gastrointestinal side effects than seen with more traditional NSAIDs. To determine whether the early effects on cell kinetics in the intestinal mucosal epithelium described after COX-2 selective inhibition are sustained following continuous therapy with these inhibitors, assessments of morphometry and cryptal cell proliferation in the murine small intestinal mucosa were made at 24 hr after treatment with indomethacin, a dual COX inhibitor (10 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally), nimesulide, a selective COX-2 inhibitor (15 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally), or vehicle. Nimesulide-treated intestine was elongated beyond control values, in contrast to the shorter indomethacin-treated intestine, but anomalous villous forms were present in both treated groups. Both treatments induced expansion and contraction of proliferating compartments in the crypts in different regions of the intestine but nimesulide did not alter crypt cell production rates, in contrast to the down-regulation induced by indomethacin. These findings may provide some of the fundamental basis for the gut-sparing properties seen in patients treated with COX-2 selective inhibitors. PMID:17429722

McGarvey, M Alice; Bass, Gary; Ettarh, R R

2007-06-01

202

H4 Histamine Receptors Mediate Cell Cycle Arrest in Growth Factor-Induced Murine and Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

The most recently characterized H4 histamine receptor (H4R) is expressed preferentially in the bone marrow, raising the question of its role during hematopoiesis. Here we show that both murine and human progenitor cell populations express this receptor subtype on transcriptional and protein levels and respond to its agonists by reduced growth factor-induced cell cycle progression that leads to decreased myeloid, erythroid and lymphoid colony formation. H4R activation prevents the induction of cell cycle genes through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway that is not associated with apoptosis. It is mediated specifically through H4R signaling since gene silencing or treatment with selective antagonists restores normal cell cycle progression. The arrest of growth factor-induced G1/S transition protects murine and human progenitor cells from the toxicity of the cell cycle-dependent anticancer drug Ara-C in vitro and reduces aplasia in a murine model of chemotherapy. This first evidence for functional H4R expression in hematopoietic progenitors opens new therapeutic perspectives for alleviating hematotoxic side effects of antineoplastic drugs. PMID:19662098

Petit-Bertron, Anne-France; Machavoine, François; Defresne, Marie Paule; Gillard, Michel; Chatelain, Pierre; Mistry, Prakash

2009-01-01

203

Cholinergic epithelial cell with chemosensory traits in murine thymic medulla.  

PubMed

Specialized epithelial cells with a tuft of apical microvilli ("brush cells") sense luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to potentially harmful substances. They utilize the canonical taste transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum-sensing molecules. In the respiratory tract, most of these cells are cholinergic and are approached by cholinoceptive sensory nerve fibers. Utilizing two different reporter mouse strains for the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), we observed intense labeling of a subset of thymic medullary cells. ChAT expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These cells showed expression of villin, a brush cell marker protein, and ultrastructurally exhibited lateral microvilli. They did not express neuroendocrine (chromogranin A, PGP9.5) or thymocyte (CD3) markers but rather thymic epithelial (CK8, CK18) markers and were immunoreactive for components of the taste transduction cascade such as G?-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and phospholipase C?2. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the expression of G?-gustducin, TRPM5, and phospholipase C?2. Thymic "cholinergic chemosensory cells" were often in direct contact with medullary epithelial cells expressing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit ?3. These cells have recently been identified as terminally differentiated epithelial cells (Hassall's corpuscle-like structures in mice). Contacts with nerve fibers (identified by PGP9.5 and CGRP antibodies), however, were not observed. Our data identify, in the thymus, a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensitive cell that probably utilizes acetylcholine for paracrine signaling. This cell might participate in intrathymic infection-sensing mechanisms. PMID:25300645

Panneck, Alexandra Regina; Rafiq, Amir; Schütz, Burkhard; Soultanova, Aichurek; Deckmann, Klaus; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Weihe, Eberhard; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Grau, Veronika; Del Rey, Adriana; Kummer, Wolfgang

2014-12-01

204

Regulation of Glycan Structures in Murine Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The abundance and structural diversity of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids are highly regulated and play important roles during vertebrate development. Because of the challenges associated with studying glycan regulation in vertebrate embryos, we have chosen to study mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as they differentiate into embryoid bodies (EBs) or into extraembryonic endodermal (ExE) cells as a model for cellular differentiation. We profiled N- and O-glycan structures isolated from these cell populations and examined transcripts encoding the corresponding enzymatic machinery for glycan biosynthesis in an effort to probe the mechanisms that drive the regulation of glycan diversity. During differentiation from mouse ES cells to either EBs or ExE cells, general trends were detected. The predominance of high mannose N-glycans in ES cells shifted to an equal abundance of complex and high mannose structures, increased sialylation, and increased ?-Gal termination in the differentiated cell populations. Whereas core 1 O-glycan structures predominated in all three cell populations, increased sialylation and increased core diversity characterized the O-glycans of both differentiated cell types. Increased polysialylation was also found in both differentiated cell types. Differences between the two differentiated cell types included greater sialylation of N-glycans in EBs, whereas ?-Gal-capped structures were more prevalent in ExE cells. Changes in glycan structures generally, but not uniformly, correlated with alterations in transcript abundance for the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes, suggesting that transcriptional regulation contributes significantly to the regulation of glycan expression. Knowledge of glycan structural diversity and transcript regulation should provide greater understanding of the roles of protein glycosylation in vertebrate development. PMID:22988249

Nairn, Alison V.; Aoki, Kazuhiro; dela Rosa, Mitche; Porterfield, Mindy; Lim, Jae-Min; Kulik, Michael; Pierce, J. Michael; Wells, Lance; Dalton, Stephen; Tiemeyer, Michael; Moremen, Kelley W.

2012-01-01

205

Growth Conditions for Primate vs Murine Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells are continuous cell lines derived from 3- to 5-day-old embryonic blastocysts. Essentially\\u000a an artifact of tissue culture, they can, under certain physiological conditions, sustain an undifferentiated state with the\\u000a capacity to divide and renew themselves indefinitely while having the ability to differentiate into all cell types when so\\u000a instructed by specific extracellular signals. An understanding

Gillian M. Beattie; Nathan Bucay; Rohan Humphrey; Ana D. Lopez; Alberto Hayek

206

[The study of separating murine embryonic fibroblast from embryonic stem cells by the differential adhesion method].  

PubMed

This study has established a simple method of separating murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) from embryonic stem cells (ES cells). The adhesion rates of MEF and ES cells were compared to find out the opitimum time of removing MEF. The result shows that 1.5h and 0.5% gelatin concentration is the opitimum condition of removing MEF. Furthermore, the ES cells which have been purified have the same plating efficiency and the ability of three germ layers differentiation as the unpurified ES cells. After differential adhension, there is strong ALP activity in ES cells. All the results show that the purified ES cells are still in the state of undifferentiation and maintain the pluripotent. PMID:17117560

Xu, Chao; Huang, Hua Rong; Yu, Hong; Zhao, Xiao Li; Lu, Yong Liang; Dai, Li Cheng; Yao, Xing

2006-10-01

207

1.8 Astroms Structure of Murine GITR Ligand Dimer Expressed in Drosophila Melanogaster S2 Cells  

SciTech Connect

Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor ligand (GITRL), a prominent member of the TNF superfamily, activates its receptor on both effector and regulatory T cells to generate critical costimulatory signals that have been implicated in a wide range of T-cell immune functions. The crystal structures of murine and human orthologs of GITRL recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli have previously been determined. In contrast to all classical TNF structures, including the human GITRL structure, murine GITRL demonstrated a unique 'strand-exchanged' dimeric organization. Such a novel assembly behavior indicated a dramatic impact on receptor activation as well as on the signaling mechanism associated with the murine GITRL costimulatory system. In this present work, the 1.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of murine GITRL expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells is reported. The eukaryotic protein-expression system allows transport of the recombinant protein into the extracellular culture medium, thus maximizing the possibility of obtaining correctly folded material devoid of any folding/assembly artifacts that are often suspected with E. coli-expressed proteins. The S2 cell-expressed murine GITRL adopts an identical 'strand-exchanged' dimeric structure to that observed for the E. coli-expressed protein, thus conclusively demonstrating the novel quaternary structure assembly behavior of murine GITRL.

Chattopadhyay, K.; Ramagopal, U; Nathenson, S; Almo, S

2009-01-01

208

CRKL overexpression suppresses in vitro proliferation, invasion and migration of murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-P cells.  

PubMed

The signal adaptor CRK family protein play important roles in cancer cell progression, proliferation, migration and invasion. Previously, we showed that CRK was involved in lymphatic metastatic potential of murine hepatocarcinoma cells. In current work, as a member of CRK family, chicken tumour virus number 10 regulator of kinase-like protein (CRKL) was revealed to be associated with malignant behaviors of Hca-P, a murine HCC cell with lymph node metastatic (LNM) rate of ?25%. CRKL overexpression in Hca-P by a constructed eukaryotic expression vector of pcDNA3.1/V5-HisB-CRKL significantly ameliorated its malignant biological properties. CCK-8 and soft agar colony formation assays indicated CRKL overexpression significantly inhibits the cell proliferation and colony formation abilities of Hca-P. Additionally, transwell assays indicated that the Hca-P cell migration and invasion capacities were apparently reduced following CRKL overexpression. As Hca-P is an ideal hepatocarcinoma cell model with low (initial) LNM potential, CRKL is shown to act as a potential suppressor and to provide new insight for both the malignant behaviors of hepatocarcinoma cells and lymphatic metastasis mechanism of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:25661331

Lin, Qiuyue; Sun, Ming-Zhong; Guo, Chunmei; Shi, Ji; Chen, Xin; Liu, Shuqing

2015-02-01

209

The effects of simulated hypogravity on murine bone marrow cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mouse bone marrow cells grown in complete medium at unit gravity were compared with a similar population cultured in conditions that mimic some aspects of microgravity. After the cells adjusted to the conditions that simulated microgravity, they proliferated as fetal or oncogenic populations; their numbers doubled in twelve hour periods. Differentiated subpopulations were depleted from the heterogeneous mixture with time and the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cells increased in numbers. The cells in the control groups in unit gravity and those in the bioreactors in conditions of microgravity were monitored under a number of parameters. Each were phenotyped as to cell surface antigens using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry. Other parameters compared included: pH, glucose uptake, oxygen consumption and carbon-dioxide production. Nuclear DNA was monitored by flow cytometry. Functional responses were studied by mitogenic stimulation by various lectins. The importance of these findings should have relevance to the space program. Cells should behave predictably in zero gravity; specific populations can be eliminated from diverse populations and other populations isolated. The availability of stem cell populations will enhance both bone marrow and gene transplant programs. Stem cells will permit developmental biologists study the paths of hematopoiesis.

Lawless, Desales

1989-01-01

210

INTERLEUKIN 6 PROMOTES VASCULOGENESIS OF MURINE BRAIN MICROVESSEL ENDOTHELIAL CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a cytokine that acts on a wide range of tissues influencing cell growth and differentiation. Here we show that IL-6 plays a role in the early vascular development (vasculogenesis) in the central nervous system (CNS). We report that IL-6 induces the proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, IL-6 significantly accelerates the formation of

Dominic Fee; Dana Grzybicki; Matthew Dobbs; Sudakhar Ihyer; Justine Clotfelter; Sinarack Macvilay; Michael N. Hart; Matyas Sandor; Zsuzsanna Fabry

2000-01-01

211

AUGMENTATION OF MURINE NATURAL KILLER CELL ACTIVITY BY MANGANESE CHLORIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural Killer (NK) cell activity of spleen cells from male CBA/J mice was augmented by a single parenteral injection of MnCl2 administered 1 day prior to testing by in vitro and in vivo isotope release assays. Increased cytotoxic activity was observed in vitro against both NK-se...

212

AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

213

Engineering skeletal muscle tissues from murine myoblast progenitor cells and application of electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

Engineered muscle tissues can be used for several different purposes, which include the production of tissues for use as a disease model in vitro, e.g. to study pressure ulcers, for regenerative medicine and as a meat alternative (1). The first reported 3D muscle constructs have been made many years ago and pioneers in the field are Vandenburgh and colleagues (2,3). Advances made in muscle tissue engineering are not only the result from the vast gain in knowledge of biochemical factors, stem cells and progenitor cells, but are in particular based on insights gained by researchers that physical factors play essential roles in the control of cell behavior and tissue development. State-of-the-art engineered muscle constructs currently consist of cell-populated hydrogel constructs. In our lab these generally consist of murine myoblast progenitor cells, isolated from murine hind limb muscles or a murine myoblast cell line C2C12, mixed with a mixture of collagen/Matrigel and plated between two anchoring points, mimicking the muscle ligaments. Other cells may be considered as well, e.g. alternative cell lines such as L6 rat myoblasts (4), neonatal muscle derived progenitor cells (5), cells derived from adult muscle tissues from other species such as human (6) or even induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) (7). Cell contractility causes alignment of the cells along the long axis of the construct (8,9) and differentiation of the muscle progenitor cells after approximately one week of culture. Moreover, the application of electrical stimulation can enhance the process of differentiation to some extent (8). Because of its limited size (8 x 2 x 0.5 mm) the complete tissue can be analyzed using confocal microscopy to monitor e.g. viability, differentiation and cell alignment. Depending on the specific application the requirements for the engineered muscle tissue will vary; e.g. use for regenerative medicine requires the up scaling of tissue size and vascularization, while to serve as a meat alternative translation to other species is necessary. PMID:23542531

van der Schaft, Daisy W J; van Spreeuwel, Ariane C C; Boonen, Kristel J M; Langelaan, Marloes L P; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Baaijens, Frank P T

2013-01-01

214

Dose-Dependent Preferential Binding of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Reiterated DNA of Murine Skin Cells in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of active metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bound to reiterated or unique regions of murine DNA has been studied by a DNA\\\\cdot DNA renaturation technique. Murine skin cells were exposed to different doses of radioactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for 24 hr; then the hydrocarbon-labeled DNA was isolated, fragmented, and denatured. Renaturation kinetics and thermal stabilities of DNA\\\\cdot DNA

M. Shoyab

1978-01-01

215

Effect of palytoxin and serotonin on murine tumor cells.  

PubMed

In vitro and in vivo effects of two fractions of a crude extract from the marine invertebrate Palythoa were investigated in Novikoff hepatoma and Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. These fractions, previously identified as serotonin and a partially purified toxin, inhibited thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material by tumor cells. Results from respiration studies indicated that the inhibitory effect was not toxic. The data suggested that: a) The partially purified toxin exerted its inhibitory effect at the membrane level; b) this inhibitory effect might have been accomplished through the Na+K+ transport mechanism, this conclusion being supported by data on the uptake of labeled amino acids by Ehrlich ascites tumor cells; and c) in an unconfirmed experiment, the partially purified toxin increased the survival time of 50% of 6 palytoxin-treated mice at least three times as long as 6 untreated control mice. All 12 mice had received 1 X 10(6) viable Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. PMID:286838

El-Khatib, S M; Preston, A M

1979-07-01

216

Disruption of canonical TGF?-signaling in murine coronary progenitor cells by low level arsenic  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to arsenic results in several types of cancers as well as heart disease. A major contributor to ischemic heart pathologies is coronary artery disease, however the influences by environmental arsenic in this disease process are not known. Similarly, the impact of toxicants on blood vessel formation and function during development has not been studied. During embryogenesis, the epicardium undergoes proliferation, migration, and differentiation into several cardiac cell types including smooth muscle cells which contribute to the coronary vessels. The TGF? family of ligands and receptors is essential for developmental cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and differentiation into coronary smooth muscle cells. In this in vitro study, 18 hour exposure to 1.34 ?M arsenite disrupted developmental EMT programming in murine epicardial cells causing a deficit in cardiac mesenchyme. The expression of EMT genes including TGF?2, TGF? receptor-3, Snail, and Has-2 are decreased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to arsenite. TGF?2 cell signaling is abrogated as detected by decreases in phosphorylated Smad2/3 when cells are exposed to 1.34 ?M arsenite. There is also loss of nuclear accumulation pSmad due to arsenite exposure. These observations coincide with a decrease in vimentin positive mesenchymal cells invading three-dimensional collagen gels. However, arsenite does not block TGF?2 mediated smooth muscle cell differentiation by epicardial cells. Overall these results show that arsenic exposure blocks developmental EMT gene programming in murine coronary progenitor cells by disrupting TGF?2 signals and Smad activation, and that smooth muscle cell differentiation is refractory to this arsenic toxicity. - Highlights: • Arsenic blocks TGF?2 induced expression of EMT genes. • Arsenic blocks TGF?2 triggered Smad2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • Arsenic blocks epicardial cell differentiation into cardiac mesenchyme. • Arsenic does not block TGF?2 induced smooth muscle cell differentiation.

Allison, Patrick; Huang, Tianfang; Broka, Derrick; Parker, Patti [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Steele Children's Research Center and Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnett, Joey V. [Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt Medical University, Nashville, TN (United States); Camenisch, Todd D., E-mail: camenisch@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Steele Children's Research Center and Bio5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-10-01

217

Dexamethasone facilitates erythropoiesis in murine embryonic stem cells differentiating into hematopoietic cells in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells are increasingly emerging as an important source of hematopoietic progenitors with a potential to be useful for both basic and clinical research applications. It has been suggested that dexamethasone facilitates differentiation of ES cells towards erythrocytes but the mechanism responsible for sequential expression of genes regulating this process are not well-understood. Therefore, we in vitro induced differentiation of murine ES cells towards erythropoiesis and studied the sequential expression of a set of genes during the process. We hypothesized that dexamethasone-activates its cognate nuclear receptors inducing up-regulation of erythropoietic genes such as GATA-1, Flk-1, Epo-R, and direct ES cells towards erythropoietic differentiation. ES cells were cultured in primary hematopoietic differentiation media containing methyl-cellulose, IMDM, IL-3, IL-6, and SCF to promote embryoid body (EB) formation. Total RNA of day 3, 5, and 9-old EBs was isolated for gene expression studies using RT-PCR. Cells from day 9 EBs were subjected to secondary differentiation using three different cytokines and growth factors combinations: (1) SCF, EPO, dexamethasone, and IGF; (2) SCF, IL-3, IL-6, and TPO; and (3) SCF IL-3, IL-6, TPO, and EPO. Total RNA from day 12 of secondary differentiated ES cells was isolated to study the gene expression pattern during this process. Our results demonstrate an up-regulation of GATA-1, Flk-1, HoxB-4, Epo-R, and globin genes ({alpha}-globin, {beta}H-1 globin, {beta}-major globin, {epsilon} -globin, and {zeta}-globin) in the 9-day-old EBs, whereas, RNA from 5-day-old EBs showed expression of HoxB-4, {epsilon}-globin, {gamma}-globin, {beta}H1-globin, and Flk-1. Three-day-old EBs showed only HoxB-4 and Flk-1 gene expression and lacked expression of all globin genes. These findings indicate that erythropoiesis-specific genes are activated later in the course of differentiation. Gene expression studies on the ES cells of secondary EB origin cultured in media containing dexamethasone showed a down-regulation of GATA-3 and an up-regulation of GATA-1, Flk-1, and Epo-R in comparison to the two other cytokines and growth factor combinations containing media. The secondary differentiation also showed an enhanced production of erythrocytic precursors in dexamethasone containing media in comparison to that in the control media. Our results indicate that dexamethasone can prove to be an effective agent which can be employed to enhance differentiation towards erythrocytic progenitors from ES cells.

Srivastava, Anand S. [Departments of Medicine, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093-0820 (United States); Kaushal, Sharmeela [Departments of Medicine, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093-0820 (United States); Mishra, Rangnath [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Lane, Thomas A. [Departments of Medicine, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093-0820 (United States); Carrier, Ewa [Departments of Medicine, Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093-0820 (United States)]. E-mail: assrivastava@ucsd.edu

2006-07-28

218

Polycomb complexes repress developmental regulators in murine embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which embryonic stem (ES) cells self-renew while maintaining the ability to differentiate into virtually all adult cell types are not well understood. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that help to maintain cellular identity during metazoan development by epigenetic modification of chromatin structure. PcG proteins have essential roles in early embryonic development and have been implicated

Laurie A. Boyer; Kathrin Plath; Julia Zeitlinger; Tobias Brambrink; Lea A. Medeiros; Tong Ihn Lee; Stuart S. Levine; Marius Wernig; Adriana Tajonar; Mridula K. Ray; George W. Bell; Arie P. Otte; Miguel Vidal; David K. Gifford; Richard A. Young; Rudolf Jaenisch

2006-01-01

219

Overexpression of Hsp25 in K1735 murine melanoma cells enhances susceptibility to natural killer cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

In the present study we used a murine melanoma model to investigate the effect of the 25-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp25) on natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity. The melanoma lines K1735-C123 (low metastatic potential) and K1735-M2 (high metastatic potential) were transfected with hsp25 and a control plasmid. Highly purified interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated DX-5+ NK cells showed enhanced lysis of Hsp25-overexpressing K1735-C123 targets in comparison with controls. In contrast, there was no difference in susceptibility to lysis by purified IL-2-stimulated DX-5+ NK cells between Hsp25-overexpressing and control-transfected K1735-M2 targets. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that Hsp25 is displayed on the cell surface independently of Hsp25 overexpression and metastatic phenotype. Thus, surface localization of Hsp25 does not correlate with the target cell susceptibility to killing. To sum up, a cytoplasmic overexpression of Hsp25 is associated with an increased susceptibility to lysis by DX-5+ NK cells in the low-metastatic murine melanoma model investigated. PMID:11892982

Jantschitsch, Christian; Trautinger, Franz; Klosner, Gabriele; Gsur, Andrea; Herbacek, Irene; Micksche, Michael; Kindås-Mügge, Ingela

2002-01-01

220

Expression of a murine homologue of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein is related to cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins form a highly conserved gene family that prevents cell death in response to a variety of stimuli. Herein we describe a newly defined murine IAP, designated Tiap, that proved to be a murine homologue of human survivin based on sequence comparison. TIAP has one baculovirus IAP repeat and lacks a C-terminal RING finger motif. TIAP interacted with the processed form of caspase 3 and inhibited caspase-induced cell death. Histological examinations revealed that TIAP is expressed in growing tissues such as thymus, testis, and intestine of adult mice and many tissues of embryos. In in vitro studies, TIAP was induced in splenic T cells activated with anti-CD3 antibody or Con A, and the expression of TIAP was up-regulated in synchronized NIH 3T3 cells at S to G2/M phase of the cell cycle. We propose that during cell proliferation, cellular protective activity may be augmented with inducible IAPs such as TIAP. PMID:9990045

Kobayashi, Koichi; Hatano, Masahiko; Otaki, Masayuki; Ogasawara, Takeshi; Tokuhisa, Takeshi

1999-01-01

221

Expression of a murine homologue of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein is related to cell proliferation.  

PubMed

The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins form a highly conserved gene family that prevents cell death in response to a variety of stimuli. Herein we describe a newly defined murine IAP, designated Tiap, that proved to be a murine homologue of human survivin based on sequence comparison. TIAP has one baculovirus IAP repeat and lacks a C-terminal RING finger motif. TIAP interacted with the processed form of caspase 3 and inhibited caspase-induced cell death. Histological examinations revealed that TIAP is expressed in growing tissues such as thymus, testis, and intestine of adult mice and many tissues of embryos. In in vitro studies, TIAP was induced in splenic T cells activated with anti-CD3 antibody or Con A, and the expression of TIAP was up-regulated in synchronized NIH 3T3 cells at S to G2/M phase of the cell cycle. We propose that during cell proliferation, cellular protective activity may be augmented with inducible IAPs such as TIAP. PMID:9990045

Kobayashi, K; Hatano, M; Otaki, M; Ogasawara, T; Tokuhisa, T

1999-02-16

222

Effects of murine tumor necrosis factor on Friend erythroleukemic cells.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis inducing factor (TNF), a 140,000 molecular weight glycoprotein present in the serum of Corynebacterium parvum endotoxin-treated mice, was cytotoxic toward Friend virus-transformed erythroleukemic cells (FELC). These cells grow in culture as undifferentiated pro-erythroblasts but can be induced to differentiate in a limited fashion along the erythroid pathway to orthochromatic normoblasts by various agents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Partially and highly purified preparations of TNF were cytotoxic toward logarithmically growing FELC whereas a comparable serum protein fraction from C. parvum treated mice or endotoxin from E. coli had no effect upon FELC viability. DMSO-induced cells were more sensitive to the action of TNF requiring only about half the concentration needed to produce 50% kill in noninduced cells. Inhibition of hemoglobin formation was TNF dose-related and could be decreased by 94%. TNF was also cytotoxic toward DMSO-induced cells in stationary phase and mitomycin C treated noninduced FELC. Neuraminidase modification of the surface of FELC increased the cytotoxicity of TNF by 50%. These results demonstrate that TNF destroys FELC whether they are nondividing, dividing or partially differentiated and suggest that TNF may accomplish this by affecting cell metabolism after internalization. PMID:3856542

Suyama, K; Goldstein, J; Green, S

1985-01-01

223

Murine CD83-positive T cells mediate suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The CD83 molecule (CD83) is a well-known surface marker present on mature dendritic cells (mDC). In this study, we show that CD83 is also expressed on a subset of T cells which mediate regulatory T cell (Treg)-like suppressor functions in vitro and in vivo. Treg-associated molecules including CD25, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related gene (GITR), Helios and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) as well as forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) were specifically expressed by these CD83(+) T cells. In contrast, CD83(-) T cells showed a naive T cell phenotype with effector T cell properties upon activation. Noteworthy, CD83(-) T cells were not able to upregulate CD83 despite activation. Furthermore, CD83(+) T cells suppressed the proliferation and inflammatory cytokine release of CD83(-) T cells in vitro. Strikingly, stimulated CD83(+) T cells released soluble CD83 (sCD83), which has been reported to possess immunosuppressive properties. In vivo, using the murine transfer colitis model we could show that CD83(+) T cells were able to suppress colitis symptoms while CD83(-) T cells possessed effector functions. In addition, this CD83 expression is also conserved on expanded human Treg. Thus, from these studies we conclude that CD83(+) T cells share important features with regulatory T cells, identifying CD83 as a novel lineage marker to discriminate between different T cell populations. PMID:25151500

Kreiser, Simon; Eckhardt, Jenny; Kuhnt, Christine; Stein, Marcello; Krzyzak, Lena; Seitz, Christine; Tucher, Christine; Knippertz, Ilka; Becker, Christoph; Günther, Claudia; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Lechmann, Matthias

2015-02-01

224

Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ethanol extracts from four species of mushroom fruiting bodies, mushroom spores and mushroom cultured broth, were assessed for modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) and non-tumorigenic epidermal cells (C50). While extracts from mycelia of Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, or from spores of G. lucidum exerted little, if any, effect

Yu-Huan Gu; Martha A. Belury

2005-01-01

225

Murine lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-3 acts as a cell-associated integrin ligand  

SciTech Connect

Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase-3 (LPP3) is a cell surface protein that exhibits ectoenzyme activity. Previously, we identified human LPP3 in a functional assay of angiogenesis and showed that the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the proposed second extracellular domain interacts with a subset of integrins to mediate cell-cell adhesion. In contrast to the RGD domain of human LPP3, murine Lpp3 contains a variant sequence, Arg-Gly-Glu (RGE). Whether the RGE motif of murine Lpp3 mediates cell-cell interaction has not been studied. In this report, we test the hypothesis that the cell adhesion function of the LPP3 protein is conserved across mouse and human. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein of the proposed second extracellular loop of the murine Lpp3 sequence (GST-mLpp3-RGE) promoted attachment of cells in a long-term cell adhesion assay. GST-mLpp3-RGE interacted with {alpha}{sub 5}{beta}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrins in a solid-phase ELISA, while a mutant control, GST-hLPP3-RAD, did not. Long-term adhesion of endothelial cells to GST-mLpp3-RGE induced phosphorylation of FAK, SHC, and CAS, whereas adhesion to GST-hLPP3-RAD failed to do so. Upon long-term adhesion both the GST-hLPP3-RGD and GST-mLpp3-RGE substrates bound to the {alpha}{sub 5}{beta}{sub 1} integrin of FRT-{alpha}{sub 5}(+) cells, an interaction that was inhibited by an anti-{alpha}{sub 5} integrin antibody. In addition, a cell aggregation assay showed that the intact mLpp3-RGE protein interacts with {alpha}{sub 5}{beta}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrins expressed by adjacent cells, an interaction that can be blocked by GRGDSP peptides and anti-LPP3-RGD antibodies. These data, together with the known importance of integrins in angiogenesis, provide a mechanism for the function of LPP3 in cell-cell interactions in both human and mouse.

Humtsoe, Joseph O. [Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Texas Medical Center, 2121 W. Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Bowling, Rodney A. [Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Texas Medical Center, 2121 W. Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Feng, Shu [Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Texas Medical Center, 2121 W. Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wary, Kishore K. [Center for Extracellular Matrix Biology, Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center, Texas Medical Center, 2121 W. Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: kwary@ibt.tamhsc.edu

2005-09-30

226

Oatp-associated uptake and toxicity of microcystins in primary murine whole brain cells  

SciTech Connect

Microcystins (MCs) are naturally occurring cyclic heptapeptides that exhibit hepato-, nephro- and possibly neurotoxic effects in mammals. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp/human OATP) appear to be specifically required for active uptake of MCs into hepatocytes and kidney epithelial cells. Based on symptoms of neurotoxicity in MC-intoxicated patients and the presence of Oatp/OATP at the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barrier (BCFB) it is hypothesized that MCs can be transported across the BBB/BCFB in an Oatp/OATP-dependent manner and can induce toxicity in brain cells via inhibition of protein phosphatase (PP). To test these hypotheses, the presence of murine Oatp (mOatp) in primary murine whole brain cells (mWBC) was investigated at the mRNA and protein level. MC transport was tested by exposing mWBCs to three different MC-congeners (MC-LR, -LW, -LF) with/without co-incubation with the OATP/Oatp-substrates taurocholate (TC) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP). Uptake of MCs and cytotoxicity was demonstrated via MC-Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, cell viability and PP inhibition assays. All MC congeners bound covalently and inhibited mWBC PP. MC-LF was the most cytotoxic congener followed by -LW and -LR. The lowest toxin concentration significantly reducing mWBC viability after 48 h exposure was 400 nM (MC-LF). Uptake of MCs into mWBCs was inhibited via co-incubation with excess TC (50 and 500 {mu}M) and BSP (50 {mu}M). MC-Western blot analysis demonstrated a concentration-dependent accumulation of MCs. In conclusion, the in vitro data support the assumed MC-congener-dependent uptake in a mOatp-associated manner and cytotoxicity of MCs in primary murine whole brain cells.

Feurstein, D.; Holst, K.; Fischer, A. [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Dietrich, D.R. [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany)], E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de

2009-01-15

227

Complex 2B4 regulation of mast cells and eosinophils in murine allergic inflammation.  

PubMed

The cell surface molecule 2B4 (CD244) is an important regulator of lymphocyte activation, and its role in antiviral immunity and lymphoproliferative disorders is well established. Although it is also expressed on mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils (Eos), the functions of 2B4 on these allergy-orchestrating cells remain unclear. We therefore investigated the role of 2B4 on murine MCs and Eos, particularly how this molecule affects allergic and nonallergic inflammatory processes involving these effector cells. Experiments in bone marrow-derived cultures revealed an inhibitory effect for 2B4 in MC degranulation, but also an opposing stimulatory effect in eosinophil migration and delayed activation. Murine disease models supported the dual 2B4 function: In 2B4-/- mice with nonallergic peritonitis and mild atopic dermatitis (AD), modest infiltrates of Eos into the peritoneum and skin (respectively) confirmed that 2B4 boosts eosinophil trafficking. In a chronic AD model, 2B4-/- mice showed overdegranulated MCs, confirming the inhibiting 2B4 effect on MC activation. This multifunctional 2B4 profile unfolded in inflammation resembles a similar mixed effect of 2B4 in natural killer cells. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for physiological 2B4 stimulatory/inhibitory effects in MCs and Eos, pointing to a complex role for 2B4 in allergy. PMID:24999594

Elishmereni, Moran; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Singh Gangwar, Roopesh; Lehtimäki, Sari; Alenius, Harri; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

2014-12-01

228

Mycoplasma contamination of murine embryonic stem cells affects cell parameters, germline transmission and chimeric progeny.  

PubMed

Murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) inoculated at passage P13 with the mycoplasma species M. hominis, M. fermentans and M. orale and cultured over 20 passages showed reduced growth rate and viability (P < 0.0001) compared to control mESCs. Spectral karyotypic analysis of mycoplasma-infected mESCs showed a number of non-clonal chromosomal aberrations which increased with the duration of infection. The differentiation status of the infected mESCs was most affected at passage P13+6 where the infection was strongest and 46.3% of the mESCs expressed both POU5F1 and SSEA-1 markers whereas 84.8% of control mESCs expressed both markers. The percentage of germline chimeras from mycoplasma-infected mESCs was examined after blastocyst injection and embryo transfer to suitable recipients at different passages and, compared to the respective control group, was most affected at passage P13+5 (50% vs. 90%; P < 0.07). Further reductions were obtained at the same passage in the percentage of litters born (50% vs. 100%; P < 0.07) and in the percentage of pups born (22% vs. 45%; P < 0.001). Thirty three chimeras (39.8%) obtained from blastocyst injection with mycoplasma-infected mESCs showed reduced body weight (P < 0.0001), nasal discharge, osteoarthropathia, and cachexia. Flow cytometric analysis of plasma from chimeras produced with mycoplasma-infected mESCs revealed statistically significant differences in the proportions of T-cells and increased levels of IgG1 (P < 0.001), IgG2a (P < 0.05) and IgM (P < 0.05), anti-DNA antibodies (P < 0.05) and rheumatoid factor (P < 0.01). The present data indicate that mycoplasma contamination of mESCs affects various cell parameters, germline transmission, and postnatal development of the resulting chimeras. PMID:18819014

Markoullis, Kyriaki; Bulian, Diana; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Heiliger, Katrin-Janine; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Scherb, Hagen; Mysliwietz, Josef; Uphoff, Cord C; Drexler, Hans G; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H; Schmidt, Jörg; Mahabir, Esther

2009-02-01

229

Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

2014-01-01

230

Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

2014-01-01

231

Circadian Mechanisms in Murine and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Following Dexamethasone Exposure  

PubMed Central

A core group of transcriptional regulatory factors regulate circadian rhythms in mammalian cells. While the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain serves as the central core circadian oscillator, circadian clocks also exist within peripheral tissues and cells. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that >20% of expressed mRNAs in bone and adipose tissues oscillate in a circadian manner. The current manuscript reports evidence of the core circadian transcriptional apparatus within primary cultures of murine and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Exposure of confluent, quiescent BMSCs to dexamethasone synchronized the oscillating expression of the mRNAs encoding the albumin D binding protein (dbp), brain-muscle arnt-like 1 (bmal1), period 3 (per3), rev-erb ?, and rev-erb ?. The genes displayed a mean oscillatory period of 22.2 to 24.3 hours. The acrophase or peak expression of mRNAs encoding “positive” (bmal1) and “negative” (per3) transcriptional regulatory factors were out of phase with each other by ?8-12 hours, consistent with in vivo observations. In vivo, glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) mediated phosphorylation regulates the turnover of per3 and core circadian transcriptional apparatus. In vitro addition of lithium chloride, a GSK3? inhibitor, significantly shifted the acrophase of all genes by 4.2-4.7 hours oscillation in BMSCs; however, only the male murine BMSCs displayed a significant increase in the length of the period of oscillation. We conclude that human and murine BMSCs represent a valid in vitro model for the analysis of circadian mechanisms in bone metabolism and stem cell biology. PMID:18302991

Wu, Xiying; Yu, Gang; Parks, Helen; Hebert, Teddi; Goh, Brian C.; Dietrich, Marilyn A.; Pelled, Gadi; Izadpanah, Reza; Gazit, Dan; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

2008-01-01

232

Isolation, Expansion and Transplantation of Postnatal Murine Progenitor Cells of the Enteric Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Neural stem or progenitor cells have been proposed to restore gastrointestinal function in patients suffering from congenital or acquired defects of the enteric nervous system. Various, mainly embryonic cell sources have been identified for this purpose. However, immunological and ethical issues make a postnatal cell based therapy desirable. We therefore evaluated and quantified the potential of progenitor cells of the postnatal murine enteric nervous system to give rise to neurons and glial cells in vitro. Electrophysiological analysis and BrdU uptake studies provided direct evidence that generated neurons derive from expanded cells in vitro. Transplantation of isolated and expanded postnatal progenitor cells into the distal colon of adult mice demonstrated cell survival for 12 weeks (end of study). Implanted cells migrated within the gut wall and differentiated into neurons and glial cells, both of which were shown to derive from proliferated cells by BrdU uptake. This study indicates that progenitor cells isolated from the postnatal enteric nervous system might have the potential to serve as a source for a cell based therapy for neurogastrointestinal motility disorders. However, further studies are necessary to provide evidence that the generated cells are capable to positively influence the motility of the diseased gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24871092

Dettmann, Heike Monika; Zhang, Ying; Wronna, Nadine; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Mohr, Roland; Neckel, Peter Helmut; Mack, Andreas; Fuchs, Joerg; Just, Lothar; Obermayr, Florian

2014-01-01

233

Functional comparison of the murine macrosialin and human CD68 promoters in macrophage and nonmacrophage cell lines.  

PubMed

The glycoprotein macrosialin is expressed specifically in murine monocytes and macrophages. In the murine genome the macrosialin gene lies 877 bp 3' of the ubiquitously expressed elongation initiation factor 4A1 (eIF-4AI) gene on chromosome 11. The macrosialin gene promoter directs high-level expression in transiently transfected murine macrophage cell lines, but significant levels of expression are seen in nonmacrophage cell lines. The first intron of the gene encoding the human homologue of macrosialin, CD68, directs macrophage-specific expression when cloned downstream of the human CD68 gene promoter. Despite sharing extensive sequence homology with the human CD68 gene first intron, the murine macrosialin gene first intron does not act as a macrophage-specific enhancer when cloned downstream of the human CD68 or murine macrosialin promoters. We conclude that the genetic elements that are responsible for macrophage-specific gene expression are organized differently in the murine and human CD68 genes. PMID:9806844

Greaves, D R; Quinn, C M; Seldin, M F; Gordon, S

1998-11-15

234

Loss of Cytotoxicity and Gain of Cytokine Production in Murine Tumor-Activated NK Cells  

PubMed Central

NK cells are able to form a functional memory suggesting that some NK cells are surviving the activation process. We hypothesized that NK cell activation causes the development of a distinct NK cell subset and studied the fate of murine post-activation NK cells. Activation was achieved by in vivo and in vitro exposures to the melanoma tumor cell line B16 that was followed by differentiation in IL-2. When compared with control NK cells, post-activation CD25+ NK cells expressed little granzyme B or perforin and had low lysis activity. Post-activation NK cells expressed CD27, CD90, CD127, and were low for CD11b suggesting that tumor-induced activation is restricted to an early NK cell subset. Activation of NK cells led to decreases of CD16, CD11c and increases of CD62L and the IL-18 receptor. In vivo activated but not control NK cells expressed a variety of cytokines that included IFN?, TNF?, GM-CSF and IL-10. These data suggest that the exposure of a subset of peripheral NK cells to the B16 tumor environment caused an exhaustion of their cytolytic capacity but also a gain in their ability to produce cytokines. PMID:25101668

Müller, Jürgen R.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Dubois, Sigrid

2014-01-01

235

Distinct Factors Regulate the Murine RAG-2 Promoter in B- and T-Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The recombination activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2 are expressed in a lymphoid-cell-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. To understand the transcriptional basis for this regulation, we have cloned and characterized the murine RAG-2 promoter. The promoter was lymphoid cell specific, showing activity in various B- and T-cell lines but little activity in nonlymphoid cells. To our surprise, however, the promoter was regulated differently in B and T cells. Using nuclear extracts from B-cell lines, we found that the B-cell-specific transcription factor BSAP (Pax-5) could bind to a conserved sequence critical for promoter activity. BSAP activated the promoter in transfected cells, and the BSAP site was occupied in a tissue-specific manner in vivo. An overlapping DNA sequence binding to a distinct factor was necessary for promoter activity in T cells. Full promoter activity in T cells was also dependent on a more distal DNA sequence whose disruption had no effect on B-cell activity. The unexpected finding that a B-cell-specific factor regulates the RAG-2 promoter may explain some of the recently observed differences in the regulation of RAG transcription between B and T cells. PMID:10082526

Lauring, Josh; Schlissel, Mark S.

1999-01-01

236

Distinct factors regulate the murine RAG-2 promoter in B- and T-cell lines.  

PubMed

The recombination activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2 are expressed in a lymphoid-cell-specific and developmentally regulated fashion. To understand the transcriptional basis for this regulation, we have cloned and characterized the murine RAG-2 promoter. The promoter was lymphoid cell specific, showing activity in various B- and T-cell lines but little activity in nonlymphoid cells. To our surprise, however, the promoter was regulated differently in B and T cells. Using nuclear extracts from B-cell lines, we found that the B-cell-specific transcription factor BSAP (Pax-5) could bind to a conserved sequence critical for promoter activity. BSAP activated the promoter in transfected cells, and the BSAP site was occupied in a tissue-specific manner in vivo. An overlapping DNA sequence binding to a distinct factor was necessary for promoter activity in T cells. Full promoter activity in T cells was also dependent on a more distal DNA sequence whose disruption had no effect on B-cell activity. The unexpected finding that a B-cell-specific factor regulates the RAG-2 promoter may explain some of the recently observed differences in the regulation of RAG transcription between B and T cells. PMID:10082526

Lauring, J; Schlissel, M S

1999-04-01

237

Total body irradiation selectively induces murine hematopoietic stem cell senescence.  

PubMed

Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and certain chemotherapeutic agents not only causes acute bone marrow (BM) suppression but also leads to long-term residual hematopoietic injury. This latter effect has been attributed to damage to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Using a mouse model, we investigated whether IR induces senescence in HSCs, as induction of HSC senescence can lead to the defect in HSC self-renewal. It was found that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to a sublethal dose (6.5 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) resulted in a sustained quantitative and qualitative reduction of LKS+ HSCs. In addition, LKS+ HSCs from irradiated mice exhibited an increased expression of the 2 commonly used biomarkers of cellular senescence, p16(Ink4a) and SA-beta-gal. In contrast, no such changes were observed in irradiated LKS- hematopoietic progenitor cells. These results provide the first direct evidence demonstrating that IR exposure can selectively induce HSC senescence. Of interest, the induction of HSC senescence was associated with a prolonged elevation of p21(Cip1/Waf1), p19(Arf), and p16(Ink4a) mRNA expression, while the expression of p27(Kip1) and p18(Ink4c) mRNA was not increased following TBI. This suggests that p21(Cip1/Waf1), p19(Arf), and p16(Ink4a) may play an important role in IR-induced senescence in HSCs. PMID:16150936

Wang, Yong; Schulte, Bradley A; LaRue, Amanda C; Ogawa, Makio; Zhou, Daohong

2006-01-01

238

In vitro uptake of gelatin nanoparticles by murine dendritic cells and their intracellular localisation.  

PubMed

The long term goal of this study is to develop an efficient nanoscopic vaccine delivery system, based on the biodegradable and natural polymer gelatin, to deliver therapeutic protein antigens along with adjuvants into dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, gelatin nanoparticles were tested for qualitative and quantitative uptake in murine DCs in vitro. A second aim of this study was to prove that the carrier system is able to deliver tetramethylrhodamine conjugated dextran (TMR-dextran), as a model drug into the DCs. The TMR-dextran was incorporated during the preparation of the gelatin nanoparticles. DCs were generated from murine bone marrow cells by an established ex vivo technique. Flow cytometry showed that 88% of the cells positive for the specific murine DC marker CD11c took up TMR-dextran loaded gelatin nanoparticles, whereas only 4% of the soluble form of TMR-dextran was taken up. Double color confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that gelatin nanoparticles were phagocytosed by DCs and the triple color CLSM showed that the TMR-dextran was localized mainly in lysosomes as expected, but partly also outside the lysosomes, presumably in the cytoplasm. An in vitro release study of TMR-dextran from gelatin nanoparticles demonstrated that there was hardly any release in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), but by trypsin-assisted degradation of gelatin nanoparticles resulted in the release of about 80% of the TMR-dextran from the particles. These results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles hold promise as a new biocompatible tool for vaccine delivery to DCs, with applications in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16316749

Coester, Conrad; Nayyar, Paras; Samuel, John

2006-04-01

239

Toll-like receptor ligand activation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the initiation of primary immune responses. The pattern of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression on various subsets of these cells has been shown to differ, suggestive of distinct roles in influencing immune responses. We have examined here the responses of immature DCs derived from murine bone marrow (BMDCs) to a range of TLR ligands. BMDCs cultured for 6 days in the presence of granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor were stimulated for 24 hr with ligands to TLR1-2 [Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 (PAM)], TLR2-6 (macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2); zymosan or peptidoglycan (PG)], TLR3 (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid), TLR4 [lipopolysaccharide R515 (LPS)], TLR5 (flagellin), TLR7 (polyuridylic acid) and TLR9 [CpG ODN2395 (CpG)]. DC activation was monitored using membrane marker expression and analysis of culture supernatants for cytokine/chemokine release. Ligands to TLR3 and TLR7 failed to activate BMDCs. All other TLR ligands caused elevated expression of membrane markers. PAM, MALP-2 and LPS induced high-level expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Treatment with CpG was associated with a preferential type 1 cytokine and chemokine profile. Zymosan and PG were proinflammatory but also skewed towards a type 2 pattern of cytokines and chemokines. In contrast, flagellin did not cause marked secretion by BMDCs of cytokines or chemokines. These data for BMDCs are largely consistent with the reported TLR repertoire of freshly isolated murine Langerhans cells. In addition, murine BMDCs show selective responses to TLR ligands with respect to general activation, with differentiated cytokine patterns suggestive of potential priming for divergent immune responses. PMID:18778283

Dearman, Rebecca J; Cumberbatch, Marie; Maxwell, Gavin; Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

2009-01-01

240

Potentiated cytotoxic effects of statins and ajoene in murine melanoma cells.  

PubMed

Because statins and ajoene inhibit the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, we evaluated the hypothesis that the cytotoxic effect of these compounds may be potentiated when both are used in combination on tumor cells. We showed that cotreatment of the murine melanoma B16F10 cell with statins (atorvastatin and pravastatin) and ajoene, all at nontoxic doses, dramatically increased their cytotoxicity. B16F10 cell death induced by statins, but not by ajoene, was prevented by mevalonate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. To our knowledge, this is the first report that the combination of statins and ajoene, which alters the mevalonate pathway, might potentiate their cytotoxic effects on tumor cells. PMID:19276863

Ledezma, Eliades; Wittig, Olga; Alonso, Jose; Cardier, Jose E

2009-04-01

241

Accessing the Genomic Effects of Naked Nanoceria in Murine Neuronal Cells  

PubMed Central

Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are versatile engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) due to their unique redox properties. We and others have previously demonstrated naked nanoceria could act as antioxidants to protect cells against oxidative damage. While the redox properties may be beneficial, the genome-wide effects of nanoceria on gene transcription and associated biological processes remain elusive. Here we applied functional genomic approach to examine the genome-wide effects of nanoceria on global gene transcription and cellular functions in mouse neuronal cells. Importantly, we demonstrated nanoceria induced chemical- and size-specific changes in the murine neuronal cell transcriptome. The nanoceria specially contributed more than 83% of uniquely altered gene population and associate with a unique spectrum of genes related to neurological disease, cell cycle control and growth. These observations suggest an in-depth assessment of potential health effects of naked nanoceria and other naked nanoparticles is both necessary and imminent. PMID:21889474

Lee, Tin-Lap; Raitano, Joan M.; Rennert, Owen M; Chan, Siu-Wai; Chan, Wai-Yee

2011-01-01

242

An autologous leukemia cell vaccine prevents murine acute leukemia relapse after cytarabine treatment.  

PubMed

Acute leukemias with adverse prognostic features carry a high relapse rate without allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Allo-SCT has a high morbidity and is precluded for many patients because of advanced age or comorbidities. Postremission therapies with reduced toxicities are urgently needed. The murine acute leukemia model C1498 was used to study the efficacy of an intravenously administered vaccine consisting of irradiated leukemia cells loaded with the natural killer T (NKT)-cell agonist ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer). Prophylactically, the vaccine was highly effective at preventing leukemia development through the downstream activities of activated NKT cells, which were dependent on splenic langerin(+)CD8?(+) dendritic cells and which led to stimulation of antileukemia CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. However, hosts with established leukemia received no protective benefit from the vaccine, despite inducing NKT-cell activation. Established leukemia was associated with increases in regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and the leukemic cells themselves were highly suppressive in vitro. Although this suppressive environment impaired both effector arms of the immune response, CD4(+) T-cell responses were more severely affected. When cytarabine chemotherapy was administered prior to vaccination, all animals in remission posttherapy were protected against rechallenge with viable leukemia cells. PMID:25237205

Gibbins, John D; Ancelet, Lindsay R; Weinkove, Robert; Compton, Benjamin J; Painter, Gavin F; Petersen, Troels R; Hermans, Ian F

2014-11-01

243

Tracing the fate of limbal epithelial progenitor cells in the murine cornea.  

PubMed

Stem cell (SC) division, deployment, and differentiation are processes that contribute to corneal epithelial renewal. Until now studying the destiny of these cells in a living mammal has not been possible. However, the advent of inducible multicolor genetic tagging and powerful imaging technologies has rendered this achievable in the translucent and readily accessible murine cornea. K14CreER(T2)-Confetti mice that harbor two copies of the Brainbow 2.1 cassette, yielding up to 10 colors from the stochastic recombination of fluorescent proteins, were used to monitor K-14(+) progenitor cell dynamics within the corneal epithelium in live animals. Multicolored columns of cells emerged from the basal limbal epithelium as they expanded and migrated linearly at a rate of 10.8 µm/day toward the central cornea. Moreover, the permanent expression of fluorophores, passed on from progenitor to progeny, assisted in discriminating individual clones as spectrally distinct streaks containing more than 1,000 cells within the illuminated area. The centripetal clonal expansion is suggestive that a single progenitor cell is responsible for maintaining a narrow corridor of corneal epithelial cells. Our data are in agreement with the limbus as the repository for SC as opposed to SC being distributed throughout the central cornea. This is the first report describing stem/progenitor cell fate determination in the murine cornea using multicolor genetic tracing. This model represents a powerful new resource to monitor SC kinetics and fate choice under homeostatic conditions, and may assist in assessing clonal evolution during corneal development, aging, wound-healing, disease, and following transplantation. PMID:24966117

Di Girolamo, N; Bobba, S; Raviraj, V; Delic, N C; Slapetova, I; Nicovich, P R; Halliday, G M; Wakefield, D; Whan, R; Lyons, J G

2015-01-01

244

CD11c identifies a subset of murine liver natural killer cells that responds to adenoviral hepatitis  

PubMed Central

The liver contains a unique repertoire of immune cells and a particular abundance of NK cells. We have found that CD11c defines a distinct subset of NK cells (NK1.1+CD3?) in the murine liver whose function was currently unknown. In naïve animals, CD11c+ liver NK cells displayed an activated phenotype and possessed enhanced effector functions when compared with CD11c? liver NK cells. During the innate response to adenovirus infection, CD11c+ NK cells were the more common IFN-?-producing NK cells in the liver, demonstrated enhanced lytic capability, and gained a modest degree of APC function. The mechanism of IFN-? production in vivo depended on TLR9 ligation as well as IL-12 and -18. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CD11c+ NK cells are a unique subset of NK cells in the murine liver that contribute to the defense against adenoviral hepatitis. PMID:18664530

Burt, Bryan M.; Plitas, George; Stableford, Jennifer A.; Nguyen, Hoang M.; Bamboat, Zubin M.; Pillarisetty, Venu G.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.

2008-01-01

245

Radiation-Induced Effects on Murine Kidney Tumor Cells: Role in the Interaction of Local Irradiation and Immunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local tumor irradiation enhances the effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy in the Renca murine renal adenocarcinoma model. To investigate the mechanism(s) of this interaction, we studied the in vitro and in vivo effects of irradiation on the tumor cells. Tumor cells from in situ irradiated renal tumors had diminished proliferation in vitro. A similar growth inhibition was noted following injection

Elia Younes; Gabriel P. Haas; Balazs Dezso; Esa Ali; Richard L. Maughan; Emily Montecillo; J. Edson Pontes; Gilda G. Hillman

1995-01-01

246

Aneuploidy, oncogene amplification and epithelial to mesenchymal transition define spontaneous transformation of murine epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Human epithelial cancers are defined by a recurrent distribution of specific chromosomal aneuploidies, a trait less typical for murine cancer models induced by an oncogenic stimulus. After prolonged culture, mouse epithelial cells spontaneously immortalize, transform and become tumorigenic. We assessed genome and transcriptome alterations in cultures derived from bladder and kidney utilizing spectral karyotyping, array CGH, FISH and gene expression profiling. The results show widespread aneuploidy, yet a recurrent and tissue-specific distribution of genomic imbalances, just as in human cancers. Losses of chromosome 4 and gains of chromosome 15 are common and occur early during the transformation process. Global gene expression profiling revealed early and significant transcriptional deregulation. Chromosomal aneuploidy resulted in expression changes of resident genes and consequently in a massive deregulation of the cellular transcriptome. Pathway interrogation of expression changes during the sequential steps of transformation revealed enrichment of genes associated with DNA repair, centrosome regulation, stem cell characteristics and aneuploidy. Genes that modulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and genes that define the chromosomal instability phenotype played a dominant role and were changed in a directionality consistent with loss of cell adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation. Comparison with gene expression changes during human bladder and kidney tumorigenesis revealed remarkable overlap with changes observed in the spontaneously transformed murine cultures. Therefore, our novel mouse models faithfully recapitulate the sequence of genomic and transcriptomic events that define human tumorigenesis, hence validating them for both basic and preclinical research. PMID:23619298

Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; McNeil, Nicole E.

2013-01-01

247

Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

2009-12-25

248

Identification and enrichment of colony-forming cells from the adult murine pituitary  

SciTech Connect

Stem and progenitor cells have been identified in many adult tissues including bone marrow, the central nervous system, and skin. While there is direct evidence to indicate the activity of a progenitor cell population in the pituitary gland, this putative subpopulation has not yet been identified. Herein we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel clonogenic cell type in the adult murine pituitary, which we have termed Pituitary Colony-Forming Cells (PCFCs). PCFCs constitute 0.2% of pituitary cells, and generate heterogeneous colonies from single cells. PCFCs exhibit variable proliferative potential, and may exceed 11 population doublings in 14 days. Enrichment of PCFCs to 61.5-fold with 100% recovery can be obtained through the active uptake of the fluorescent dipeptide, {beta}-Ala-Lys-N{epsilon}-AMCA. PCFCs are mostly contained within the large, agranular subpopulation of AMCA{sup +} cells, and constitute 28% of this fraction, corresponding to 140.5-fold enrichment. Interestingly, the AMCA{sup +} population contains rare cells that are GH{sup +} or PRL{sup +}. GH{sup +} cells were also identified in PCFC single cell colonies, suggesting that PCFCs have the potential to differentiate into GH{sup +} cells. Together, these data show that the pituitary contains a rare clonogenic population which may correspond to the somatotrope/lactotrope progenitors suggested by previous experiments.

Lepore, D.A. [Pituitary Research Unit, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Roeszler, K. [Pituitary Research Unit, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Wagner, J. [Pituitary Research Unit, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Ross, S.A. [Pituitary Research Unit, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Bauer, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Experimentelle Endokrinologie, Hannover (Germany); Thomas, P.Q. [Pituitary Research Unit, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia)], E-Mail: paul.thomas@mcri.edu.au

2005-08-01

249

Lymphoma Cell Apoptosis in the Liver Induced by Distant Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) poses a threat to the therapy of hematopoietic malignancies by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but efficient reconstitution of antiviral immunity prevents CMV organ disease. Tumor relapse originating from a minimal residual leukemia poses another threat. Although a combination of risk factors was supposed to enhance the incidence and severity of transplantation-associated disease, a murine model of a liver-adapted B-cell lymphoma has previously shown a survival benefit and tumor growth inhibition by nonlethal subcutaneous infection with murine CMV. Here we have investigated the underlying antitumoral mechanism. Virus replication proved to be required, since inactivated virions or the highly attenuated enhancerless mutant mCMV-?MIEenh did not impact the lymphoma in the liver. Surprisingly, the dissemination-deficient mutant mCMV-?M36 inhibited tumor growth, even though this virus fails to infect the liver. On the other hand, various strains of herpes simplex viruses consistently failed to control the lymphoma, even though they infect the liver. A quantitative analysis of the tumor growth kinetics identified a transient tumor remission by apoptosis as the antitumoral effector mechanism. Tumor cell colonies with cells surviving the CMV-induced “apoptotic crisis” lead to tumor relapse even in the presence of full-blown tissue infection. Serial transfer of surviving tumor cells did not indicate a selection of apoptosis-resistant genetic variants. NK cell activity of CD49b-expressing cells failed to control the lymphoma upon adoptive transfer. We propose the existence of an innate antitumoral mechanism that is triggered by CMV infection and involves an apoptotic signal effective at a distant site of tumor growth. PMID:16641273

Erlach, Katja C.; Böhm, Verena; Seckert, Christof K.; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Podlech, Jürgen

2006-01-01

250

3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase expression is regulated by HOXA10 in murine endometrium and human endometrial cells  

PubMed Central

3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH, 3-PGDH) is an enzyme necessary for de novo L-serine biosynthesis. HOXA10 expression is required for endometrial receptivity; however, few target genes of HOXA10 regulation are known. Using a microarray we identified Phgdh as a target of HOXA10 regulation in murine endometrium and confirmed this regulatory relationship in human endometrial cells. PHGDH was downregulated 2.0-fold by HOXA10 and upregulated 4.4-fold by HOXA10 antisense in vivo. In human endometrial cells, real-time PCR results show that pcDNA3.1/HOXA10 transfection decreased PHGDH mRNA expression to 40% of pretreatment level (P<0.05), while PHGDH mRNA expression was increased 2.1-fold (P<0.05) by HOXA10 siRNA. Western blot results confirmed the regulatory relationship in both primary human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells, as well as in human endometrial stromal cells and Ishikawa cells. In human cycling endometrial tissue, immunohistochemical results showed that PHGDH expression is relatively high in the proliferative phase in glandular cells and lower in the secretory phase. Here we report novel expression and regulation of PHGDH in murine and human endometrium. PHGDH is expressed in both endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. HOXA10 represses endometrial PHGDH expression. PHGDH is necessary for serine biosynthesis, which serves as a substrate for protein synthesis. One mechanism by which HOXA10 regulates cellular differentiation may involve limiting protein synthesis in the secretary phase. PMID:19778996

Du, Hongling; Vitiello, Danielle; Sarno, Jennifer L; Taylor, Hugh S

2011-01-01

251

RhoA-dependent murine prostate cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis: role of protein kinase Czeta.  

PubMed

We previously showed that RhoA played an important role in the proliferation of murine We prostate cancer (TRAMP) cells (P. M. Ghosh et al., Oncogene, 18: 4120-4130, 1999). Untransfected TRAMP cells as well as those expressing constitutively active RhoA (Q63L) mutant protein (Q63L cells) were highly proliferative. In contrast, TRAMP cells expressing dominant-negative RhoA (T19N) mutant protein (T19N cells) were slow growing. In this study, we showed, in addition, that T19N cells displayed reduced rates of apoptotic cell death in response to serum deprivation, compared with TRAMP and Q63L cells, and we studied the mechanisms of the effects of RhoA on TRAMP cell proliferation and apoptosis. Both proliferation and apoptosis of TRAMP and Q63L cells were dependent on the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). The ubiquitous mitogen-activated Ser/Thr kinase, p70S6 kinase, a downstream effector of PI3K, was overexpressed in TRAMP and Q63L cells. Another PI3K effector, the cell survival protein Akt, displayed increased activity in T19N cells, which did not express active RhoA, compared with TRAMP and Q63L cells. The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCzeta, which is downstream of PI3K, was activated in cells expressing active RhoA. In addition, expression of constitutively activated PKCzeta in TRAMP cells enhanced proliferation and p70S6 kinase phosphorylation, whereas the inhibition of PKCzeta activation resulted in activation of Akt and enhanced cell survival. Thus, the effects of RhoA on TRAMP cell proliferation and apoptosis may be mediated by PKCzeta. PMID:11980660

Ghosh, Paramita M; Bedolla, Roble; Mikhailova, Margharita; Kreisberg, Jeffrey I

2002-05-01

252

Cyclic-radiation response of murine fibrosarcoma cells grown as pulmonary nodules  

SciTech Connect

The radiation age response of murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells grown as pulmonary nodules in C/sub 3/Hf/Kam mice was determined. FSa cells were irradiated in vivo either with 10 Gy as 14 day-old lung tumors (i.e., artificial macrometastases) prior to cell separation or with 5 Gy as single cells trapped in the lungs of recipient mice (i.e., artificial micrometastases) following cell separation and synchronization by centrifugal elutriation. Flow microfluorometry (FMF) was used to determine cell-cycle parameters and the relative synchrony of the separated populations, as well as the percent contamination of normal diploid cells in each of the tumor cell populations. Tumor populations containing up to 90% G/sub 1/, 60% S-, and 75% G/sub 2/+M-phase tumor cells were obtained. Cell clonogenicity, determined using a lung colony assay, ranged from 0.7 to 6% for control FSa cells from the various elutriator fractions. The radiation sensitivity of these separated cell populations varied by a factor of 6, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated as artificial micro or macro-metastases. In each experiment, tumor populations most enriched in s-phase cells exhibited the greatest radiation sensitivity. To confirm that these populations were highly enriched in S-phase cells and to demonstrate that they were more radiosensitive than FSa cells in other parts of the cell cycle, the elutriated tumor populations were exposed to either suicide labeling by high specific activity tritiated thymidine or hydroxyurea. The resultant age response curves were qualitatively similar to those obtained following irradiation and reflected the S-phase sensitivity of FSa cells to these agents.

Grdina, D.J.; Hunter, N.

1982-10-01

253

Effects of altering surface glycoprotein composition on metastatic colonisation potential of murine mammary tumour cells.  

PubMed Central

This study has examined cells from naturally-occurring murine mammary tumours to ascertain whether cell surface glycoproteins play a significant role in colonisation of the lungs after intravenous inoculation. It was found that gel electrophoretic analysis of membrane extracts and lectin adsorption studies did not reveal any consistent differences in glycoprotein composition of cells from tumours which can heavily colonise the lungs relative to ones from tumours which cannot do so or to cells from pulmonary metastases. Also, alteration of structural and functional properties of surface glycoproteins by treatment with succinylated lectins or with drugs such as tunicamycin and swainsonine, which inhibit glycosylation of membrane proteins, had no specific effects on metastatic colonisation of the lungs. Tunicamycin apparently decreased capability to form experimental metastases but also diminished tumourigenicity on subcutaneous inoculation, although it did not affect tumour cell viability in vitro. This information supports earlier studies from this laboratory involving enzymic digestion of the surface of living tumour cells before inoculation and demonstrates that the pulmonary colonisation capability of these mammary tumour cells can withstand global disorganisation of membrane glycoprotein structure and composition. This implies that either the surface glycoproteins are not important in the colonisation process, or that these tumour cells have great capability for rapid repair of their surfaces. It is concluded that a clear answer to whether surface glycoprotein composition has a decisive role in pulmonary colonisation by these mammary tumour cells requires introduction of stable heritable traits into tumour cell populations by genetic manipulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:3101727

Sargent, N. S.; Price, J. E.; Darling, D. L.; Flynn, M. P.; Tarin, D.

1987-01-01

254

T helper cells in murine germinal centers are antigen-specific emigrants that downregulate Thy-1  

PubMed Central

After immunization, activated splenic T cells proliferate in periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS) and subsequently migrate to the lymphoid follicle where they enter nascent germinal centers. Analysis of TCR V(D)J gene rearrangements indicates extensive emigration, frequently involving more than a single white pulp region. These migrants constitute a unique set of T helper cells that express antigen- specific alpha beta TCR, CD3, and CD4, but little or no Thy-1, a differentiation antigen present on the great majority of peripheral murine T lymphocytes. The origin of CD4+ Thy-1 follicular T cells appears to be the Thy+ population in the PALS, as both sets commonly share identical V(D)J rearrangements. PMID:9064325

1996-01-01

255

Effects of ethanol on cAMP production in murine embryonic palate mesenchymal cells  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol affected the ability of murine embryonic palate mesenchymal (MEPM) cells to produce cAMP in response to hormone treatment. Acute exposure to ethanol resulted in an increase in hormone-stimulated cAMP levels, while chronic ethanol treatment led to decreased sensitivity to hormone. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels were decreased by both acute and chronic ethanol treatment, while the cells' response to cholera toxin was unchanged by ethanol treatment. The lack of sensitivity of the cholera toxin response to ethanol suggests that,in contrast to what has been observed in other systems, ethanol does not affect the production or activity of G{alpha}s in MEPM cells. These results suggest a possible explanation for the molecular basis for the craniofacial abnormalities observed in the fetal alcohol syndrome.

Weston, W.M.; Greene, R.M. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1991-01-01

256

Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8  

PubMed Central

Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

2014-01-01

257

Allogeneic pluripotent stem cells suppress airway inflammation in murine model of acute asthma.  

PubMed

New strategies are needed to suppress airway inflammation and prevent or reverse airway remodeling in asthma. Reprogramming induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and provide a resource for stem cell-based utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological and immunomodulatory effects of ESCs and iPSCs for potential allogenic application in a murine model of acute asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized with alum-absorbed ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with 1% aerosolized OVA. 5×10(5) ESCs and iPSCs were administrated intranasally on the last day of nebulization. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, and serum allergen specific antibody level, airway remodeling, cytokine levels in lung supernatants, and eosinophilic infiltration in BAL fluid were examined. As a result, more ESCs and iPSCs integrated into the lungs of mice in OVA groups than those of the controls. Epithelial, smooth muscle and basal membrane thicknesses as well as goblet cell hyperplasia occurring in airway remodeling were significantly suppressed by pluripotent stem cells in both distal and proximal airways. Percentage of eosinophils decreased significantly in BAL fluid as well as serum allergen-specific IgE and IL-4 levels in lung supernatants. On the contrary, regulatory cytokine - IL-10 level - was enhanced. Application of especially ESCs significantly increased the percentage of Treg subsets. Our comparative results showed that i.n. delivery of miRNA-based reprogrammed iPSCs is beneficial in attenuating airway inflammation in a murine model of acute asthma, and that cells also have similar immunomodulatory effects in mice. PMID:24957687

Ogulur, Ismail; Gurhan, Gulben; Kombak, Faruk Erdem; Filinte, Deniz; Barlan, Isil; Akkoc, Tunc

2014-09-01

258

RhoA-dependent Murine Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis: Role of Protein Kinase C1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that RhoA played an important role in the proliferation of murine Weprostate cancer (TRAMP) cells (P. M. Ghosh et al., Oncogene, 18: 4120 - 4130, 1999). Untransfected TRAMP cells as well as those expressing constitutively active RhoA (Q63L) mutant protein (Q63L cells) were highly proliferative. In contrast, TRAMP cells express- ing dominant-negative RhoA (T19N) mutant protein (T19N

Paramita M. Ghosh; Roble Bedolla; Margharita Mikhailova; Jeffrey I. Kreisberg

259

A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC50 value of 60.04 ?g/mL and 5.40 ?g/mL, respectively.

Dianhar, Hanhan; Syah, Yana Maolana; Mujahidin, Didin; Hakim, Euis Holisotan; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

2014-03-01

260

Cyclic-radiation response of murine fibrosarcoma cells grown as pulmonary nodules  

SciTech Connect

The radiation age response of murine fibrosarcoma (FSa) cells grown as pulmonary nudules in C/sub 3/Hf/Kam mice was determined. FSa cells were irradiated in vivo either with 10 Gy as 14 day-old lung tumors (i.e., artifical micrometastases) following cell separation and synchronization by centrifugal elutriation. Flow microfluorometry (FMF) was used to determine cell-cycle parameters and the relative synchrony of the separated populations, as well as the percent contamination of normal diploid cells in each of the tumor cells populations. Tumor populations containing up to 90% G/sub 1/-, 60% S-, and 75% G/sub 2/+M-phase tumor cells were obtained. Cell clonogenicity, determined using a lung colony assay, ranged from 0.7 to 6% for control FSa cells from the various elutriator fractions. The radiation sensitivity of these separated cell populations varied by a factor of 6, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated as artifical micro or macro-metastases. In each experiment, tumor population most enriched in S-phase cells exhibited the greatest radiation sensitivity. To confirm that these populations were highly enriched in S-phase cells and to demonstrate that they were more radiosensitive than FSa cells in other parts of the cell cycle, the elutriated tumor population were exposed to either suicide labeling by high specific activity tritated thymidine or hydroxyurea. The resultant age response curves were qualitatively similar to those obtained following irradiation and reflected the S-phase sensitivity of FSa cells to these agents.

Grdina, D.J.; Hunter, N.

1982-10-01

261

Murine xenogeneic models of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): An essential role for stroma cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Review murine xenotransplantation models for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Materials and Methods Literature review, experimental strategies Results The difficulties in achieving sustained engraftment of MDS cells in immunodeficient mice may lie in innate characteristics of the MDS clone(s) and microenvironmental factors. Engraftment of very low numbers of CD45+ clonal MDS cells has been achieved with intravenous (IV) injection; higher rates of engraftment are obtained via the intramedullary route. Co-injection of certain stroma components with hematopoietic cells overcomes limitations of IV administration, allowing for engraftment of high proportions of human CD45+ cells in mouse spleen and marrow. Expression of CD146 on stroma cells conveys an engraftment-facilitating effect. Clonal MDS cells have been propagated for periods beyond 6 months and have been transplanted successfully into secondary recipients. Conclusions Engraftment of human clonal MDS cells with stem cell characteristics in immunodeficient mice is greatly facilitated by co-injection of stroma/mesenchymal cells, particularly with IV administration; CD146 expression on stroma is an essential factor. However, no model develops the laboratory and clinical features of human MDS. Additional work is needed to determine cellular and non-cellular factors required for the full evolution of MDS. PMID:24125777

Li, Xiang; Deeg, H. Joachim

2014-01-01

262

Methyltransferase G9A regulates T cell differentiation during murine intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is associated with dysregulated CD4? Th cell responses, with intestinal homeostasis depending on the balance between IL-17-producing Th17 and Foxp3? Tregs. Differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 and Treg subsets is associated with specific gene expression profiles; however, the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to controlling Th17 and Treg differentiation remains unclear. Using a murine T cell transfer model of colitis, we found that T cell-intrinsic expression of the histone lysine methyltransferase G9A was required for development of pathogenic T cells and intestinal inflammation. G9A-mediated dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) restricted Th17 and Treg differentiation in vitro and in vivo. H3K9me2 was found at high levels in naive Th cells and was lost following Th cell activation. Loss of G9A in naive T cells was associated with increased chromatin accessibility and heightened sensitivity to TGF-?1. Pharmacological inhibition of G9A methyltransferase activity in WT T cells promoted Th17 and Treg differentiation. Our data indicate that G9A-dependent H3K9me2 is a homeostatic epigenetic checkpoint that regulates Th17 and Treg responses by limiting chromatin accessibility and TGF-?1 responsiveness, suggesting G9A as a therapeutic target for treating intestinal inflammation. PMID:24667637

Antignano, Frann; Burrows, Kyle; Hughes, Michael R; Han, Jonathan M; Kron, Ken J; Penrod, Nadia M; Oudhoff, Menno J; Wang, Steven Kai Hao; Min, Paul H; Gold, Matthew J; Chenery, Alistair L; Braam, Mitchell J S; Fung, Thomas C; Rossi, Fabio M V; McNagny, Kelly M; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Lupien, Mathieu; Levings, Megan K; Zaph, Colby

2014-05-01

263

Methyltransferase G9A regulates T cell differentiation during murine intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is associated with dysregulated CD4+ Th cell responses, with intestinal homeostasis depending on the balance between IL-17–producing Th17 and Foxp3+ Tregs. Differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 and Treg subsets is associated with specific gene expression profiles; however, the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to controlling Th17 and Treg differentiation remains unclear. Using a murine T cell transfer model of colitis, we found that T cell–intrinsic expression of the histone lysine methyltransferase G9A was required for development of pathogenic T cells and intestinal inflammation. G9A-mediated dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) restricted Th17 and Treg differentiation in vitro and in vivo. H3K9me2 was found at high levels in naive Th cells and was lost following Th cell activation. Loss of G9A in naive T cells was associated with increased chromatin accessibility and heightened sensitivity to TGF-?1. Pharmacological inhibition of G9A methyltransferase activity in WT T cells promoted Th17 and Treg differentiation. Our data indicate that G9A-dependent H3K9me2 is a homeostatic epigenetic checkpoint that regulates Th17 and Treg responses by limiting chromatin accessibility and TGF-?1 responsiveness, suggesting G9A as a therapeutic target for treating intestinal inflammation. PMID:24667637

Antignano, Frann; Burrows, Kyle; Hughes, Michael R.; Han, Jonathan M.; Kron, Ken J.; Penrod, Nadia M.; Oudhoff, Menno J.; Wang, Steven Kai Hao; Min, Paul H.; Gold, Matthew J.; Chenery, Alistair L.; Braam, Mitchell J.S.; Fung, Thomas C.; Rossi, Fabio M.V.; McNagny, Kelly M.; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Lupien, Mathieu; Levings, Megan K.; Zaph, Colby

2014-01-01

264

Flow Cytometric Isolation of Primary Murine Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells for Functional and Molecular Studies  

PubMed Central

Throughout the last years, the contribution of alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) to various aspects of immune regulation in the lung has been increasingly recognized. AECII have been shown to participate in cytokine production in inflamed airways and to even act as antigen-presenting cells in both infection and T-cell mediated autoimmunity 1-8. Therefore, they are especially interesting also in clinical contexts such as airway hyper-reactivity to foreign and self-antigens as well as infections that directly or indirectly target AECII. However, our understanding of the detailed immunologic functions served by alveolar type II epithelial cells in the healthy lung as well as in inflammation remains fragmentary. Many studies regarding AECII function are performed using mouse or human alveolar epithelial cell lines 9-12. Working with cell lines certainly offers a range of benefits, such as the availability of large numbers of cells for extensive analyses. However, we believe the use of primary murine AECII allows a better understanding of the role of this cell type in complex processes like infection or autoimmune inflammation. Primary murine AECII can be isolated directly from animals suffering from such respiratory conditions, meaning they have been subject to all additional extrinsic factors playing a role in the analyzed setting. As an example, viable AECII can be isolated from mice intranasally infected with influenza A virus, which primarily targets these cells for replication 13. Importantly, through ex vivo infection of AECII isolated from healthy mice, studies of the cellular responses mounted upon infection can be further extended. Our protocol for the isolation of primary murine AECII is based on enzymatic digestion of the mouse lung followed by labeling of the resulting cell suspension with antibodies specific for CD11c, CD11b, F4/80, CD19, CD45 and CD16/CD32. Granular AECII are then identified as the unlabeled and sideward scatter high (SSChigh) cell population and are separated by fluorescence activated cell sorting 3. In comparison to alternative methods of isolating primary epithelial cells from mouse lungs, our protocol for flow cytometric isolation of AECII by negative selection yields untouched, highly viable and pure AECII in relatively short time. Additionally, and in contrast to conventional methods of isolation by panning and depletion of lymphocytes via binding of antibody-coupled magnetic beads 14, 15, flow cytometric cell-sorting allows discrimination by means of cell size and granularity. Given that instrumentation for flow cytometric cell sorting is available, the described procedure can be applied at relatively low costs. Next to standard antibodies and enzymes for lung disintegration, no additional reagents such as magnetic beads are required. The isolated cells are suitable for a wide range of functional and molecular studies, which include in vitro culture and T-cell stimulation assays as well as transcriptome, proteome or secretome analyses 3, 4. PMID:23287741

Gereke, Marcus; Autengruber, Andrea; Gröbe, Lothar; Jeron, Andreas; Bruder, Dunja; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine

2012-01-01

265

In murine AIDS, B cells are early targets of defective virus and are required for efficient infection and expression of defective virus in T cells and macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies showed that B cells and CD4+ T cells are required for induction of a murine retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome, murine AIDS. Using B6 mice deficient in mature B cells as a result of a knockout of the transmembrane exon of the immunoglobulin M gene, we found that spleen and other tissues from murine AIDS virus-infected mice did not express the defective virus (BM5def) required for induction of disease, even though helper viruses were readily detectable and BM5def proviral DNA was present. This indicates that the B-lineage cells are the primary targets for infection and expression of the defective virus and that in the absence of mature B cells, there is inefficient infection of T cells and macrophages. Images PMID:8084011

Kim, W K; Tang, Y; Kenny, J J; Longo, D L; Morse, H C

1994-01-01

266

Anti-inflammatory effects of natural product formulations on murine dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

The popularity and availability of herbal extracts has increased dramatically over the last decade, providing an inexpensive manner of self-medication. Although the efficacy of individual extracts is currently being intensively studied, research regarding complex mixtures is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of three complex formulations including BRC-301, a polyherbal extract; BRC-304, a mixture of vitamins, minerals, antioxidant enzymes, botanical extracts and carotenoids; and BRC-306, a proprietary blend of Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw) and Phytolens® on murine dendritic cells (DCs). We hypothesized that these formulations would decrease the inflammatory responsiveness and innate function of DCs. To address this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of BRC-301, 304, and 306 on DC2.4 cells and further assessed the effects of BRC-301 on bone marrow-derived DCs (bmDCs). LPS stimulation of DC2.4 cells and bmDCs induced production of NO, TNF-?, and IL-6, a response that was modulated by concomitant treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of BRC-301. In contrast, only the production of NO or IL-6 by LPS-activated DC2.4 cells was affected by BRC-304 or BRC-306, respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation following concurrent BRC-301 and LPS treatment revealed an increased relative expression of CD11c, CD86, and CD54 on bmDCs and an increased frequency of bmDCs expressing MHC II. Finally, BRC-301 enhanced the uptake of FITC-conjugated ovalbumin by bmDCs. Taken together, these results suggest that these commercially available formulations modulate the innate responsiveness of murine DCs and may enhance their ability to initiate T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21399725

Miller, Andrea K.; Benson, Jenna M.; Muanza, Dave N.; Smith, Jerry R.; Shepherd, David M.

2011-01-01

267

Dynamic Expression of BCL6 in Murine Conventional Dendritic Cells during In Vivo Development and Activation  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional repressor BCL6 plays an essential role in the development of germinal center B cells and follicular helper T cells. However, much less is known about the expression and function of BCL6 in other cell types. Here we report that during murine dendritic cell (DC) ontogeny in vivo, BCL6 is not expressed in bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, common DC precursors and committed precursors of conventional DCs (pre-cDCs), but is elevated in peripheral pre-cDCs. BCL6 protein levels rise as pre-cDCs differentiate into cDCs in secondary lymphoid organs. Elevated protein levels of Bcl6 are observed in all cDC subsets, with CD8?+ cDCs displaying the greatest levels. Co-staining of Ki-67 revealed BCL6hi cDCs to be more proliferative than BCL6lo cDCs. After adjuvant inoculation, BCL6 levels are significantly reduced in the CD11cint MHC class IIhi CD86hi cDCs. Activation-induced BCL6 reduction correlated with reduced proliferation. A LPS injection study further confirmed that, in response to microbial stimuli, BCL6 levels are dynamically regulated during the maturation of CD11cint MHC class IIhi splenic cDCs. This reduction of BCL6 levels in cDCs does not occur after LPS injection in MyD88?/? TRIF?/? mice. Thus, regulation of Bcl6 protein levels is dynamic in murine cDCs during development, maturation and activation in vivo. PMID:24979752

Zhang, Ting-ting; Liu, Dong; Calabro, Samuele; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C.; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Haberman, Ann M.

2014-01-01

268

Anti-inflammatory effects of natural product formulations on murine dendritic cells.  

PubMed

The popularity and availability of herbal extracts has increased dramatically over the last decade, providing an inexpensive manner of self-medication. Although the efficacy of individual extracts is currently being studied intensively, research regarding complex mixtures is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of three complex formulations, including BRC-301, a polyherbal extract; BRC-304, a mixture of vitamins, minerals, antioxidant enzymes, botanical extracts, and carotenoids; and BRC-306, a proprietary blend of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) and Phytolens(®) on murine dendritic cells (DCs). We hypothesized that these formulations would decrease the inflammatory responsiveness and innate function of DCs. In order to address this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of BRC-301, BRC-304, and BRC-306 on DC2.4 cells and assessed the effects of BRC-301 on bone marrow-derived DCs (bmDCs). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of DC2.4 cells and bmDCs induced production of nitric oxide (NO), TNF-?, and IL-6, a response that was modulated by concomitant treatment with non-cytotoxic concentrations of BRC-301. In contrast, only the production of NOor IL-6 by LPS-activated DC2.4 cells was affected by BRC-304 or BRC-306, respectively. Flow cytometric evaluation following concurrent BRC-301 and LPS treatment revealed an increased relative expression of CD11c, CD86, and CD54 on bmDCs and an increased frequency of bmDCs expressing MHC II. Finally, BRC-301 enhanced the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated ovalbumin by bmDCs. Taken together, these results suggest that these commercially available formulations modulate the innate responsiveness of murine DCs and may enhance their ability to initiate T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21399725

Miller, Andrea K; Benson, Jenna M; Muanza, Dave N; Smith, Jerry R; Shepherd, David M

2011-03-01

269

Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, ? particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by ?H2AX-immunostaining. Osteoblastogenesis was estimated by measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and production of mineralized matrix (von-Kossa staining, Alizarin Red staining). During the process of osteoblastic cell differentiation, the expression of the bone specific marker genes osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) were recorded by quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with standard culture conditions, the osteogenic marker genes OCN and OPN were highly expressed during the differentiation process induced either by osteo-inductive media additives (50 µg/ml ascorbic acid, 10 mmol/l ?-glycero phosphate) or by sparsely ionizing radiation (X-rays). After 21 days of postirradiation incubation sparsely ionizing radiation could be shown to induce the formation of bone-like nodules (von-Kossa staining) for OCT-1 and MC3T3-E1 S4 cells but nor for MC3T3- E1 S24 cells. Ionizing radiation leads to a cell cycle arrest which is resolved in a dose and time dependent way. This was accompanied by a dose dependent regulation of the cyclin kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21/WAF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1). TGF-?1 is known to affect osteoblast differentiation, matrix formation and mineralization. Modulation of its expression could influence the expression of main osteogenic transcription factors. For exposure with high LET radiation a pronounced cell cycle block was evident. The expression of the osteogenic marker genes OCN and Osterix (OSX) was increased in the OCT-1 cells with differentiation potential for exposure to ? particles and accelerated carbon and argon ions. The results on the expression of differentiation markers during radiation-induced premature differentiation of bone cells of the osteoblast lineage show that densely ionizing radiation results in expression of proteins essential for bone formation and consequently in an increase in bone volume. Such an effect has been observed in in-vivo carbon ion irradiated rats. As radiation dependent permanent cell cycle blocks lead to a depletion of proliferation-competent cel

Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

270

Recombinant IL-7/HGF? efficiently induces transplantable murine hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Difficulty obtaining sufficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) directly from the donor has limited the clinical use of HSC transplantation. Numerous attempts to stimulate the ex vivo growth of purified HSCs with cytokines and growth factors generally have induced only modest increases in HSC numbers while decreasing their in vivo reconstituting ability. We previously developed a recombinant single-chain form of a naturally occurring murine hybrid cytokine of IL-7 and the ? chain of hepatocyte growth factor (rIL-7/HGF?) that stimulates the in vitro proliferation and/or differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors, pre-pro-B cells, and hematopoietic progenitor cells (day 12 spleen colony-forming units) in cultures of mouse BM. Here we used the rIL-7/HGF? in culture to induce large numbers of HSCs from multiple cell sources, including unseparated BM cells, purified HSCs, CD45– BM cells, and embryonic stem cells. In each instance, most of the HSCs were in the G0 phase of the cell cycle and exhibited reduced oxidative stress, decreased apoptosis, and increased CXCR4 expression. Furthermore, when injected i.v., these HSCs migrated to BM, self-replicated, provided radioprotection, and established long-term hematopoietic reconstitution. These properties were amplified by injection of rIL-7/HGF? directly into the BM cavity but not by treatment with rIL-7, rHGF, and/or rHGF?. PMID:22996694

Lai, Laijun; Zhang, Mingfeng; Goldschneider, Irving

2012-01-01

271

Differential Effects of Murine and Human Factor X on Adenovirus Transduction via Cell-surface Heparan Sulfate*  

PubMed Central

Serum coagulation factor X (FX) is proposed to play a major role in adenovirus tropism, promoting transduction by bridging the virus to cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Both murine FX and human FX increased transduction by Ad.CMVfLuc, an adenovirus vector, in murine hepatocyte-like cells and human hepatocarcinoma cells. In contrast, only hFX increased transduction of several non-hepatic cancer cell lines and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Not only was mFX unable to promote transduction in these cells, it competitively blocked hFX-enhanced transduction. Competition and HSPG digestion experiments suggested mFX- and hFX-enhanced transduction in hepatocyte-derived cells, and hFX-enhanced transduction in epithelial cancer cells were dependent on HSPGs. Ad·hFX-mediated transduction of CHO mutants unable to produce HSPGs was also curtailed. Hepatocyte-derived cells expressed substantially more HSPGs than the cancer cell lines. Dose-response curves and heparin-Sepharose binding suggested Ad·hFX has greater affinity for HSPGs than does Ad·mFX. In coagulation factor-depleted mice hFX also had enhanced ability, compared with mFX, to reconstitute hepatic adenovirus transduction. The results suggest that differences in Ad·hFX and Ad·mFX affinity to HSPGs may result in differences in their ability to enhance adenovirus transduction of many cells. These findings may have implications for murine models of adenovirus vector targeting. PMID:21596747

Zaiss, Anne K.; Lawrence, Roger; Elashoff, David; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Herschman, Harvey R.

2011-01-01

272

Flat revertants derived from Kirsten murine sarcoma virus-transformed cells produce transforming growth factors.  

PubMed

Two flat cellular revertant cell lines, F-2 and C-11, which were originally selected from the DT line of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (Ki-MuSV)-transformed NIH/3T3 cells, were examined for the production of transforming growth factors (TGFs). The revertant cells fail to grow in semisolid medium as colonies and exhibit a markedly reduced level of tumorigenicity in nude mice, although they are known to express high levels of p21ras, the product of the Kirsten sarcoma virus oncogene, ras, and they contain a rescuable transforming virus. TGF activity associated with the transformed, revertant, and non-transformed cell lines was measured by the ability of concentrated conditioned medium (CM) from these cells to induce normal rat kidney (NRK) and NIH/3T3 cells to form colonies in semisolid agar suspension cultures and to inhibit the binding of 125I epidermal growth factor (EGF) to specific cell surface receptors. CM from the transformed DT cells and from both the F-2 and C-11 revertants contains TGF activity, in contrast to CM obtained from normal NIH/3T3 cells. Furthermore, unlike NIH/3T3 cells, neither the DT nor the revertant cells were able to bind 125I EGF. All four cell lines were able to proliferate in serum-free medium supplemented with transferrin, insulin, EGF, and Pedersen fetuin. However, in basal medium lacking these growth factors, only DT cells and, to a lesser extent, the revertant cells were able to grow. These results suggest that the F-2 and C-11 revertants fail to exhibit all of the properties associated with transformation because the series of events leading to the transformed phenotype is blocked at a point(s) distal both to the expression of the p21 ras gene product and also to the production of TGFs and that the production of TGFs may be necessary but not sufficient for maintaining the transformed state. PMID:6090475

Salomon, D S; Zwiebel, J A; Noda, M; Bassin, R H

1984-10-01

273

The detailed analysis of the changes of murine dendritic cells (DCs) induced by thymic peptide  

PubMed Central

The aim of present research is to analyze the detailed changes of dendritic cells (DCs) induced by pidotimod(PTD). These impacts on DCs of both bone marrow derived DCs and established DC2.4 cell line were assessed with use of conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry (FCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytochemistry assay FITC-dextran, bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We demonstrated the ability of PTD to induce DC phynotypic and functional maturation as evidenced by higher expression of key surface molecules such as MHC II, CD80 and CD86. The functional tests proved the downregulation of ACP inside the DCs, occurred when phagocytosis of DCs decreased, with simultaneously antigen presentation increased toward maturation. Finally, PTD also stimulated production of more cytokine IL-12 and less TNF-?. Therefore it is concluded that PTD can markedly exert positive induction to murine DCs. PMID:22863756

Hu, Xiaofang; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Lu; Wan, Nan; Wang, Bing; Li, Weiwei; Hua, Hui; Hu, Xu; Shan, Fengping

2012-01-01

274

Tumor promoters inhibit spontaneous and induced differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells in culture.  

PubMed Central

Addition of the potent tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), to murine erythroleukemia cell lines in suspension cultures inhibited both spontaneous differentiation and differentiation induced by hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), dimethyl sulfoxide, or butyric acid. Inhibition was unrelated to cytotoxicity and was reversible. When several plant diterpenes were tested, there was a positive correlation between tumor-promoting activity and inhibition of differentiation. TPA inhibited HMBA-induced differentiation only if added prior to the time of commitment to differentiation, as assayed by scoring for differentiation after transfer of cells from HMBA to fresh medium without HMBA. TPA-mediated inhibition of differentiation was associated with a decrease in globin mRNA accumulation. PMID:269404

Yamasaki, H; Fibach, E; Nudel, U; Weinstein, I B; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

1977-01-01

275

Murine Models of B-Cell Lymphomas: Promising Tools for Designing Cancer Therapies  

PubMed Central

Human B-cell lymphomas, the fourth most common hematologic malignancy, are currently the subject of extensive research. The limited accessibility of biopsies, the heterogeneity among patients, and the subtypes of lymphomas have necessitated the development of animal models to decipher immune escape mechanisms and design new therapies. Here, we summarize the cell lines and murine models used to study lymphomagenesis, the lymphoma microenvironment, and the efficacy of new therapies. These data allow us to understand the role of the immune system in the fight against tumors. Exploring the advantages and limitations of immunocompetent versus immunodeficient models improves our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor genesis and development as well as the fundamental processes governing the interaction of tumors and their host tissues. We posit that these basic preclinical investigations will open up new and promising approaches to designing better therapies. PMID:22400032

Donnou, Sabrina; Galand, Claire; Touitou, Valérie; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fabry, Zsuzsanna; Fisson, Sylvain

2012-01-01

276

Murine Spleen Tissue Regeneration from Neonatal Spleen Capsule Requires Lymphotoxin Priming of Stromal Cells  

PubMed Central

Spleen is a tissue with regenerative capacity, which allows autotransplantation of human spleen fragments to counteract the effects of splenectomy. We now reveal in a murine model that transplant of neonatal spleen capsule alone leads to the regeneration of full spleen tissue. This finding indicates that graft-derived spleen stromal cells, but not lymphocytes, are essential components of tissue neogenesis, a finding verified by transplant and regeneration of Rag1KO spleen capsules. We further demonstrate that lymphotoxin and lymphoid tissue inducer cells participate in two key elements of spleen neogenesis, bulk tissue regeneration and white pulp organization, identifying a lymphotoxin-dependent pathway for neonatal spleen regeneration that contrasts with previously defined lymphotoxin-independent embryonic spleen organogenesis. PMID:24951816

Tan, Jonathan K. H.

2014-01-01

277

Developing cell therapy techniques for respiratory disease: Intratracheal delivery of genetically engineered stem cells in a murine model of airway injury  

E-print Network

of genetically engineered stem cells in a murine model of airway injury Anne-Laure Leblond 1,2 , Patrice Naud 1: Stem cell therapy for respiratory disease. Page 1 of 48 Human-reviewedandacceptedforpublication,buthasyettoundergocopyeditingandproofcorrection.Thefinalpublishedversionmaydifferfromthisproof. #12;- 2 - Abstract Over the past decade, interest has increased in the use of exogenous stem cells

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

CrxOS maintains the self-renewal capacity of murine embryonic stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Embryonic stem (ES) cells maintain pluripotency by self-renewal. Several homeoproteins, including Oct3/4 and Nanog, are known to be key factors in maintaining the self-renewal capacity of ES cells. However, other genes required for the mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Here we report the identification by in silico analysis of a homeobox-containing gene, CrxOS, that is specifically expressed in murine ES cells and is essential for their self-renewal. ES cells mainly express the short isoform of endogenous CrxOS. Using a polyoma-based episomal expression system, we demonstrate that overexpression of the CrxOS short isoform is sufficient for maintaining the undifferentiated morphology of ES cells and stimulating their proliferation. Finally, using RNA interference, we show that CrxOS is essential for the self-renewal of ES cells, and provisionally identify foxD3 as a downstream target gene of CrxOS. To our knowledge, ours is the first delineation of the physiological role of CrxOS in ES cells.

Saito, Ryota; Yamasaki, Tokiwa; Nagai, Yoko; Wu, Jinzhan [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan) [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kajiho, Hiroaki [Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yokoi, Tadashi; Noda, Eiichiro [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan) [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Nishina, Sachiko [Department of Ophthalmology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan)] [Department of Ophthalmology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Niwa, Hitoshi [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan)] [Laboratory for Pluripotent Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Hyogo 650-0047 (Japan); Azuma, Noriyuki [Department of Ophthalmology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan)] [Department of Ophthalmology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Katada, Toshiaki [Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nishina, Hiroshi, E-mail: nishina.dbio@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan)

2009-12-25

279

Apoptosis induced by oxysterols in murine lymphoma cells and in normal thymocytes.  

PubMed Central

Oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol (oxysterols), a family of naturally occurring compounds, possess marked anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive activities, in particular they have been shown to inhibit T-cell responses to different stimuli. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 7 beta,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7.25-OHC) are able to kill not only RDM4 murine lymphoma in vitro, but also, surprisingly, mouse thymocytes after several hours of incubation. In this study, we report that the death of RDM4 and thymocytes induced by oxysterols exhibits the features of apoptosis. This phenomenon was identified by agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA fragments extracted from the cells and quantified by flow cytometric analysis of the DNA fluorescence of propidium iodide-stained cells. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D were found to decrease the number of apoptotic cells and to increase cell viability, indicating a requirement for the synthesis of macromolecules in oxysterol-induced programmed cell death. The pathway by which 25-OHC and 7.25-OHC are able to induce apoptosis in this type of cell and the possible contribution of these compounds to thymus involution during development are discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7682990

Christ, M; Luu, B; Mejia, J E; Moosbrugger, I; Bischoff, P

1993-01-01

280

Isolating and immunostaining lymphocytes and dendritic cells from murine Peyer's patches.  

PubMed

Peyer's patches (PPs) are integral components of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and play a central role in intestinal immunosurveillance and homeostasis. Particulate antigens and microbes in the intestinal lumen are continuously sampled by PP M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and transported to an underlying network of dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and lymphocytes. In this article, we describe protocols in which murine PPs are (i) dissociated into single cell suspensions and subjected to flow cytometry and (ii) prepared for cryosectioning and immunostaining. For flow cytometry, PPs are mechanically dissociated and then filtered through 70 ?m membranes to generate single cell suspensions free of epithelial cells and large debris. Starting with 20-25 PPs (from four mice), this quick and reproducible method yields a population of >2.5 x 10(6) cells with >90% cell viability. For cryosectioning, freshly isolated PPs are immersed in Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) medium, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then sectioned using a cryomicrotome. Tissue sections (5-12 ?m) are air-dried, fixed with acetone or methanol, and then subjected to immunolabeling. PMID:23525039

De Jesus, Magdia; Ahlawat, Sarita; Mantis, Nicholas J

2013-01-01

281

Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

2010-01-01

282

Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

Reynertson, Kurt A; Charlson, Mary E; Gudas, Lorraine J

2011-01-01

283

Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

Reynertson, Kurt A. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Charlson, Mary E. [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States) [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu [Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

2011-01-01

284

A bioengineered murine model using CD24(+)CD44(+) pancreatic cancer stem cells for chemotherapy study.  

PubMed

In this work we first developed a murine pancreatic tumor model using CD24(+)CD44(+) pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSC) supported by an electrospun scaffold. Unlike conventional models, the use of CSC and the scaffold, which were biologically and chemically defined, afforded scientists a reliable platform to evaluate novel chemotherapy regimens. CD24(+)CD44(+) CSC successfully initiated tumorigenesis in vitro on the scaffold without suffering apoptosis, evidencing the lack of cytotoxicity of scaffolding materials. Also, the scaffold contributed to the acceleration of in vivo tumorigenesis and increased the likelihood of tumor formation. Using this model, we set out to explore the effectiveness of irinotecan/gemcitabine (IRIN-GEM), a chemotherapy regimen, for pancreatic cancer. Our study showed that IRIN-GEM induced a tumor regression whereas gemcitabine alone could only arrest the tumor growth. Further study suggested that the superior performance of IRIN-GEM could be attributed to its capacity to demolish the CD24(+)CD44(+) CSC sub-population by inducing a large-scale apoptosis. The use of highly proliferative yet homogenous CD24(+)CD44(+) CSC along with a chemically defined scaffold accelerated the tumor formation and significantly reduced the variability associated with conventional murine models. Armed with this new model, we discovered that IRIN-GEM would be a promising chemotherapy candidate for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:25532534

Qin, Shengqi; Deng, Yiming; Li, Jianshe; Zhang, Zhongtao

2014-01-01

285

Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-IIU) and its subchains induce nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the important effector functions of innate immune cells. Although several reports\\u000a have indicated mistletoe lectins induce immune cells to produce cytokines, studies regarding the activities of the lectins\\u000a in the production of NO have been very limited. Here, we report on the induction of NO synthesis in a murine macrophage cell\\u000a line,

Tae Bong Kang; Yung Choon Yoo; Kwan Hee Lee; Ho Sup Yoon; Erk Her; Seong Kyu Song

2008-01-01

286

Proteoglycan biosynthesis in murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells before and after differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Murine monocytic leukemic (M1) cells were cultured in the presence of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine and ({sup 35}S)sulfate. Labeled proteoglycans were purified by anion exchange chromatography and characterized by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with chemical and enzymatic degradation. M1 cells synthesize a single predominant species of proteoglycan which distributes almost equally between the cell and medium after 17 h labeling. The cell-associated proteoglycan has an overall size of about 135 kDa and contains three to five chondroitin sulfate chains (28-31 kDa each) attached to a chondroitinase-generated core protein of 28 kDa. The synthesis and subsequent secretion of this proteoglycan was enhanced 4-5-fold in cells induced to differentiate into macrophages. This was not a phenomenon of arrest in the G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle, since density inhibited undifferentiated cells arrested at this stage did not increase proteoglycan synthesis. The chondroitin sulfate chains contained exclusively chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate; however, the ratio of these two disaccharides differed between the medium- and cell-associated proteoglycans, and changed during progression of the cells into a fully differentiated phenotype. Pulse-chase kinetics indicate the presence of two distinct pools of proteoglycan; one that is secreted very rapidly from the cell after a approximately 1-h lag, and a second pool that is turned over in the cell with a half-time of approximately 3.5 h. Subtle differences in the glycosylation patterns of the medium- and cell-associated species are consistent with synthesis of two pools. Papain digestion suggests that the chondroitin sulfate chains are clustered on a small protease resistant peptide. The data suggest that this proteoglycan is similar to the serglycin proteoglycan family.

McQuillan, D.J.; Yanagishita, M.; Hascall, V.C.; Bickel, M. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-08-05

287

Thy-1+ dendritic cells in murine epidermis are bone marrow-derived  

SciTech Connect

Thy-1+, Ly-5+ dendritic cells have recently been described as a resident cell population in murine epidermis, but their ontogeny and function are unknown. The origin and turnover of epidermal Thy-1+ cells utilizing chimeric mice were investigated. Lethally x-irradiated AKR/J (Thy-1.1+) and AKR/Cum (Thy-1.2+) mice were reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells with or without thymocytes from congenic AKR/Cum or AKR/J mice, respectively. The density of residual indigenous Thy-1.1+ cells in AKR/J chimeras and Thy-1.2+ cells in AKR/Cum chimeras was substantially reduced following x-irradiation, as determined by immunofluorescence staining of epidermal sheets. Epidermal repopulation by allogeneic Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells was first observed at 5 weeks in AKR/J chimeras and at 7 weeks in AKR/Cum chimeras and progressed slowly. Repopulation was not enhanced by increasing the number of allogeneic bone marrow cells injected from 2 X 10(7) to 10(8) cells or by the addition of 8 X 10(7) allogeneic thymocytes to the donor inoculate. Epidermal repopulation by allogeneic Thy-1.2+ cells was not seen in AKR/J mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells and allogeneic Thy-1.2+ AKR/Cum thymocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells are derived from the bone marrow and suggest that they are not related to conventional peripheral T-lymphocytes.

Breathnach, S.M.; Katz, S.I.

1984-07-01

288

Markers of murine embryonic and neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes: reference points for developmental neurotoxicity testing  

EPA Science Inventory

Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is a significant concern for environmental chemicals, as well as for food and drug constituents. The sensitivity of animal-based DNT models is unclear, and they are expensive and time consuming. Murine embryonic stem cells (mESC) recapitulate sev...

289

Sage weed (Salvia plebeia) extract antagonizes foam cell formation and promotes cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

Lipid-laden peripheral tissue cells release cholesterol to an extracellular acceptor such as high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Foam cells are formed at the first stage of atherosclerosis development. This study investigated whether sage weed (Salvia plebeia) extract (SWE) influences cholesterol handling of J774A1 murine macrophages. A murine macrophage cell line, J774A1, was used in this study. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) treatment was used for foam cell formation, which was confirmed using Oil red O staining. The oxidized LDL uptake and cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden foam cell-associated proteins were detected by western blot analysis. Also, transcriptional levels of these associated genes were examined using reverse transcription-PCR. Also, cholesterol efflux was measured using NBD-cholesterol efflux assay. Non-toxic SWE at ?10 µg/ml attenuated scavenger receptor (SR)-B1 expression of macrophages induced by oxidized LDL for 6 h, which was achieved at its transcriptional levels. Consistently, SWE suppressed oxidized LDL-stimulated cellular lipid accumulation and foam cell formation due to downregulated SR-B1. SWE upregulated the protein expression and mRNA levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in lipid-laden foam cells, both responsible for cholesterol efflux. In addition, SWE promoted apolipoprotein E (apoE) secretion from oxidized LDL-induced foam cells. Cholesterol efflux was enhanced by ?10 µg/ml SWE most likely through the induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 and the secretion of apoE. Although 10 µM homoplantaginin, a compound mainly present in sage weeds, did not influence cellular expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, it suppressed oxidized LDL-enhanced SR-B1 induction and foam cell formation. These results demonstrate that SWE antagonized oxidized LDL uptake and promoted cholesterol efflux in lipid-laden macrophages. Therefore, SWE may serve as a protective therapeutic agent against the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:22922992

Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Jung-Lye; Kang, Min-Kyung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Han, Seon-Young; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Young-Hee

2012-11-01

290

Modeling murine yolk sac hematopoiesis with embryonic stem cell culture systems  

PubMed Central

The onset of hematopoiesis in mammals is defined by generation of primitive erythrocytes and macrophage progenitors in embryonic yolk sac. Laboratories have met the challenge of transient and swiftly changing specification events from ventral mesoderm through multipotent progenitors and maturing lineage-restricted hematopoietic subtypes, by developing powerful in vitro experimental models to interrogate hematopoietic ontogeny. Most importantly, studies of differentiating embryonic stem cell derivatives in embryoid body and stromal coculture systems have identified crucial roles for transcription factor networks (e.g. Gata1, Runx1, Scl) and signaling pathways (e.g. BMP, VEGF, WNT) in controlling stem and progenitor cell output. These and other relevant pathways have pleiotropic biological effects, and are often associated with early embryonic lethality in knockout mice. Further refinement in subsequent studies has allowed conditional expression of key regulatory genes, and isolation of progenitors via cell surface markers (e.g. FLK1) and reporter-tagged constructs, with the purpose of measuring their primitive and definitive hematopoietic potential. These observations continue to inform attempts to direct the differentiation, and augment the expansion, of progenitors in human cell culture systems that may prove useful in cell replacement therapies for hematopoietic deficiencies. The purpose of this review is to survey the extant literature on the use of differentiating murine embryonic stem cells in culture to model the developmental process of yolk sac hematopoiesis.

COOK, Brandoch D.

2014-01-01

291

Plasma membrane-associated glycohydrolases along differentiation of murine neural stem cells.  

PubMed

The activities of plasma membrane associated sialidase Neu3, total ?-glucosidase, CBE-sensitive ?-glucosidase, non-lysosomal ?-glucosyl ceramidase GBA2, ?-galactosidase, ?-hexosaminidase and sphingomyelinase were determined at three different stages of differentiation of murine neural stem cell cultures, corresponding to precursors, commited progenitors, and differentiated cells. Cell immunostaining for specific markers of the differentiation process, performed after 7 days in culture in presence of differentiating agents, clearly showed the presence of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons. Glial cells were the most abundant. Sialidase Neu3 after a decrease from progenitors to precursors, showed an increase parallel to the differentiation process. All the other glycosidases increased their activity along differentiation. The activity of CBE-sensitive ?-glucosidase and GBA2 were very similar at the precursor stage, but CBE-sensitive ?-glucosidase increased 7 times while GBA2 only two in the differentiated cells. In addition, we analysed also sphingomyelinase as enzyme specifically associated to sphingolipids. The activity of this enzyme increased from precursors to differentiated cells. PMID:22350518

Aureli, Massimo; Gritti, Angela; Bassi, Rosaria; Loberto, Nicoletta; Ricca, Alessandra; Chigorno, Vanna; Prinetti, Alessandro; Sonnino, Sandro

2012-06-01

292

Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate nitrergic inhibitory neurotransmission in the murine gastrointestinal tract.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Its main effector, NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC), is expressed in several GI cell types, including smooth muscle cells (SMC), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and fibroblast-like cells. Up to date, the interplay between neurons and these cells to initiate a nitrergic inhibitory junction potential (IJP) is unclear. Here, we investigate the origin of the nitrergic IJP in murine fundus and colon. IJPs were determined in fundus and colon SMC of mice lacking NO-GC globally (GCKO) and specifically in SMC (SM-GCKO), ICC (ICC-GCKO), and both SMC/ICC (SM/ICC-GCKO). Nitrergic IJP was abolished in ICC-GCKO fundus and reduced in SM-GCKO fundus. In the colon, the amplitude of nitrergic IJP was reduced in ICC-GCKO, whereas nitrergic IJP in SM-GCKO was reduced in duration. These results were corroborated by loss of the nitrergic IJP in global GCKO. In conclusion, our results prove the obligatory role of NO-GC in ICC for the initiation of an IJP. NO-GC in SMC appears to enhance the nitrergic IJP, resulting in a stronger and prolonged hyperpolarization in fundus and colon SMC, respectively. Thus NO-GC in both cell types is mandatory to induce a full nitrergic IJP. Our data from the colon clearly reveal the nitrergic IJP to be biphasic, resulting from individual inputs of ICC and SMC. PMID:24833707

Lies, Barbara; Gil, Víctor; Groneberg, Dieter; Seidler, Barbara; Saur, Dieter; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Jiménez, Marcel; Friebe, Andreas

2014-07-01

293

?-Catenin Regulates Vitamin C Biosynthesis and Cell Survival in Murine Liver*  

PubMed Central

Because the Wnt/?-catenin pathway plays multiple roles in liver pathobiology, it is critical to identify gene targets that mediate such diverse effects. Here we report a novel role of ?-catenin in controlling ascorbic acid biosynthesis in murine liver through regulation of expression of regucalcin or senescence marker protein 30 and l-gulonolactone oxidase. Reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry demonstrate decreased regucalcin expression in ?-catenin-null livers and greater expression in ?-catenin overexpressing transgenic livers, HepG2 hepatoma cells (contain constitutively active ?-catenin), regenerating livers, and in hepatocellular cancer tissues that exhibit ?-catenin activation. Interestingly, coprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies also demonstrate an association of ?-catenin and regucalcin. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified a functional TCF-4-binding site located between ?163 and ?157 (CTTTGCA) on the regucalcin promoter to be critical for regulation by ?-catenin. Significantly lower serum ascorbate levels were observed in ?-catenin knock-out mice secondary to decreased expression of regucalcin and also of l-gulonolactone oxidase, the penultimate and last (also rate-limiting) steps in the synthesis of ascorbic acid, respectively. These mice also show enhanced basal hepatocyte apoptosis. To test if ascorbate deficiency secondary to ?-catenin loss and regucalcin decrease was contributing to apoptosis, ?-catenin-null hepatocytes or regucalcin small interfering RNA-transfected HepG2 cells were cultured, which exhibited significant apoptosis that was alleviated by the addition of ascorbic acid. Thus, through regucalcin and l-gulonolactone oxidase expression, ?-catenin regulates vitamin C biosynthesis in murine liver, which in turn may be one of the mechanisms contributing to the role of ?-catenin in cell survival. PMID:19690176

Nejak-Bowen, Kari N.; Zeng, Gang; Tan, Xinping; Cieply, Benjamin; Monga, Satdarshan P.

2009-01-01

294

Beta-catenin regulates vitamin C biosynthesis and cell survival in murine liver.  

PubMed

Because the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway plays multiple roles in liver pathobiology, it is critical to identify gene targets that mediate such diverse effects. Here we report a novel role of beta-catenin in controlling ascorbic acid biosynthesis in murine liver through regulation of expression of regucalcin or senescence marker protein 30 and L-gulonolactone oxidase. Reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry demonstrate decreased regucalcin expression in beta-catenin-null livers and greater expression in beta-catenin overexpressing transgenic livers, HepG2 hepatoma cells (contain constitutively active beta-catenin), regenerating livers, and in hepatocellular cancer tissues that exhibit beta-catenin activation. Interestingly, coprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies also demonstrate an association of beta-catenin and regucalcin. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified a functional TCF-4-binding site located between -163 and -157 (CTTTGCA) on the regucalcin promoter to be critical for regulation by beta-catenin. Significantly lower serum ascorbate levels were observed in beta-catenin knock-out mice secondary to decreased expression of regucalcin and also of L-gulonolactone oxidase, the penultimate and last (also rate-limiting) steps in the synthesis of ascorbic acid, respectively. These mice also show enhanced basal hepatocyte apoptosis. To test if ascorbate deficiency secondary to beta-catenin loss and regucalcin decrease was contributing to apoptosis, beta-catenin-null hepatocytes or regucalcin small interfering RNA-transfected HepG2 cells were cultured, which exhibited significant apoptosis that was alleviated by the addition of ascorbic acid. Thus, through regucalcin and L-gulonolactone oxidase expression, beta-catenin regulates vitamin C biosynthesis in murine liver, which in turn may be one of the mechanisms contributing to the role of beta-catenin in cell survival. PMID:19690176

Nejak-Bowen, Kari N; Zeng, Gang; Tan, Xinping; Cieply, Benjamin; Monga, Satdarshan P

2009-10-01

295

Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5?Hz for 24 and 48?h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5?J and 10?J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5?J and 10?J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5?J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5?J and 10?J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics.

Kao, C. T.; Chen, C. C.; Cheong, U.-I.; Liu, S. L.; Huang, T. H.

2014-08-01

296

Expansion of Murine Gammaherpesvirus Latently Infected B Cells Requires T Follicular Help  

PubMed Central

X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the slam associated protein (SAP). One of the defining characteristics of XLP is extreme susceptibility to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gammaherpesvirus belonging to the genus Lymphocryptovirus, often resulting in fatal infectious mononucleosis (FIM). However, infection of SAP deficient mice with the related Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Rhadinovirus, does not recapitulate XLP. Here we show that MHV68 inefficiently establishes latency in B cells in SAP deficient mice due to insufficient CD4 T cell help during the germinal center response. Although MHV68 infected B cells can be found in SAP-deficient mice, significantly fewer of these cells had a germinal center phenotype compared to SAP-sufficient mice. Furthermore, we show that infected germinal center B cells in SAP-deficient mice fail to proliferate. This failure to proliferate resulted in significantly lower viral loads, and likely accounts for the inability of MHV68 to induce a FIM-like syndrome. Finally, inhibiting differentiation of T follicular helper (TFH) cells in SAP-sufficient C57Bl/6 mice resulted in decreased B cell latency, and the magnitude of the TFH response directly correlated with the level of infection in B cells. This requirement for CD4 T cell help during the germinal center reaction by MHV68 is in contrast with EBV, which is thought to be capable of bypassing this requirement by expressing viral proteins that mimic signals provided by TFH cells. In conclusion, the outcome of MHV68 infection in mice in the setting of loss of SAP function is distinct from that observed in SAP-deficient patients infected with EBV, and may identify a fundamental difference between the strategies employed by the rhadinoviruses and lymphocryptoviruses to expand B cell latency during the early phase of infection. PMID:24789087

Collins, Christopher M.; Speck, Samuel H.

2014-01-01

297

Gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a murine squamous cell carcinoma This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

Gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a murine squamous cell carcinoma This article) 3045­3059 doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/11/004 Gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a murine The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that gold nanoparticle (AuNP, nanogold)-enhanced radiation

Terasaki, Mark

298

Establishment of a Murine Graft-versus-Myeloma Model Using Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disorder with poor long-term survival and high recurrence rates. Despite evidence of graft-versus-myeloma (GvM) effects, the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) remains controversial in MM. In the current study, we investigated the anti-myeloma effects of allo-SCT from B10.D2 mice into MHC-matched myeloma-bearing Balb/cJ mice, with concomitant development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Methods and results Balb/cJ mice were injected intravenously with luciferase-transfected MOPC315.BM cells, and received an allogeneic (B10.D2 donor) or autologous (Balb/cJ donor) transplant 30 days later. We observed a GvM effect in 94% of the allogeneic transplanted mice, as the luciferase signal completely disappeared after transplantation, whereas all the autologous transplanted mice showed myeloma progression. Lower serum paraprotein levels and lower myeloma infiltration in bone marrow and spleen in the allogeneic setting confirmed the observed GvM effect. In addition, the treated mice also displayed chronic GvHD symptoms. In vivo and in vitro data suggested the involvement of effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells associated with the GvM response. The essential role of CD8 T cells was demonstrated in vivo where CD8 T-cell depletion of the graft resulted in reduced GvM effects. Finally, TCR V? spectratyping analysis identified V? families within CD4 and CD8 T cells, which were associated with both GvM effects and GvHD, whereas other V? families within CD4 T cells were associated exclusively with either GvM or GvHD responses. Conclusions We successfully established an immunocompetent murine model of graft-versus-myeloma. This is the first murine GvM model using immunocompetent mice that develop MM which closely resembles human MM disease and that are treated after disease establishment with an allo-SCT. Importantly, using TCR V? spectratyping, we also demonstrated the presence of GvM unique responses potentially associated with the curative capacity of this immunotherapeutic approach. PMID:25415267

Binsfeld, Marilène; Beguin, Yves; Belle, Ludovic; Otjacques, Eléonore; Hannon, Muriel; Briquet, Alexandra; Heusschen, Roy; Drion, Pierre; Zilberberg, Jenny; Bogen, Bjarne; Baron, Frédéric; Caers, Jo

2014-01-01

299

Infection of Xenotransplanted Human Cell Lines by Murine Retroviruses: A Lesson Brought Back to Light by XMRV.  

PubMed

Infection of xenotransplanted human cells by xenotropic retroviruses is a known phenomenon in the scientific literature, with examples cited since the early 1970s. However, arguably, until recently, the importance of this phenomenon had not been largely recognized. The emergence and subsequent debunking of Xenotropic Murine leukemia virus-Related Virus (XMRV) as a cell culture contaminant as opposed to a potential pathogen in several human diseases, notably prostate cancer and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, highlighted a potential problem of murine endogenous gammaretroviruses infecting commonly used human cell lines. Subsequent to the discovery of XMRV, many additional cell lines that underwent xenotransplantation in mice have been shown to harbor murine gammaretroviruses. Such retroviral infection poses the threat of not only confounding experiments performed in these cell lines via virus-induced changes in cellular behavior but also the potential infection of other cell lines cultured in the same laboratory. Thus, the possibility of xenotropic retroviral infection of cell lines may warrant additional precautions, such as periodic testing for retroviral sequences in cell lines cultured in the laboratory. PMID:23785669

Hempel, Heidi A; Burns, Kathleen H; De Marzo, Angelo M; Sfanos, Karen S

2013-01-01

300

An increase in telomere sister chromatid exchange in murine embryonic stem cells possessing critically shortened telomeres  

SciTech Connect

Telomerase deficiency leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA that eventually triggers cell apoptosis in human primary cells during prolonged growth in culture. Rare survivors can maintain telomere length through either activation of telomerase or recombination-based telomere lengthening, and thus proliferate indefinitely. We have explored the possibility that telomeres may be maintained through telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE) in murine telomere reverse transcriptase-deficient (mTert -/-) splenocytes and ES cells. Because telomerase deficiency leads to gradual loss of telomeric DNA in mTert -/- splenocytes and ES cells and eventually to chromosomes with telomere signal-free ends (SFEs), we examined these cell types for evidence of sister chromatid exchange at telomeres, and observed an increase in T-SCEs only in a subset of mTert -/- splenocytes or ES cells that possessed multiple SFEs. Furthermore, T-SCEs were more often detected in ES cells than in splenocytes that harbored a similar frequency of SFEs. In mTert heterozygous (mTert +/-) ES cells or splenocytes, which are known to exhibit a decrease in average telomere length but no SFEs, no increase in T-SCE was observed. In addition to T-SCE, other genomic rearrangements (i.e., SCE) were also significantly increased in mTert -/- ES cells possessing critically short telomeres, but not in splenocytes. Our results suggest that animals and cell culture differ in their ability to carry out genomic rearrangements as a means of maintaining telomere integrity when telomeres become critically shortened.

Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Wu, Jun [ORNL; Gomez, Marla V [ORNL; Liu, Yie [ORNL

2005-01-01

301

Bifidobacterium breve Attenuates Murine Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases Regulatory T Cell Responses  

PubMed Central

While some probiotics have shown beneficial effects on preventing or treating colitis development, others have shown no effects. In this study, we have assessed the immunomodulating effects of two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) on T cell polarization in vitro, using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in vivo, using murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. With respect to the latter, the mRNA expression of T cell subset-associated transcription factors and cytokines in the colon was measured and the T helper type (Th) 17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets were determined in the Peyer's patches. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve incubations in vitro reduced Th17 and increased Th2 cell subsets in human PBMCs. In addition, B. breve incubation was also able to reduce Th1 and increase Treg cell subsets in contrast to L. rhamnosus. In vivo intervention with B. breve, but not L. rhamnosus, significantly attenuated the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In DSS-treated C57BL/6 mice, intervention with B. breve increased the expression of mRNA encoding for Th2- and Treg-associated cytokines in the distal colon. In addition, intervention with B. breve led to increases of Treg and decreases of Th17 cell subsets in Peyer's patches of DSS-treated mice. B. breve modulates T cell polarization towards Th2 and Treg cell-associated responses in vitro and in vivo. In vivo B. breve intervention ameliorates DSS-induced colitis symptoms and this protective effect may mediated by its effects on the T-cell composition. PMID:24787575

Zheng, Bin; van Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen; Overbeek, Saskia; van de Kant, Hendrik J. G.; Garssen, Johan; Folkerts, Gert; Vos, Paul; Morgan, Mary E.; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

2014-01-01

302

Global microRNA expression is essential for murine mast cell development in vivo.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that have been shown to play a critical role in normal physiology and disease, such as hematopoietic development and cancer. However, their role in mast-cell function and development is poorly understood. The major objective of this study was to determine how global miRNA expression affects mast-cell physiology. The RNase III endonuclease, Dicer, is required for the processing of pre-miRNAs into mature miRNAs. To investigate the effect of global miRNA depletion on mast cells in vivo, we generated a mast-cell-specific knock out of Dicer in mice. Transgenic mice (Mcpt5-Cre) that express Cre selectively in connective tissue mast cells were crossed with mice carrying the floxed conditional Dicer allele (Dicer fl/fl). Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/fl mice with homozygous Dicer gene deletion in mast cells were found to have a profound mast-cell deficiency with near complete loss of peritoneal, gastrointestinal, and skin mast cells. We examined the in vivo functional consequence of mast-cell-specific Dicer deletion using an immunoglobulin-E-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis murine model. Immunoglobulin-E-sensitized wild type Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer +/+ and heterozygous Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/+ mice show marked hypothermia with antigen; however, homozygous Mcpt5-Cre × Dicer fl/fl mice were completely unresponsive to antigen challenge. These studies suggest a critical role for Dicer and miRNA expression for establishment of tissue compartments of functional mast cells in vivo. PMID:25201754

Oh, Sun Young; Brandal, Stephanie; Kapur, Reuben; Zhu, Zhou; Takemoto, Clifford M

2014-10-01

303

Effects of brevetoxins on murine myeloma SP2/O cells: Aberrant cellular division  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Massive deaths of manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) during the red tide seasons have been attributed to brevetoxins produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (formerly Ptychodiscus breve and Gymnodinium breve). Although these toxins have been found in macrophages and lymphocytes in the lung, liver, and secondary lymphoid tissues of these animals, the molecular mechanisms of brevetoxicosis have not yet been identified. To investigate the effects of brevetoxins on immune cells, a murine myeloma cell line (SP2/O) was used as a model for in vitro studies. By adding brevetoxins to cultures of the SP2/O cells at concentrations ranging from 20 to 600 ng/ml, an apparent increase in proliferation was observed at around 2 hours post challenge as compared to the unchallenged cell cultures. This was followed by a drop in cell number at around 3 hours, suggesting an aberrant effect of brevetoxins on cellular division, the cells generated at 2 hours being apparently short-lived. In situ immunochemical staining of the SP2/O cells at 1 and 2 hour post challenge showed an accumulation of the toxins in the nucleus. A 21-kDa protein was subsequently isolated from the SP2/O cells as having brevetoxin-binding properties, and immunologically identified as p21, a nuclear factor known to down-regulate cellular proliferation through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases. These data are the first on a possible effect of brevetoxins on the cell cycle via binding to p21, a phenomenon that needs to be further investigated and validated in normal immune cells.

Han, T.K.; Derby, M.; Martin, D.F.; Wright, S.D.; Dao, M.L.

2003-01-01

304

Dose-related effects of psoralen and ultraviolet light on the cell cycle of murine melanoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Cloudman (S91) murine melanoma cells were treated with 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen (HMT), a bifunctional psoralen and exposed to long-wavelength (365 nm) ultraviolet light. DNA content of the cells stained with propidium iodide was measured by flow cytometry, and cell cycle phases were delineated from the DNA histograms by using a curve-fitting routine. Researchers found that HMT in combination with long-wavelength (365 nm) ultraviolet irradiation blocked melanoma cells in different phases of the cell cycle, depending on the dose of long-wavelength (365 nm) ultraviolet light and the concentration of HMT. The binding of (/sup 3/H)HMT to DNA was measured parallel with cell cycle analyses. Treatments with HMT at concentrations corresponding to about 1 HMT bound per 10(6) base pairs of DNA led to the accumulation of cells with predominantly G2 DNA content. At higher concentrations (2 to 3 HMT/10(6) base pairs), the cells were blocked in the S and G1 phases. In conclusion, it was shown that extremely sparse substitution of HMT to DNA blocks melanoma cells in the G2 phase or other phases of the cell cycle in a dose-dependent manner.

Varga, J.M.; Wiesehahn, G.; Bartholomew, J.C.; Hearst, J.E.

1982-06-01

305

Farnesoid X receptor protects human and murine gastric epithelial cells against inflammation-induced damage.  

PubMed

Bile acids from duodenogastric reflux promote inflammation and increase the risk for gastro-oesophageal cancers. FXR (farnesoid X receptor/NR1H4) is a transcription factor regulated by bile acids such as CDCA (chenodeoxycholic acid). FXR protects the liver and the intestinal tract against bile acid overload; however, a functional role for FXR in the stomach has not been described. We detected FXR expression in the normal human stomach and in GC (gastric cancer). FXR mRNA and protein were also present in the human GC cell lines MKN45 and SNU5, but not in the AGS cell line. Transfection of FXR into AGS cells protected against TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?)-induced cell damage. We identified K13 (keratin 13), an anti-apoptotic protein of desmosomes, as a novel CDCA-regulated FXR-target gene. FXR bound to a conserved regulatory element in the proximal human K13 promoter. Gastric expression of K13 mRNA was increased in an FXR-dependent manner by a chow diet enriched with 1% (w/w) CDCA and by indomethacin (35 mg/kg of body weight intraperitoneal) in C57BL/6 mice. FXR-deficient mice were more susceptible to indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration than their WT (wild-type) littermates. These results suggest that FXR increases the resistance of human and murine gastric epithelial cells to inflammation-mediated damage and may thus participate in the development of GC. PMID:21619550

Lian, Fan; Xing, Xiangbin; Yuan, Gang; Schäfer, Claus; Rauser, Sandra; Walch, Axel; Röcken, Christoph; Ebeling, Martin; Wright, Matthew B; Schmid, Roland M; Ebert, Matthias P A; Burgermeister, Elke

2011-09-01

306

Absence of TRIF signaling in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine mast cells.  

PubMed

In macrophages, two signaling pathways, dependent on MyD88 or TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-? (TRIF) signaling, emanate from the LPS receptor TLR4/MD-2. In this study, we show that in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), only the MyD88-dependent pathway is activated by LPS. The TRIF signaling branch leading both to NF-?B activation and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, as well as to IRF3 activation and subsequent IFN-? production, is absent in LPS-stimulated BMMCs. IRF3 activation is also absent in peritoneal mast cells from LPS-injected mice. We observed strongly diminished TRAM expression in BMMCs, but overexpression of TRAM only moderately enhanced IL-6 and did not boost IFN-? responses to LPS in these cells. A combination of very low levels of TRAM and TLR4/MD-2 with the known absence of membrane-bound CD14 are expected to contribute to the defective TRIF signaling in mast cells. We also show that, unlike in macrophages, in BMMCs the TRIF-dependent and -independent IFN-?? responses to other recognized IFN inducers (dsRNA, adenovirus, and B-DNA) are absent. These results show how the response to the same microbial ligand using the same receptor can be regulated in different cell types of the innate immune system. PMID:21441453

Keck, Simone; Müller, Ines; Fejer, György; Savic, Iva; Tchaptchet, Sandrine; Nielsen, Peter J; Galanos, Chris; Huber, Michael; Freudenberg, Marina A

2011-05-01

307

Selenite stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and enhances mitochondrial functional performance in murine hippocampal neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Supplementation of selenium has been shown to protect cells against free radical mediated cell damage. The objectives of this study are to examine whether supplementation of selenium stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathways and whether selenium enhances mitochondrial functional performance. Murine hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were treated with sodium selenite for 24 hours. Mitochondrial biogenesis markers, mitochondrial respiratory rate and activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes were measured and compared to non-treated cells. The results revealed that treatment of selenium to the HT22 cells elevated the levels of nuclear mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1? and NRF1, as well as mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV). These effects are associated with phosphorylation of Akt and cAMP response element-binding (CREB). Supplementation of selenium significantly increased mitochondrial respiration and improved the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes. We conclude that selenium activates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway and improves mitochondrial function. These effects may be associated with modulation of AKT-CREB pathway. PMID:23110128

Mendelev, Natalia; Mehta, Suresh L; Idris, Haza; Kumari, Santosh; Li, P Andy

2012-01-01

308

Selenite Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis Signaling and Enhances Mitochondrial Functional Performance in Murine Hippocampal Neuronal Cells  

PubMed Central

Supplementation of selenium has been shown to protect cells against free radical mediated cell damage. The objectives of this study are to examine whether supplementation of selenium stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathways and whether selenium enhances mitochondrial functional performance. Murine hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were treated with sodium selenite for 24 hours. Mitochondrial biogenesis markers, mitochondrial respiratory rate and activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes were measured and compared to non-treated cells. The results revealed that treatment of selenium to the HT22 cells elevated the levels of nuclear mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1? and NRF1, as well as mitochondrial proteins cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV). These effects are associated with phosphorylation of Akt and cAMP response element-binding (CREB). Supplementation of selenium significantly increased mitochondrial respiration and improved the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes. We conclude that selenium activates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling pathway and improves mitochondrial function. These effects may be associated with modulation of AKT-CREB pathway. PMID:23110128

Idris, Haza; Kumari, Santosh; Li, P. Andy

2012-01-01

309

Growth inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin to Toxoplasma gondii parasites in murine somatic cells.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is known to have broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. In regards to its defense mechanism against parasitic infection, it has shown phagocytic activity in the destruction of amastigotes, an intracellular parasitic form of Trypanosoma cruzi in macrophages. The effect of bovine lactoferrin on the intracellular growth Toxoplasma gondii parasites was examined in murine macrophage and embryonal cells. Co-cultures of host cells with the parasites were supplemented with either lactoferrin, apo-lactoferrin, holo-lactoferrin or transferrin in the culture media for varying periods. The growth activity of intracellular parasites in the host cells was determined by the measurement of selective incorporation of 3H-uracil. Supplement of lactoferrin had no effect on the penetration activity of the parasites, while development of intracellular parasites was inhibited linearly in concentration of lactoferrin. Supplement of apo-lactoferrin and holo-lactoferrin, but not transferrin showed similar effects. These suggest that lactoferrin induces the inhibitory effects on the development of intracellular parasites. Pretreatment of lactoferrin to the macrophages, however, did not show any inhibitory effects. Whereas, mouse embryonal cells preincubated with lactoferrin suppressed the intracellular growth. Thus, the action of lactoferrin to macrophages would be different from that of mouse embryonal cells. PMID:8645758

Tanaka, T; Omata, Y; Saito, A; Shimazaki, K; Igarashi, I; Suzuki, N

1996-01-01

310

Heparin effect on DNA synthesis in a murine fibrosarcoma cell line: influence of anionic density  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heparin subfractions on DNA synthesis in a murine cutaneous fibrosarcoma cell line were examined. Porcine mucosal heparin was preparatively fractionated for anionic charge density by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography and for molecular weight by Sephadex G-100 filtration. The cell line was plated from confluent monolayer cultures and grown in medium and fetal bovine serum, with or without a heparin fraction at a final concentration of 10 micrograms/ml. At intervals thereafter, the cells were pulsed with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. A low-charge density heparin fraction stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation (cpm/mg protein and cpm/cell) during the first 3 days of growth compared to control values without added heparin, whereas a high-charge density heparin fraction had little of this effect (186 +/- 35% of control vs. 101 +/- 14%, respectively; P less than .05). The augmentation of DNA synthesis observed with the low-charge density fraction correlated with increased proportions of cells in S and G2 phases compared with those of the controls, as determined by flow cytofluorometry. Low- and high-molecular-weight heparin fractions did not significantly alter DNA synthesis. Heparin subfractions are thus heterogeneous with respect to their effect on cellular DNA synthesis in this tumor line.

Piepkorn, M.W.; Daynes, R.A.

1983-09-01

311

Identification of Immunomodulatory Signatures Induced by American Ginseng in Murine Immune Cells  

PubMed Central

Background. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius, AG) has been used for more than 300 years. Some of its claimed benefits can be attributed to the immunomodulatory activities, whose molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Methods. Murine splenic cells from adult male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were isolated and divided into 4 groups to mimic 4 basic pathophysiological states: (1) normal naïve; (2) normal activated; (3) deficient naïve; (4) deficient activated. Then, different AG extracts were added to all groups for 24?h incubation. MTT proliferation assays were performed to evaluate the phenotypic features of cells. Finally, microarray assays were carried out to identify differentially expressed genes associated with AG exposure. Real-time PCR was performed to validate the expression of selected genes. Results. Microarray data showed that most of gene expression changes were identified in the deficient naïve group, suggesting that the pathophysiological state has major impacts on transcriptomic changes associated with AG exposure. Specifically, this study revealed downregulation of interferon-? signaling pathway in the deficient group of cells. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that only specific groups of immune cells responded to AG intervention and immunocompromised cells were more likely regulated by AG treatment. PMID:24319490

Yan, Jian; Ma, Yonghui; Zhao, Fusheng; Gu, Weikuan; Jiao, Yan

2013-01-01

312

Defective DNA Repair and Increased Genomic Instability in Artemis-deficient Murine Cells  

PubMed Central

In developing lymphocytes, the recombination activating gene endonuclease cleaves DNA between V, D, or J coding and recombination signal (RS) sequences to form hairpin coding and blunt RS ends, which are fused to form coding and RS joins. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) factors repair DNA double strand breaks including those induced during VDJ recombination. Human radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency results from lack of Artemis function, an NHEJ factor with in vitro endonuclease/exonuclease activities. We inactivated Artemis in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells by targeted mutation. Artemis deficiency results in impaired VDJ coding, but not RS, end joining. In addition, Artemis-deficient ES cells are sensitive to a radiomimetic drug, but less sensitive to ionizing radiation. VDJ coding joins from Artemis-deficient ES cells, which surprisingly are distinct from the highly deleted joins consistently obtained from DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit–deficient ES cells, frequently lack deletions and often display large junctional palindromes, consistent with a hairpin coding end opening defect. Strikingly, Artemis-deficient ES cells have increased chromosomal instability including telomeric fusions. Thus, Artemis appears to be required for a subset of NHEJ reactions that require end processing. Moreover, Artemis functions as a genomic caretaker, most notably in prevention of translocations and telomeric fusions. As Artemis deficiency is compatible with human life, Artemis may also suppress genomic instability in humans. PMID:12615897

Rooney, Sean; Alt, Frederick W.; Lombard, David; Whitlow, Scott; Eckersdorff, Mark; Fleming, James; Fugmann, Sebastian; Ferguson, David O.; Schatz, David G.; Sekiguchi, JoAnn

2003-01-01

313

Complementation of the beige mutation in cultured cells by episomally replicating murine yeast artificial chromosomes.  

PubMed Central

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome in man and the beige mutation of mice are phenotypically similar disorders that have profound effects upon lysosome and melanosome morphology and function. We isolated two murine yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) that, when introduced into beige mouse fibroblasts, complement the beige mutation. The complementing YACs exist as extrachromosomal elements that are amplified in high concentrations of G418. When YAC-complemented beige cells were fused to human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome or Aleutian mink fibroblasts, complementation of the mutant phenotype also occurred. These results localize the beige gene to a 500-kb interval and demonstrate that the same or homologous genes are defective in mice, minks, and humans. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8650191

Perou, C M; Justice, M J; Pryor, R J; Kaplan, J

1996-01-01

314

A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells  

SciTech Connect

Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR ({sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC{sub 50} value of 60.04 ?g/mL and 5.40 ?g/mL, respectively.

Dianhar, Hanhan, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Syah, Yana Maolana, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Mujahidin, Didin, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Hakim, Euis Holisotan, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi, E-mail: liadewi@chem.itb.ac.id [Natural Product Chemistry Research Group, Organic Chemistry Division, Program Study of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

315

Differential expression of inducible NO synthase in two murine macrophage cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Although primary macrophages and most murine macrophage cell lines such as RAW 264.7 cells respond to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by producing large amounts of nitrite, i.e. the oxidation product of nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), other cell lines like P388.D1 cells do not produce significant amounts. To gain insight into the signalling pathway that leads to the induction of iNOS activity, we compared iNOS expression in RAW 264.7 and P388.D1 cells. We showed that IFN-gamma binds to each cell line with a similar affinity. Furthermore, no differences in iNOS gene structure were detectable by Southern blot analysis. Even though no significant nitrite secretion was found in the supernatant of P388:D1 cells stimulated with IFN-gamma and/or LPS, iNOS mRNA expression was induced. In addition, IFN-gamma induced the interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) gene and activated the binding of this factor to its target sequence in the iNOS gene. This binding was recently shown to be necessary for iNOS expression. However, in P388.D1 cells, we were unable to detect the corresponding iNOS protein. These results indicate a deficiency in P388.D1 cells which appears to be restricted to the signalling pathway controlling iNOS protein synthesis. This deficiency does not affect the overall IFN-gamma biological response, but rather a convergent post-transcriptional step common to IFN-gamma and LPS. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8943726

Le Page, C; Sanceau, J; Drapier, J C; Wietzerbin, J

1996-01-01

316

A characterization of four B16 murine melanoma cell sublines molecular fingerprint and proliferation behavior  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most popular and versatile model of murine melanoma is by inoculating B16 cells in the syngeneic C57BL6J mouse strain. A characterization of different B16 modified cell sub-lines will be of real practical interest. For this aim, modern analytical tools like surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy/scattering (SERS) and MTT were employed to characterize both chemical composition and proliferation behavior of the selected cells. Methods High quality SERS signal was recorded from each of the four types of B16 cell sub-lines: B164A5, B16GMCSF, B16FLT3, B16F10, in order to observe the differences between a parent cell line (B164A5) and other derived B16 cell sub-lines. Cells were incubated with silver nanoparticles of 50–100 nm diameter and the nanoparticles uptake inside the cells cytoplasm was proved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations. In order to characterize proliferation, growth curves of the four B16 cell lines, using different cell numbers and FCS concentration were obtained employing the MTT proliferation assay. For correlations doubling time were calculated. Results SERS bands allowed the identification inside the cells of the main bio-molecular components such as: proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. An "on and off" SERS effect was constantly present, which may be explained in terms of the employed laser power, as well as the possible different orientations of the adsorbed species in the cells in respect to the Ag nanoparticles. MTT results showed that among the four tested cell sub-lines B16 F10 is the most proliferative and B164A5 has the lower growth capacity. Regarding B16FLT3 cells and B16GMCSF cells, they present proliferation ability in between with slight slower potency for B16GMCSF cells. Conclusion Molecular fingerprint and proliferation behavior of four B16 melanoma cell sub-lines were elucidated by associating SERS investigations with MTT proliferation assay. PMID:23890195

2013-01-01

317

Maintenance and induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation using E-cadherin-Fc substrata without colony formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Induced embryonic stem (ES) cells are expected to be promising cell resources for the observation of the cell behaviors in developmental biology as well as the implantation in cell treatments in human diseases. A recombinant E-cadherin substratum was developed as a cell recognizable substratum to maintain the ES cells' self-renewal and pluripotency at single cell level. Furthermore, the generation of various cell lineages in different germ layers, including hepatic or neural cells, was achieved on the chimeric protein layer precisely and effectively. The induction and isolation of specific cell population was carried out with the enhancing effect of other artificial extracellular matrices (ECMs) in enzyme-free process. The murine ES cell-derived cells showed highly morphological similarities and functional expressions to matured hepatocytes or neural progenitor cells.

Meng, Qing-Yuan; Akaike, Toshihiro

2013-03-01

318

DNA-transformed murine teratocarcinoma cells: regulation of expression of simian virus 40 tumor antigen in stem versus differentiated cells.  

PubMed Central

Thymidine kinase-deficient (TK-; ATP:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21)F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells have been transformed with a recombinant plasmid genome consisting of the pBR322 genome linked to a herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (HSV-1 tk) and a simian virus 40 (SV40) genome. A clonal line of stem cells was obtained that contains only one copy of plasmid DNA, which is integrated into murine chromosomal DNA through a site on the pBRR322 genome. The HSV-1 tk gene, which is adjacent to the SV40 genome, is expressed in stem cells, whereas SV40 gene expression is not detectable. If differentiation of these stem cells is induced, the differentiated cells express SV40 early gene products. Thus, we have constructed a stem cell which contains a set of genes (SV40), the expression of which is regulated differently in stem and differentiated cells. This cell line could be used to determine the mechanism of suppression of expression of these genes in stem cells. Images PMID:6254045

Linnenbach, A; Huebner, K; Croce, C M

1980-01-01

319

Modulation of radiation-induced apoptosis and Gâ\\/M block in murine T-lymphoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphocyte-derived cell lines is characterized by endonucleolytic cleavage of cellular DNA within hours after radiation exposure. We have studied this phenomenon qualitatively (DNA gel electrophoresis) and quantitatively (diphenylamine reagent assay) in murine EL4 T-lymphoma cells exposed to ¹³⁷Cs γ irradiation. Fragmentation was discernible within 18-24 h after exposure. It increased with time and dose and reached a

S. T. Palayoor; R. M. Macklis; E. A. Bump; C. N. Coleman

1995-01-01

320

NF-?B-Dependent Induction of Cathelicidin-Related Antimicrobial Peptide in Murine Mast Cells by Lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An important aspect of the innate immune response to pathogens is the production of anti-microbial peptides such as cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), the murine homologue of human cathelicidin LL-37. In this study, mechanisms regulating LPS-induction of CRAMP gene expression in mast cells were investigated. NF-?B and MAPK pathways were the focus of investigation. Methods: Mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells

Guiming Li; Joanne Domenico; Yi Jia; Joseph J. Lucas; Erwin W. Gelfand

2009-01-01

321

The ruthenium complex cis -(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride induces apoptosis and damages DNA in murine sarcoma 180 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruthenium(III) complexes are increasingly attracting the interest of researchers due to their promising pharmacological properties.\\u000a Recently, we reported that the cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride compound has cytotoxic effects on murine sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells. In an effort\\u000a to understand the mechanism responsible for their cytotoxicity, study we investigated the genotoxicity, cell cycle distribution\\u000a and induction of apoptosis caused by cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium(III) chloride in

Aliny Pereira de Lima; Flavia de Castro Pereira; Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago Vilanova-Costa; Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa Ribeiro; Luiz Alfredo Pavanin; Wagner Batista Dos Santos; Elisângela de Paula Silveira-Lacerda

2010-01-01

322

Tissue-specific transcription preference as a determinant of cell tropism and leukaemogenic potential of murine retroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of susceptible strains of mice with the SL3-3 strain of murine leukaemia viruses induces T-cell lymphomas, whereas injection of the Akv strain does not1-3. Recombinant viruses that contain the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the SL3-3 virus and the gag, pol and env genes of the Akv virus are also leukaemogenic4. The cell-type specificity of leukaemias induced by viruses

Daniel Celander; William A. Haseltine

1984-01-01

323

Glucocorticoids alter the lipid and protein composition of membrane rafts of a murine T cell hybridoma.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids (GC) are widely used anti-inflammatory agents known to suppress T cell activation by interfering with the TCR activation cascade. The attenuation of early TCR signaling events by these compounds has been recently attributed to a selective displacement of key signaling proteins from membrane lipid rafts. In this study, we demonstrate that GC displace the acyl-bound adaptor proteins linker for activation of T cells and phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains from lipid rafts of murine T cell hybridomas, possibly by inhibiting their palmitoylation status. Analysis of the lipid content of the membrane rafts revealed that GC treatment led to a significant decrease in palmitic acid content. Moreover, we found an overall decrease in the proportion of raft-associated saturated fatty acids. These changes were consistent with a decrease in fluorescence anisotropy of isolated lipid rafts, indicating an increase in their fluidity. These findings identify the mechanisms underlying the complex inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids on early TCR signaling and suggest that some of the inhibitory properties of GC on T cell responses may be related to their ability to affect the membrane lipid composition and the palmitoylation status of important signaling molecules. PMID:12626544

Van Laethem, François; Liang, Xiquan; Andris, Fabienne; Urbain, Jacques; Vandenbranden, Michel; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Resh, Marilyn D; Stulnig, Thomas M; Leo, Oberdan

2003-03-15

324

Functional Th1 Cells Are Required for Surgical Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model1  

PubMed Central

Tissue trauma in the peritoneal and pelvic cavities following surgery or bacterial infection results in adhesions that are a debilitating cause of intestinal obstruction, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility in women. We recently demonstrated that CD4+ ?? T cells are essential for development of this process. Using a murine model of experimental adhesion formation, we now demonstrate that adhesion formation is characterized by the selective recruitment of Tim-3+, CCR5+, CXCR3+, IFN-?+ cells, indicating the presence of a Th1 phenotype. We further demonstrate that adhesion formation is critically dependent on the function of Th1 cells because mice genetically deficient for IFN-?, T-bet, or treated with Abs to the Th1-selective chemoattractant IL-16 show significantly less adhesion formation than wild-type mice. In addition, disrupting the interaction of the Th1-specific regulatory molecule Tim-3, with its ligand, significantly exacerbates adhesion formation. This enhanced response is associated with increases in the level of neutrophil-attracting chemokines KC and MIP-2, known to play a role in adhesiogenesis. These data demonstrate that the CD4+ T cells orchestrating adhesion formation are of the Th1 phenotype and delineate the central role of T-bet, Tim-3, IFN-?, and IL-16 in mediating this pathogenic tissue response. PMID:18453619

Zheng, Xin-Xiao; Stucchi, Arthur F.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Strom, Terry B.; Glimcher, Laurie H.; Cruikshank, William W.

2013-01-01

325

Mediator Med23 deficiency enhances neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells through modulating BMP signaling.  

PubMed

Unraveling the mechanisms underlying early neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is crucial to developing cell-based therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. Neural fate acquisition is proposed to be controlled by a 'default' mechanism, for which the molecular regulation is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of Mediator Med23 in pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. Unexpectedly, we found that, despite the largely unchanged pluripotency and self-renewal of ESCs, Med23 depletion rendered the cells prone to neural differentiation in different differentiation assays. Knockdown of two other Mediator subunits, Med1 and Med15, did not alter the neural differentiation of ESCs. Med15 knockdown selectively inhibited endoderm differentiation, suggesting the specificity of cell fate control by distinctive Mediator subunits. Gene profiling revealed that Med23 depletion attenuated BMP signaling in ESCs. Mechanistically, MED23 modulated Bmp4 expression by controlling the activity of ETS1, which is involved in Bmp4 promoter-enhancer communication. Interestingly, med23 knockdown in zebrafish embryos also enhanced neural development at early embryogenesis, which could be reversed by co-injection of bmp4 mRNA. Taken together, our study reveals an intrinsic, restrictive role of MED23 in early neural development, thus providing new molecular insights for neural fate determination. PMID:25564654

Zhu, Wanqu; Yao, Xiao; Liang, Yan; Liang, Dan; Song, Lu; Jing, Naihe; Li, Jinsong; Wang, Gang

2015-02-01

326

Involvement of PIKE in icariin induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Icariin (ICA) has demonstrated to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro, however, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase enhancer (PIKE) was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PIKE was applied to investigate the role of PIKE in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. The cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells were verified using immunofluorescence. The expressions of Troponin T, PIKE, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were detected by western blot. The change of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was estimated using the fluorescent dye 2', 7' - dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. The results showed that PIKE expression increased during cardiomyocyte differentiation. ICA markedly enhanced PIKE and PI3K expression in a time-dependent manner. Knockdown of PIKE by siRNAs blocked the differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes expressing alpha-actinin for cardiac sarcomeric structures. Moreover, reduced ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were responsible for the inhibitory effect of si-PIKE. In conclusion, PIKE was involved in ICA induced cardiomyocyte differentiation, and ROS generation and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation were associated with PIKE activation. PMID:24716409

Zhou, Limin; Zheng, Bei; Tang, Leilei; Huang, Yujie; Zhu, Danyan

2014-03-01

327

Isolation of a replication-defective murine leukaemia virus from cultured AKR leukaemia cells.  

PubMed

Mice of the AKR strain are characterised by a high incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphomas. AKR chromosomes contain the genomes of ecotropic murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) at two loci, termed Akv-1 and Akv-2 (refs 2-6). Shortly after birth, the normal tissues of AKR mice begin to produce high levels of this XC-positive MuLV (ref. 7) (that is, one that forms XC plaques). A second class of MuLV, termed mink cell focus-inducing virus (MCF), is produced specifically by preleukaemic and leukaemic AKR thymocytes. Nowinski et al. have established a series of tissue culture lines from AKR leukaemias and reported that the resulting cell lines produce virus particles, but that these particles, surprisingly, do not give rise to XC plaques. We have analysed the virus particles produced by one of these cell lines, termed AKRSL2. We show here that, unlike most or all of the nonmalignant tissues in the AKR mouse, these cultured lymphoma cells produce very little non-defective ecotropic MuLV; however, they do produce replication-defective ecotropic MuLV. PMID:229420

Rein, A; Athan, E; Benjers, B M; Bassin, R H; Gerwin, B I; Slocum, D R

1979-12-13

328

3D culture of murine neural stem cells on decellularized mouse brain sections.  

PubMed

Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSC) in diseased or injured brain tissue is widely studied as a potential treatment for various neurological pathologies. However, effective cell replacement therapy relies on the intrinsic capacity of cellular grafts to overcome hypoxic and/or immunological barriers after transplantation. In this context, it is hypothesized that structural support for grafted NSC will be of utmost importance. With this study, we present a novel decellularization protocol for 1.5 mm thick mouse brain sections, resulting in the generation of acellular three-dimensional (3D) brain sections. Next, the obtained 3D brain sections were seeded with murine NSC expressing both the eGFP and luciferase reporter proteins (NSC-eGFP/Luc). Using real-time bioluminescence imaging, the survival and growth of seeded NSC-eGFP/Luc cells was longitudinally monitored for 1-7 weeks in culture, indicating the ability of the acellular brain sections to support sustained ex vivo growth of NSC. Next, the organization of a 3D maze-like cellular structure was examined using confocal microscopy. Moreover, under mitogenic stimuli (EGF and hFGF-2), most cells in this 3D culture retained their NSC phenotype. Concluding, we here present a novel protocol for decellularization of mouse brain sections, which subsequently support long-term 3D culture of undifferentiated NSC. PMID:25522971

De Waele, Jorrit; Reekmans, Kristien; Daans, Jasmijn; Goossens, Herman; Berneman, Zwi; Ponsaerts, Peter

2015-02-01

329

Fam40b is required for lineage commitment of murine embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

FAM40B (STRIP2) is a member of the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex that is involved in the regulation of various processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Its role for differentiation processes in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is till now completely unknown. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of Fam40b expression in ESCs and differentiating embryoid bodies (EBs) led to perturbed differentiation to embryonic germ layers and their derivatives including a complete abrogation of cardiomyogenesis. Pluripotency factors such as Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 as well as epigenetic factors such as histone acetyltransferase type B (HAT1) and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3-? (Dnmt3b) were highly upregulated in Fam40b knockdown EBs as compared with control and scrambled EBs. To examine the relevance of Fam40b for development in vivo, Fam40b was knocked down in developing zebrafish. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of Fam40b led to severe abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, including an impaired expression of ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and of cardiac myosin light chain 2 (cmlc2) in the heart. We identified the gene product of Fam40b in ESCs as a perinuclear and nucleolar protein with a molecular weight of 96?kDa. We conclude that the expression of Fam40b is essential for the lineage commitment of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into differentiated somatic cells via mechanisms involving pluripotency and epigenetic networks. PMID:25010986

Wagh, V; Doss, M X; Sabour, D; Niemann, R; Meganathan, K; Jagtap, S; Gaspar, J A; Ardestani, M A; Papadopoulos, S; Gajewski, M; Winkler, J; Hescheler, J; Sachinidis, A

2014-01-01

330

Early Activation of MAP Kinases by Influenza A Virus X-31 in Murine Macrophage Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

Early molecular responses to Influenza A (FLUA) virus strain A/X-31 H3N2 in macrophages were explored using J774.A1 and RAW 264.7 murine cell lines. NF-kappa B (NF?B) was reported to be central to FLUA host-response in other cell types. Our data showed that FLUA activation of the classical NF?B dependent pathway in these macrophages was minimal. Regulator proteins, IkappaB-alpha and –beta (I?B?, I?B?), showed limited degradation peaking at 2 h post FLUA exposure and p65 was not observed to translocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Additionally, the non-canonical NF?B pathway was not activated in response to FLUA. The cells did display early increases in TNF? and other inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Mitogen activated phosphokinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are also reported to control production of inflammatory cytokines in response to FLUA. The activation of the MAPKs, cJun kinases 1 and 2 (JNK 1/2), extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), and p38 were investigated in both cell lines between 0.25 and 3 h post-infection. Each of these kinases showed increased phosphorylation post FLUA exposure. JNK phosphorylation occurred early while p38 phosphorylation appeared later. Phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 occurred earlier in J774.A1 cells compared to RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibition of MAPK activation resulted in decreased production of most FLUA responsive cytokines and chemokines in these cells. The results suggest that in these monocytic cells the MAPK pathways are important in the early response to FLUA. PMID:25166426

Cannon, Georgetta; Callahan, Michelle A.; Gronemus, Jenny Q.; Lowy, R. Joel

2014-01-01

331

Induction and assessment of class switch recombination in purified murine B cells.  

PubMed

Humoral immunity is the branch of the immune system maintained by B cells and mediated through the secretion of antibodies. Upon B cell activation, the immunoglobulin locus undergoes a series of genetic modifications to alter the binding capacity and effector function of secreted antibodies. This process is highlighted by a genomic recombination event known as class switch recombination (CSR) in which the default IgM antibody isotype is substituted for one of IgG, IgA, or IgE. Each isotype possesses distinct effector functions thereby making CSR crucial to the maintenance of immunity. Diversification of the immunoglobulin locus is mediated by the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). A schematic video describing this process in detail is available online (http://video.med.utoronto.ca/videoprojects/immunology/aam.html). AID's activity and the CSR pathway are commonly studied in the assessment of B cell function and humoral immunity in mice. The protocol outlined in this report presents a method of B cell isolation from murine spleens and subsequent stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce class switching to IgG3 (for other antibody isotypes see Table 1). In addition, the fluorescent cell staining dye Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is used to monitor cell division of stimulated cells, a process crucial to isotype switching. The regulation of AID and the mechanism by which CSR occurs are still unclear and thus in vitro class switch assays provide a reliable method for testing these processes in various mouse models. These assays have been previously used in the context of gene deficiency using knockout mice. Furthermore, in vitro switching of B cells can be preceded by viral transduction to modulate gene expression by RNA knockdown or transgene expression. The data from these types of experiments have impacted our understanding of AID activity, resolution of the CSR reaction, and antibody-mediated immunity in the mouse. PMID:20736917

Zaheen, Ahmad; Martin, Alberto

2010-01-01

332

Induction and Assessment of Class Switch Recombination in Purified Murine B Cells  

PubMed Central

Humoral immunity is the branch of the immune system maintained by B cells and mediated through the secretion of antibodies. Upon B cell activation, the immunoglobulin locus undergoes a series of genetic modifications to alter the binding capacity and effector function of secreted antibodies. This process is highlighted by a genomic recombination event known as class switch recombination (CSR) in which the default IgM antibody isotype is substituted for one of IgG, IgA, or IgE. Each isotype possesses distinct effector functions thereby making CSR crucial to the maintenance of immunity. Diversification of the immunoglobulin locus is mediated by the enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). A schematic video describing this process in detail is available online (http://video.med.utoronto.ca/videoprojects/immunology/aam.html). AID's activity and the CSR pathway are commonly studied in the assessment of B cell function and humoral immunity in mice. The protocol outlined in this report presents a method of B cell isolation from murine spleens and subsequent stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce class switching to IgG3 (for other antibody isotypes see Table 1). In addition, the fluorescent cell staining dye Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) is used to monitor cell division of stimulated cells, a process crucial to isotype switching 1, 2. The regulation of AID and the mechanism by which CSR occurs are still unclear and thus in vitro class switch assays provide a reliable method for testing these processes in various mouse models. These assays have been previously used in the context of gene deficiency using knockout mice 3. Furthermore, in vitro switching of B cells can be preceded by viral transduction to modulate gene expression by RNA knockdown or transgene expression 4-6. The data from these types of experiments have impacted our understanding of AID activity, resolution of the CSR reaction, and antibody-mediated immunity in the mouse. PMID:20736917

Zaheen, Ahmad; Martin, Alberto

2010-01-01

333

Inhibition of NF-kappaB/Rel induces apoptosis of murine B cells.  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis of the WEHI 231 immature B cell lymphoma line following membrane interaction with an antibody against the surface IgM chains (anti-IgM) is preceded by dramatic changes in Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/ Rel binding activities. An early transient increase in NF-kappaB/Rel binding is followed by a significant decrease in intensity below basal levels. Here we have explored the role of these changes in Rel-related factors in B cell apoptosis. Treatment of WEH1 231 cells with N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), a protease inhibitor which prevents degradation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkappaB)-alpha, or with low doses of pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) selectively inhibited NF-kappaB/Rel factor binding and induced apoptosis. Bcl-XL expression protected WEHI 231 cells from apoptosis induced by these agents. Microinjection of WEHI 231 cells with either IkappaB-alpha-GST protein or a c-Rel affinity-purified antibody induced apoptosis. Ectopic c-Rel expression ablated apoptosis induced by TPCK or anti-IgM. Treatment of BALENLM 17 and A20 B lymphoma cells or normal murine splenic B lymphocytes with either TPCK or PDTC also resulted in apoptosis. These findings indicate that the drop in NF-kappaB/Rel binding following anti-IgM treatment activates apoptosis of WEHI 231 cells; furthermore, they implicate the NF-kappaB/Rel family in control of apoptosis of normal and transformed B cells. Images PMID:8887559

Wu, M; Lee, H; Bellas, R E; Schauer, S L; Arsura, M; Katz, D; FitzGerald, M J; Rothstein, T L; Sherr, D H; Sonenshein, G E

1996-01-01

334

Characterization of producer cell-dependent restriction of murine leukemia virus replication.  

PubMed

We previously reported that the human bronchocarcinoma cell line A549 produces poorly infectious gibbon ape leukemia virus-pseudotyped Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV). In contrast, similar amounts of virions recovered from human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells result in 10-fold-higher transduction rates (G. Duisit, A. Salvetti, P. Moullier, and F. Cosset, Hum. Gene Ther. 10:189-200, 1999). We have now extended this initial observation to other type-C envelope (Env) pseudotypes and analyzed the mechanism involved. Structural and morphological analysis showed that viral particles recovered from A549 (A549-MLV) and HT1080 (HT1080-MLV) cells were normal and indistinguishable from each other. They expressed equivalent levels of mature Env proteins and bound similarly to the target cells. Furthermore, incoming particles reached the cytosol and directed the synthesis of linear viral DNA equally efficiently. However, almost no detectable circular DNAs could be detected in A549-MLV-infected cells, indicating that the block of infection resulted from defective nuclear translocation of the preintegration complex. Interestingly, pseudotyping of A549-MLV with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G restored the amount of circular DNA forms as well as the transduction rates to HT1080-MLV levels, suggesting that the postentry blockage could be overcome by endocytic delivery of the core particles downstream of the restriction point. Thus, in contrast to the previously described target cell-dependent Fv-1 (or Fv1-like) restriction in mammalian cells (P. Pryciak and H. E. Varmus, J. Virol. 66:5959-5966, 1992; G. Towers, M. Bock, S. Martin, Y. Takeuchi, J. P. Stoye, and O. Danos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:12295-12299, 2000), we report here a new restriction of MLV replication that relies only on the producer cell type. PMID:12050374

Serhan, Fatima; Jourdan, Nathalie; Saleun, Sylvie; Moullier, Philippe; Duisit, Ghislaine

2002-07-01

335

Curcumin Suppresses the Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-18 in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Murine Macrophage-Like Cells.  

PubMed

Curcumin is a major bioactive compound of turmeric that exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a number of cell types and pathologic conditions. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine which plays an important role not only in generating Th1 responses but also in inducing severe inflammatory reactions. As curcumin induced inhibition of IL-18 production in keratinocytes and mice is well known, effect of curcumin on IL-18 release in macrophages remains unknown. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the effect of curcumin on IL-18 production and necrotic cell death in murine macrophages-like cells treated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The IL-18 secretion in cell culture supernatants was assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytotoxicity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Our results demonstrate that curcumin significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 in E.coli LPS stimulated murine macrophage-like cells RAW264.7 in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, curcumin had no cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage-like cells. Our findings suggest that curcumin may be used as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25646051

Yadav, Renu; Jee, Babban; Awasthi, Sudhir Kumar

2015-01-01

336

Low-density lipoprotein-mediated delivery of docosahexaenoic acid selectively kills murine liver cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Aim The natural omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has recently been credited for possessing anticancer properties. Herein, we investigate the cytotoxic actions of DHA-loaded low-density lipoprotein (LDL) nanoparticles in normal and liver cancer cells. Materials & methods LDL-DHA nanoparticles were prepared and subjected to extensive biophysical characterization. The therapeutic utility of LDL-DHA nanoparticles was evaluated in normal and malignant murine hepatocyte cell lines, TIB-73 and TIB-75, respectively. Results & discussion The engineered LDL-DHA nanoparticles possessed enhanced physical and oxidative stabilities over native LDL and free DHA. Dose–response studies showed that therapeutic doses of LDL-DHA nanoparticles that completely killed TIB-75 were innocuous to TIB-73. The selective induction of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species in the cancer cells was shown to play a central role in LDL-DHA nanoparticle-mediated cytotoxicity. Conclusion In summary, these findings indicate that LDL-DHA nanoparticles show great promise as a selective anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24397600

Reynolds, Lacy; Mulik, Rohit S.; Wen, Xiaodong; Dilip, Archana; Corbin, Ian R.

2014-01-01

337

Human muscle–derived stem/progenitor cells promote functional murine peripheral nerve regeneration  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerve injuries and neuropathies lead to profound functional deficits. Here, we have demonstrated that muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) isolated from adult human skeletal muscle (hMDSPCs) can adopt neuronal and glial phenotypes in vitro and ameliorate a critical-sized sciatic nerve injury and its associated defects in a murine model. Transplanted hMDSPCs surrounded the axonal growth cone, while hMDSPCs infiltrating the regenerating nerve differentiated into myelinating Schwann cells. Engraftment of hMDSPCs into the area of the damaged nerve promoted axonal regeneration, which led to functional recovery as measured by sustained gait improvement. Furthermore, no adverse effects were observed in these animals up to 18 months after transplantation. Following hMDSPC therapy, gastrocnemius muscles from mice exhibited substantially less muscle atrophy, an increase in muscle mass after denervation, and reorganization of motor endplates at the postsynaptic sites compared with those from PBS-treated mice. Evaluation of nerve defects in animals transplanted with vehicle-only or myoblast-like cells did not reveal histological or functional recovery. These data demonstrate the efficacy of hMDSPC-based therapy for peripheral nerve injury and suggest that hMDSPC transplantation has potential to be translated for use in human neuropathies. PMID:24642464

Lavasani, Mitra; Thompson, Seth D.; Pollett, Jonathan B.; Usas, Arvydas; Lu, Aiping; Stolz, Donna B.; Clark, Katherine A.; Sun, Bin; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

2014-01-01

338

The Acute Exposure Effects of Inhaled Nickel Nanoparticles on Murine Endothelial Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures such as increases in vascular inflammation, generate reactive oxygen species, alter vasomotor tone, and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Methods Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500?g/m3 of nickel nanoparticles for 5 hrs, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation, and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs), and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Results and Conclusions Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. This data provides new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs. PMID:25144474

Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

2014-01-01

339

Interactome analysis of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in murine models of colon and breast cancer  

PubMed Central

In solid cancers, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) infiltrate (peri)tumoral tissues to induce immune tolerance and hence to establish a microenvironment permissive to tumor growth. Importantly, the mechanisms that facilitate such infiltration or a subsequent immune suppression are not fully understood. Hence, in this study, we aimed to delineate disparate molecular pathways which MDSC utilize in murine models of colon or breast cancer. Using pathways enrichment analysis, we completed interactome maps of multiple signaling pathways in CD11b+/Gr1(high/low) MDSC from spleens and tumor infiltrates of mice with c26GM colon cancer and tumor infiltrates of MDSC in 4T1 breast cancer. In both cancer models, infiltrating MDSC, but not CD11b+ splenic cells, have been found to be enriched in multiple signaling molecules suggestive of their enhanced proliferative and invasive phenotypes. The interactome data has been subsequently used to reconstruct a previously unexplored regulation of MDSC cell cycle by the c-myc transcription factor which was predicted by the analysis. Thus, this study represents a first interactome mapping of distinct multiple molecular pathways whereby MDSC sustain cancer progression. PMID:25294811

Aliper, Alexander M.; Frieden-Korovkina, Victoria P.; Buzdin, Anton; Roumiantsev, Sergey A.; Zhavoronkov, Alex

2014-01-01

340

Stimulatory Effects of Polysaccharide Fraction from Solanum nigrum on RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells  

PubMed Central

The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth. PMID:25299340

Razali, Faizan Naeem; Ismail, Amirah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza

2014-01-01

341

Efficient Production and Purification of Recombinant Murine Kindlin-3 from Insect Cells for Biophysical Studies  

PubMed Central

Kindlins are essential coactivators, with talin, of the cell surface receptors integrins and also participate in integrin outside-in signalling, and the control of gene transcription in the cell nucleus. The kindlins are ~75 kDa multidomain proteins and bind to an NPxY motif and upstream T/S cluster of the integrin ?-subunit cytoplasmic tail. The hematopoietically-important kindlin isoform, kindlin-3, is critical for platelet aggregation during thrombus formation, leukocyte rolling in response to infection and inflammation and osteoclast podocyte formation in bone resorption. Kindlin-3's role in these processes has resulted in extensive cellular and physiological studies. However, there is a need for an efficient method of acquiring high quality milligram quantities of the protein for further studies. We have developed a protocol, here described, for the efficient expression and purification of recombinant murine kindlin-3 by use of a baculovirus-driven expression system in Sf9 cells yielding sufficient amounts of high purity full-length protein to allow its biophysical characterization. The same approach could be taken in the study of the other mammalian kindlin isoforms. PMID:24686835

Yates, Luke A.; Gilbert, Robert J. C.

2014-01-01

342

Stimulatory effects of polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells.  

PubMed

The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth. PMID:25299340

Razali, Faizan Naeem; Ismail, Amirah; Abidin, Nurhayati Zainal; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza

2014-01-01

343

Successful combined intratumoral immunotherapy of established murine mesotheliomas requires B-cell involvement.  

PubMed

Combination immunotherapy has resulted in a number of impressive outcomes in mouse models and clinical settings. In this study, we report that a timed triple immunotherapy (TTI) protocol using 3 agonist antibodies (anti-CD25mAb, anti-TGF-?mAb, and anti-CTLA-4mAb) produced complete clearance of established AB1 murine mesothelioma tumors. Combining all 3 agonist antibodies into a single cocktail for intratumoral injection was as effective as the TTI in tumor eradication. Cured mice showed elevated levels of tumor-specific IgG antibodies at 95 days posttreatment. Time-course studies of tumor clearance showed (1) that IgG levels were not elevated during tumor clearance and (2) that B-cell numbers were increased in the tumor-draining lymph nodes and spleens during tumor clearance. Finally, employment of B-cell knockout mice indicated a significant role for B cells in the successful eradication of the established tumors by the triple immunotherapy cocktail. PMID:25259549

Krishnan, Shruti; Bakker, Emily; Lee, Cassandra; Kissick, Haydn T; Ireland, Demelza J; Beilharz, Manfred W

2015-02-01

344

Association of murine lupus and thymic full-length endogenous retroviral expression maps to a bone marrow stem cell  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of thymic gene expression in murine lupus have demonstrated 8.4-kb (full-length size) modified polytropic (Mpmv) endogenous retroviral RNA. In contrast, normal control mouse strains do not produce detectable amounts of such RNA in their thymuses. Prior studies have attributed a defect in experimental tolerance in murine lupus to a bone marrow stem cell rather than to the thymic epithelium; in contrast, infectious retroviral expression has been associated with the thymic epithelium, rather than with the bone marrow stem cell. The present study was designed to determine whether the abnormal Mpmv expression associated with murine lupus mapped to thymic epithelium or to a marrow precursor. Lethally irradiated control and lupus-prone mice were reconstituted with T cell depleted bone marrow; one month later their thymuses were studied for endogenous retroviral RNA and protein expression. Recipients of bone marrow from nonautoimmune donors expressed neither 8.4-kb Mpmv RNA nor surface MCF gp70 in their thymuses. In contrast, recipients of bone marrow from autoimmune NZB or BXSB donors expressed thymic 8.4-kb Mpmv RNA and mink cell focus-forming gp70. These studies demonstrate that lupus-associated 8.4-kb Mpmv endogenous retroviral expression is determined by bone marrow stem cells.

Krieg, A.M.; Gourley, M.F.; Steinberg, A.D. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1991-05-01

345

Assessment of immunosuppressive activity of human mesenchymal stem cells using murine antigen specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunosuppressive activity. They do not induce allospecific T cell responses, making them promising tools for reducing the severity of graft versus host disease (GVHD) as well as treating various immune diseases. Currently, there is a need in the MSC field to develop a robust in vitro bioassay which can characterize the immunosuppressive function of MSCs. Methods Murine clonal CD4 and CD8 T cells were stimulated with cognate peptide antigen and antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the absence or presence of human MSCs, different aspects of T cell activation were monitored and analyzed using flow cytometery, real time RT-PCR and cytokine measurement. Results Human MSCs (hMSCs) can alter multiple aspects of murine T cell activation induced by stimulation with specific antigen, including: reduced proliferation, inhibited or stimulated cell surface marker expression (CD25, CD69, CD44 and CD62L), inhibited mRNA expression of transcription factors (T-bet and GATA-3) and decreased cytokine expression (interferon-gamma, interleukin-10). Disappearance of activation-induced cluster formation and decreased apoptosis of CD8 T cells were also observed. Moreover, the effects are specific to MSCs; incubating the T cells with non-MSC control cell lines had no effect on T cell proliferation and activation. Conclusions Clonal murine T cells can be used to measure, characterize, and quantify the in vitro immunosuppressive activity of human MSCs, representing a promising approach to improve bioassays for immunosuppression. PMID:24406271

2013-01-01

346

All-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acid inhibit growth of normal human and murine B cell precursors.  

PubMed

In the present paper we demonstrate that physiologic levels (10 nM) of both all-trans- and 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA) are potent inhibitors of the growth of human as well as murine B cell precursors in vitro. Ten nanomolar concentrations of all-trans- and 9-cis-RA reduced the DNA synthesis ([3H]thymidine uptake) of human B cell precursors (CD19+ IgM-) stimulated with O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and ionomycin by approximately 55% and 70%, respectively. Human B cell precursors stimulated with low m.w. B cell growth factor were also inhibited by RA. Ten nanomolar concentrations of either isoform of RA reduced DNA synthesis by approximately 50%. No effect of RA on differentiation to sIgM positive cells was noted. The potent growth-inhibiting effect of RA on human B cell precursors was confirmed in the murine cell system. B lymphopoiesis from murine hematopoietic precursors (Lin-B220(+)-containing cells) was induced by stimulation with IL-7. Concentrations of all-trans- and 9-cis-RA as low as 10 pM reduced the colony-forming ability of the IL-7-stimulated Lin-B220(+)-containing cells. Ten nanomolar concentrations of either isoform reduced colony formation by approximately 60%. RA was not toxic to the cells, as the inhibition of colony formation after 24 h was reversible at concentrations as high as 1 microM. The growth-inhibiting effect of RA was directly mediated, as revealed by single cell analysis of the Lin-B220(+)-containing cells. Thus, vitamin A appears to have an important role in regulation of B lymphopoiesis. PMID:7602122

Fahlman, C; Jacobsen, S E; Smeland, E B; Lømo, J; Naess, C E; Funderud, S; Blomhoff, H K

1995-07-01

347

Thymoquinone Inhibits Murine Leukemia WEHI-3 Cells In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Thymoquinone is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa (Black Seed). This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-leukemic effects of thymoquinone on WEHI-3 cells. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of thymoquinone was assessed using an MTT assay, while the inhibitory effect of thymoquinone on murine WEHI-3 cell growth was due to the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by chromatin condensation dye, Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/propidium iodide fluorescent staining. In addition, Annexin V staining for early apoptosis was performed using flowcytometric analysis. Apoptosis was found to be associated with the cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Expression of Bax, Bcl2 and HSP 70 proteins were observed by western blotting. The effects of thymoquinone on BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were indicated by the decrease in the body, spleen and liver weights of the animal, as compared to the control. Conclusion Thymoquinone promoted natural killer cell activities. This compound showed high toxicity against WEHI-3 cell line which was confirmed by an increase of the early apoptosis, followed by up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl2, and down-regulation of the apoptotic protein, Bax. On the other hand, high reduction of the spleen and liver weight, and significant histopathology study of spleen and liver confirmed that thymoquinone inhibited WEHI-3 growth in the BALB/c mice. Results from this study highlight the potential of thymoquinone to be developed as an anti-leukemic agent. PMID:25531768

Ali Salim, Landa Zeenelabdin; Othman, Rozana; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al-Jashamy, Karim; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Omer, Fatima Abd Elmutaal Ahmed; Mohan, Syam

2014-01-01

348

Enhancement of radiation cytotoxicity in murine cancer cells by electroporation: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence has accumulated in recent years to suggest that the cell membrane forms the vital common target for action by ionizing radiation and electroporation. The present work describes the use of electric pulses for enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: low dose rate (0.37 Gy/min) Co60 gamma-rays (2 Gy) in combination with electric pulses of square wave (2 kV/cm, 200 micros duration, 8 pulses/burst, 10 times) significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC), probably through enhanced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The intracellular generation of ROS and changes in oxidative damage-mediated membrane fluidity were determined by fluorescence using DCH-FDA and DPH, respectively, as probes. Both radiation and electroporation, separately, have been observed to produce ROS in a dose-dependent fashion. We show that the combined treatment of cells with radiation and electroporation significantly increased intracellular ROS and changed membrane fluidity of EAC cells as compared to the effects by each individual treatment. In vivo studies have been carried out with murine fibrosarcoma as a model system. The localized treatment of a fibrosarcoma tumor, grown in the right hind leg of Swiss mice, had been carried out using radiation (Co60 gamma-rays, 2 Gy, dose rate: 0.37 Gy/min) and electric pulses (1 kV/cm, 200 micros, 8 pulses/burst, 10 times). Studies on tumor growth kinetics have shown a significant growth delay (by 50% to that of control) 7 days after treatment of tumor with radiation and electroporation. The results suggest that radiocytotoxicity of tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo were enhanced significantly by electric pulses, which may offer a potentially improved treatment of cancer. PMID:16393122

Shil, Pratip; Sanghvi, Surendra H; Vidyasagar, Pandit B; Mishra, Kaushala P

2005-01-01

349

Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 267.4 murine macrophages  

SciTech Connect

The mycotoxin enniatin B (EnnB) is predominantly produced by species of the Fusarium genera, and often found in grain. The cytotoxic effect of EnnB has been suggested to be related to its ability to form ionophores in cell membranes. The present study examines the effects of EnnB on cell death, differentiation, proliferation and pro-inflammatory responses in the murine monocyte–macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Exposure to EnnB for 24 h caused an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-phase with a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1. This cell cycle-arrest was possibly also linked to the reduced cellular ability to capture and internalize receptors as illustrated by the lipid marker ganglioside GM1. EnnB also increased the number of apoptotic, early apoptotic and necrotic cells, as well as cells with elongated spindle-like morphology. The Neutral Red assay indicated that EnnB induced lysosomal damage; supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing accumulation of lipids inside the lysosomes forming lamellar structures/myelin bodies. Enhanced levels of activated caspase-1 were observed after EnnB exposure and the caspase-1 specific inhibitor ZYVAD-FMK reduced EnnB-induced apoptosis. Moreover, EnnB increased the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and this response was reduced by both ZYVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me. In conclusion, EnnB was found to induce cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. Caspase-1 appeared to be involved in the apoptosis and release of IL-1? and possibly activation of the inflammasome through lysosomal damage and leakage of cathepsin B. -- Highlights: ? The mycotoxin EnnB induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and inflammation. ? The G0/G1-arrest was linked to a reduced ability to internalize receptors. ? EnnB caused lysosomal damage, leakage of cathepsin B and caspase-1 cleavage. ? Caspase-1 was partly involved in both apoptosis and release of IL-1?. ? There was a synergistic action between EnnB and bacterial LPS.

Gammelsrud, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway) [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Solhaug, A. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway)] [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Dendelé, B. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France)] [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Sandberg, W.J. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ivanova, L. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway)] [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Kocbach Bølling, A. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Lagadic-Gossmann, D. [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France)] [EA 4427 SeRAIC, IRSET, Université de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Rennes (France); Refsnes, M.; Becher, R. [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)] [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Eriksen, G. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway)] [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750, Centrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Holme, J.A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

2012-05-15

350

Vaccination with tumor cells expressing IL-15 and IL-15R? inhibits murine breast and prostate cancer.  

PubMed

A number of antitumor vaccines have recently shown promise in upregulating immune responses against tumor antigens and improving patient survival. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of vaccination using interleukin (IL)-15-expressing tumor cells and also examine their ability to upregulate immune responses to tumor antigens. We demonstrated that the coexpression of IL-15 with its receptor, IL-15R?, increased the cell-surface expression and secretion of IL-15. We show that a gene transfer approach using recombinant adenovirus to express IL-15 and IL-15R? in murine TRAMP-C2 prostate or TS/A breast tumors induced antitumor immune responses. From this, we developed a vaccine platform, consisting of TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells or TS/A breast cancer cells coexpressing IL-15 and IL-15R? that inhibited tumor formation when mice were challenged with tumor. Inhibition of tumor growth led to improved survival when compared with animals receiving cells expressing IL-15 alone or unmodified tumor cells. Animals vaccinated with tumor cells coexpressing IL-15 and IL-15R? showed greater tumor infiltration with CD8(+) T and natural killer (NK) cells, as well as increased antitumor CD8(+) T-cell responses. Vaccination with IL-15/IL-15R?-modified TS/A breast cancer cells provided a survival advantage to mice challenged with unrelated murine TUBO breast cancer cells, indicating the potential for allogeneic IL-15/IL-15R?-expressing vaccines. PMID:24572789

Morris, J C; Ramlogan-Steel, C A; Yu, P; Black, B A; Mannan, P; Allison, J P; Waldmann, T A; Steel, J C

2014-04-01

351

Estrogen Receptor ? Activation Impairs Prostatic Regeneration by Inducing Apoptosis in Murine and Human Stem/Progenitor Enriched Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Androgen depletion is the primary treatment for prostate disease; however, it fails to target residual castrate-resistant cells that are regenerative and cells of origin of prostate cancer. Estrogens, like androgens, regulate survival in prostatic cells, and the goal of this study was to determine the advantages of selective activation of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) to induce cell death in stem cells that are castrate-resistant. Here we show two cycles of short-term ER? agonist (8?-VE2) administration this treatment impairs regeneration, causing cystic atrophy that correlates with sustained depletion of p63+ basal cells. Furthermore, agonist treatment attenuates clonogenicity and self-renewal of murine prostatic stem/progenitor cells and depletes both murine (Lin?Sca1+CD49fhi) and human (CD49fhiTrop2hi) prostatic basal cells. Finally, we demonstrate the combined added benefits of selective stimulation of ER?, including the induction of cell death in quiescent post-castration tissues. Subsequent to castration ER?-induces further apoptosis in basal, luminal and intermediate cells. Our results reveal a novel benefit of ER? activation for prostate disease and suggest that combining selective activation of ER? with androgen-deprivation may be a feasible strategy to target stem cells implicated in the origin of prostatic disease. PMID:22808245

Hussain, Shirin; Lawrence, Mitchell G.; Taylor, Renea A.; Lo, Camden Yeung-Wah; BioResource, A. P. C.; Frydenberg, Mark; Ellem, Stuart J.; Furic, Luc; Risbridger, Gail P.

2012-01-01

352

Mammalian cell transformation by a murine retrovirus vector containing the avian erythroblastosis virus erbB gene.  

PubMed Central

A recombinant murine retrovirus vector containing the v-erbB gene of avian erythroblastosis virus was constructed to investigate v-erbB as a transforming gene for mammalian cells. A restriction fragment containing the v-erbB sequences from a molecular clone of avian erythroblastosis virus was inserted into a Moloney murine leukemia virus vector. The construct, designated MuLV/erbB, transformed NIH 3T3 cells at a high efficiency in the DNA transfection assay. Individual MuLV/erbB transfectants grew in soft agar and were tumorigenic. The transfectants contained v-erbB DNA sequences, expressed v-erbB-specific transcripts, and synthesized v-erbB-related glycoproteins. The majority of transfectants produced two major v-erbB gene products of 58 and 66 kilodaltons. However, some transfectants produced much smaller v-erbB-specific proteins. Tunicamycin experiments revealed that the size heterogeneity observed between different transfectants was not due to variations in glycoprotein processing, implying that, in some cases, alterations in the MuLV/erbB genome occurred during the transfection process. These findings indicate that expression of the complete v-erbB gene product is not required for transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. A transmissible murine v-erbB (M-erbB) virus was generated by infection of nonproducer transfectants with amphotrophic murine leukemia virus. Transmission of the rescued M-erbB virus was confirmed by DNA, RNA, and protein analyses. The introduction of a transforming v-erbB gene into mammalian cells by virus infection provides a means of analyzing the mechanism by which this epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene alters the growth and differentiation of cells from various lineages. Images PMID:3018285

Gazit, A; Pierce, J H; Kraus, M H; Di Fiore, P P; Pennington, C Y; Aaronson, S A

1986-01-01

353

A model of multiple myeloma: culture of 5T33 murine myeloma cells and evaluation of tumorigenicity in the C57BL\\/KaLwRij mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 5T33 multiple myeloma is one of a series of transplantable murine myelomas arising spontaneously in C57BL\\/KaLwRij mice. This study describes the establishment and characterisation of the 5T33 murine myeloma in vitro as a cultured cell line in terms of its morphology, growth rate, expression of paraprotein (IgG2b) and tumorigenicity in syngeneic animals. The 5T33 cell line has been in

LS Manning; JD Berger; HL O'Donoghue; GN Sheridan; PG Claringbold; J Harvey Turner

1992-01-01

354

Monoclonal Immunoglobulin G1 Directed against Aspergillus fumigatus Cell Wall Glycoprotein Protects against Experimental Murine Aspergillosis†  

PubMed Central

Most of the biological functions related to pathogenicity and virulence reside in the fungal cell wall, which, being the outermost part of the cell, mediates the host-fungus interplay. For these reasons much effort has focused on the discovery of useful inhibitors of cell wall glucan, chitin, and mannoprotein biosynthesis. In the absence of a wide-spectrum, safe, and potent antifungal agent, a new strategy for antifungal therapy is directed towards the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In the present study the MAb A9 (immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1]) was identified from hybridomas raised in BALB/c mice immunized with cell wall antigen of Aspergillus fumigatus. The immunoreactive epitopes for this IgG1 MAb appeared to be associated with a peptide moiety, and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed its binding to the cell wall surface of hyphae as well as with swollen conidia. MAb A9 inhibited hyphal development as observed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay (25.76%), reduced the duration of spore germination, and exerted an in vitro cidal effect against Aspergillus fumigatus. The in vivo protective efficacy of MAb A9 was also evaluated in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis, where a reduction in CFU (>4 log10 units) was observed in kidney tissue of BALB/c mice challenged with A. fumigatus (2 × 105 CFU/ml) and where enhanced mean survival times (19.5 days) compared to the control (7.1 days) and an irrelevant MAb (6.1 days) were also observed. PMID:16148172

Chaturvedi, Ashok K.; Kavishwar, A.; Keshava, G. B. Shiva; Shukla, P. K.

2005-01-01

355

[Age-associated changes in antibody production of murine spleen cells].  

PubMed

In the present work, we studied age-associated changes in murine immune functions. We estimated total antibodies and autoantibodies to single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA), double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) histone and collagen in sera and culture supernatants of spleen cells from young and aged BALB/c, C57BL/6 and MRL/MpJ-(+/+) (MRL/n) mice. In MRL/n mice, the IgM class of the total antibody level in serum increased gradually to the maximum at 3 months of age, and then started to decrease. In contrast, the IgG class started to rise with age after the age of 9 months. Serum levels of IgM and IgG autoantibodies to DNA were dominant in MRL/n mice, and the IgG class started to increase in earlier stages of life than in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Anti-DNA autoantibodies were produced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cultures of spleen cells from BALB/c, C57BL/6 and MRL/n mice. The stimulatory effect of LPS on autoantibody production was significantly reduced by the addition of concanavalin A (Con A) to the LPS-stimulated cultures. The Con A-induced suppressive activity increased with the donor age in MRL/n mouse spleen cells. On the other hand, total antibody production in LPS-stimulated cultures was not affected by the addition of Con A to the cultures. These results may suggest that IgG autoantibody-producing B cells increase with age in MRL/n mouse spleen cells, and that the suppressive activity on autoantibody production is selectively augmented. PMID:2255114

Yoshida, A; Hosokawa, T; Nishio, S; Aoike, A; Kawai, K

1990-08-01

356

Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis and Degradation of Murine Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule mEpCAM  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein, which is highly and frequently expressed in carcinomas and (cancer-)stem cells, and which plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell pluripotency. We show here that murine EpCAM (mEpCAM) is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis in various cells including embryonic stem cells and teratocarcinomas. As shown with ectopically expressed EpCAM variants, cleavages occur at ?-, ?-, ?-, and ?-sites to generate soluble ectodomains, soluble A?-like-, and intracellular fragments termed mEpEX, mEp-?, and mEpICD, respectively. Proteolytic sites in the extracellular part of mEpCAM were mapped using mass spectrometry and represent cleavages at the ?- and ?-sites by metalloproteases and the b-secretase BACE1, respectively. Resulting C-terminal fragments (CTF) are further processed to soluble A?-like fragments mEp-? and cytoplasmic mEpICD variants by the g-secretase complex. Noteworthy, cytoplasmic mEpICD fragments were subject to efficient degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In addition the ?-secretase complex dependent cleavage of EpCAM CTF liberates different EpICDs with different stabilities towards proteasomal degradation. Generation of CTF and EpICD fragments and the degradation of hEpICD via the proteasome were similarly demonstrated for the human EpCAM ortholog. Additional EpCAM orthologs have been unequivocally identified in silico in 52 species. Sequence comparisons across species disclosed highest homology of BACE1 cleavage sites and in presenilin-dependent ?-cleavage sites, whereas strongest heterogeneity was observed in metalloprotease cleavage sites. In summary, EpCAM is a highly conserved protein present in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, and is subject to shedding, ?-secretase-dependent regulated intramembrane proteolysis, and proteasome-mediated degradation. PMID:24009667

Hachmeister, Matthias; Bobowski, Karolina D.; Hogl, Sebastian; Dislich, Bastian; Fukumori, Akio; Eggert, Carola; Mack, Brigitte; Kremling, Heidi; Sarrach, Sannia; Coscia, Fabian; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Steiner, Harald; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F.; Gires, Olivier

2013-01-01

357

The murine AIDS defective provirus acts as an insertional mutagen in its infected target B cells.  

PubMed Central

In susceptible mice, the murine AIDS (MAIDS) defective virus can induce marked expansion of its target cells, the majority of which belong to the B-cell lineage. This expansion, which appears to be critical for the development of the immunodeficiency syndrome, is initially polyclonal but becomes oligoclonal late in the disease, suggesting the involvement of a secondary genetic event(s) during this proliferation. To determine whether integration of the MAIDS defective provirus into particular regions of the cellular genome contributes to this oligoclonal expansion, we searched for common provirus integration sites in enlarged lymphoid organs of MAIDS mice. We identified two common proviral integration sites, Dis-1 and Dis-2, which were occupied by a defective provirus at frequencies of 20 and 13%, respectively. Our analysis revealed that the Dis-1 region corresponds to the Sfpil1 (Spi-1, PU.1) locus, which maps on chromosome 2, and encodes a transcription factor. Insertion of the MAIDS defective provirus into this region led to a two- to threefold increase in the expression of Sfpi1 RNA. The Dis-2 locus was found to map to mouse chromosome 11, between Hox2 and Scya. It appears to be a novel locus probably harboring a gene involved in B-cell proliferation. The present study indicates that the MAIDS defective provirus can act as an insertional mutagen, thus contributing to the oligoclonal expansion of infected cells. The detection of two common proviral integration sites, each of which targetted at a low frequency in diseased organs, suggests that the deregulation of a unique gene through provirus insertion is essential for neither proliferation of infected B cells nor development of the immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:7769664

Huang, M; Takac, M; Kozak, C A; Jolicoeur, P

1995-01-01

358

Paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells enhance vascular regeneration in ischemic murine skin.  

PubMed

New theories on the regeneration of ischemic vasculature have emerged indicating a pivotal role of adult stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate homing and hemodynamic effects of circulating bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a critically ischemic murine skin flap model. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Lin(-)CD105(+)) were harvested from GFP(+)-donor mice and transferred to wildtype C57BL/6 mice. Animals receiving GFP(+)-fibroblasts served as a control group. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and intravital fluorescence microscopy were used for morphological analysis, monitoring and quantitative assessment of the stem cell homing and microhemodynamics over two weeks. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for GFP, eNOS, iNOS, VEGF. Tissue viability was analyzed by TUNEL-assay. We were able to visualize perivascular homing of MSCs in vivo. After 4 days, MSCs aligned along the vascular wall without undergoing endothelial or smooth muscle cell differentiation during the observation period. The gradual increase in arterial vascular resistance observed in the control group was abolished after MSC administration (P<0.01). At capillary level, a strong angiogenic response was found from day 7 onwards. Functional capillary density was raised in the MSC group to 197% compared to 132% in the control group (P<0.01). Paracrine expression of VEGF and iNOS, but not eNOS could be shown in the MSC group but not in the controls. In conclusion, we demonstrated that circulating bone marrow-derived MSCs home to perivascular sites in critically ischemic tissue, exhibits paracrine function and augment microhemodynamics. These effects were mediated through arteriogenesis and angiogenesis, which contributed to vascular regeneration. PMID:22391452

Schlosser, Stefan; Dennler, Cyrill; Schweizer, Riccardo; Eberli, Daniel; Stein, Jens V; Enzmann, Volker; Giovanoli, Pietro; Erni, Dominique; Plock, Jan A

2012-05-01

359

Inhibition of antigen-induced lymph node cell proliferation by murine amniotic fluid and its components.  

PubMed Central

Murine amniotic fluid (MAF), alpha-foeto-protein (AFP) and MAF depleted of AFP by affinity chromatography (MAF-AFP) inhibited the T-cell dependent in vitro proliferative responses of lymph node cells sensitized to a variety of soluble antigens. Variable degrees of inhibition were observed with the different antigens used in the assay. In general, the higher the proliferative response induced by a particular antigen, the less it was inhibited by the three inhibitors. Enhancement of proliferation was not infrequently observed at lower concentrations followed by a dose-dependent inhibition as the concentration of the inhibitor was increased. Usually the order of inhibition was MAF greater than MAF-AFP greater than or equal to AFP although variations in inhibitory potency were noted between different preparations of AFP and MAF-AFP. The existence of inhibitors in preparations of MAF depleted of AFP raised the question as to whether MAF contains single or multiple inhibitory factors. The most facile explanation is that two inhbitors exist; AFP and the as yet uncharacterized non-AFP suppressor present in MAF-AFP. PMID:93081

Suzuki, K; Tomasi, T B

1979-01-01

360

In vitro inhibition of murine hematopoietic progenitors and stromal cells by vinorelbine.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic progenitor colony assays were used to establish the effects of the vinca alkaloid vinorelbine (VRB) on murine bone marrow. The in vitro growth of colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), burst forming units-erythroid (BFU-E) and colony-forming units-mix (CFU-mix) was dose-dependently inhibited by VRB. The highest dose assayed (0.02 microg/ml) suppressed all of the different progenitor cells by 100%. A comparison of the dose-response curves showed that CFU-GM, BFU-E, and CFU-mix exhibited similar-patterns of sensitivity to the cytotoxic action of VRB. Long-term bone marrow cultures have provided a valuable in vitro model for studying the role of the microenvironment of bone marrow. Cellularity of stromal layers was reduced with increasing doses of VRB. The appearance of these layers was altered minimally with the lowest dose used; a gradual loss of cellularity was seen in cultures exposed to 0.05 and 0.075 microg/ml; and a marked loss at the dose of 0.1 microg/ml. Our results show that VRB has an important effect on hematopoietic progenitors at the highest dose tested, while the stromal cells were not affected at a similar dose (0.025 microg/ml), suggesting that the stroma is more resistant to this drug. PMID:11101005

González-Cid, M; Larripa, I; de Di Risio, C B

2000-01-01

361

Murine whole-organ immune cell populations revealed by multi-epitope-ligand cartography.  

PubMed

Multi-epitope-ligand cartography (MELC) is an innovative high-throughput fluorescence microscopy-based method. A tissue section is analyzed through a repeated cycling of (1) incubation with a fluorophore-labeled antibody, (2) fluorescence imaging, and (3) soft bleaching. This method allows staining of the same tissue section with up to 100 fluorescent markers and to analyze their toponomic expression using further image processing and pixel-precise overlay of the corresponding images. In this study, we adapted this method to identify a large panel of murine leukocyte subpopulations in a whole frozen section of a peripheral lymph node. Using the resulting antibody library, we examined non-inflamed versus inflamed tissues of brain and spinal cord in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The presence and activity of specific leukocyte subpopulations (different T cell subpopulations, dendritic cells, macrophages, etc.) could be assessed and the cellular localizations and the corresponding activation status in situ were investigated. The results were then correlated with quantitative RT-PCR. PMID:23160665

Eckhardt, Jenny; Ostalecki, Christian; Kuczera, Katarzyna; Schuler, Gerold; Pommer, Ansgar J; Lechmann, Matthias

2013-02-01

362

Human Bone Marrow and Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Generate CD4^+ and CD8^+ Single-Positive T Cells in Murine Fetal Thymus Organ Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murine fetal thymus lobes isolated from both normal and scid\\/scid mice can be colonized by donor cells from either human bone marrow or human umbilical cord blood in vitro. Subsequent organ culture results in a transient production of a few CD4^+ CD8^+ (double-positive) cells and then the accumulation of CD4^+ or CD8^+ (single-positive) T cells. A significant number of immature

Helen Yeoman; Ronald E. Gress; Catherine V. Bare; Anne G. Leary; Edward A. Boyse; Judith Bard; Leonard D. Shultz; David T. Harris; Dominick Deluca

1993-01-01

363

Differential expression of the Slc4 bicarbonate transporter family in murine corneal endothelium and cell culture  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the relative expression levels of all the solute carrier 4 (Slc4) transporter family members (Slc4a1–Slc4a11) in murine corneal endothelium using real-time quantitative (qPCR), to identify further important members besides Slc4a11 and Slc4a4, and to explore how close to the baseline levels the gene expressions remain after cells have been subjected to expansion and culture. Methods Descemet’s membrane-endothelial layers of 8–10-week-old C57BL6 mice were stripped from corneas and used for both primary cell culture and direct RNA extraction. Total RNA (from uncultured cells as well as cultured cells at passages 2 and 7) was reverse transcribed, and the cDNA was used for real time qPCR using specific primers for all the Slc4 family members. The geNorm method was applied to determine the most stab