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Sample records for musa aaa cv

  1. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance. PMID:25277445

  2. Identification and expression analysis of four 14-3-3 genes during fruit ripening in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian).

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Ying; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Ren, Li-Cheng; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the regulation of 14-3-3 proteins in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Brazilian) fruit postharvest ripening, four cDNAs encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated from banana and designated as Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, Ma-14-3-3e, and Ma-14-3-3i, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that the four 14-3-3 proteins shared a highly conserved core structure and variable C-terminal as well as N-terminal regions with 14-3-3 proteins from other plant species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four 14-3-3 genes belong to the non-ε groups. They were differentially and specifically expressed in various tissues. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that these four genes function differentially during banana fruit postharvest ripening. Three genes, Ma-14-3-3a, Ma-14-3-3c, and Ma-14-3-3e, were significantly induced by exogenous ethylene treatment. However, gene function differed in naturally ripened fruits. Ethylene could induce Ma-14-3-3c expression during postharvest ripening, but expression patterns of Ma-14-3-3a and Ma-14-3-3e suggest that these two genes appear to be involved in regulating ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening. No obvious relationship emerged between Ma-14-3-3i expression in naturally ripened and 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene)-treated fruit groups during fruit ripening. These results indicate that the 14-3-3 proteins might be involved in various regulatory processes of banana fruit ripening. Further studies will mainly focus on revealing the detailed biological mechanisms of these four 14-3-3 genes in regulating banana fruit postharvest ripening. PMID:22009053

  3. Transcripts and MicroRNAs Responding to Salt Stress in Musa acuminata Colla (AAA Group) cv. Berangan Roots

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan Sin; Gudimella, Ranganath; Wong, Gwo Rong; Tammi, Martti Tapani; Khalid, Norzulaani; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2015-01-01

    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana. PMID:25993649

  4. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kaimal, Smitha; Sujatha, K S; George, Sisilamma

    2010-02-01

    Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects of ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) was evaluated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effect of extract at two doses, 500 mg/kg body weight and 1000 mg/kg body weight was analysed and compared with a standard drug, glibenclamide. Rats administered with alloxan showed significantly increased levels of serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity. Lipid peroxides increased significantly while reduced glutathione (GSH) decreased considerably in liver and pancreas. Oral administration of the ethanol extract of fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) significantly decreased the levels of serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol and ALT activity. Significant decrease was also observed in the level of lipid peroxides while GSH content increased substantially in liver and pancreas. The effect was dose independent and rats treated with 500 mg/kg body weight showed comparable levels of serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, ALT activity and liver lipid peroxides to that of normal control and glibenclamide treated groups. Although, there was no significant difference, treatment with 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract showed a higher content of GSH and lower level of lipid peroxides in pancreas compared with glibenclamide. Histopathological examination of pancreas and liver revealed regeneration of islet cells and hepatocytes respectively, which correlate with the biochemical findings. The present study shows that ethanol extract of mature green fruits of Musa AAA (Chenkadali) has antioxidant and hypolipidaemic properties and may be used for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:20455326

  5. Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Robert, Christelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-05-15

    An experimental design was used to study the influence of pH (1.5 and 2.0), temperature (80 and 90°C) and time (1 and 4h) on extraction of pectin from banana peels (Musa AAA). Yield of extracted pectins, their composition (neutral sugars, galacturonic acid, and degree of esterification) and some macromolecular characteristics (average molecular weight, intrinsic viscosity) were determined. It was found that extraction pH was the most important parameter influencing yield and pectin chemical composition. Lower pH values negatively affected the galacturonic acid content of pectin, but increased the pectin yield. The values of degree of methylation decreased significantly with increasing temperature and time of extraction. The average molecular weight ranged widely from 87 to 248kDa and was mainly influenced by pH and extraction time. PMID:26059123

  6. Spatial distribution of nematodes in three banana ( Musa AAA) root parts considering two root thickness in three farm management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; De Waele, D.

    2004-10-01

    The spatial location of the banana ( Musa AAA) root parasitic nematodes within three root parts considering two root thickness was determined in three commercial farm management systems, which differ in weed and nematode management. Roots in each farm management system were classified in thick (>5 mm-d) and thin (1 ≤ 5 mm-d) roots. From each root type, the epidermis, the cortical parenchyma (CP) and the vascular cylinder (VC) were separated by fingernail, and nematodes were extracted by maceration of each root part. Independent of the farm management system, and for either root thickness, highest numbers of Radopholus similis per gram of root was found in the CP, followed by the epidermis and VC. The highest number of Helicotylencus spp., Pratylenchus spp. and the total nematode population per gram of root was found in the epidermis. Considering the number of nematodes per root part, the highest number of R. similis and total nematodes was located in the CP, while Helicotylenchus spp. and Pratylenchus spp. were concentrated in the epidermis. These patterns were approximately reproduced in the two root thickness and in the three farm management systems. This behavior suggests that injection of systemic nematicides into the plant pseudostem to replace the granular applications on surface soil might be promissory.

  7. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt. PMID:23898552

  8. Improved tolerance toward fungal diseases in transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv. Grand Nain.

    PubMed

    Vishnevetsky, Jane; White, Thomas L; Palmateer, Aaron J; Flaishman, Moshe; Cohen, Yuval; Elad, Yigal; Velcheva, Margarita; Hanania, Uri; Sahar, Nachman; Dgani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2011-02-01

    The most devastating disease currently threatening to destroy the banana industry worldwide is undoubtedly Sigatoka Leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. In this study, we developed a transformation system for banana and expressed the endochitinase gene ThEn-42 from Trichoderma harzianum together with the grape stilbene synthase (StSy) gene in transgenic banana plants under the control of the 35S promoter and the inducible PR-10 promoter, respectively. The superoxide dismutase gene Cu,Zn-SOD from tomato, under control of the ubiquitin promoter, was added to this cassette to improve scavenging of free radicals generated during fungal attack. A 4-year field trial demonstrated several transgenic banana lines with improved tolerance to Sigatoka. As the genes conferring Sigatoka tolerance may have a wide range of anti-fungal activities we also inoculated the regenerated banana plants with Botrytis cinerea. The best transgenic lines exhibiting Sigatoka tolerance were also found to have tolerance to B. cinerea in laboratory assays. PMID:20397044

  9. Analysis of the distribution and structure of integrated Banana streak virus DNA in a range of Musa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Geering, A D; Olszewski, N E; Dahal, G; Thomas, J E; Lockhart, B E

    2001-07-01

    Summary Banana streak virus strain OL (BSV-OL) commonly infects new Musa hybrids, and this infection is thought to arise de novo from integrated virus sequences present in the nuclear genome of the plant. Integrated DNA (Musa6+8 sequence) containing the whole genome of the virus has previously been cloned from cv. Obino l'Ewai (Musa AAB group), a parent of many of the hybrids. Using a Southern blot hybridization assay, we have examined the distribution and structure of integrated BSV-OL sequences in a range of Musa cultivars. For cv. Obino l'Ewai, almost every restriction fragment hybridizing to BSV-OL was predicted from the Musa6+8 sequence, suggesting that this is the predominant type of BSV-OL integrant in the genome. Furthermore, since only two junction fragments of Musa/BSV sequence were detected, and the Musa6+8 sequence is believed to be integrated as multiple copies in a tandem array, then the internal Musa spacer sequences must be highly conserved. Similarly sized restriction fragments were detected in four BB group cultivars, but not in six AA or AAA group cultivars, suggesting that the BSV-OL sequences are linked to the B-genome of Musa. We also provide evidence that cv. Williams (Musa AAA group) contains a distinct badnavirus integrant that is closely related to the 'dead' virus integrant previously characterized from Calcutta 4 (Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides). Our results suggest that the virus integrant from cv. Williams is linked to the A-genome, and the complexity of the hybridization patterns suggest multiple sites of integration and/or variation in sequence and structure of the integrants. PMID:20573008

  10. Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Jiang, Shuang; Lin, Guimei; Cai, Jianghua; Ye, Xiaoxi; Chen, Houbin; Li, Minhui; Li, Huaping; Takác, Tomás; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)-Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium. PMID:23580752

  11. Molecular characterization of CONSTANS-Like (COL) genes in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA Group, cv. Grand Nain).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh Kumar; Patil, Hemant Bhagwan; Azeez, Abdul; Subramaniam, Vadakanthara Ramakrishnan; Krishna, Bal; Sane, Aniruddha Prafullachandra; Sane, Prafullachandra Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    The CONSTANS (CO) family is an important regulator of flowering in photoperiod sensitive plants. But information regarding their role in day neutral plants is limited. We report identification of nine Group I type CONSTANS-like (COL) genes of banana and their characterization for their age dependent, diurnal and tissue-specific expression. Our studies show that the Group I genes are conserved in structure to members in other plants. Expression of these genes shows a distinct circadian regulation with a peak during light period. Developmental stage specific expression reveals high level transcript accumulation of two genes, MaCOL3a and MaCOL3b, well before flowering and until the initiation of flowering. A decrease in their transcript levels after initiation of flowering is followed by an increase in transcription of other members that coincides with the continued development of the inflorescence and fruiting. CO binding cis-elements are observed in at least three FT -like genes in banana suggesting possible CO-FT interactions that might regulate flowering. Distinct tissue specific expression patterns are observed for different family members in mature leaves, apical inflorescence, bracts, fruit skin and fruit pulp suggesting possible roles other than flowering. This is the first exhaustive study of the COL genes belonging to Group I of banana. PMID:27186015

  12. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    PubMed

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening. PMID:18346078

  13. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    PubMed Central

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  14. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    PubMed

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells. PMID:21110110

  16. Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xia; Huang, Xue-Lin; Xiao, Wang; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Dai, Xue-Mei; Chen, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2007-10-01

    A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration of co-cultivation in liquid medium, 0-490 transgenic plants per 0.5 ml packed cell volume (PCV) of ECS were obtained. The optimum duration of inoculation was 2 h, and the highest transformation frequency was achieved when infected ECS were co-cultivated in liquid medium first for 12 h at 40 rpm and then for 156 h at 100 rpm on a rotary shaker. Co-cultivation for a shorter duration (72 h) or shaking constantly at 100 rpm at the same duration gave 1.6 and 1.8 folds lower transformation efficiency, respectively. No transgenic plants were obtained in parallel experiments carried on semi-solid media. Histochemical GUS assay and molecular analysis in several tissues of the transgenic plants demonstrated that foreign genes were stably integrated into the banana genome. Compared to semi-solid co-cultivation transformation in other banana species, it is remarkable that liquid co-cultivation was much more efficient for transformation of the Mas cultivar, and was at least 1 month faster for regenerating transgenic plants. PMID:17551731

  17. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26004822

  18. High efficiency transformation of banana [Musa acuminata L. cv. Matti (AA)] for enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress through overexpression of a peanut salinity-induced pathogenesis-related class 10 protein.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Anjana; Jain, Shalu; Kumar, Deepak; Shekhar, Shashi; Jain, Mukesh; Bhat, Vishnu; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2015-01-01

    Bananas and plantains (Musa spp. L.) are important subsistence crops and premium export commodity in several countries, and susceptible to a wide range of environmental and biotic stress conditions. Here, we report efficient, rapid, and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration of an Indian niche cultivar of banana [M. acuminata cv. Matti (AA)]. Apical meristem-derived highly proliferative multiple shoot clump (MSC) explants were transformed with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA-1301 carrying hptII and uidA. Sequential agro-infiltration (10 min, 400 mmHg), infection (additional 35 min, Agrobacterium density A 600 = 0.8) and co-cultivation (18 h) regimen in 100 µM acetosyringone containing liquid medium were critical factors yielding high transformation efficiency (~81 %) corroborated by transient GUS expression assay. Stable transgenic events were recovered following two cycles of meristem initiation and selection on hygromycin containing medium. Histochemical GUS assay in several tissues of transgenic plants and molecular analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of transgene. The protocol described here allowed recovery of well-established putative transgenic plantlets in as little as 5 months. The transgenic banana plants could be readily acclimatized under greenhouse conditions, and were phenotypically similar to the wild-type untransformed control plants (WT). Transgenic plants overexpressing Salinity-Induced Pathogenesis-Related class 10 protein gene from Arachis hypogaea (AhSIPR10) in banana cv. Matti (AA) showed better photosynthetic efficiency and less membrane damage (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaCl and mannitol in comparison to WT plants suggesting the role of AhSIPR10 in better tolerance of salt stress and drought conditions. PMID:25173686

  19. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  20. AAAS: Politics. . . and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reviews topics discussed during the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting held in Washington, D.C. Topics included: the equal rights amendment, laetrile, nuclear radiation hazards, sociobiology, and various science topics. (SL)

  1. “A draft Musa balbisiana genome sequence for molecular genetics in polyploid, inter- and intra-specific Musa hybrids”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern banana cultivars are primarily interspecific triploid hybrids of two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana, which respectively contribute the A- and B-genomes. The M. balbisiana genome has been associated with improved vigour and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and is thus a target for Musa breeding programs. However, while a reference M. acuminata genome has recently been released (Nature 488:213–217, 2012), little sequence data is available for the corresponding B-genome. To address these problems we carried out Next Generation gDNA sequencing of the wild diploid M. balbisiana variety ‘Pisang Klutuk Wulung’ (PKW). Our strategy was to align PKW gDNA reads against the published A-genome and to extract the mapped consensus sequences for subsequent rounds of evaluation and gene annotation. Results The resulting B-genome is 79% the size of the A-genome, and contains 36,638 predicted functional gene sequences which is nearly identical to the 36,542 of the A-genome. There is substantial sequence divergence from the A-genome at a frequency of 1 homozygous SNP per 23.1 bp, and a high degree of heterozygosity corresponding to one heterozygous SNP per 55.9 bp. Using expressed small RNA data, a similar number of microRNA sequences were predicted in both A- and B-genomes, but additional novel miRNAs were detected, including some that are unique to each genome. The usefulness of this B-genome sequence was evaluated by mapping RNA-seq data from a set of triploid AAA and AAB hybrids simultaneously to both genomes. Results for the plantains demonstrated the expected 2:1 distribution of reads across the A- and B-genomes, but for the AAA genomes, results show they contain regions of significant homology to the B-genome supporting proposals that there has been a history of interspecific recombination between homeologous A and B chromosomes in Musa hybrids. Conclusions We have generated and annotated a draft reference Musa B-genome and

  2. Nominations sought for AAAS award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science seeks nominations for its Award for International Scientific Cooperation, which recognizes an individual or small group for outstanding contributions to furthering international cooperation in science or engineering.AAAS presents this award in collaboration with its affiliated organizations in the AAAS Consortium of Affiliates for International Programs. A prize of $2,500, a certificate of citation, and travel expenses to the AAAS annual meeting to receive the award are included.

  3. Oligonucleotide and amplification fingerprinting of wild species and cultivars of banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Kaemmer, D; Afza, R; Weising, K; Kahl, G; Novak, F J

    1992-09-01

    DNA oligonucleotide and amplification fingerprinting have been successfully used to detect genetic polymorphisms in 15 representative species and cultivars of the genus Musa, comprising AA, AAA, AAAA, AAB, ABB, and BB genotypes. In-gel-hybridization of Hinf I-digested genomic banana DNA to the 32P-labeled synthetic oligonucleotides (GATA)4, (GTG)5, and (CA)8 revealed considerable polymorphisms between Musa species and cultivars. The fingerprint patterns proved to be somatically stable and did not show differences between individual plants of 'Grand Nain' (AAA genotype). Dendrograms based on oligonucleotide fingerprint band sharing data proved to be consistent with most of the known features of the history of banana and plantain cultivation and evolution, respectively. DNA samples from the same banana species and cultivars were also amplified by PCR using single or pairwise combinations of short oligonucleotide primers. Amplification products were separated on agarose or polyacrylamide gels and visualized by ethidium bromide or silver staining, respectively. Polymorphic patterns were obtained with some but not all primers. By using the CCCTCTGCGG primer in simplex and/or duplex PCR, the induced mutant 'GN60A' was clearly recognized from its original variety 'Grand Nain'. Both fingerprint techniques allowed the detection of bands characteristic for the A and B genome. This DNA fingerprinting technology has potential application in several areas of Musa improvement. PMID:1369000

  4. Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.

    PubMed

    Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.

    2002-06-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccard's similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. burmannica Simmonds, malaccensis Simmonds, and microcarpa Simmonds). 'Tjau Lagada' (ssp. microcarpa), 'Truncata' [ssp truncata (Ridl.) Shepherd] and 'SF247' [ssp. banksii (F.Muell) Simmonds] clustered very closely with 'Gros Michel' and 'Km 5', indicating that more than one M. acuminata subspecies may be involved in the origin of triploid AAA bananas. 'Calcutta 4' (ssp. burmannicoides De Langhe & Devreux) and 'Long Tavoy' (ssp. burmannica) were closely related and could be together in the same subspecies. This study also showed that there is much more genetic diversity within M. balbisiana that was split into two groups: (1) 'I-63' and 'HND' and (2) 'Los Banos', 'MPL' (Montpellier), '10852', 'Singapuri', 'Etikehel', and 'Butohan 1' as the other. PMID:12582577

  5. The AAA+ superfamily of functionally diverse proteins

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Jamie; Thibault, Guillaume; Houry, Walid A

    2008-01-01

    The AAA+ superfamily is a large and functionally diverse superfamily of NTPases that are characterized by a conserved nucleotide-binding and catalytic module, the AAA+ module. Members are involved in an astonishing range of different cellular processes, attaining this functional diversity through additions of structural motifs and modifications to the core AAA+ module. PMID:18466635

  6. Cytogenetic evidence of mixed disomic and polysomic inheritance in an allotetraploid (AABB) Musa genotype

    PubMed Central

    Jeridi, Mouna; Perrier, Xavier; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; Ferchichi, Ali; D'Hont, Angélique; Bakry, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Edible bananas originated mainly from two wild species, Musa acuminata Colla (AA) and Musa balbisiana Colla (BB), and triploid cultivars with an AAA, AAB or ABB genome are the most widely used. In the present study, chromosome pairing affinities are investigated in a sterile AB Indian variety and in its fertile colchicine-induced allotetraploid (AABB) derivative to determine the inheritance pattern of the tetraploid genotype. The potential implications of interspecific recombination and chromosomal composition of diploid gametes for Musa improvement are presented. Methods The pairing of different chromosome sets at diploid and tetraploid levels was investigated through a combination of conventional cytogenetic and genomic in-situ hybridization (GISH) analyses of meiotic chromosomes, leading to a likelihood model of the pairing behaviour. GISH analysis of mitotic chromosomes was also conducted to reveal the chromosome constitution of hybrids derived from crosses involving the allotetraploid genotype. Key Results Analysis of chromosome associations at both ploidy levels suggested that the newly formed allotetraploid behaves as a ‘segmental allotetraploid’ with three chromosome sets in a tetrasomic pattern, three sets in a likely disomic pattern and the five remaining sets in an intermediate pattern. Balanced and unbalanced diploid gametes were detected in progenies, with the chromosome constitution appearing to be more homogenous in pollen than in ovules. Conclusions Colchicine-induced allotetraploids in Musa provide access to the genetic background of natural AB varieties. The segmental inheritance pattern exhibited by the AABB allotetraploid genotype implies chromosome exchanges between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana species and opens new horizons for reciprocal transfer of valuable alleles. PMID:23087127

  7. Sampling strategies and variability in fruit pulp micronutrient contents of west and central african bananas and plantains (Musa species).

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Stals, Ellen; Ngoh-Newilah, Gérard; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Lusty, Charlotte; Markham, Richard; Swennen, Rony; Keulemans, Johan

    2007-04-01

    The variability in fruit micronutrient contents in a selection of Central and West African Musa varieties cultivated under standardized field conditions was studied. Analysis of the within-fruit, within-hand, and within-plant as well as the between-plant variations demonstrated that both provitamin A carotenoids (pVACs) and mineral micronutrient (Fe, Zn) contents vary significantly across all sample groups. The variations in pVACs contents appear to be at least partly related to differences in the developmental status of the fruit, but the observed trends were genotype-specific. The mean pVACs concentrations per genotype indicated that there is substantial genetic variation in the fruit pVACs contents between Musa cultivars, with orange-fleshed plantain varieties (AAB) having generally higher fruit pVACs contents than dessert bananas (AAA). It was not possible to identify consistent trends between the sampling position and fruit Fe/Zn contents. Once the within-bunch micronutrient variability has been accounted for, the mean variations in fruit micronutrient contents between individual plants of a variety generally fell to within acceptable limits. Results are discussed within the framework of standardizing sampling and developing strategies to screen for the nutritional values of new and existing Musa varieties. PMID:17346062

  8. Genetic analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)

    SciTech Connect

    St. Jean, P.L.; Hart, B.K.; Zhang, X.C.

    1994-09-01

    The association between AAA and gender, smoking (SM), hypertension (HTN) and inguinal herniation (IH) was examined in 141 AAA probands and 139 of their 1st degree relatives with aortic exam (36 affected, 103 unaffected). There was no significant difference between age at diagnosis of affecteds and age at exam of unaffecteds. Of 181 males, 142 had AAA; of 99 females, 35 had AAA. Using log-linear modeling AAA was significantly associated at the 5% level with gender, SM and HTN but not IH. The association of AAA with SM and HTN held when males and females were analyzed separately. HTN was -1.5 times more common in both affected males and females, while SM was 1.5 and 2 times more common in affected males and females, respectively. Tests of association and linkage analyses were performed with relevant candidate genes: 3 COL3A1 polymorphisms (C/T, ALA/THR, AvaII), 2 ELN polymorphisms (SER/GLY, (CA)n), FBN1(TAAA)n, 2 APOB polymorphisms (Xbal,Ins/Del), CLB4B (CA)n, PI and markers D1S243 (CA)n, HPR (CA)n and MFD23(CA)n. The loci were genotyped in > 100 AAA probands and > 95 normal controls. No statistically significant evidence of association at the 5% level was obtained for any of the loci using chi-square test of association. 28 families with 2 or more affecteds were analyzed using the affected pedigree member method (APM) and lod-score analyses. There was no evidence for linkage with any loci using APM. Lod-score analysis under an autosomal recessive model resulted in excluding linkage (lod score < -2) of all loci to AAA at {theta}=0.0. Under an autosomal dominant model, linkage was excluded at {theta}=0.0 to ELN, APOB, CLG4B, D1S243, HPR and MFD23. The various genes previously proposed in AAA pathogenesis are neither associated nor casually related in our study population.

  9. LMIP/AAA: Local Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Protocol for Mobile IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenait, Manel

    Mobile IP represents a simple and scalable global mobility solution. However, it inhibits various vulnerabilities to malicious attacks and, therefore, requires the integration of appropriate security services. In this paper, we discuss two authentication schemes suggested for Mobile IP: standard authentication and Mobile IP/AAA authentication. In order to provide Mobile IP roaming services including identity verication, we propose an improvement to Mobile/AAA authentication scheme by applying a local politic key management in each domain, hence we reduce hando latency by avoiding the involvement of AAA infrastructure during mobile node roaming.

  10. Sequence analysis of the AAA protein family.

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, A.

    1997-01-01

    The AAA protein family, a recently recognized group of Walker-type ATPases, has been subjected to an extensive sequence analysis. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the existence of a region of sequence similarity, the so-called AAA cassette. The borders of this cassette were localized and within it, three boxes of a high degree of conservation were identified. Two of these boxes could be assigned to substantial parts of the ATP binding site (namely, to Walker motifs A and B); the third may be a portion of the catalytic center. Phylogenetic trees were calculated to obtain insights into the evolutionary history of the family. Subfamilies with varying degrees of intra-relatedness could be discriminated; these relationships are also supported by analysis of sequences outside the canonical AAA boxes: within the cassette are regions that are strongly conserved within each subfamily, whereas little or even no similarity between different subfamilies can be observed. These regions are well suited to define fingerprints for subfamilies. A secondary structure prediction utilizing all available sequence information was performed and the result was fitted to the general 3D structure of a Walker A/GTPase. The agreement was unexpectedly high and strongly supports the conclusion that the AAA family belongs to the Walker superfamily of A/GTPases. PMID:9336829

  11. 26 CFR 1.1368-2 - Accumulated adjustments account (AAA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accumulated adjustments account (AAA). 1.1368-2 Section 1.1368-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1368-2 Accumulated adjustments account (AAA)....

  12. Experimental validation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm.

    PubMed

    Breitman, Karen; Rathee, Satyapal; Newcomb, Chris; Murray, Brad; Robinson, Donald; Field, Colin; Warkentin, Heather; Connors, Sherry; Mackenzie, Marc; Dunscombe, Peter; Fallone, Gino

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the performance of a newly released photon-beam dose calculation algorithm that is incorporated into an established treatment planning system (TPS). We compared the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) factory-commissioned with "golden beam data" for Varian linear accelerators with measurements performed at two institutions using 6-MV and 15-MV beams. The TG-53 evaluation regions and criteria were used to evaluate profiles measured in a water phantom for a wide variety of clinically relevant beam geometries. The total scatter factor (TSF) for each of these geometries was also measured and compared against the results from the AAA. At one institute, TLD measurements were performed at several points in the neck and thoracic regions of a Rando phantom; at the other institution, ion chamber measurements were performed in a CIRS inhomogeneous phantom. The phantoms were both imaged using computed tomography (CT), and the dose was calculated using the AAA at corresponding detector locations. Evaluation of measured relative dose profiles revealed that 97%, 99%, 97%, and 100% of points at one institute and 96%, 88%, 89%, and 100% of points at the other institution passed TG-53 evaluation criteria in the outer beam, penumbra, inner beam, and buildup regions respectively. Poorer results in the inner beam regions at one institute are attributed to the mismatch of the measured profiles at shallow depths with the "golden beam data." For validation of monitor unit (MU) calculations, the mean difference between measured and calculated TSFs was less than 0.5%; test cases involving physical wedges had, in general, differences of more than 1%. The mean difference between point measurements performed in inhomogeneous phantoms and Eclipse was 2.1% (5.3% maximum) and all differences were within TG-53 guidelines of 7%. By intent, the methods and evaluation techniques were similar to those in a previous investigation involving another convolution

  13. Optimatization of transient transformation methods to study gene expression in Musa acuminata (AAA group) cultivar Ambon Lumut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayuni, Kinasih; Dwivany, Fenny M.

    2015-09-01

    Banana is classified as a climateric fruit, whose ripening is regulated by ethylene. Ethylene is synthesized from ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) by ACC oxidase enzyme which is encoded by ACO gene. Controling an important gene expression in ethylene biosynthesis pathway has became a target to delay the ripening process. Therefore in the previous study we have designed a MaACO-RNAi construct to control MaACO gene expression. In this research, we study the effectiveness of different transient transformation methods to deliver the construct. Direct injection, with or no vaccum infiltration methods were used to deliver MaACO-RNAi construct. All of the methods succesfully deliver the construct into banana fruits based on RT-PCR result.

  14. AAAS Communicating Science Program: Reflections on Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braha, J.

    2015-12-01

    The AAAS Center for Public Engagement (Center) with science builds capacity for scientists to engage public audiences by fostering collaboration among natural or physical scientists, communication researchers, and public engagement practitioners. The recently launched Leshner Leadership Institute empowers cohorts of mid-career scientists to lead public engagement by supporting their networks of scientists, researchers, and practitioners. The Center works closely with social scientists whose research addresses science communication and public engagement with science to ensure that the Communicating Science training program builds on empirical evidence to inform best practices. Researchers ( Besley, Dudo, & Storkdieck 2015) have helped Center staff and an external evaluator develop pan instrument that measures progress towards goals that are suggested by the researcher, including internal efficacy (increasing scientists' communication skills and confidence in their ability to engage with the public) and external efficacy (scientists' confidence in engagement methods). Evaluation results from one year of the Communicating Science program suggest that the model of training yields positive results that support scientists in the area that should lead to greater engagement. This talk will explore the model for training, which provides a context for strategic communication, as well as the practical factors, such as time, access to public engagement practitioners, and technical skill, that seems to contribute to increased willingness to engage with public audiences. The evaluation program results suggest willingness by training participants to engage directly or to take preliminary steps towards engagement. In the evaluation results, 38% of trained scientists reported time as a barrier to engagement; 35% reported concern that engagement would distract from their work as a barrier. AAAS works to improve practitioner-researcher-scientist networks to overcome such barriers.

  15. Protein quality control in organelles - AAA/FtsH story.

    PubMed

    Janska, Hanna; Kwasniak, Malgorzata; Szczepanowska, Joanna

    2013-02-01

    This review focuses on organellar AAA/FtsH proteases, whose proteolytic and chaperone-like activity is a crucial component of the protein quality control systems of mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes. We compare the AAA/FtsH proteases from yeast, mammals and plants. The nature of the complexes formed by AAA/FtsH proteases and the current view on their involvement in degradation of non-native organellar proteins or assembly of membrane complexes are discussed. Additional functions of AAA proteases not directly connected with protein quality control found in yeast and mammals but not yet in plants are also described shortly. Following an overview of the molecular functions of the AAA/FtsH proteases we discuss physiological consequences of their inactivation in yeast, mammals and plants. The molecular basis of phenotypes associated with inactivation of the AAA/FtsH proteases is not fully understood yet, with the notable exception of those observed in m-AAA protease-deficient yeast cells, which are caused by impaired maturation of mitochondrial ribosomal protein. Finally, examples of cytosolic events affecting protein quality control in mitochondria and chloroplasts are given. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Import and Quality Control in Mitochondria and Plastids. PMID:22498346

  16. Application of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to determine carotenoid contents in banana (Musa spp.) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Davey, Mark W; Saeys, Wouter; Hof, Ellen; Ramon, Herman; Swennen, Rony L; Keulemans, Johan

    2009-03-11

    The analysis of carotenoids is complicated by the tendency of these compounds to react with radical species, leading to oxidative breakdown and isomerization during extraction. Therefore, protocols should be rapid and avoid unnecessary exposure to heat, acids, and so forth. Here, we evaluate the use of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to measure carotenoid contents in fruit from 28 Musa (banana and plantain) varieties. Carotenoid contents were first quantified using standardized RP-HPLC protocols, and these results were then used to develop algorithms to predict carotenoid contents from Vis/NIR spectra of the same samples. Cross-validation of the predictive algorithms across a genetically diverse group of varieties demonstrated that correlation coefficients between the HPLC measurements and the Vis/NIRS predictions varied from good for the total carotenoids and beta-carotene fractions (r(2)(cv), 0.84, 0.89) to reasonable for alpha-carotene and cis-carotenes (r(2)(cv), 0.61, 0.66), but there was only a poor correlation (r(2)(cv), 0.30) for the minor lutein component. Nonetheless, since approximately 90% of the Musa carotenoids consist of only alpha- and beta-carotene, results indicate that Vis/NIRS can be used for the high-throughput screening of fruit pulp samples for vitamin A nutritional content on the basis of their total carotenoids content. PMID:19219999

  17. Autocatalytic processing of m-AAA protease subunits in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Koppen, Mirko; Bonn, Florian; Ehses, Sarah; Langer, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    m-AAA proteases are ATP-dependent proteolytic machines in the inner membrane of mitochondria which are crucial for the maintenance of mitochondrial activities. Conserved nuclear-encoded subunits, termed paraplegin, Afg3l1, and Afg3l2, form various isoenzymes differing in their subunit composition in mammalian mitochondria. Mutations in different m-AAA protease subunits are associated with distinct neuronal disorders in human. However, the biogenesis of m-AAA protease complexes or of individual subunits is only poorly understood. Here, we have examined the processing of nuclear-encoded m-AAA protease subunits upon import into mitochondria and demonstrate autocatalytic processing of Afg3l1 and Afg3l2. The mitochondrial processing peptidase MPP generates an intermediate form of Afg3l2 that is matured autocatalytically. Afg3l1 or Afg3l2 are also required for maturation of newly imported paraplegin subunits after their cleavage by MPP. Our results establish that mammalian m-AAA proteases can act as processing enzymes in vivo and reveal overlapping activities of Afg3l1 and Afg3l2. These findings might be of relevance for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders associated with mutations in different m-AAA protease subunits. PMID:19656850

  18. New developments in the treatment of ruptured AAA.

    PubMed

    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Saleptsis, Vasileios; Rohlffs, Fiona; Wipper, Sabine; Debus, Eike S; Kölbel, Tilo

    2016-04-01

    Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (rAAA) represent the most common abdominal aortic emergency with an incidence of 6.3 per 100,000 inhabitants whereas the incidence of rAAA in the population over 65 years was 35.5/100.000 inhabitants. Early suspicion and diagnosis of rAAA is essential for good outcomes and over the past decades a great variety of perioperative management concepts, techniques and materials have been implemented to further improve the outcomes of this acute and life-threatening disease. Corner-stones for the improvement of outcomes include the introduction of management protocols for rAAA, the principle of hypotensive hemostasis and the introduction of endovascular techniques as well as the improved anesthesia and postoperative intensive care therapy with early identification and management of devastating complications such as the abdominal compartment syndrome. While the role of endovascular aortic repair in rAAA is not yet answered, it appears to be very promising especially in the presence of new techniques that could resolve a number of the problems restricting success of EVAR in rAAAs. PMID:26784556

  19. Inhibitors of the AAA+ Chaperone p97

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Eli; Maksim, Nick; de la Cruz, Fabian; La Clair, James J.

    2015-01-01

    It is remarkable that a pathway as ubiquitous as protein quality control can be targeted to treat cancer. Bortezomib, an inhibitor of the proteasome, was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more than 10 years ago to treat refractory myeloma and later extended to lymphoma. Its use has increased the survival rate of myeloma patients by as much as three years. This success was followed with the recent accelerated approval of the natural product derived proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib (Kyprolis®), which is used to treat patients with bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. The success of these two drugs has validated protein quality control as a viable target to fight select cancers, but begs the question why are proteasome inhibitors limited to lymphoma and myeloma? More recently, these limitations have encouraged the search for additional targets within the protein quality control system that might offer heightened cancer cell specificity, enhanced clinical utility, a lower rate of resistance, reduced toxicity, and mitigated side effects. One promising target is p97, an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) chaperone. p97 figures prominently in protein quality control as well as serving a variety of other cellular functions associated with cancer. More than a decade ago, it was determined that up-regulation of p97 in many forms of cancer correlates with a poor clinical outcome. Since these initial discoveries, a mechanistic explanation for this observation has been partially illuminated, but details are lacking. Understandably, given this clinical correlation, myriad roles within the cell, and its importance in protein quality control, p97 has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. This review provides an overview of efforts towards the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of p97, offering a synopsis of efforts that parallel the excellent reviews that currently exist on p97 structure, function, and physiology. PMID

  20. Analysis of the leaf transcriptome of Musa acuminata during interaction with Mycosphaerella musicola: gene assembly, annotation and marker development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores. Results The study generated 846,762 high quality sequence reads, with an average length of 334 bp and totalling 283 Mbp. De novo assembly generated 36,384 and 35,269 unigene sequences for M. acuminata Calcutta 4 and Cavendish Grande Naine, respectively. A total of 64.4% of the unigenes were annotated through Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity analyses against public databases. Assembled sequences were functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms, with unigene functions covering a diverse range of molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. Genes from a number of defense-related pathways were observed in transcripts from each cDNA library. Over 99% of contig unigenes mapped to exon regions in the reference M. acuminata DH Pahang whole genome sequence. A total of 4068 genic-SSR loci were identified in Calcutta 4 and 4095 in Cavendish Grande Naine. A subset of 95 potential defense-related gene-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were validated for specific amplification and polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, with alleles per polymorphic locus ranging from 3 to 8 and polymorphism information content ranging from 0

  1. Bioactivity studies on Musa seminifera Lour

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sanjib; Shilpi, Jamil A.; Mondal, Himangsu; Gofur, Royhan; Billah, Morsaline; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Musa seminifera Lour is a tree-like perennial herb that has been used in folk medicine in Bangladesh to heal a number of ailments. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antidiarrheal, anthelmintic activities, and general toxicity of the ethanol extract of the roots. Materials and Methods: The extract was assessed for free-radical-scavenging activity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, total phenolic content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteu reagent, antioxidant activity by the ferric reducing power assay, analgesic activity by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, antidiarrheal activity by the castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice, anthelmintic activity on Paramphistomum cervi and Haemonchus contortus, and general toxicity by the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: The extract showed free-radical-scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 44.86 μg/mL. TPC was 537.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. It showed concentration-dependent reducing power, and displayed 42.11 and 69.32% writhing inhibition at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The extract also significantly raised the pain threshold at the above-mentioned dose levels. In vivo antidiarrheal property was substantiated by significant prolongation of latent period and decrease in total number of stools compared with the control. The LC50 against brine shrimp nauplii was 36.21 μg/mL. The extract exhibited dose-dependent decrease in paralysis and death time of the helminths. Conclusion: The above results demonstrated that the plant possesses notable bioactivities and somewhat supports its use in folk medicine. PMID:24124283

  2. Genetic diversity assessment of Musa spp. germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. Among these, a Musa spp. collection has been established and is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornamental, wild and...

  3. Role of AAA(+)-proteins in peroxisome biogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Immanuel; Erdmann, Ralf; Girzalsky, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the PEX1 gene, which encodes a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis, are the most common cause of the Zellweger spectrum diseases. The recognition that Pex1p shares a conserved ATP-binding domain with p97 and NSF led to the discovery of the extended family of AAA+-type ATPases. So far, four AAA+-type ATPases are related to peroxisome function. Pex6p functions together with Pex1p in peroxisome biogenesis, ATAD1/Msp1p plays a role in membrane protein targeting and a member of the Lon-family of proteases is associated with peroxisomal quality control. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the AAA+-proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis and function. PMID:26453804

  4. Meiotic Clade AAA ATPases: Protein Polymer Disassembly Machines.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Nicole; Hill, Christopher P

    2016-05-01

    Meiotic clade AAA ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities), which were initially grouped on the basis of phylogenetic classification of their AAA ATPase cassette, include four relatively well characterized family members, Vps4, spastin, katanin and fidgetin. These enzymes all function to disassemble specific polymeric protein structures, with Vps4 disassembling the ESCRT-III polymers that are central to the many membrane-remodeling activities of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) pathway and spastin, katanin p60 and fidgetin affecting multiple aspects of cellular dynamics by severing microtubules. They share a common domain architecture that features an N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain followed by a single AAA ATPase cassette. Meiotic clade AAA ATPases function as hexamers that can cycle between the active assembly and inactive monomers/dimers in a regulated process, and they appear to disassemble their polymeric substrates by translocating subunits through the central pore of their hexameric ring. Recent studies with Vps4 have shown that nucleotide-induced asymmetry is a requirement for substrate binding to the pore loops and that recruitment to the protein lattice via MIT domains also relieves autoinhibition and primes the AAA ATPase cassettes for substrate binding. The most striking, unifying feature of meiotic clade AAA ATPases may be their MIT domain, which is a module that is found in a wide variety of proteins that localize to ESCRT-III polymers. Spastin also displays an adjacent microtubule binding sequence, and the presence of both ESCRT-III and microtubule binding elements may underlie the recent findings that the ESCRT-III disassembly function of Vps4 and the microtubule-severing function of spastin, as well as potentially katanin and fidgetin, are highly coordinated. PMID:26555750

  5. Functional characterization of secondary wall deposition regulating transcription factors MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2016-03-01

    NAM, ATAF, and CUC (NAC) domain-containing proteins are plant-specific transcription factors involved in stress responses and developmental regulation. MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are vascular-related NAC domain-containing genes encoding for nuclear-localized proteins. The transcript level of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 are gradually induced after induction of lignification conditions in banana embryogenic cells. Banana embryogenic cells differentiated to tracheary element-like cells after overexpression of MusaVND2 and MusaVND3 with a differentiation frequency of 63.5 and 23.4 %, respectively, after ninth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing either of MusaVND2 or MusaVND3 showed ectopic secondary wall deposition as well as transdifferentiation of cells into tracheary elements. Transdifferentiation to tracheary element-like cells was observed in cortical cells of corm and in epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves of transgenic plants. Elevated levels of lignin and crystalline cellulose were detected in the transgenic banana lines than control plants. The results obtained are useful for understanding the molecular regulation of secondary wall development in banana. PMID:25952082

  6. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication

    PubMed Central

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  7. Multidisciplinary perspectives on banana (Musa spp.) domestication.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Xavier; De Langhe, Edmond; Donohue, Mark; Lentfer, Carol; Vrydaghs, Luc; Bakry, Frédéric; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Jenny, Christophe; Lebot, Vincent; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Doutrelepont, Hugues; Ball, Terry; Manwaring, Jason; de Maret, Pierre; Denham, Tim

    2011-07-12

    Original multidisciplinary research hereby clarifies the complex geodomestication pathways that generated the vast range of banana cultivars (cvs). Genetic analyses identify the wild ancestors of modern-day cvs and elucidate several key stages of domestication for different cv groups. Archaeology and linguistics shed light on the historical roles of people in the movement and cultivation of bananas from New Guinea to West Africa during the Holocene. The historical reconstruction of domestication processes is essential for breeding programs seeking to diversify and improve banana cvs for the future. PMID:21730145

  8. Generation of transgenic plantain (Musa spp.) with resistance to plant pathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Tripathi, Leena; Babirye, Annet; Wang, Dong; Tripathi, Jaindra; Urwin, Peter E; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-10-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes impose a severe constraint on plantain and banana productivity; however, the sterile nature of many cultivars precludes conventional breeding for resistance. Transgenic plantain cv. Gonja manjaya (Musa AAB) plants, expressing a maize cystatin that inhibits nematode digestive cysteine proteinases and a synthetic peptide that disrupts nematode chemoreception, were assessed for their ability to resist nematode infection. Lines were generated that expressed each gene singly or both together in a stacked defence. Nematode challenge with a single species or a mixed population identified 10 lines with significant resistance. The best level of resistance achieved against the major pest species Radopholus similis was 84% ± 8% for the cystatin, 66% ± 14% for the peptide and 70% ± 6% for the dual defence. In the mixed population, trial resistance was also demonstrated to Helicotylenchus multicinctus. A fluorescently labelled form of the chemodisruptive peptide underwent retrograde transport along certain sensory dendrites of R. similis as required to disrupt chemoreception. The peptide was degraded after 30 min in simulated intestinal fluid or boiling water and after 1 h in nonsterile soil. In silico sequence analysis suggests that the peptide is not a mammalian antigen. This work establishes the mode of action of a novel nematode defence, develops the evidence for its safe and effective deployment against multiple nematode species and identifies transgenic plantain lines with a high level of resistance for a proposed field trial. PMID:22435592

  9. Micro-propagation efficiency in banana (Musa sp.) under different immersion systems.

    PubMed

    Ikram-ul-Haq; Dahot, Muhammad Umar

    2007-03-01

    The establishment of a micro-propagation protocol for banana (Musa sp.) cv Basrai, was carried out by using meristematic stem cuttings, as an explant. Up to 60% micro-propagation efficiency was increased, when organogenesis (MS; 10.0 microM BA; 15.0 microM IAA) was carried out on medium solidified with 3.60 g L(-1) phytagel for 3 weeks, while shoot induction and its multiplication (MS; 10.0 microM BA) were obtained on the medium with 1.0 g L(-1) phytagel for 10 days and 2.0 g L(-1) phytagel for 20 days, respectively. One culture (20.0 microM BA and 4.0 microM NAA or/and 6.0 microM TDZ) somewhat callus formation was observed but later on was proceeded to death, instead of multiplication. The developed plantlets were cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with IBA (0.50 mg L(-1)) for root induction. Through this method, complete micro-propagated plantlets were obtained within 3 months. PMID:19069854

  10. Protein unfolding and degradation by the AAA+ Lon protease.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eyal; Vishkautzan, Marina; Sauer, Robert T

    2012-02-01

    AAA+ proteases employ a hexameric ring that harnesses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to unfold native substrates and translocate the unfolded polypeptide into an interior compartment for degradation. What determines the ability of different AAA+ enzymes to unfold and thus degrade different native protein substrates is currently uncertain. Here, we explore the ability of the E. coli Lon protease to unfold and degrade model protein substrates beginning at N-terminal, C-terminal, or internal degrons. Lon has historically been viewed as a weak unfoldase, but we demonstrate robust and processive unfolding/degradation of some substrates with very stable protein domains, including mDHFR and titin(I27) . For some native substrates, Lon is a more active unfoldase than related AAA+ proteases, including ClpXP and ClpAP. For other substrates, this relationship is reversed. Thus, unfolding activity does not appear to be an intrinsic enzymatic property. Instead, it depends on the specific protease and substrate, suggesting that evolution has diversified rather than optimized the protein unfolding activities of different AAA+ proteases. PMID:22162032

  11. Ex-congressman Rush Holt to lead AAAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The particle physicist Rush Holt, who served in the US Congress for 15 years, has been named as the next chief executive of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) - the non-profit US society that promotes public engagement with science and technology.

  12. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  13. Changes in antioxidant and fruit quality in hot water-treated ‘Hom Thong’ banana fruit during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hot water treatment on antioxidant phytochemicals and fruit quality were investigated in banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) by immersing fruits in hot water (50 'C) for 10 min, before storage at 25 'C for 10 days or 14 'C for 8 da...

  14. Inhibition of early AAA formation by aortic intraluminal pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) infusion in a novel porcine AAA model

    PubMed Central

    Kloster, Brian O.; Lund, Lars; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms found in screening programs are small, and as no effective treatment exits, many will expand until surgery is indicated. Therefore, it remains intriguing to develop a safe and low cost treatment of these small aneurysms, that is able to prevent or delay their expansion. In this study, we investigated whether intraluminal delivered pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can impair the early AAA development in a porcine model. Methods The infrarenal aorta was exposed in thirty pigs. Twenty underwent an elastase based AAA inducing procedure and ten of these received an additional intraluminal PGG infusion. The final 10 were sham operated and served as controls. Results All pigs who only had an elastase infusion developed macroscopically expanding AAAs. In pigs treated with an additional PGG infusion the growth rate of the AP-diameter rapidly returned to physiological values as seen in the control group. In the elastase group, histology revealed more or less complete resolution of the elastic lamellae in the media while they were more abundant, coherent and structurally organized in the PGG group. The control group displayed normal physiological growth and histology. Conclusion In our model, intraluminal delivered PGG is able to penetrate the aortic wall from the inside and impair the early AAA development by stabilizing the elastic lamellae and preserving their integrity. The principle holds a high clinical potential if it can be translated to human conditions, since it, if so, potentially could represent a new drug for stabilizing small abdominal aneurysms. PMID:27144001

  15. A structural analysis of the AAA+ domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic dynein.

    PubMed

    Gleave, Emma S; Schmidt, Helgo; Carter, Andrew P

    2014-06-01

    Dyneins are large protein complexes that act as microtubule based molecular motors. The dynein heavy chain contains a motor domain which is a member of the AAA+ protein family (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities). Proteins of the AAA+ family show a diverse range of functionalities, but share a related core AAA+ domain, which often assembles into hexameric rings. Dynein is unusual because it has all six AAA+ domains linked together, in one long polypeptide. The dynein motor domain generates movement by coupling ATP driven conformational changes in the AAA+ ring to the swing of a motile element called the linker. Dynein binds to its microtubule track via a long antiparallel coiled-coil stalk that emanates from the AAA+ ring. Recently the first high resolution structures of the dynein motor domain were published. Here we provide a detailed structural analysis of the six AAA+ domains using our Saccharomycescerevisiae crystal structure. We describe how structural similarities in the dynein AAA+ domains suggest they share a common evolutionary origin. We analyse how the different AAA+ domains have diverged from each other. We discuss how this is related to the function of dynein as a motor protein and how the AAA+ domains of dynein compare to those of other AAA+ proteins. PMID:24680784

  16. Mitochondrial AAA proteases--towards a molecular understanding of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Florian; Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial AAA proteases play an important role in the maintenance of mitochondrial proteostasis. They regulate and promote biogenesis of mitochondrial proteins by acting as processing enzymes and ensuring the selective turnover of misfolded proteins. Impairment of AAA proteases causes pleiotropic defects in various organisms including neurodegeneration in humans. AAA proteases comprise ring-like hexameric complexes in the mitochondrial inner membrane and are functionally conserved from yeast to man, but variations are evident in the subunit composition of orthologous enzymes. Recent structural and biochemical studies revealed how AAA proteases degrade their substrates in an ATP dependent manner. Intersubunit coordination of the ATP hydrolysis leads to an ordered ATP hydrolysis within the AAA ring, which ensures efficient substrate dislocation from the membrane and translocation to the proteolytic chamber. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the molecular mechanisms underlying the versatile functions of mitochondrial AAA proteases and their relevance to those of the other AAA+ machines. PMID:22001671

  17. Amending storage vessel and media improves transfer interval of Musa spp. tissue culture plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Musa spp. are some of the most important fruit food crops in the world. The USDA-ARS TARS maintains a Musa spp. germplasm collection of ~150 accessions in field plots and in medium-term storage in vitro. Accessions maintained in vitro require routine sub-culturing as nutrient medium is lost due to ...

  18. Amending Storage Vessel and Media Improves Subculture Interval of Musa sp. Tissue Culture Plantlets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are some of the most important food crops in the world. The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa spp. collection consists of 140 accessions maintained as clonally propagated plants in field plots as well as in tissue culture. Accessions maintained i...

  19. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  20. Polypeptide translocation by the AAA+ ClpXP protease machine

    PubMed Central

    Barkow, Sarah R.; Levchenko, Igor; Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    In the AAA+ ClpXP protease, ClpX uses repeated cycles of ATP hydrolysis to pull native proteins apart and to translocate the denatured polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, we probe polypeptide features important for translocation. ClpXP degrades diverse synthetic peptide substrates despite major differences in side-chain chirality, size, and polarity. Moreover, translocation occurs without a peptide –NH and with 10 methylenes between successive peptide bonds. Pulling on homopolymeric tracts of glycine, proline, and lysine also allows efficient ClpXP degradation of a stably folded protein. Thus, minimal chemical features of a polypeptide chain are sufficient for translocation and protein unfolding by the ClpX machine. These results suggest that the translocation pore of ClpX is highly elastic, allowing interactions with a wide-range of chemical groups, a feature likely to be shared by many AAA+ unfoldases. PMID:19549599

  1. Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Wild Musa Species

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Christelová, Pavla; Van den Houwe, Ines; Häkkinen, Markku; Roux, Nicolas; Swennen, Rony; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The production of bananas is threatened by rapid spreading of various diseases and adverse environmental conditions. The preservation and characterization of banana diversity is essential for the purposes of crop improvement. The world's largest banana germplasm collection maintained at the Bioversity International Transit Centre (ITC) in Belgium is continuously expanded by new accessions of edible cultivars and wild species. Detailed morphological and molecular characterization of the accessions is necessary for efficient management of the collection and utilization of banana diversity. In this work, nuclear DNA content and genomic distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA were examined in 21 diploid accessions recently added to ITC collection, representing both sections of the genus Musa. 2C DNA content in the section Musa ranged from 1.217 to 1.315 pg. Species belonging to section Callimusa had 2C DNA contents ranging from 1.390 to 1.772 pg. While the number of 45S rDNA loci was conserved in the section Musa, it was highly variable in Callimusa species. 5S rRNA gene clusters were found on two to eight chromosomes per diploid cell. The accessions were genotyped using a set of 19 microsatellite markers to establish their relationships with the remaining accessions held at ITC. Genetic diversity done by SSR genotyping platform was extended by phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. ITS sequence data supported the clustering obtained by SSR analysis for most of the accessions. High level of nucleotide diversity and presence of more than two types of ITS sequences in eight wild diploids pointed to their origin by hybridization of different genotypes. This study significantly expands the number of wild Musa species where nuclear genome size and genomic distribution of rDNA loci is known. SSR genotyping identified Musa species that are closely related to the previously characterized accessions and provided data to aid in their classification. Sequence analysis of ITS region

  2. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  3. MusaWRKY71 overexpression in banana plants leads to altered abiotic and biotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are specifically involved in the transcriptional reprogramming following incidence of abiotic or biotic stress on plants. We have previously documented a novel WRKY gene from banana, MusaWRKY71, which was inducible in response to a wide array of abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. The present work details the effects of MusaWRKY71 overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Stable integration and overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transgenic banana plants was proved by Southern blot analysis and quantitative real time PCR. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaWRKY71 displayed enhanced tolerance towards oxidative and salt stress as indicated by better photosynthesis efficiency (Fv/Fm) and lower membrane damage of the assayed leaves. Further, differential regulation of putative downstream genes of MusaWRKY71 was investigated using real-time RT-PCR expression analysis. Out of a total of 122 genes belonging to WRKY, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) and chitinase families analyzed, 10 genes (six belonging to WRKY family, three belonging to PR proteins family and one belonging to chitinase family) showed significant differential regulation in MusaWRKY71 overexpressing lines. These results indicate that MusaWRKY71 is an important constituent in the transcriptional reprogramming involved in diverse stress responses in banana. PMID:24116051

  4. MusaWRKY71 Overexpression in Banana Plants Leads to Altered Abiotic and Biotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Upendra K. S.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are specifically involved in the transcriptional reprogramming following incidence of abiotic or biotic stress on plants. We have previously documented a novel WRKY gene from banana, MusaWRKY71, which was inducible in response to a wide array of abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. The present work details the effects of MusaWRKY71 overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Stable integration and overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transgenic banana plants was proved by Southern blot analysis and quantitative real time PCR. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaWRKY71 displayed enhanced tolerance towards oxidative and salt stress as indicated by better photosynthesis efficiency (Fv/Fm) and lower membrane damage of the assayed leaves. Further, differential regulation of putative downstream genes of MusaWRKY71 was investigated using real-time RT-PCR expression analysis. Out of a total of 122 genes belonging to WRKY, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) and chitinase families analyzed, 10 genes (six belonging to WRKY family, three belonging to PR proteins family and one belonging to chitinase family) showed significant differential regulation in MusaWRKY71 overexpressing lines. These results indicate that MusaWRKY71 is an important constituent in the transcriptional reprogramming involved in diverse stress responses in banana. PMID:24116051

  5. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials. PMID:26842714

  6. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-02-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials.

  7. The well-designed hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kaiwen; Fan, Xiaorong; Mao, Yingzhu; Lin, Jingkai; Dai, Wenxuan; Zhang, Junying; Cheng, Jue

    2016-01-01

    Application of biological structure is one of the hottest topics in the field of science and technology. The unimaginable and excellent architectures of living beings supporting their vital activities have attracted the interests of worldwide researchers. An intriguing example is Musa basjoo which belongs to the herb, while appears like a tree. The profound mystery of structure and potential application of Musa basjoo have not been probed. Here we show the finding of the hierarchical structure of Musa basjoo and the outstanding electrochemical performance of the super-capacitors fabricated through the simple carbonization of Musa basjoo followed by KOH activation. Musa basjoo has three layers of structure: nanometer-level, micrometer-level and millimeter-level. The nanometer-level structure constructs the micrometer-level structure, while the micrometer-level structure constructs the millimeter-level structure. Based on this hierarchical structure, Musa basjoo reduces the unnecessary weight and therefore supports its huge body. The super-capacitors derived from Musa basjoo display a high specific capacitance and a good cycling stability. This enlightening work opens a window for the applications of the natural structure and we hope that more and more people could pay attention to the bio-inspired materials. PMID:26842714

  8. Genomes, diversity and resistance gene analogues in Musa species.

    PubMed

    Azhar, M; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2008-01-01

    Resistance genes (R genes) in plants are abundant and may represent more than 1% of all the genes. Their diversity is critical to the recognition and response to attack from diverse pathogens. Like many other crops, banana and plantain face attacks from potentially devastating fungal and bacterial diseases, increased by a combination of worldwide spread of pathogens, exploitation of a small number of varieties, new pathogen mutations, and the lack of effective, benign and cheap chemical control. The challenge for plant breeders is to identify and exploit genetic resistances to diseases, which is particularly difficult in banana and plantain where the valuable cultivars are sterile, parthenocarpic and mostly triploid so conventional genetic analysis and breeding is impossible. In this paper, we review the nature of R genes and the key motifs, particularly in the Nucleotide Binding Sites (NBS), Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) gene class. We present data about identity, nature and evolutionary diversity of the NBS domains of Musa R genes in diploid wild species with the Musa acuminata (A), M. balbisiana (B), M. schizocarpa (S), M. textilis (T), M. velutina and M. ornata genomes, and from various cultivated hybrid and triploid accessions, using PCR primers to isolate the domains from genomic DNA. Of 135 new sequences, 75% of the sequenced clones had uninterrupted open reading frames (ORFs), and phylogenetic UPGMA tree construction showed four clusters, one from Musa ornata, one largely from the B and T genomes, one from A and M. velutina, and the largest with A, B, T and S genomes. Only genes of the coiled-coil (non-TIR) class were found, typical of the grasses and presumably monocotyledons. The analysis of R genes in cultivated banana and plantain, and their wild relatives, has implications for identification and selection of resistance genes within the genus which may be useful for plant selection and breeding and also for defining relationships and genome evolution

  9. Cloning and functional characterization of MusaVND1 using transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Sanjana; Tak, Himanshu; Ganapathi, T R

    2015-06-01

    Vascular related NAC (NAM, ATAF and CUC) domain-containing genes regulate secondary wall deposition and differentiation of xylem vessel elements. MusaVND1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis VND1 and contains the highly conserved NAC domain. The expression of MusaVND1 is highest in developing corm and during lignification conditions, the increase in expression of MusaVND1 coincides with the expression of PAL, COMT and C4H genes. MusaVND1 encodes a nuclear localized protein as MusaVND1-GFP fusion protein gets localized to nucleus. Transient overexpression of MusaVND1 converts banana embryogenic cells to xylem vessel elements, with a final differentiation frequency of 33.54% at the end of tenth day. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaVND1 showed stunted growth and were characterized by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Transgenic banana plants showed transdifferentiation of various types of cells into xylem vessel elements and ectopic deposition of lignin in cells of various plant organs such as leaf and corm. Tracheary element formation was seen in the cortical region of transgenic corm as well as in epidermal cells of leaves. Biochemical analysis indicates significantly higher levels of lignin and cellulose content in transgenic banana lines than control plants. MusaVND1 overexpressing transgenic banana plants showed elevated expression levels of genes involved in lignin and cellulose biosynthesis pathway. Further expression of different MYB transcription factors positively regulating secondary wall deposition was also up regulated in MusaVND1 transgenic lines. PMID:25523085

  10. Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors relative to calcification in AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xun . E-mail: mpscrs@bath.ac.uk; Winrow, Vivienne R.; Horrocks, Michael; Stevens, Cliff R.

    2007-06-22

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. Human AAA tissue displays cells undergoing all stages of apoptosis. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in tumour cells but not in normal cells. It has death receptors and decoy receptors. An inhibitor of TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), is involved in osteogenesis and vascular calcification. We investigated TRAIL and its receptors in AAA compared within normal aorta (NA). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of calcification in AAA walls were determined using Von Kossa staining and pre-operation computer tomography (CT) scans. There was a significant difference in calcification level at different locations in the AAA wall (p < 0.05). Apoptosis was confirmed in AAA by TUNEL assay. A significant difference in TRAIL and its receptor expression was observed between normal aortae and AAA (p < 0.05). Significant differences were also observed between tissues displaying different extents of calcification for TRAIL mRNA (p < 0.05) by RT-PCR examination and OPG protein (p < 0.01) by protein blotting examination. We propose that this pattern of expression of TRAIL and its receptors may contribute to AAA formation and calcification in the AAA wall.

  11. Emerging mechanistic insights into AAA complexes regulating proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system(UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells.It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates.The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases,shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship.Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

  12. Emerging Mechanistic Insights into AAA Complexes Regulating Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Schuller, Jan M.; Unverdorben, Pia; Aufderheide, Antje

    2014-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is an integral element of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and, as such, responsible for regulated degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It consists of the core particle, which catalyzes the proteolysis of substrates into small peptides, and the regulatory particle, which ensures specificity for a broad range of substrates. The heart of the regulatory particle is an AAA-ATPase unfoldase, which is surrounded by non-ATPase subunits enabling substrate recognition and processing. Cryo-EM-based studies revealed the molecular architecture of the 26S proteasome and its conformational rearrangements, providing insights into substrate recognition, commitment, deubiquitylation and unfolding. The cytosol proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitylated substrates is tuned by various associating cofactors, including deubiquitylating enzymes, ubiquitin ligases, shuttling ubiquitin receptors and the AAA-ATPase Cdc48/p97. Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors function upstream of the 26S proteasome, and their modular organization exhibits some striking analogies to the regulatory particle. In archaea PAN, the closest regulatory particle homolog and Cdc48 even have overlapping functions, underscoring their intricate relationship. Here, we review recent insights into the structure and dynamics of the 26S proteasome and its associated machinery, as well as our current structural knowledge on the Cdc48/p97 and its cofactors that function in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). PMID:25102382

  13. Training Scientists to be Effective Communicators: AAAS Communicating Science Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendes, L.; Lohwater, T.

    2012-12-01

    "Communicating Science: Tools for Scientists and Engineers" is a workshop program developed by AAAS to provide guidance and practice for scientists and engineers in communicating about science with public audiences. The program was launched at the 2008 AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston and has since provided 24 workshops for more than 1,500 scientist and engineer attendees at universities, science society meetings, and government agency labs around the United States. Each interactive workshop targets scientists and engineers specifically and has included content such as message development, defining audience, identifying opportunities for engaging the public, and practice with public presentations and cameras. The workshop format allows for collaborative learning through small-group discussion, resource sharing, and participation in critique of other participants' presentations. Continuous monitoring of the program includes on-site and online surveys and evaluation. On an assessment of workshops from 2008-2010, attendees reported that knowledge gained from the workshop helped in crafting messages about their scientific work for use in communicating with public audiences, and approximately 80 percent of respondents reported participation in communication with a public audience after attending the workshop. Through workshop content and feedback of participating scientists, this presentation will highlight some best practices and resources for scientists who want to take a proactive role in science communication.

  14. Characterization of the Modular Design of the Autolysin/Adhesin Aaa from Staphylococcus Aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hirschhausen, Nina; Schlesier, Tim; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of serious and life-threatening infections, such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Its adherence to various host structures is crucial for the establishment of diseases. Adherence may be mediated by a variety of adhesins, among them the autolysin/adhesins Atl and Aaa. Aaa is composed of three N-terminal repeated sequences homologous to a lysin motif (LysM) that can confer cell wall attachment and a C-terminally located cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain having bacteriolytic activity in many proteins. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show by surface plasmon resonance that the LysM domain binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin respresenting a novel adhesive function for this domain. Moreover, we demonstrated that the CHAP domain not only mediates the bacteriolytic activity, but also adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin, thus demonstrating for the first time an adhesive function for this domain. Adherence of an S. aureus aaa mutant and the complemented aaa mutant is slightly decreased and increased, respectively, to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen and fibronectin, which might at least in part result from an increased expression of atl in the aaa mutant. Furthermore, an S. aureus atl mutant that showed enhanced adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and endothelial cells also demonstrated increased aaa expression and production of Aaa. Thus, the redundant functions of Aaa and Atl might at least in part be interchangeable. Lastly, RT-PCR and zymographic analysis revealed that aaa is negatively regulated by the global virulence gene regulators agr and SarA. Conclusions/Significance We identified novel functions for two widely distributed protein domains, LysM and CHAP, i.e. the adherence to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin. The adhesive properties of Aaa might promote S. aureus

  15. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  16. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  17. Suppression of Type-II Diabetes with Dyslipidemia and Nephropathy by Peels of Musa cavendish Fruit.

    PubMed

    Navghare, Vijay; Dhawale, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    Musa cavendish, peels has local and traditional use to promote wound healing, hyperglycemia, ulceration etc. The present work investigated the lipid lowering; nephroprotective and glucose lowering properties of ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish (EMC) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The EMC 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day and the vehicle were administered orally to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) for 3 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, lipid profile along with kidney function before and after treatment with EMC were recorded. The ethanolic extract of peels of Musa cavendish reduced blood glucose, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and creatinine levels and improvement in body weight, liver glycogen, serum HDL cholesterol, serum albumin and total protein level when compared with untreated rats. Musa cavendish has lipid lowering, nephroprotective and antidiabetic property by regulating glucose uptake in the liver and muscles by restoring the intracellular energy balance. PMID:27605735

  18. RFLP-based phylogeny of Musa species in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jarret, R L; Gawel, N; Whittemore, A; Sharrock, S

    1992-08-01

    Random genomic probes were used to detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in 26 accessions of Musa representing eight species from Papua New Guinea (PNG), M. textilis, M. jackeyi and one accession of Ensete. Ninety-eight phylogenetically informative characters were scored and analyzed cladistically and phenetically. Results generally agreed with previous morphology-based phylogenetic analyses. However, the closest wild relative of the edible M. fehi (fe'i banana) appears to be M. lolodensis. Musa angustigemma is sister species with M. boman and M. jackeyi and is distinct from M. peekelii, with which it is often united. Musa boman is unambiguously placed in section Australimusa. The diploid parthenocarpic landraces of section Musa unique to PNG are closely related to, but apparently distinct from, M. acuminata ssp. banksii. The evolution of the fe'i bananas and the M. acuminata-derived diploid landraces of PNG are discussed. PMID:24201344

  19. Evaluation and characterization of a genetically diverse Musa germplasm core subset.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station is responsible for curating germplasm of several regionally and internationally important agricultural crops. Evaluation and characterization of Musa (bananas) genetic resources are an important component of programmed research. In a global coll...

  20. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones. PMID:8112813

  1. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4). PMID:26132832

  2. AAA proteases in mitochondria: diverse functions of membrane-bound proteolytic machines.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Takashi; Langer, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    FtsH/AAA proteases comprise a distinct family of membrane-bound, ATP-dependent proteases present in eubacteria and eukaryotic cells, where they are confined to mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here, we will summarize versatile functions of AAA proteases within mitochondria, which ensure mitochondrial integrity and cell survival, acting both as quality control and processing enzymes. PMID:19781639

  3. Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS Textbook Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ye; Cobern, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a typical Chinese high school biology textbook using the textbook standards of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The data were composed of three chapters selected from the textbook. Each chapter was analyzed and rated using the AAAS textbook standards. Pearson correlations…

  4. First morphogenetic identification of the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum musae (Phyllachoraceae) from imported bananas in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, K A; Roshdy, S; Amin, O E; Rabani, M

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum musae is the causal agent of anthracnose in banana fruits; infection by this fungal pathogen results in severe post-harvest losses. Eleven C. musae isolates were obtained from infected imported banana fruit samples with anthracnose lesions collected from different markets in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The pathogenic, morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics of these C. musae isolates were evaluated. The cultures had characteristic fast-growing sparse aerial mycelia that were white, with copious cinnamon conidial masses, conidia usually elliptical, and setae absent. An inoculation test was used to determine whether isolates could cause anthracnose symptoms on banana fruits. Necrotic lesions developed and orange-colored spore structures were later observed on these lesions. Microsatellite-primed PCR (MP-PCR) was used to identify genetic variation among the C. musae isolates. The dendrogram obtained from cluster analysis of the MP-PCR fingerprints revealed a great deal of homogeneity among the isolates, shown by the formation of two clusters. Intraspecific similarity among the C. musae isolates ranged from 83 to 100%. This is the first report demonstrating morphological and genetic variation within a population of C. musae in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21128214

  5. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (Musa spp) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Intan Sakinah, M A; Suzianti, I V; Latiffah, Z

    2014-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae. PMID:24854442

  6. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:22464807

  7. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Noomhorm, Athapol

    2014-10-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts' yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave method gave higher extraction yield from banana peel than ultrasonic method. The phenolic contents of cinnamon bark and banana peel extracts were 467 and 35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively. The flavonoid content found in banana peel and cinnamon bark extracts were 196 and 428 mg/g quercetin equivalent, respectively. In addition, it was found that cinnamon bark gave higher 2,2-Diphenyl-1-1 picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analyzed by measuring the peroxide and p-anisidine values after oxidation of fish oils, stored for a month (30 days) at 25 °C and showed lesser peroxide and p-anisidine values in the fish oils containing the sample extracts in comparison to the fish oil without containing any extract. The banana peel and cinnamon extracts had shown the ability as antioxidants to prevent the oxidation of fish oil and might be considered as rich sources of natural antioxidant. PMID:25328205

  8. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection.

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  9. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection

    PubMed Central

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  10. Loss of Drosophila i-AAA protease, dYME1L, causes abnormal mitochondria and apoptotic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Qi, Y; Liu, H; Daniels, M P; Zhang, G; Xu, H

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) proteases i-AAA (intermembrane space-AAA) and m-AAA (matrix-AAA) are closely related and have major roles in inner membrane protein homeostasis. Mutations of m-AAA proteases are associated with neuromuscular disorders in humans. However, the role of i-AAA in metazoans is poorly understood. We generated a deletion affecting Drosophila i-AAA, dYME1L (dYME1L(del)). Mutant flies exhibited premature aging, progressive locomotor deficiency and neurodegeneration that resemble some key features of m-AAA diseases. dYME1L(del) flies displayed elevated mitochondrial unfolded protein stress and irregular cristae. Aged dYME1L(del) flies had reduced complex I (NADH/ubiquinone oxidoreductase) activity, increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), severely disorganized mitochondrial membranes and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibiting apoptosis by targeting dOmi (Drosophila Htra2/Omi) or DIAP1, or reducing ROS accumulation suppressed retinal degeneration. Our results suggest that i-AAA is essential for removing unfolded proteins and maintaining mitochondrial membrane architecture. Loss of i-AAA leads to the accumulation of oxidative damage and progressive deterioration of membrane integrity, which might contribute to apoptosis upon the release of proapoptotic molecules such as dOmi. Containing ROS level could be a potential strategy to manage mitochondrial AAA protease deficiency. PMID:26160069

  11. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Musa T.; Nurudeen, Quadri O.; Salimon, Saoban S.; Yakubu, Monsurat O.; Jimoh, Rukayat O.; Nafiu, Mikhail O.; Akanji, Musbau A.; Oladiji, Adenike T.; Williams, Felicia E.

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels. PMID:25893000

  12. Characterization of a linear DNA plasmid from the filamentous fungal plant pathogen Glomerella musae [Anamorph: Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and Curt.) arx.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Redman, R.S.; Grantham, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 7.4-kilobase (kb) DNA plasmid was isolated from Glomerella musae isolate 927 and designated pGML1. Exonuclease treatments indicated that pGML1 was a linear plasmid with blocked 5' termini. Cell-fractionation experiments combined with sequence-specific PCR amplification revealed that pGML1 resided in mitochondria. The pGML1 plasmid hybridized to cesium chloride-fractionated nuclear DNA but not to A + T-rich mitochondrial DNA. An internal 7.0-kb section of pGML1 was cloned and did not hybridize with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA from G. musae. Sequence analysis revealed identical terminal inverted repeats (TIR) of 520 bp at the ends of the cloned 7.0-kb section of pGML1. The occurrence of pGML1 did not correspond with the pathogenicity of G. musae on banana fruit. Four additional isolates of G. musae possessed extrachromosomal DNA fragments similar in size and sequence to pGML1.

  13. A specific and sensitive method for the detection of Colletotrichum musae in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Peeran Mohammed; Prema, Ranjitham; Nagendran, Krishnan; Gandhi, Kathikeyan; Raguchander, Thiruvengadam; Prabakar, Kuppusamy

    2013-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Banana anthracnose incited by Colletotrichum musae (Berk & Curt.) Arx. is a serious disease both in field and in postharvest marketing stage. Molecular methods are most suitable for the early detection of infection. AIM: The latent infection of C. musae makes it very difficult to detect the infected fruit lot, hence aim is to detect the latent infection using molecular approach. METHODS: The molecular variability generated from fourteen isolates of C. musae by RAPD-PCR technique was utilized to determine the phylogentic relationship and develop SCAR markers. RESULTS: The genetic similarity coefficient within each group and variation between the groups were observed. Decamer OPA-01 generated a RAPD polymorphic profile that distinguished C. musae from the other organism. Cloning and sequencing of the specific band yielded 588bp sequences, to which forward CM-SCAR-FP and reverse CM-SCAR-RP were designed. The SCAR primer pair amplified a single SCAR of 490bp from each of the 14 isolates of C. musae, and was able to detect the pathogen in as low as 30ng of DNA from infected fruit peel tissue. CONCLUSION: The developed SCAR markers can aid the detection process every quickly and accurately which will help exporters. PMID:23402827

  14. Modelling of residually stressed materials with application to AAA.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, T; Dorfmann, L; Ogden, R W

    2016-08-01

    Residual stresses are generated in living tissues by processes of growth and adaptation and they significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of the tissues. Thus, to effectively model the elastic response of the tissues relative to a residually stressed configuration the residual stresses need to be incorporated into the constitutive equations. The purposes of this paper are (a) to summarise a general elastic constitutive formulation that includes residual stress, (b) to specify the tensors needed for the three-dimensional implementation of the theory in a nonlinear finite element code, and (c) to use the theory and its implementation to evaluate the wall stress distribution in an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using patient specific geometry and material model parameters. The considered material is anisotropic with two preferred directions indicating the orientation of the collagen fibres in the aortic tissue. The method described in this paper is general and can be used, by specifying appropriate energy functions, to investigate other residually stressed biological systems. PMID:26874252

  15. AAA: Road Debris a Mounting Danger on U.S. Highways

    MedlinePlus

    ... Highways Crashes involving objects that have fallen from vehicles up 40 percent since 2001 To use the ... the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. Crashes involving vehicle-related debris are up 40 percent since the ...

  16. In vitro effects of Musa x paradisiaca extracts on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Udino, L; Philibert, L; Bocage, B; Archimede, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and/or dichloromethane) of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI) and adult worm motility assay (AWM). The highly significant (P<0.0001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition >67% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane extract of leaf on adult worm motility (43% of inhibition of motility after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of Musa x paradisiaca stem and leaf against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as terpenoid and flavonoid compounds present in the leaf and stem of the plant. PMID:24382490

  17. Determining the influence of calcification on the failure properties of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) tissue.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Siobhan A; Mulvihill, John J; Barrett, Hilary E; Kavanagh, Eamon G; Walsh, Michael T; McGloughlin, Tim M; Doyle, Barry J

    2015-02-01

    Varying degrees of calcification are present in most abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, their impact on AAA failure properties and AAA rupture risk is unclear. The aim of this work is evaluate and compare the failure properties of partially calcified and predominantly fibrous AAA tissue and investigate the potential reasons for failure. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed on AAA samples harvested from 31 patients undergoing open surgical repair. Individual tensile samples were divided into two groups: fibrous (n=31) and partially calcified (n=38). The presence of calcification was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A total of 69 mechanical tests were performed and the failure stretch (λf), failure stress (σf) and failure tension (Tf) were recorded for each test. Following mechanical testing, the failure sites of a subset of both tissue types were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the potential reasons for failure. It has been shown that the failure properties of partially calcified tissue are significantly reduced compared to fibrous tissue and SEM and EDS results suggest that the junction between a calcification deposit and the fibrous matrix is highly susceptible to failure. This study implicates the presence of calcification as a key player in AAA rupture risk and provides further motivation for the development of non-invasive methods of measuring calcification. PMID:25482218

  18. Hepatoprotective activity of Musa paradisiaca on experimental animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nirmala, M; Girija, K; Lakshman, K; Divya, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of stem of Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods Hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of stem of M. paradisiaca was demonstrated by using two experimentally induced hepatotoxicity models. Results Administration of hepatotoxins (CCl4 and paracetamol) showed significant biochemical and histological deteriorations in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with alcoholic extract (500 mg/kg), more significantly and to a lesser extent the alcoholic extract (250 mg/kg) and aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), reduced the elevated levels of the serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin levels and alcoholic and aqueous extracts reversed the hepatic damage towards the normal, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity of stem of M. paradisiaca. Conclusions The alcoholic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of stem of M. paradisiaca have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity animal models. PMID:23569826

  19. Engineering Silicone Rubbers for In vitro Studies: Creating AAA Models and ILT Analogues with Physiological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, T.J.; Doyle, B.J.; Callanan, A.; Walsh, M.T.; McGloughlin, T.M

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro studies of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have been widely reported. Frequently mock artery models with intraluminal thrombus (ILT) analogues are used to mimic the AAA in vivo. While the models used may be physiological, their properties are frequently either not reported or investigated. Method of Approach This study is concerned with the testing and characterisation of previously used vessel analogue materials and the development of new materials for the manufacture of AAA models. These materials were used in conjunction with a previously validated injection moulding technique to manufacture AAA models of ideal geometry. To determine the model properties (stiffness (β) and compliance) the diameter change of each AAA model was investigated under incrementally increasing internal pressures and compared to published in vivo studies to determine if the models behaved physiologically. A FEA study was implemented to determine if the pressure – diameter change behaviour of the models could be predicted numerically. ILT analogues were also manufactured and characterised. Ideal models were manufactured with ILT analogue internal to the aneurysm region and the effect of the ILT analogue on the model compliance and stiffness was investigated. Results The wall materials had similar properties to aortic tissue at physiological pressures (Einit 2.22MPa and 1.57MPa (aortic tissue: 1.8MPa)). ILT analogues had similar Young’s modulus to the medial layer of ILT (0.24 and 0.33MPa (ILT: 0.28MPa)). All models had aneurysm sac compliance in the physiological range (2.62 – 8.01×10-4/mmHg (AAA in vivo: 1.8 – 9.4×10-4/mmHg)). The necks of our AAA models had similar stiffness to healthy aortas (20.44 – 29.83 (healthy aortas in vivo: 17.5±5.5)). Good agreement was seen between the diameter changes due to pressurisation in the experimental and FEA wall models with a maximum error of 7.3% at 120mmHg. It was also determined that the inclusion of ILT analogue

  20. Verification of IMRT dose calculations using AAA and PBC algorithms in dose buildup regions.

    PubMed

    Oinam, Arun S; Singh, Lakhwant

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative study was to test the accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) and pencil beam convolution (PBC) algorithms of Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) for dose calculations in the low- and high-dose buildup regions. AAA and PBC algorithms were used to create two intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans of the same optimal fluence generated from a clinically simulated oropharynx case in an in-house fabricated head and neck phantom. The TPS computed buildup doses were compared with the corresponding measured doses in the phantom using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD 100). Analysis of dose distribution calculated using PBC and AAA shows an increase in gamma value in the dose buildup region indicating large dose deviation. For the surface areas of 1, 50 and 100 cm2, PBC overestimates doses as compared to AAA calculated value in the range of 1.34%-3.62% at 0.6 cm depth, 1.74%-2.96% at 0.4 cm depth, and 1.96%-4.06% at 0.2 cm depth, respectively. In high-dose buildup region, AAA calculated doses were lower by an average of -7.56% (SD = 4.73%), while PBC was overestimated by 3.75% (SD = 5.70%) as compared to TLD measured doses at 0.2 cm depth. However, at 0.4 and 0.6 cm depth, PBC overestimated TLD measured doses by 5.84% (SD = 4.38%) and 2.40% (SD = 4.63%), respectively, while AAA underestimated the TLD measured doses by -0.82% (SD = 4.24%) and -1.10% (SD = 4.14%) at the same respective depth. In low-dose buildup region, both AAA and PBC overestimated the TLD measured doses at all depths except -2.05% (SD = 10.21%) by AAA at 0.2 cm depth. The differences between AAA and PBC at all depths were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in high-dose buildup region, whereas it is not statistically significant in low-dose buildup region. In conclusion, AAA calculated the dose more accurately than PBC in clinically important high-dose buildup region at 0.4 cm and 0.6 cm depths. The use of an orfit cast increases the dose buildup

  1. MusaSAP1, a A20/AN1 zinc finger gene from banana functions as a positive regulator in different stress responses.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2012-11-01

    A20/AN1 zinc finger domain containing Stress Associated Proteins (SAP) are involved in diverse stress response pathways in plants. In the present study, a novel banana SAP gene, MusaSAP1, was identified from banana EST database and was subsequently characterized by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Expression profiling in native banana plants showed that MusaSAP1 was up-regulated by drought, salt, cold, heat and oxidative stress as well as by treatment with abscisic acid. Cellular localization assay carried out by making a MusaSAP1::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaSAP1 is incompletely translocated to nucleus. Copy number analysis performed using real time PCR and Southern blotting indicated that MusaSAP1 occurs in the banana genome in a single copy per 11 chromosome set. Transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing MusaSAP1 displayed better stress endurance characteristics as compared to controls in both in vitro and ex vivo assays. Lesser membrane damage as indicated by reduced malondialdehyde levels in transgenic leaves subjected to drought, salt or oxidative stress pointed towards significant role for MusaSAP1 in stress amelioration pathways of banana. Strong up-regulation of a polyphenol oxidase (PPO) coding transcript in MusaSAP1 overexpressing plants together with induction of MusaSAP1 by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment indicated possible involvement of MusaSAP1 in biotic stress responses where PPOs perform major functions in multiple defense pathways. PMID:22961664

  2. Cytoplasmic dynein regulates its attachment to microtubules via nucleotide state-switched mechanosensing at multiple AAA domains.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Matthew P; Berger, Florian; Rao, Lu; Brenner, Sibylle; Cho, Carol; Gennerich, Arne

    2015-05-19

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a homodimeric microtubule (MT) motor protein responsible for most MT minus-end-directed motility. Dynein contains four AAA+ ATPases (AAA: ATPase associated with various cellular activities) per motor domain (AAA1-4). The main site of ATP hydrolysis, AAA1, is the only site considered by most dynein motility models. However, it remains unclear how ATPase activity and MT binding are coordinated within and between dynein's motor domains. Using optical tweezers, we characterize the MT-binding strength of recombinant dynein monomers as a function of mechanical tension and nucleotide state. Dynein responds anisotropically to tension, binding tighter to MTs when pulled toward the MT plus end. We provide evidence that this behavior results from an asymmetrical bond that acts as a slip bond under forward tension and a slip-ideal bond under backward tension. ATP weakens MT binding and reduces bond strength anisotropy, and unexpectedly, so does ADP. Using nucleotide binding and hydrolysis mutants, we show that, although ATP exerts its effects via binding AAA1, ADP effects are mediated by AAA3. Finally, we demonstrate "gating" of AAA1 function by AAA3. When tension is absent or applied via dynein's C terminus, ATP binding to AAA1 induces MT release only if AAA3 is in the posthydrolysis state. However, when tension is applied to the linker, ATP binding to AAA3 is sufficient to "open" the gate. These results elucidate the mechanisms of dynein-MT interactions, identify regulatory roles for AAA3, and help define the interplay between mechanical tension and nucleotide state in regulating dynein motility. PMID:25941405

  3. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils. PMID:27571112

  4. In vitro cloning and homestead cultivation of primitive Musa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Mukunthakumar, S; Seeni, S

    2005-01-01

    Two primitive diploid Musa cultivars, Matti and Chemmatti from the extreme southern part of the Western Ghats were multiplied by in vitro culture of sucker-derived shoot apices. Decontaminated corm explants (1 cm x 1 cm) having shoot apex (approximately 0.3 cm) cultured for 1 month in Murashige and Skoog basal agar medium was cut vertically into eight segments and each segment having a part of shoot meristem was cultured in presence of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and combinations of BAP and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyricacid (IBA) to produce multiple shoots. After 12 weeks of culture, maximum number of shoots (32) in both the cultivars were produced in approximate 60% of the explants in presence of BAP and IAA each at 1.5 mg/l(-1) (Matti) and 40% of the explants in 2.5 mg/l(-1) of BAP and 1.5 mg/l(-1) of IAA (Chemmatti). Buds were formed from the base of the subcultured shoots and somewhat more number (34) of shoots were obtained in Matti than in Chemmatti (31) after 8 weeks. Difference in the concentration of cytokinin required for shoot initiation and multiplication, persistence of exudation through the subculture and red colouration of the early formed sheathing leaf bases in the shoots in Chemmatti indicated possible genotypic differences between the two cultivars. Multiple shoot proliferation achieved through five subcultures of the isolated shoots without any decline. Transfer of shoots (4-5 cm) into MS basal medium favoured rooting in 4 weeks and rooted plants (9 cm) were hardened and established (80-95%). Mericlones of Matti cultivated in homesteads produced bunches of uniform characters in 13 months. PMID:15691071

  5. Antidiarrheal, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Musa sapientum Seed

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Sarowar; Alam, M. Badrul; Asadujjaman, M.; Zahan, Ronok; Islam, M. Monirul; Mazumder, M. Ehsanul H.; Haque, Md. Ekramul

    2011-01-01

    Musa sapientum (M.sapientum) commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Bangladeshi folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate antidiarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of M.sapientum seed (MMSS). The extract was studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MMSS. In addition, disc diffusion methods were used for antibacterial assay using various diarrheal induced bacterial strains. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p<0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. In DPPH and NO scavenging method, MMSS showed good antioxidant potentiality in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 12.32±0.33 µg/ml and 18.96±1.01 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.001) good reducing power. The extract also displayed strong anti-bacterial effect against when tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Altogether, these results suggest that the MMSS could be used as a potential antidiarrheal agent along with its antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. PMID:23407989

  6. Discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in the Musa gene pool by Ecotilling.

    PubMed

    Till, Bradley J; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Sági, László; Huynh, Owen A; Utsushi, Hiroe; Swennen, Rony; Terauchi, Ryohei; Mba, Chikelu

    2010-11-01

    Musa (banana and plantain) is an important genus for the global export market and in local markets where it provides staple food for approximately 400 million people. Hybridization and polyploidization of several (sub)species, combined with vegetative propagation and human selection have produced a complex genetic history. We describe the application of the Ecotilling method for the discovery and characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms in diploid and polyploid accessions of Musa. We discovered over 800 novel alleles in 80 accessions. Sequencing and band evaluation shows Ecotilling to be a robust and accurate platform for the discovery of polymorphisms in homologous and homeologous gene targets. In the process of validating the method, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be deleterious for the function of a gene putatively important for phototropism. Evaluation of heterozygous polymorphism and haplotype blocks revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity in Musa accessions. We further applied a strategy for the simultaneous discovery of heterozygous and homozygous polymorphisms in diploid accessions to rapidly evaluate nucleotide diversity in accessions of the same genome type. This strategy can be used to develop hypotheses for inheritance patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms within and between genome types. We conclude that Ecotilling is suitable for diversity studies in Musa, that it can be considered for functional genomics studies and as tool in selecting germplasm for traditional and mutation breeding approaches. PMID:20589365

  7. GENOMIC COMPOSITION OF THE USDA-ARS TROPICAL AGRICULTURE RESEARCH STATION MUSA SP. GERMPLASM COLLECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bananas, cooking bananas and plantains (Musa sp.) are some of the most important food crops in the world. Two of the more limiting factors for commercial as well as for local production are diseases and insect pests. Crop improvement through plant breeding to address these constraints, in addition...

  8. Catalog of banana (Musa spp.) accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Reserach Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana genetic resources can be found in situ in native habitats in Southeast Asia and the Pacific region. Ex situ collections also exist in important tropical regions of the world as well as in vitro cultures at the Bioversity International Musa Germplasm Transit Centre. Unfortunately, readily avai...

  9. Musa spp. germplasm management: microsatellite fingerprinting of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station (TARS) is responsible for conserving germplasm of a number of important agricultural crop species. A banana (Musa spp.) collection has been established at TARS that is comprised of diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of cultivated, ornament...

  10. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  11. Compensatory Lengthening in Karok and CV Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Young Hee

    A study of Karok, an American Indian language spoken in northern California, provides an argument for CV theory over moraic theory from compensatory lengthening. In a previous study, moraic theory is argued to be superior to CV phonology in accounting for compensatory lengthening; it is shown here that compensatory lengthening in Karok cannot be…

  12. Molecular Analysis and Genomic Organization of Major DNA Satellites in Banana (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa. PMID:23372772

  13. Role of mitochondrial processing peptidase and AAA proteases in processing of the yeast acetohydroxyacid synthase precursor.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Suvarna; Kölling, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    We studied presequence processing of the mitochondrial-matrix targeted acetohydroxyacid synthase (Ilv2). C-terminal 3HA-tagging altered the cleavage pattern from a single step to sequential two-step cleavage, giving rise to two Ilv2-3HA forms (A and B). Both cleavage events were dependent on the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP). We present evidence for the involvement of three AAA ATPases, m- and i-AAA proteases, and Mcx1, in Ilv2-3HA processing. Both, precursor to A-form and A-form to B-form cleavage were strongly affected in a ∆yme1 mutant. These defects could be suppressed by overexpression of MPP, suggesting that MPP activity is limiting in the ∆yme1 mutant. Our data suggest that for some substrates AAA ATPases could play an active role in the translocation of matrix-targeted proteins. PMID:27398316

  14. Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Al; Frankel, Mark S.; Kling, Rob; Lee, Yaching

    1999-01-01

    Reports the results of a conference on the Internet and anonymous communication organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Discusses how anonymous communications can be shaped by the law, education, and public awareness, and highlights the importance of involving all affected interests in policy development.…

  15. CV and CM chondrite impact melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunning, Nicole G.; Corrigan, Catherine M.; McSween, Harry Y.; Tenner, Travis J.; Kita, Noriko T.; Bodnar, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Volatile-rich and typically oxidized carbonaceous chondrites, such as CV and CM chondrites, potentially respond to impacts differently than do other chondritic materials. Understanding impact melting of carbonaceous chondrites has been hampered by the dearth of recognized impact melt samples. In this study we identify five carbonaceous chondrite impact melt clasts in three host meteorites: a CV3red chondrite, a CV3oxA chondrite, and a regolithic howardite. The impact melt clasts in these meteorites respectively formed from CV3red chondrite, CV3oxA chondrite, and CM chondrite protoliths. We identified these impact melt clasts and interpreted their precursors based on their texture, mineral chemistry, silicate bulk elemental composition, and in the case of the CM chondrite impact melt clast, in situ measurement of oxygen three-isotope signatures in olivine. These impact melts typically contain euhedral-subhedral olivine microphenocrysts, sometimes with relict cores, in glassy groundmasses. Based on petrography and Raman spectroscopy, four of the impact melt clasts exhibit evidence for volatile loss: these melt clasts either contain vesicles or are depleted in H2O relative to their precursors. Volatile loss (i.e., H2O) may have reduced the redox state of the CM chondrite impact melt clast. The clasts that formed from the more oxidized precursors (CV3oxA and CM chondrites) exhibit phase and bulk silicate elemental compositions consistent with higher intrinsic oxygen fugacities relative to the clast that formed from a more reduced precursor (CV3red chondrite). The mineral chemistries and assemblages of the CV and CM chondrite impact melt clasts identified here provide a template for recognizing carbonaceous chondrite impact melts on the surfaces of asteroids.

  16. Asymmetric processing of a substrate protein in sequential allosteric cycles of AAA+ nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravats, Andrea N.; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Bucher, Ryan J.; Stan, George

    2013-09-01

    Essential protein quality control includes mechanisms of substrate protein (SP) unfolding and translocation performed by powerful ring-shaped AAA+ (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) nanomachines. These SP remodeling actions are effected by mechanical forces imparted by AAA+ loops that protrude into the central channel. Sequential intra-ring allosteric motions, which underlie repetitive SP-loop interactions, have been proposed to comprise clockwise (CW), counterclockwise (CCW), or random (R) conformational transitions of individual AAA+ subunits. To probe the effect of these allosteric mechanisms on unfoldase and translocase functions, we perform Langevin dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of an all-alpha SP processed by the single-ring ClpY ATPase or by the double-ring p97 ATPase. We find that, in all three allosteric mechanisms, the SP undergoes conformational transitions along a common set of pathways, which reveals that the active work provided by the ClpY machine involves single loop-SP interactions. Nevertheless, the rates and yields of SP unfolding and translocation are controlled by mechanism-dependent loop-SP binding events, as illustrated by faster timescales of SP processing in CW allostery compared with CCW and R allostery. The distinct efficacy of allosteric mechanisms is due to the asymmetric collaboration of adjacent subunits, which involves CW-biased structural motions of AAA+ loops and results in CW-compatible torque applied onto the SP. Additional simulations of mutant ClpY rings, which render a subset of subunits catalytically-defective or reduce their SP binding affinity, reveal that subunit-based conformational transitions play the major role in SP remodeling. Based on these results we predict that the minimally functional AAA+ ring includes three active subunits, only two of which are adjacent.

  17. Foundation characteristics of edible Musa triploids revealed from allelic distribution of SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Hippolyte, I.; Jenny, C.; Gardes, L.; Bakry, F.; Rivallan, R.; Pomies, V.; Cubry, P.; Tomekpe, K.; Risterucci, A. M.; Roux, N.; Rouard, M.; Arnaud, E.; Kolesnikova-Allen, M.; Perrier, X.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The production of triploid banana and plantain (Musa spp.) cultivars with improved characteristics (e.g. greater disease resistance or higher yield), while still preserving the main features of current popular cultivars (e.g. taste and cooking quality), remains a major challenge for Musa breeders. In this regard, breeders require a sound knowledge of the lineage of the current sterile triploid cultivars, to select diploid parents that are able to transmit desirable traits, together with a breeding strategy ensuring final triploidization and sterility. Highly polymorphic single sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Methods Here, the allelic distribution of each of 22 SSR loci across 561 Musa accessions is analysed. Key Results and Conclusions We determine the closest diploid progenitors of the triploid ‘Cavendish’ and ‘Gros Michel’ subgroups, valuable information for breeding programmes. Nevertheless, in establishing the likely monoclonal origin of the main edible triploid banana subgroups (i.e. ‘Cavendish’, ‘Plantain’ and ‘Mutika-Lujugira’), we postulated that the huge phenotypic diversity observed within these subgroups did not result from gamete recombination, but rather from epigenetic regulations. This emphasizes the need to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of genome expression on a unique model in the plant kingdom. We also propose experimental standards to compare additional and independent genotyping data for reference. PMID:22323428

  18. Development of expressed sequence tag and expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat marker resources for Musa acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Marco A. N.; de Oliveira Cruz, Viviane; Emediato, Flavia L.; de Camargo Teixeira, Cristiane; Souza, Manoel T.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Rennó Azevedo, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Claudia F.; Amorim, Edson P.; de Alencar Figueiredo, Lucio Flavio; Martins, Natalia F.; de Jesus Barbosa Cavalcante, Maria; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; da Silva, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios J.; Pignolet, Luc; Abadie, Catherine; Ciampi, Ana Y.; Piffanelli, Pietro; Miller, Robert N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana (Musa acuminata) is a crop contributing to global food security. Many varieties lack resistance to biotic stresses, due to sterility and narrow genetic background. The objective of this study was to develop an expressed sequence tag (EST) database of transcripts expressed during compatible and incompatible banana–Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mf) interactions. Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mf, is a destructive disease of banana. Microsatellite markers were developed as a resource for crop improvement. Methodology cDNA libraries were constructed from in vitro-infected leaves from BLSD-resistant M. acuminata ssp. burmaniccoides Calcutta 4 (MAC4) and susceptible M. acuminata cv. Cavendish Grande Naine (MACV). Clones were 5′-end Sanger sequenced, ESTs assembled with TGICL and unigenes annotated using BLAST, Blast2GO and InterProScan. Mreps was used to screen for simple sequence repeats (SSRs), with markers evaluated for polymorphism using 20 diploid (AA) M. acuminata accessions contrasting in resistance to Mycosphaerella leaf spot diseases. Principal results A total of 9333 high-quality ESTs were obtained for MAC4 and 3964 for MACV, which assembled into 3995 unigenes. Of these, 2592 displayed homology to genes encoding proteins with known or putative function, and 266 to genes encoding proteins with unknown function. Gene ontology (GO) classification identified 543 GO terms, 2300 unigenes were assigned to EuKaryotic orthologous group categories and 312 mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. A total of 624 SSR loci were identified, with trinucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant in MAC4 (54.1 %) and MACV (57.6 %). Polymorphism across M. acuminata accessions was observed with 75 markers. Alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 8, totalling 289. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.08 to 0.81. Conclusions This EST collection offers a resource for studying functional genes, including

  19. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

  20. Structural Basis of ATP Hydrolysis and Intersubunit Signaling in the AAA+ ATPase p97.

    PubMed

    Hänzelmann, Petra; Schindelin, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    p97 belongs to the superfamily of AAA+ ATPases and is characterized by a tandem AAA module, an N-terminal domain involved in substrate and cofactor interactions, and a functionally important unstructured C-terminal tail. The ATPase activity is controlled by an intradomain communication within the same protomer and an interdomain communication between neighboring protomers. Here, we present for the first time crystal structures in which the physiologically relevant p97 hexamer constitutes the content of the asymmetric unit, namely in the apo state without nucleotide in either the D1 or D2 module and in the pre-activated state with ATPγS bound to both modules. The structures provide new mechanistic insights into the interdomain communication mediated by conformational changes of the C terminus as well as an intersubunit signaling network, which couples the nucleotide state to the conformation of the central putative substrate binding pore. PMID:26712278

  1. A Statistical Comparison of the AAA Asteroids with the other Asteroid Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostolansky, E.

    1999-04-01

    In this paper a statistical comparison of the AAA (Apollo-Amor-Aten) asteroids with the other asteroid populations is presented and discussed. For the analysis the database of the osculating orbital elements (Epoch = 2451200.5) of the 47098 asteroids (February 1999) provided at the Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona, U.S.A was used. Two kinds of distributions are presented: (1) The frequency distributions of the orbital elements e, i, omega, OMEGA and absolute magnitude H; (2) The distributions like a vs. e, H vs. i and H vs. r MIN, where r MIN is the minimum distance between the orbits of the Earth and an asteroid. The analysis was aimed to study some special features of the AAA asteroid population like its spatial distribution and size of tile asteroids in it and to compare them with the other groups of asteroids.

  2. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the

  3. Neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish by a large AAA+ ATPase/ubiquitin ligase, mysterin/RNF213

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Yuri; Morito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Satoru; Ogino, Kazutoyo; Kawakami, Koichi; Takashima, Seiji; Hirata, Hiromi; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Mysterin (also known as RNF213) is a huge intracellular protein with two AAA+ ATPase modules and a RING finger ubiquitin ligase domain. Mysterin was originally isolated as a significant risk factor for the cryptogenic cerebrovascular disorder moyamoya disease, and was found to be involved in physiological angiogenesis in zebrafish. However, the function and the physiological significance of mysterin in other than blood vessels remain largely unknown, although mysterin is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues. In this study, we performed antisense-mediated suppression of a mysterin orthologue in zebrafish larvae and revealed that mysterin-deficient larvae showed significant reduction in fast myofibrils and immature projection of primary motoneurons, leading to severe motor deficits. Fast muscle-specific restoration of mysterin expression cancelled these phenotypes, and interestingly both AAA+ ATPase and ubiquitin ligase activities of mysterin were indispensable for proper fast muscle formation, demonstrating an essential role of mysterin and its enzymatic activities in the neuromuscular regulation in zebrafish. PMID:26530008

  4. Indications for and outcome of open AAA repair in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Wieker, Carola M; Spazier, Max; Böckler, Dittmar

    2016-04-01

    The benefits, safety and efficacy of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is well documented and intensively reported in multiple randomized trials and meta-analysis. Therefore, EVAR became the first choice of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) treatment in almost 70-100% of patients. Consecutively, open repair (OR) is performed less frequently in morphologically preselected patients. Anatomical condition remains the most important factor for indication for OR. Especially unfavorable intrarenal landing zone based on difficult neck anatomy like very short neck or excessive neck angulation is still the most predictive factor. Furthermore, patients presenting additional iliac aneurysms, aortoiliac occlusive disease or variations of renal arteries are recommended for OR. Randomized trials like EVAR 1, DREAM and OVER from the year 2004/2005 and 2009 showed lower 30-day mortality rates in EVAR compared to OR. However, the late mortality rates after two years became equal in both treatment options. Furthermore, reinterventions after EVAR occur more frequently than after OR. Analysis from our own data showed a higher 30-day mortality in the patients who underwent OR in the endovascular era (15% vs. 2.5%), however the number of emergency open AAA repair because of ruptured aneurysms was much higher in the endovascular era (32.5% vs. 5%). In conclusion, treatment of AAA has changed in the past decade. Nevertheless OR of AAA still remains as a safe and durable method in experienced surgeons, even in the endovascular era. High volume centres are needed to offer the best patients' treatment providing the best postoperative outcome. Therefore OR must remain a part of fellowship training in the future. To decide the best treatment option many facts like patients' fitness and preference or finally the anatomic suitability for endovascular repair have to be considered. PMID:26822580

  5. Mechanochemical basis of protein degradation by a double-ring AAA+ machine.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Adrian O; Nager, Andrew R; Iosefson, Ohad; Sauer, Robert T; Baker, Tania A

    2014-10-01

    Molecular machines containing double or single AAA+ rings power energy-dependent protein degradation and other critical cellular processes, including disaggregation and remodeling of macromolecular complexes. How the mechanical activities of double-ring and single-ring AAA+ enzymes differ is unknown. Using single-molecule optical trapping, we determine how the double-ring ClpA enzyme from Escherichia coli, in complex with the ClpP peptidase, mechanically degrades proteins. We demonstrate that ClpA unfolds some protein substrates substantially faster than does the single-ring ClpX enzyme, which also degrades substrates in collaboration with ClpP. We find that ClpA is a slower polypeptide translocase and that it moves in physical steps that are smaller and more regular than steps taken by ClpX. These direct measurements of protein unfolding and translocation define the core mechanochemical behavior of a double-ring AAA+ machine and provide insight into the degradation of proteins that unfold via metastable intermediates. PMID:25195048

  6. Assaying the kinetics of protein denaturation catalyzed by AAA+ unfolding machines and proteases.

    PubMed

    Baytshtok, Vladimir; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2015-04-28

    ATP-dependent molecular machines of the AAA+ superfamily unfold or remodel proteins in all cells. For example, AAA+ ClpX and ClpA hexamers collaborate with the self-compartmentalized ClpP peptidase to unfold and degrade specific proteins in bacteria and some eukaryotic organelles. Although degradation assays are straightforward, robust methods to assay the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed protein unfolding in the absence of proteolysis have been lacking. Here, we describe a FRET-based assay in which enzymatic unfolding converts a mixture of donor-labeled and acceptor-labeled homodimers into heterodimers. In this assay, ClpX is a more efficient protein-unfolding machine than ClpA both kinetically and in terms of ATP consumed. However, ClpP enhances the mechanical activities of ClpA substantially, and ClpAP degrades the dimeric substrate faster than ClpXP. When ClpXP or ClpAP engage the dimeric subunit, one subunit is actively unfolded and degraded, whereas the other subunit is passively unfolded by loss of its partner and released. This assay should be broadly applicable for studying the mechanisms of AAA+ proteases and remodeling chaperones. PMID:25870262

  7. Characterization of ATPase activity of the AAA ARC from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Mabel; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Santos, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be probiotics that exist in the large intestine and are helpful to maintain human health. Oral administration of bifidobacteria may be effective in improving the intestinal flora and environment, stimulating the immune response and possibly preventing cancer. However, for consistent and positive results, further well-controlled studies are urgently needed to describe the basic mechanisms of this microorganism. Analysis of the proteasome-lacking Bifidobacterium longum genome reveals that it possesses a gene, IPR003593 AAA ATPase core, which codes a 56 kDa protein containing one AAA ATPase domain. Phylogenetic classification made by CLANS, positioned this sequence into the ARC divergent branch of the AAA ATPase family of proteins. N-terminal analysis of the sequence indicates this protein is closely related to other ATPases such as the Rhodococcus erythropolis ARC, Archaeoglobus fulgidus PAN, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mpa and the human proteasomal Rpt1 subunit. This gene was cloned, the full-length recombinant protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified as a high-molecular size complex and named Bl-ARC. Enzymatic characterization showed that Bl-ARC ATPase is active, Mg(+2)-dependent and sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. Gene organization positions bl-arc in a region flanked by a cluster of genes that includes pup, dop and pafA genes. These findings point to a possible function as a chaperone in the degradation pathway via pupylation. PMID:26015994

  8. Structural Insights into the Allosteric Operation of the Lon AAA+ Protease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Chu; Su, Shih-Chieh; Su, Ming-Yuan; Liang, Pi-Hui; Feng, Chia-Cheng; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Chung-I

    2016-05-01

    The Lon AAA+ protease (LonA) is an evolutionarily conserved protease that couples the ATPase cycle into motion to drive substrate translocation and degradation. A hallmark feature shared by AAA+ proteases is the stimulation of ATPase activity by substrates. Here we report the structure of LonA bound to three ADPs, revealing the first AAA+ protease assembly where the six protomers are arranged alternately in nucleotide-free and bound states. Nucleotide binding induces large coordinated movements of conserved pore loops from two pairs of three non-adjacent protomers and shuttling of the proteolytic groove between the ATPase site and a previously unknown Arg paddle. Structural and biochemical evidence supports the roles of the substrate-bound proteolytic groove in allosteric stimulation of ATPase activity and the conserved Arg paddle in driving substrate degradation. Altogether, this work provides a molecular framework for understanding how ATP-dependent chemomechanical movements drive allosteric processes for substrate degradation in a major protein-destruction machine. PMID:27041592

  9. Subunit dynamics and nucleotide-dependent asymmetry of an AAA(+) transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Joly, Nicolas; Lawton, Edward; Robinson, Carol V; Buck, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial enhancer binding proteins (bEBPs) are transcription activators that belong to the AAA(+) protein family. They form higher-order self-assemblies to regulate transcription initiation at stress response and pathogenic promoters. The precise mechanism by which these ATPases utilize ATP binding and hydrolysis energy to remodel their substrates remains unclear. Here we employed mass spectrometry of intact complexes to investigate subunit dynamics and nucleotide occupancy of the AAA(+) domain of one well-studied bEBP in complex with its substrate, the σ(54) subunit of RNA polymerase. Our results demonstrate that the free AAA(+) domain undergoes significant changes in oligomeric states and nucleotide occupancy upon σ(54) binding. Such changes likely correlate with one transition state of ATP and are associated with an open spiral ring formation that is vital for asymmetric subunit function and interface communication. We confirmed that the asymmetric subunit functionality persists for open promoter complex formation using single-chain forms of bEBP lacking the full complement of intact ATP hydrolysis sites. Outcomes reconcile low- and high-resolution structures and yield a partial sequential ATP hydrolysis model for bEBPs. PMID:24055699

  10. Functional characterization of fidgetin, an AAA-family protein mutated in fidget mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yan; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Berube, Nathalie; Nystuen, Arne; Frankel, Wayne N. . E-mail: wnf@jax.org

    2005-03-10

    The mouse fidget mutation is an autosomal recessive mutation that renders reduced or absent semicircular canals, microphthalmia, and various skeletal abnormalities to affected mice. We previously identified the defective gene which encodes fidgetin, a new member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA proteins). Here, we report on the subcellular localization of fidgetin as well as that of two closely related proteins, fidgetin-like 1 and fidgetin-like 2. Epitope-tagging and immunostaining revealed that both fidgetin and fidgetin-like 2 were predominantly localized to the nucleus, whereas fidgetin-like 1 was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. Furthermore, deletion studies identified a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal in the middle portion of the fidgetin protein. Since AAA proteins are known to form functional hetero- or homo-hexamers, we used reciprocal immunoprecipitation to examine the potential interaction among these proteins. We found that fidgetin interacted with itself and this specific interaction was abolished when either the N- or C-terminus of the protein was truncated. Taken together, our results suggest that fidgetin is a nuclear AAA-family protein with the potential to form homo-oligomers, thus representing the first step towards the elucidation of fidgetin's cellular function and the disease mechanism in fidget mutant mice.

  11. Molecular snapshots of the Pex1/6 AAA+ complex in action

    PubMed Central

    Ciniawsky, Susanne; Grimm, Immanuel; Saffian, Delia; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf; Wendler, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The peroxisomal proteins Pex1 and Pex6 form a heterohexameric type II AAA+ ATPase complex, which fuels essential protein transport across peroxisomal membranes. Mutations in either ATPase in humans can lead to severe peroxisomal disorders and early death. We present an extensive structural and biochemical analysis of the yeast Pex1/6 complex. The heterohexamer forms a trimer of Pex1/6 dimers with a triangular geometry that is atypical for AAA+ complexes. While the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domains (D2) of Pex6 constitute the main ATPase activity of the complex, both D2 harbour essential substrate-binding motifs. ATP hydrolysis results in a pumping motion of the complex, suggesting that Pex1/6 function involves substrate translocation through its central channel. Mutation of the Walker B motif in one D2 domain leads to ATP hydrolysis in the neighbouring domain, giving structural insights into inter-domain communication of these unique heterohexameric AAA+ assemblies. PMID:26066397

  12. An atypical AAA+ ATPase assembly controls efficient transposition through DNA remodeling and transposase recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposons are ubiquitous genetic elements that drive genome rearrangements, evolution, and the spread of infectious disease and drug-resistance. Many transposons, such as Mu, Tn7 and IS21, require regulatory AAA+ ATPases for function. We use x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy to show that the ATPase subunit of IS21, IstB, assembles into a clamshell-shaped decamer that sandwiches DNA between two helical pentamers of ATP-associated AAA+ domains, sharply bending the duplex into a 180° U-turn. Biochemical studies corroborate key features of the structure, and further show that the IS21 transposase, IstA, recognizes the IstB•DNA complex and promotes its disassembly by stimulating ATP hydrolysis. Collectively, these studies reveal a distinct manner of higher-order assembly and client engagement by a AAA+ ATPase and suggest a mechanistic model where IstB binding and subsequent DNA bending primes a selected insertion site for efficient transposition. PMID:26276634

  13. Structural Insights into the Unusually Strong ATPase Activity of the AAA Domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans Fidgetin-like 1 (FIGL-1) Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wentao; Lin, Zhijie; Li, Weirong; Lu, Jing; Shen, Yuequan; Wang, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    The FIGL-1 (fidgetin like-1) protein is a homolog of fidgetin, a protein whose mutation leads to multiple developmental defects. The FIGL-1 protein contains an AAA (ATPase associated with various activities) domain and belongs to the AAA superfamily. However, the biological functions and developmental implications of this protein remain unknown. Here, we show that the AAA domain of the Caenorhabditis elegans FIGL-1 protein (CeFIGL-1-AAA), in clear contrast to homologous AAA domains, has an unusually high ATPase activity and forms a hexamer in solution. By determining the crystal structure of CeFIGL-1-AAA, we found that the loop linking helices α9 and α10 folds into the short helix α9a, which has an acidic surface and interacts with a positively charged surface of the neighboring subunit. Disruption of this charge interaction by mutagenesis diminishes both the ATPase activity and oligomerization capacity of the protein. Interestingly, the acidic residues in helix α9a of CeFIGL-1-AAA are not conserved in other homologous AAA domains that have relatively low ATPase activities. These results demonstrate that the sequence of CeFIGL-1-AAA has adapted to establish an intersubunit charge interaction, which contributes to its strong oligomerization and ATPase activity. These unique properties of CeFIGL-1-AAA distinguish it from other homologous proteins, suggesting that CeFIGL-1 may have a distinct biological function. PMID:23979136

  14. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  15. Annotation of differentially expressed genes in the somatic embryogenesis of musa and their location in the banana genome.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Borges, Josefina Ines; Ku-Cauich, José Roberto; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, Rosa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of cDNA-AFLP was used to study the genes expressed in zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa acuminata Colla ssp. malaccensis, and a comparison was made between their differential transcribed fragments (TDFs) and the sequenced genome of the double haploid- (DH-) Pahang of the malaccensis subspecies that is available in the network. A total of 253 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected with apparent size of 100-4000 bp using 5 pairs of AFLP primers, of which 21 were differentially expressed during the different stages of banana embryogenesis; 15 of the sequences have matched DH-Pahang chromosomes, with 7 of them being homologous to gene sequences encoding either known or putative protein domains of higher plants. Four TDF sequences were located in all Musa chromosomes, while the rest were located in one or two chromosomes. Their putative individual function is briefly reviewed based on published information, and the potential roles of these genes in embryo development are discussed. Thus the availability of the genome of Musa and the information of TDFs sequences presented here opens new possibilities for an in-depth study of the molecular and biochemical research of zygotic and somatic embryogenesis of Musa. PMID:24027442

  16. Ploidy level and genomic composition of the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station Musa sp. Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant germplasm collections serve as repositories for important genes. However, insufficient and inaccurate characterization of the genetic diversity in a collection slows and can prevent full utilization of these collections to maximum potential. Bananas and plantains (Musa sp., Colla) are some o...

  17. Homoeologous chromosome pairing between the A and B genomes of Musa spp. revealed by genomic in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Jeridi, Mouna; Bakry, Frédéric; Escoute, Jacques; Fondi, Emmanuel; Carreel, Françoise; Ferchichi, Ali; D'Hont, Angélique; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most cooking banana and several desert bananas are interspecific triploid hybrids between Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome). In addition, M. balbisiana has agronomical characteristics such as resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that could be useful to improve monospecific acuminata cultivars. To develop efficient breeding strategies for improving Musa cultivars, it is therefore important to understand the possibility of chromosome exchange between these two species. Methods A protocol was developed to prepare chromosome at meiosis metaphase I suitable for genomic in situ hybridization. A series of technical challenges were encountered, the main ones being the hardness of the cell wall and the density of the microsporocyte's cytoplasm, which hampers accessibility of the probes to the chromosomes. Key parameters in solving these problems were addition of macerozyme in the enzyme mix, the duration of digestion and temperature during the spreading phase. Results and Conclusions This method was applied to analyse chromosome pairing in metaphase from triploid interspecific cultivars, and it was clearly demonstrated that interspecific recombinations between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana chromosomes do occur and may be frequent in triploid hybrids. These results provide new insight into Musa cultivar evolution and have important implications for breeding. PMID:21835815

  18. Postharvest quality and ripening of Dwarf Brazilian bananas (Musa sp.)after x-ray irradiation quarantine treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit quality and ripening response of Dwarf Brazilian bananas (Musa sp., group AAB) were determined following x-ray irradiation for surface disinfestation of quarantine pests. The proximal and distal hands from winter- and summer-harvested bunches were treated with 0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 Gy d...

  19. Iterative contextual CV model for liver segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel iterative active contour algorithm, i.e. Iterative Contextual CV Model (ICCV), and apply it to automatic liver segmentation from 3D CT images. ICCV is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e. the training stage, given a set of abdominal CT training images and the corresponding manual liver labels, our task is to construct a series of self-correcting classifiers by learning a mapping between automatic segmentations (in each round) and manual reference segmentations via context features. At the second stage, i.e. the segmentation stage, first the basic CV model is used to segment the image and subsequently Contextual CV Model (CCV), which combines the image information and the current shape model, is iteratively performed to improve the segmentation result. The current shape model is obtained by inputting the previous automatic segmentation result into the corresponding self-correcting classifier. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that we obtain more and more accurate segmentation results by the iterative steps and satisfying results are obtained after about six iterations. Also, our method is comparable to the state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

  20. Morphological State as a Predictor for Reintervention and Mortality After EVAR for AAA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohrlander, Tomas; Dencker, Magnus; Acosta, Stefan

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess aorto-iliac morphological characteristics in relation to reintervention and all-cause long-term mortality in patients undergoing standard EVAR for infrarenal AAA. Methods: Patients treated with EVAR (Zenith{sup Registered-Sign} Stentgrafts, Cook) between May 1998 and February 2006 were prospectively enrolled in a computerized database where comorbidities and preoperative aneurysm morphology were entered. Reinterventions and mortality were checked until December 1, 2010. Median follow-up time was 68 months. Results: A total of 304 patients were included, of which 86% were men. Median age was 74 years. The reintervention rate was 23.4% (71/304). A greater diameter of the common iliac artery (p = 0.037; hazard ratio (HR) 1.037 [1.002-1.073]) was an independent factor for an increased number of reinterventions. The 30-day mortality rate was 3.0% (9/304). Aneurysm-related deaths due to AAA occurred in 4.9% (15/304). Five patients died due to a concomitant ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. The mortality until end of follow-up was 54.3% (165/304). The proportion of deaths caused by vascular diseases was 61.6%. The severity of angulation of the iliac arteries (p = 0.014; HR 1.018 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.004-1.033]) and anemia (p = 0.044; HR 2.79 [95% CI 1.029-7.556]) remained as independent factors associated with all-cause long-term mortality. The crude reintervention-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 84.5%, 64.8%, and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The initial aorto-iliac morphological state in patients scheduled for standard EVAR for AAA seems to be strongly related to the need for reinterventions and long-term mortality.

  1. NASA Astrophysics E/PO Impact: NASA SOFIA AAA Program Evaluation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Backman, Dana E.; Clark, Coral; Inverness Research Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team, Wested Sofia Aaa Evaluation Team

    2015-01-01

    SOFIA is an airborne observatory, studying the universe at infrared wavelengths, capable of making observations that are impossible for even the largest and highest ground-based telescopes. SOFIA also inspires the development of new scientific instrumentation and fosters the education of young scientists and engineers.SOFIA is an 80% - 20% partnership of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), consisting of an extensively modified Boeing 747SP aircraft carrying a reflecting telescope with an effective diameter of 2.5 meters (100 inches). The SOFIA aircraft is based at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, Building 703, in Palmdale, California. The Science Program and Outreach Offices are located at NASA Ames Research center. SOFIA is a program in NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Astrophysics Division.Data will be collected to study many different kinds of astronomical objects and phenomena, including star cycles, solar system formation, identification of complex molecules in space, our solar system, galactic dust, nebulae and ecosystems.Airborne Astronomy Ambassador (AAA) Program:The SOFIA Education and Communications program exploits the unique attributes of airborne astronomy to contribute to national goals for the reform of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education, and to elevate public scientific and technical literacy.The AAA effort is a professional development program aspiring to improve teaching, inspire students, and inform the community. To date, 55 educators from 21 states; Cycles 0, 1 and 2; have completed their astronomy professional development and their SOFIA science flight experience. Evaluation has confirmed the program's positive impact on the teacher participants, on their students, and in their communities. The inspirational experience has positively impacted their practice and career trajectory. AAAs have incorporated content knowledge and specific components of their experience into their curricula, and have given

  2. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    PubMed

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models. PMID:25101926

  3. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. PMID:23161558

  4. Socioeconomic Importance of the Banana Tree (Musa Spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah Agroforests

    PubMed Central

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  5. Socioeconomic importance of the banana tree (Musa spp.) in the Guinean Highland Savannah agroforests.

    PubMed

    Mapongmetsem, Pierre Marie; Nkongmeneck, Bernard Aloys; Gubbuk, Hamide

    2012-01-01

    Home gardens are defined as less complex agroforests which look like and function as natural forest ecosystems but are integrated into agricultural management systems located around houses. Investigations were carried out in 187 households. The aim of the study was to identify the different types of banana home gardens existing in the periurban zone of Ngaoundere town. The results showed that the majority of home gardens in the area were very young (less than 15 years old) and very small in size (less than 1 ha). Eleven types of home gardens were found in the periurban area of Ngaoundere town. The different home garden types showed important variations in all their structural characteristics. Two local species of banana are cultivated in the systems, Musa sinensis and Musa paradisiaca. The total banana production is 3.57 tons per year. The total quantity of banana consumed in the periurban zone was 3.54 tons (93.5%) whereas 1.01 tons were sold in local or urban markets. The main banana producers belonged to home gardens 2, 4, 7, and 9. The quantity of banana offered to relatives was more than what the farmers received from others. Farmers, rely on agroforests because the flow of their products helps them consolidate friendship and conserve biodiversity at the same time. PMID:22629136

  6. Rescue EVAR for ruptured AAA: Clinical success does not mean technical success.

    PubMed

    Setacci, Francesco; Sirignano, Pasqualino; de Donato, Gianmarco; Galzerano, Giuseppe; Setacci, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    We report a clinical evolution of a 85-years old male admitted to our Emergency Department for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). One month later a huge type I proximal endoleak was detected and corrected by proximal aortic extension. We decided to fix the stent-graft to the aortic wall using EndoAnchors. However, an asymptomatic type III endoleak due to controlateral limb disconnection was detected at the followed schedulated CT angio and corrected by a relining of the endograft. The patient is now in good clinical condition with no evidence of endoleaks at 1-year follow-up. PMID:24347133

  7. SU-E-P-16: A Feasibility Study of Using Eclipse AAA for SRS Treatement

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, S; LoSasso, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To commission Varian Eclipse AAA for SRS treatment and compare the accuracy with Brainlab iPlan system for clinical cases measured with radiochromic film. Methods: A 6MV AAA clinical model for a Varian TrueBeam STx is used as baseline. The focal spot and field size of the baseline model(BASE) are (1.75,0.75) and 40×40cm{sup 2} respectively. Maximum field sizes, output factors(S{sub t}), FWHM focal spot and secondary source sizes are systematically adjusted to obtain an optimized model(OPT) by comparing the calculated PDD’s, profiles, and output factors with measurements taken with a stereotactic diode(SD) and, cc01 and cc04 ion chambers in Blue Phantom. In-phantom dose distributions of clinical SRS fields are calculated using the OPT and the clinical Brainlab iPlan pencil-beam. Within the 90% isodose-line(ROI), the average dose difference between the calculations and radiochromic film measurements are assessed. Results: The maximum field, focal spot and secondary source sizes for the OPT are 15×15cm{sup 2}, (0,0), and 32.3mm respectively. The OPT St input at 1.0 and 2.0cm fields are increased by 4.5% and 1.5% from BASE. The calculated output of the BASE and OPT underestimate by 16.1%–3.2% respectively at 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field and 3.1%−0.02% respectively at 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2} field. The depth doses at 10cm are within 3.5% and 0.4% of measurements for 0.5×0.5 and 1.0×1.0cm{sup 2}. The ROI dose of OPT and iPlan are within 1.6% and 0.6% of film measurements for 3.0cm clinical fields. For 1.0cm fields, the ROI dose of OPT underestimate 0.0–2.0% and iPlan overestimates 1.7–2.9% relative to measurements. Conclusion: The small field dose calculation of Eclipse AAA algorithm can be significantly improved by carefully adjusting the input parameters. The larger deviation of the OPT for 0.5×0.5cm{sup 2} field from measurements can be attributed to the lowest 1.0cm field size input limit of AAA. The OPT compares reasonably well with the iPlan pencil

  8. Endophytic bacteria associated with growing shoot tips of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine and the affinity of endophytes to the host.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Soly, Thyvalappil A

    2009-11-01

    A cultivation-based assessment of endophytic bacteria present in deep-seated shoot tips of banana suckers was made with a view to generate information on the associated organisms, potential endophytic contaminants in tissue-cultured bananas and to assess if the endophytes shared a beneficial relationship with the host. Plating the tissue homogenate from the central core of suckers showed colony growth on nutrient agar from just 75% and 42% of the 12 stocks during May and November, respectively (average 58%; 6 x 10(3) colony-forming units per gram), yielding diverse organisms belonging to firmicutes (Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Virgibacillus, Staphylococcus spp.), actinobacteria (Cellulomonas, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, Kocuria spp.), alpha-proteobacteria (Paracoccus sp.), and gamma-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter spp.). Each shoot tip showed one to three different organisms and no specific organism appeared common to different sucker tips. Tissue homogenate from shoot tips including the ones that did not yield culturable bacteria displayed abundant bacterial cells during microscopic examination suggesting that a high proportion of cells were in viable-but-nonculturable state, or their cultivation requirements were not met. Direct application of cultivation-independent approach to study endophytic bacterial community using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA universal primers resulted in high interference from chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences. Dislodging the bacterial cells from shoot tips that did not show cultivable bacteria and incubating the tissue crush in dilute-nutrient broth led to the activation of four organisms (Klebsiella, Agrobacterium, Pseudacidovorax spp., and an unidentified isolate). The endophytic organisms in general showed better growth at 30-37 degrees C compared with 25 degrees C, and the growth of endophytes as well as pathogenic Erwinia carotovora were promoted with the supply of host tissue extract (HTE) while that of the isolates from nonplant sources were inhibited or unaffected by HTE, suggesting an affinity or dependence of the endophytes on the host and the prospect of an HTE-based assay for discriminating the nonendophytes from endophytes. PMID:19633807

  9. Molecular Characterization of MaCCS, a Novel Copper Chaperone Gene Involved in Abiotic and Hormonal Stress Responses in Musa acuminata cv. Tianbaojiao

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xin; Chen, Fanglan; Liu, Weihua; Thu, Min Kyaw; Zhang, Zihao; Chen, Yukun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lin, Yuling; Wang, Tianchi; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu/ZnSODs) play important roles in improving banana resistance to adverse conditions, but their activities depend on the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) delivering copper to them. However, little is known about CCS in monocots and under stress conditions. Here, a novel CCS gene (MaCCS) was obtained from a banana using reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. Sequence analyses showed that MaCCS has typical CCS domains and a conserved gene structure like other plant CCSs. Alternative transcription start sites (ATSSs) and alternative polyadenylation contribute to the mRNA diversity of MaCCS. ATSSs in MaCCS resulted in one open reading frame containing two in-frame start codons to form two protein versions, which is supported by the MaCCS subcellular localization of in both cytosol and chloroplasts. Furthermore, MaCCS promoter was found to contain many cis-elements associated with abiotic and hormonal responses. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that MaCCS was expressed in all tested tissues (leaves, pseudostems and roots). In addition, MaCCS expression was significantly induced by light, heat, drought, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, but inhibited by relatively high concentrations of CuSO4 and under cold treatment, which suggests that MaCCS is involved in abiotic and hormonal responses. PMID:27023517

  10. Molecular Characterization of MaCCS, a Novel Copper Chaperone Gene Involved in Abiotic and Hormonal Stress Responses in Musa acuminata cv. Tianbaojiao.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Chen, Fanglan; Liu, Weihua; Thu, Min Kyaw; Zhang, Zihao; Chen, Yukun; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lin, Yuling; Wang, Tianchi; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2016-01-01

    Copper/zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu/ZnSODs) play important roles in improving banana resistance to adverse conditions, but their activities depend on the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS) delivering copper to them. However, little is known about CCS in monocots and under stress conditions. Here, a novel CCS gene (MaCCS) was obtained from a banana using reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. Sequence analyses showed that MaCCS has typical CCS domains and a conserved gene structure like other plant CCSs. Alternative transcription start sites (ATSSs) and alternative polyadenylation contribute to the mRNA diversity of MaCCS. ATSSs in MaCCS resulted in one open reading frame containing two in-frame start codons to form two protein versions, which is supported by the MaCCS subcellular localization of in both cytosol and chloroplasts. Furthermore, MaCCS promoter was found to contain many cis-elements associated with abiotic and hormonal responses. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that MaCCS was expressed in all tested tissues (leaves, pseudostems and roots). In addition, MaCCS expression was significantly induced by light, heat, drought, abscisic acid and indole-3-acetic acid, but inhibited by relatively high concentrations of CuSO₄ and under cold treatment, which suggests that MaCCS is involved in abiotic and hormonal responses. PMID:27023517

  11. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  12. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if

  13. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species. PMID:26121637

  14. Inflammatory cell phenotypes in AAAs; their role and potential as targets for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Matthew A; Ruhlman, Melissa K.; Baxter, B. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are characterized by chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. AAA is typically an asymptomatic disease and caused approximately 15,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Previous studies have examined both human and murine aortic tissue for the presence of various inflammatory cell types. Studies show that in both human and experimental AAAs, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, such as CD4+ T cells and macrophages, occurs in the damaged aortic wall. These cells have the ability to undergo phenotypic modulation based on microenvironmental cues, potentially influencing disease progression. Pro-inflammatory CD4+ T cells and classically activated macrophages dominate the landscape of aortic infiltrates. The skew to pro-inflammatory phenotypes alters disease progression and plays a role in causing chronic inflammation. The local cytokine production and presence of inflammatory mediators, such as extracellular matrix breakdown products, influence the uneven balance of the inflammatory infiltrate phenotypes. Understanding and developing new strategies that target the pro-inflammatory phenotype could provide useful therapeutic targets for a disease with no current pharmacological intervention. PMID:26044582

  15. AAA ATPases regulate membrane association of yeast oxysterol binding proteins and sterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Penghua; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hongzhe; Chieu, Hai Kee; Munn, Alan L; Yang, Hongyuan

    2005-09-01

    The yeast genome encodes seven oxysterol binding protein homologs, Osh1p-Osh7p, which have been implicated in regulating intracellular lipid and vesicular transport. Here, we show that both Osh6p and Osh7p interact with Vps4p, a member of the AAA (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) family. The coiled-coil domain of Osh7p was found to interact with Vps4p in a yeast two-hybrid screen and the interaction between Osh7p and Vps4p appears to be regulated by ergosterol. Deletion of VPS4 induced a dramatic increase in the membrane-associated pools of Osh6p and Osh7p and also caused a decrease in sterol esterification, which was suppressed by overexpression of OSH7. Lastly, overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Osh7p (Osh7pCC) resulted in a multivesicular body sorting defect, suggesting a dominant negative role of Osh7pCC possibly through inhibiting Vps4p function. Our data suggest that a common mechanism may exist for AAA proteins to regulate the membrane association of yeast OSBP proteins and that these two protein families may function together to control subcellular lipid transport. PMID:16096648

  16. TRIP13 is a protein-remodeling AAA+ ATPase that catalyzes MAD2 conformation switching

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiaozhen; Rosenberg, Scott C; Moeller, Arne; Speir, Jeffrey A; Su, Tiffany Y; Corbett, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers. PCH-2 possesses a substrate-recognition domain related to those of the protein remodelers NSF and p97, while its overall hexameric architecture and likely structural mechanism bear close similarities to the bacterial protein unfoldase ClpX. We find that TRIP13, aided by the adapter protein p31(comet), converts the HORMA-family spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 from a signaling-active ‘closed’ conformer to an inactive ‘open’ conformer. We propose that TRIP13 and p31(comet) collaborate to inactivate the spindle assembly checkpoint through MAD2 conformational conversion and disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes. A parallel HORMA protein disassembly activity likely underlies TRIP13's critical regulatory functions in meiotic chromosome structure and recombination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07367.001 PMID:25918846

  17. Mechanism of the AAA+ ATPases pontin and reptin in the biogenesis of H/ACA RNPs

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Pinilla, Rosario; Liger, Dominique; Leulliot, Nicolas; Meier, U. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The AAA+ ATPases pontin and reptin function in a staggering array of cellular processes including chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, DNA damage repair, and assembly of macromolecular complexes, such as RNA polymerase II and small nucleolar (sno) RNPs. However, the molecular mechanism for all of these AAA+ ATPase associated activities is unknown. Here we document that, during the biogenesis of H/ACA RNPs (including telomerase), the assembly factor SHQ1 holds the pseudouridine synthase NAP57/dyskerin in a viselike grip, and that pontin and reptin (as components of the R2TP complex) are required to pry NAP57 from SHQ1. Significantly, the NAP57 domain captured by SHQ1 harbors most mutations underlying X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (X-DC) implicating the interface between the two proteins as a target of this bone marrow failure syndrome. Homing in on the essential first steps of H/ACA RNP biogenesis, our findings provide the first insight into the mechanism of action of pontin and reptin in the assembly of macromolecular complexes. PMID:22923768

  18. Going the distance: validation of Acuros and AAA at an extended SSD of 400 cm.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Narottam; Patel, Vivek N; Studenski, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    Accurate dose calculation and treatment delivery is essential for total body irradia-tion (TBI). In an effort to verify the accuracy of TBI dose calculation at our institu-tion, we evaluated both the Varian Eclipse AAA and Acuros algorithms to predict dose distributions at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 400 cm. Measurements were compared to calculated values for a 6 MV beam in physical and virtual phantoms at 400 cm SSD using open beams for both 5 × 5 and 40 × 40cm2 field sizes. Inline and crossline profiles were acquired at equivalent depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, and 20 cm. Depth-dose curves were acquired using EBT2 film and an ion chamber for both field sizes. Finally, a RANDO phantom was used to simulate an actual TBI treatment. At this extended SSD, care must be taken using the planning system as there is good relative agreement between measured and calculated profiles for both algorithms, but there are deviations in terms of the absolute dose. Acuros has better agreement than AAA in the penumbra region. PMID:27074473

  19. Moyamoya disease-associated protein mysterin/RNF213 is a novel AAA+ ATPase, which dynamically changes its oligomeric state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Kouki; Hoseki, Jun; Kitamura, Akira; Kotani, Yuri; Kiso, Kazumi; Kinjo, Masataka; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic human cerebrovascular disorder that is characterized by progressive stenosis and abnormal collateral vessels. We recently identified mysterin/RNF213 as its first susceptibility gene, which encodes a 591-kDa protein containing enzymatically active P-loop ATPase and ubiquitin ligase domains and is involved in proper vascular development in zebrafish. Here we demonstrate that mysterin further contains two tandem AAA+ ATPase modules and forms huge ring-shaped oligomeric complex. AAA+ ATPases are known to generally mediate various biophysical and mechanical processes with the characteristic ring-shaped structure. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and biochemical evaluation suggested that mysterin dynamically changes its oligomeric forms through ATP/ADP binding and hydrolysis cycles. Thus, the moyamoya disease-associated gene product is a unique protein that functions as ubiquitin ligase and AAA+ ATPase, which possibly contributes to vascular development through mechanical processes in the cell.

  20. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners. PMID:19653995

  1. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-10-16

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners.

  2. Constitutive and stress-inducible overexpression of a native aquaporin gene (MusaPIP2;6) in transgenic banana plants signals its pivotal role in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2015-05-01

    High soil salinity constitutes a major abiotic stress and an important limiting factor in cultivation of crop plants worldwide. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a aquaporin gene, MusaPIP2;6 which is involved in salt stress signaling in banana. MusaPIP2;6 was firstly identified based on comparative analysis of stressed and non-stressed banana tissue derived EST data sets and later overexpression in transgenic banana plants was performed to study its tangible functions in banana plants. The overexpression of MusaPIP2;6 in transgenic banana plants using constitutive or inducible promoter led to higher salt tolerance as compared to equivalent untransformed control plants. Cellular localization assay performed using transiently transformed onion peel cells indicated that MusaPIP2;6 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein was translocated to the plasma membrane. MusaPIP2;6-overexpressing banana plants displayed better photosynthetic efficiency and lower membrane damage under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that MusaPIP2;6 is involved in salt stress signaling and tolerance in banana. PMID:25757388

  3. MusaDHN-1, a novel multiple stress-inducible SK(3)-type dehydrin gene, contributes affirmatively to drought- and salt-stress tolerance in banana.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-11-01

    Dehydrins are highly hydrophilic proteins involved in playing key adaptive roles in response to abiotic stress conditions having dehydration as a common component. In the present study, a novel banana SK(3)-type dehydrin, MusaDHN-1, was identified and later characterized using transgenic banana plants to investigate its functions in abiotic stress tolerance. Expression profiling in native banana plants demonstrated that MusaDHN-1 was induced in leaves by drought, salinity, cold, oxidative and heavy metal stress as well as by treatment with signalling molecules like abscisic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate. Promoter analysis carried out by making a MusaDHN-1 promoter: β-glucuronidase fusion construct reconfirmed the abiotic stress inducibility of MusaDHN-1. Transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing MusaDHN-1 were phenotypically normal and displayed improved tolerance to drought and salt-stress treatments in both in vitro and ex vitro assays. Enhanced accumulation of proline and reduced malondialdehyde levels in drought and salt-stressed MusaDHN-1 overexpressing plants further established their superior performance in stressed conditions. This study is the first to report generation of transgenic banana plants engineered for improved drought and salt-stress tolerance. PMID:21671068

  4. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-12-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  5. Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangchun; Li, Jun; Bi, Fangcheng; Zhu, Lixue; Ma, Zhiyu

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit. PMID:26674222

  6. Origin and Functional Evolution of the Cdc48/p97/VCP AAA+ Protein Unfolding and Remodeling Machine.

    PubMed

    Barthelme, Dominik; Sauer, Robert T

    2016-05-01

    The AAA+ Cdc48 ATPase (alias p97 or VCP) is a key player in multiple ubiquitin-dependent cell signaling, degradation, and quality control pathways. Central to these broad biological functions is the ability of Cdc48 to interact with a large number of adaptor proteins and to remodel macromolecular proteins and their complexes. Different models have been proposed to explain how Cdc48 might couple ATP hydrolysis to forcible unfolding, dissociation, or remodeling of cellular clients. In this review, we provide an overview of possible mechanisms for substrate unfolding/remodeling by this conserved and essential AAA+ protein machine and their adaption and possible biological function throughout evolution. PMID:26608813

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of Musa accessions in ex situ conservation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Banana cultivars are mostly derived from hybridization between wild diploid subspecies of Musa acuminata (A genome) and M. balbisiana (B genome), and they exhibit various levels of ploidy and genomic constitution. The Embrapa ex situ Musa collection contains over 220 accessions, of which only a few have been genetically characterized. Knowledge regarding the genetic relationships and diversity between modern cultivars and wild relatives would assist in conservation and breeding strategies. Our objectives were to determine the genomic constitution based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions polymorphism and the ploidy of all accessions by flow cytometry and to investigate the population structure of the collection using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci as co-dominant markers based on Structure software, not previously performed in Musa. Results From the 221 accessions analyzed by flow cytometry, the correct ploidy was confirmed or established for 212 (95.9%), whereas digestion of the ITS region confirmed the genomic constitution of 209 (94.6%). Neighbor-joining clustering analysis derived from SSR binary data allowed the detection of two major groups, essentially distinguished by the presence or absence of the B genome, while subgroups were formed according to the genomic composition and commercial classification. The co-dominant nature of SSR was explored to analyze the structure of the population based on a Bayesian approach, detecting 21 subpopulations. Most of the subpopulations were in agreement with the clustering analysis. Conclusions The data generated by flow cytometry, ITS and SSR supported the hypothesis about the occurrence of homeologue recombination between A and B genomes, leading to discrepancies in the number of sets or portions from each parental genome. These phenomenons have been largely disregarded in the evolution of banana, as the “single-step domestication” hypothesis had long predominated. These findings will have an

  8. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  9. The Quest for Golden Bananas: Investigating Carotenoid Regulation in a Fe'i Group Musa Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Buah, Stephen; Mlalazi, Bulukani; Khanna, Harjeet; Dale, James L; Mortimer, Cara L

    2016-04-27

    The regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in a high-carotenoid-accumulating Fe'i group Musa cultivar, "Asupina", has been examined and compared to that of a low-carotenoid-accumulating cultivar, "Cavendish", to understand the molecular basis underlying carotenogenesis during banana fruit development. Comparisons in the accumulation of carotenoid species, expression of isoprenoid genes, and product sequestration are reported. Key differences between the cultivars include greater carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (CCD4) expression in "Cavendish" and the conversion of amyloplasts to chromoplasts during fruit ripening in "Asupina". Chromoplast development coincided with a reduction in dry matter content and fruit firmness. Chromoplasts were not observed in "Cavendish" fruits. Such information should provide important insights for future developments in the biofortification and breeding of banana. PMID:27041343

  10. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  11. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality. PMID:23572812

  12. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis in the seeded diploid banana Musa ornata Roxb.

    PubMed

    Cronauer-Mitra, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1988-01-01

    Somatic embryos of a seeded diploid ornamental banana (Musa ornata Roxb.) were obtained from zygotic embryos cultured on semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium with the auxin 2,4-D (0.5, 1, 2 mg/l) and 5% CW. Removal of 2,4-D and transferral to Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH) (1972) salts with CW followed by basal MS led to embryo germination and growth. Plantlet production was obtained using filter paper bridges in liquid half-strength SH medium with 1% sucrose. The remarkable phenotypic fidelity of somatic embryos to that of zygotic embryos and the presence of a haustorium-like outgrowth on the somatic embryos is described. PMID:11538845

  13. Euphorbia hirta leaves and Musa sapientum fruits in culture media for fungi.

    PubMed

    Emele, F E; Agbonlahor, D E; Ahanotu, C

    1998-12-01

    Two plant products, Euphorbia hirta leaves and fruits of Musa sapientum, were evaluated as principal ingredients for selective cultivation of fungi. Sapientum glucose agar supported the growth of both dermatophytic, yeast-like, and saprophytic fungi; growth on this medium compared favourably with growth on Sabouraud glucose agar, a standard mycological medium. Sporulation and pigment formation were stronger on sapientum glucose agar than on Sabouraud glucose agar, although fungal growth on the latter was more luxuriant. Addition of Euphorbia extract to mycological media remarkably enhanced fungal growth on the media, and concomitantly suppressed bacterial growth to a similar extent as did antibiotics. The results of this study suggest that Euphorbia sapientum glucose agar can safely be recommended as a cheap and efficient medium for routine isolation of fungi in both clinical and general mycological studies. PMID:9919898

  14. Lipid Profile and Electrolyte Composition in Diabetic Rats Treated With Leaf Extract of Musa sapientum.

    PubMed

    Adewoye, E O; Ige, A O

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects lipid levels resulting in diabetic dyslipidemia as well as electrolyte loss from the body. Musa sapientum has been reported to possess antidiabetic properties. This study assessed the lipid profile and electrolyte composition in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanol leaf extract of M. sapientum (cMEMSL). Diabetes was induced with alloxan (120 mg/kg i.p.). Seventy-five male albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 15 rats each. Group 1 was control; groups 2-5 were made diabetic and treated with 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl, cMEMSL (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), respectively, for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from the retro orbital sinus after light anesthesia from 5 animals in each group on days 2, 7, and 14 for lipids and electrolyte analysis. Lipid profile of diabetic treated (cMEMSL and glibenclamide) animals showed significant reduction (p < .05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL) level in the treatment groups increased significantly (p < .05) compared with diabetic untreated. Sodium, potassium, and phosphate ions significantly increased in all diabetic treatment groups while chloride ion significantly decreased compared with diabetic untreated. There was no significant difference in calcium and bicarbonate ion concentration in all the groups. This study has showed additional properties of Musa sapientum to include its ability to restore electrolyte balance, reduce cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and increase the HDL levels in diabetic animals. PMID:25320868

  15. Monte Carlo evaluation of the AAA treatment planning algorithm in a heterogeneous multilayer phantom and IMRT clinical treatments for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sterpin, E.; Tomsej, M.; Smedt, B. de; Reynaert, N.; Vynckier, S.

    2007-05-15

    The Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) is a new pencil beam convolution/superposition algorithm proposed by Varian for photon dose calculations. The configuration of AAA depends on linear accelerator design and specifications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of AAA for an Elekta SL25 linear accelerator for small fields and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments in inhomogeneous media. The accuracy of AAA was evaluated in two studies. First, AAA was compared both with Monte Carlo (MC) and the measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom simulating lung equivalent tissues and bone ribs. The algorithm was tested under lateral electronic disequilibrium conditions, using small fields (2x2 cm{sup 2}). Good agreement was generally achieved for depth dose and profiles, with deviations generally below 3% in lung inhomogeneities and below 5% at interfaces. However, the effects of attenuation and scattering close to the bone ribs were not fully taken into account by AAA, and small inhomogeneities may lead to planning errors. Second, AAA and MC were compared for IMRT plans in clinical conditions, i.e., dose calculations in a computed tomography scan of a patient. One ethmoid tumor, one orophaxynx and two lung tumors are presented in this paper. Small differences were found between the dose volume histograms. For instance, a 1.7% difference for the mean planning target volume dose was obtained for the ethmoid case. Since better agreement was achieved for the same plans but in homogeneous conditions, these differences must be attributed to the handling of inhomogeneities by AAA. Therefore, inherent assumptions of the algorithm, principally the assumption of independent depth and lateral directions in the scaling of the kernels, were slightly influencing AAA's validity in inhomogeneities. However, AAA showed a good accuracy overall and a great ability to handle small fields in inhomogeneous media compared to other pencil beam convolution

  16. The catalytic power of magnesium chelatase: a benchmark for the AAA(+) ATPases.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nathan B P; Brindley, Amanda A; Hunter, C Neil; Reid, James D

    2016-06-01

    In the first committed reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, magnesium chelatase couples ATP hydrolysis to the thermodynamically unfavorable Mg(2+) insertion into protoporphyrin IX (ΔG°' of circa 25-33 kJ·mol(-1) ). We explored the thermodynamic constraints on magnesium chelatase and demonstrate the effect of nucleotide hydrolysis on both the reaction kinetics and thermodynamics. The enzyme produces a significant rate enhancement (kcat /kuncat of 400 × 10(6) m) and a catalytic rate enhancement, kcat/KmDIXK0.5Mgkuncat, of 30 × 10(15) m(-1) , increasing to 300 × 10(15) m(-1) with the activator protein Gun4. This is the first demonstration of the thermodynamic benefit of ATP hydrolysis in the AAA(+) family. PMID:27176620

  17. Student-Athlete Perceptions of a Summer Pre-Enrollment Experience at an NCAA Division I-AAA Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Michael Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine student-athlete perceptions of the role of summer pre-enrollment in their adjustment and transition to college. The study focused on student-athletes who received athletically-related financial aid at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-AAA institution. The…

  18. Nucleotide-dependent interactions between a fork junction–RNA polymerase complex and an AAA+ transcriptional activator protein

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, W. V.; Schumacher, J.; Buck, M.

    2004-01-01

    Enhancer-dependent transcriptional activators that act upon the σ54 bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme belong to the extensive AAA+ superfamily of mechanochemical ATPases. Formation and collapse of the transition state for ATP hydrolysis engenders direct interactions between AAA+ activators and the σ54 factor, required for RNA polymerase isomerization. A DNA fork junction structure present within closed complexes serves as a nucleation point for the DNA melting seen in open promoter complexes and restricts spontaneous activator-independent RNA polymerase isomerization. We now provide physical evidence showing that the ADP·AlFx bound form of the AAA+ domain of the transcriptional activator protein PspF changes interactions between σ54-RNA polymerase and a DNA fork junction structure present in the closed promoter complex. The results suggest that one functional state of the nucleotide-bound activator serves to alter DNA binding by σ54 and σ54-RNA polymerase and appears to drive events that precede DNA opening. Clear evidence for a DNA-interacting activity in the AAA+ domain of PspF was obtained, suggesting that PspF may make a direct contact to the DNA component of a basal promoter complex to promote changes in σ54-RNA polymerase–DNA interactions that favour open complex formation. We also provide evidence for two distinct closed promoter complexes with differing stabilities. PMID:15333692

  19. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  20. The AAA-ATPase NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Her, Joonyoung; Chung, In Kwon

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 associates with catalytically active telomerase via an interaction with hTERT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NVL2 is a telomerase component essential for holoenzyme assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding and telomerase assembly. -- Abstract: Continued cell proliferation requires telomerase to maintain functional telomeres that are essential for chromosome integrity. Although the core enzyme includes a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA component (TERC), a number of auxiliary proteins have been identified to regulate telomerase assembly, localization, and enzymatic activity. Here we describe the characterization of the AAA-ATPase NVL2 as a novel hTERT-interacting protein. NVL2 interacts and co-localizes with hTERT in the nucleolus. NLV2 is also found in association with catalytically competent telomerase in cell lysates through an interaction with hTERT. Depletion of endogenous NVL2 by small interfering RNA led to a decrease in hTERT without affecting the steady-state levels of hTERT mRNA, thereby reducing telomerase activity, suggesting that NVL2 is an essential component of the telomerase holoenzyme. We also found that ATP-binding activity of NVL2 is required for hTERT binding as well as telomerase assembly. Our findings suggest that NVL2, in addition to its role in ribosome biosynthesis, is essential for telomerase biogenesis and provides an alternative approach for inhibiting telomerase activity in cancer.

  1. Endosomal transport function in yeast requires a novel AAA-type ATPase, Vps4p.

    PubMed Central

    Babst, M; Sato, T K; Banta, L M; Emr, S D

    1997-01-01

    In a late-Golgi compartment of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vacuolar proteins such as carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) are actively sorted away from the secretory pathway and transported to the vacuole via a pre-vacuolar, endosome-like intermediate. The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutant vps4 accumulates vacuolar, endocytic and late-Golgi markers in an aberrant multilamellar pre-vacuolar compartment. The VPS4 gene has been cloned and found to encode a 48 kDa protein which belongs to the protein family of AAA-type ATPases. The Vps4 protein was purified and shown to exhibit an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase activity. A single amino acid change within the AAA motif of Vps4p yielded a protein that lacked ATPase activity and did not complement the protein sorting or morphological defects of the vps4 delta1 mutant. Indeed, when expressed at normal levels in wild-type cells, the mutant vps4 gene acted as a dominant-negative allele. The phenotypic characterization of a temperature-sensitive vps4 allele showed that the immediate consequence of loss of Vps4p function is a defect in vacuolar protein delivery. In this mutant, precursor CPY was not secreted but instead accumulated in an intracellular compartment, presumably the pre-vacuolar endosome. Electron microscopy revealed that upon temperature shift, exaggerated stacks of curved cisternal membranes (aberrant endosome) also accumulated in the vps4ts mutant. Based on these and other observations, we propose that Vps4p function is required for efficient transport out of the pre-vacuolar endosome. PMID:9155008

  2. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottosson, R. O.; Karlsson, A.; Behrens, C. F.

    2010-08-01

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are conventionally used for lung treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic IMRT treatment planning for high and low photon energy in order to assess if deviating from the conventional low energy approach could be favorable in some cases. Furthermore, the influence of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted to normal tissue sparing weighted. All optimized treatment plans were calculated using three different calculation algorithms (PBC, AAA and MC). In order to study the influence of motion, two virtual lung phantoms were created. The idea was to mimic two different situations: one where the GTV is located centrally in the PTV and another where the GTV was close to the edge of the PTV. PBC is in poor agreement with MC and AAA for all cases and treatment plans. AAA overestimates the dose, compared to MC. This effect is more pronounced for 15 than 6 MV. AAA and MC both predict similar perturbations in dose distributions when moving the GTV to the edge of the PTV. PBC, however, predicts results contradicting those of AAA and MC. This study shows that PB-based dose calculation algorithms are clinically insufficient for patient geometries involving large density inhomogeneities. AAA is in much better agreement with MC, but even a small overestimation of the dose level by the algorithm might lead to a large part of the PTV being underdosed. It is advisable to use low energy as a

  3. Pareto front analysis of 6 and 15 MV dynamic IMRT for lung cancer using pencil beam, AAA and Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, R O; Karlsson, A; Behrens, C F

    2010-08-21

    The pencil beam dose calculation method is frequently used in modern radiation therapy treatment planning regardless of the fact that it is documented inaccurately for cases involving large density variations. The inaccuracies are larger for higher beam energies. As a result, low energy beams are conventionally used for lung treatments. The aim of this study was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of dynamic IMRT treatment planning for high and low photon energy in order to assess if deviating from the conventional low energy approach could be favorable in some cases. Furthermore, the influence of motion on the dose distribution was investigated. Four non-small cell lung cancer cases were selected for this study. Inverse planning was conducted using Varian Eclipse. A total number of 31 dynamic IMRT plans, distributed amongst the four cases, were created ranging from PTV conformity weighted to normal tissue sparing weighted. All optimized treatment plans were calculated using three different calculation algorithms (PBC, AAA and MC). In order to study the influence of motion, two virtual lung phantoms were created. The idea was to mimic two different situations: one where the GTV is located centrally in the PTV and another where the GTV was close to the edge of the PTV. PBC is in poor agreement with MC and AAA for all cases and treatment plans. AAA overestimates the dose, compared to MC. This effect is more pronounced for 15 than 6 MV. AAA and MC both predict similar perturbations in dose distributions when moving the GTV to the edge of the PTV. PBC, however, predicts results contradicting those of AAA and MC. This study shows that PB-based dose calculation algorithms are clinically insufficient for patient geometries involving large density inhomogeneities. AAA is in much better agreement with MC, but even a small overestimation of the dose level by the algorithm might lead to a large part of the PTV being underdosed. It is advisable to use low energy as a

  4. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-01

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening. PMID:26733055

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Musa WRKY Gene Family: Evolution and Differential Expression during Development and Stress.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ridhi; Pandey, Ashutosh; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Asif, Mehar H

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD) events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/development including fruit ripening process respectively. PMID:27014321

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Musa WRKY Gene Family: Evolution and Differential Expression during Development and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Ridhi; Pandey, Ashutosh; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Asif, Mehar H.

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family plays an important role in the development and stress responses in plants. As information is not available on the WRKY gene family in Musa species, genome-wide analysis has been carried out in this study using available genomic information from two species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Analysis identified 147 and 132 members of the WRKY gene family in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, respectively. Evolutionary analysis suggests that the WRKY gene family expanded much before the speciation in both the species. Most of the orthologs retained in two species were from the γ duplication event which occurred prior to α and β genome-wide duplication (GWD) events. Analysis also suggests that subtle changes in nucleotide sequences during the course of evolution have led to the development of new motifs which might be involved in neo-functionalization of different WRKY members in two species. Expression and cis-regulatory motif analysis suggest possible involvement of Group II and Group III WRKY members during various stresses and growth/development including fruit ripening process respectively. PMID:27014321

  8. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF family in Musa species reveals divergence and neofunctionalisation during evolution.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, Deepika; Pandey, Ashutosh; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Asif, Mehar Hasan

    2016-01-01

    AP2/ERF domain containing transcription factor super family is one of the important regulators in the plant kingdom. The involvement of AP2/ERF family members has been elucidated in various processes associated with plant growth, development as well as in response to hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we carried out genome-wide analysis to identify members of AP2/ERF family in Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) and changes leading to neofunctionalisation of genes. Analysis identified 265 and 318 AP2/ERF encoding genes in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana respectively which were further classified into ERF, DREB, AP2, RAV and Soloist groups. Comparative analysis indicated that AP2/ERF family has undergone duplication, loss and divergence during evolution and speciation of the Musa A and B genomes. We identified nine genes which are up-regulated during fruit ripening and might be components of the regulatory machinery operating during ethylene-dependent ripening in banana. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the genes suggests that different regulatory mechanisms might be involved in peel and pulp ripening process through recruiting specific ERFs in these tissues. Analysis also suggests that MaRAV-6 and MaERF026 have structurally diverged from their M. balbisiana counterparts and have attained new functions during ripening. PMID:26733055

  9. Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

    2014-08-01

    CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect. PMID:23653282

  10. Reverse genetics studies of attenuation of the ca A/AA/6/60 influenza virus: the role of the matrix gene.

    PubMed

    Sweet, T M; Maassab, H F; Herlocher, M L

    2004-11-01

    The matrix (M) gene of influenza virus has been implicated in the attenuation phenotype of the cold adapted (ca) A/AA/6/60 vaccine. Previous studies have evaluated the ca M from A/AA/6/60 in different wild type (wt) virus backgrounds with varying results. In experiments described here, the ca M gene was transfected into the background of its own wt A/AA/6/60 to eliminate the possibility of confounding gene constellation effects. Comparison of the sequence of the wt and the ca A/AA/6/60 revealed one substitution in the nucleotide sequence of M. The molecular techniques of reverse genetics were used to rescue the ca M gene into the virulent wt A/AA/6/60 virus. The selection system used to identify the desired transfectant virus was amantadine resistance, which was introduced into the M2 gene using mutagenesis. The ca A/AA/6/60, the wt A/AA/6/60, a virus which contained wt M and was wt in the remaining seven genes and amantadine resistant (wt/969), a virus which contained the ca M but wt in the other seven genes (ca/969) were all evaluated in mice determine the effect of the ca M. The ca/969 virus was not attenuated in the mouse model when compared to the wt/969 virus, indicating that the ca A/AA/6/60 M does not independently contribute to the attenuation phenotype attributed to the ca A/AA/6/60 vaccine virus. PMID:15511608

  11. Relative importance of aneurysm diameter and body size for predicting AAA rupture in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ruby C.; Lu, Bing; Fokkema, Margriet T.M.; Conrad, Mark; Patel, Virendra I.; Fillinger, Mark; Matyal, Robina; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Women have been shown to have up to a four-fold higher risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture at any given aneurysm diameter compared to men, leading to recommendations to offer repair to women at lower diameter thresholds. Although this higher risk of rupture may simply reflect greater relative aortic dilatation in women who have smaller aortas to begin with, this has never been quantified. Our objective was therefore to quantify the relationship between rupture and aneurysm diameter relative to body size and to determine whether a differential association between aneurysm diameter, body size, and rupture risk exists for men and women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients in the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database who underwent endovascular or open AAA repair. Using each patient’s height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were calculated. Next, indices of each measure of body size (height, weight, BMI, BSA) relative to aneurysm diameter were calculated for each patient. To generate these indices, we divided aneurysm diameter (in cm) by the measure of body size [e.g. aortic size index (ASI) = aneurysm diameter (cm) / BSA (m2)]. Along with other relevant clinical variables, we used these indices to construct different age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine predictors of ruptured repair vs. elective repair. Models for men and women were developed separately and different models were compared using the area under the curve (AUC). Results We identified 4045 patients who underwent AAA repair (78% male, 53% EVAR). Women had significantly smaller diameter aneurysms, lower BSA, and higher BSA indices than men (Table 1). For men, the variable that increased the odds of rupture the most was aneurysm diameter (AUC = 0.82). Men exhibited an increased rupture risk with increasing aneurysm diameter (<5.5cm: OR 1.0; 5.5–6.4cm: OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1

  12. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy. PMID:18309047

  13. CODAS Syndrome Is Associated with Mutations of LONP1, Encoding Mitochondrial AAA+ Lon Protease

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; Jinks, Robert N.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Venkatesh, Sundararajan; Singh, Kamalendra; Cheng, Iteen; Mikita, Natalie; Thilagavathi, Jayapalraja; Lee, Jae; Sarafianos, Stefan; Benkert, Abigail; Koehler, Alanna; Zhu, Anni; Trovillion, Victoria; McGlincy, Madeleine; Morlet, Thierry; Deardorff, Matthew; Innes, A. Micheil; Prasad, Chitra; Chudley, Albert E.; Lee, Irene Nga Wing; Suzuki, Carolyn K.

    2015-01-01

    CODAS syndrome is a multi-system developmental disorder characterized by cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. Using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, we identified four LONP1 mutations inherited as homozygous or compound-heterozygous combinations among ten individuals with CODAS syndrome. The individuals come from three different ancestral backgrounds (Amish-Swiss from United States, n = 8; Mennonite-German from Canada, n = 1; mixed European from Canada, n = 1). LONP1 encodes Lon protease, a homohexameric enzyme that mediates protein quality control, respiratory-complex assembly, gene expression, and stress responses in mitochondria. All four pathogenic amino acid substitutions cluster within the AAA+ domain at residues near the ATP-binding pocket. In biochemical assays, pathogenic Lon proteins show substrate-specific defects in ATP-dependent proteolysis. When expressed recombinantly in cells, all altered Lon proteins localize to mitochondria. The Old Order Amish Lon variant (LONP1 c.2161C>G[p.Arg721Gly]) homo-oligomerizes poorly in vitro. Lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from affected children have (1) swollen mitochondria with electron-dense inclusions and abnormal inner-membrane morphology; (2) aggregated MT-CO2, the mtDNA-encoded subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; and (3) reduced spare respiratory capacity, leading to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and function. CODAS syndrome is a distinct, autosomal-recessive, developmental disorder associated with dysfunction of the mitochondrial Lon protease. PMID:25574826

  14. Proteolytic processing of Atg32 by the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 regulates mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Jin, Meiyan; Liu, Xu; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    Mitophagy, the autophagic removal of mitochondria, occurs through a highly selective mechanism. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Atg32 confers selectivity for mitochondria sequestration as a cargo by the autophagic machinery through its interaction with Atg11, a scaffold protein for selective types of autophagy. The activity of mitophagy in vivo must be tightly regulated considering that mitochondria are essential organelles that produce most of the cellular energy, but also generate reactive oxygen species that can be harmful to cell physiology. We found that Atg32 was proteolytically processed at its C terminus upon mitophagy induction. Adding an epitope tag to the C terminus of Atg32 interfered with its processing and caused a mitophagy defect, suggesting the processing is required for efficient mitophagy. Furthermore, we determined that the mitochondrial i-AAA protease Yme1 mediated Atg32 processing and was required for mitophagy. Finally, we found that the interaction between Atg32 and Atg11 was significantly weakened in yme1∆ cells. We propose that the processing of Atg32 by Yme1 acts as an important regulatory mechanism of cellular mitophagy activity. PMID:24025448

  15. Structural Basis for the Magnesium-Dependent Activation and Hexamerization of the Lon AAA+ Protease.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Chu; Tai, Hui-Chung; Chang, Mu-Yueh; Ho, Meng-Ru; Babu, C Satheesan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Lim, Carmay; Chang, Chung-I

    2016-05-01

    The Lon AAA+ protease (LonA) plays important roles in protein homeostasis and regulation of diverse biological processes. LonA behaves as a homomeric hexamer in the presence of magnesium (Mg(2+)) and performs ATP-dependent proteolysis. However, it is also found that LonA can carry out Mg(2+)-dependent degradation of unfolded protein substrate in an ATP-independent manner. Here we show that in the presence of Mg(2+) LonA forms a non-secluded hexameric barrel with prominent openings, which explains why Mg(2+)-activated LonA can operate as a diffusion-based chambered protease to degrade unstructured protein and peptide substrates efficiently in the absence of ATP. A 1.85 Å crystal structure of Mg(2+)-activated protease domain reveals Mg(2+)-dependent remodeling of a substrate-binding loop and a potential metal-binding site near the Ser-Lys catalytic dyad, supported by biophysical binding assays and molecular dynamics simulations. Together, these findings reveal the specific roles of Mg(2+) in the molecular assembly and activation of LonA. PMID:27041593

  16. The AAA ATPase VPS4/SKD1 regulates endosomal cholesterol trafficking independently of ESCRT-III.

    PubMed

    Du, Ximing; Kazim, Abdulla S; Dawes, Ian W; Brown, Andrew J; Yang, Hongyuan

    2013-01-01

    The exit of low-density lipoprotein derived cholesterol (LDL-C) from late endosomes (LE)/lysosomes (Ly) is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a multipass integral membrane protein on the limiting membranes of LE/Ly, and by NPC2, a cholesterol-binding protein in the lumen of LE/Ly. NPC2 delivers cholesterol to the N-terminal domain of NPC1, which is believed to insert cholesterol into the limiting membrane for subsequent transport to other subcellular organelles. Few cytoplasmic factors have been identified to govern cholesterol efflux from LE/Ly, and much less is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we establish VPS4, an AAA ATPase that has a well-established role in disassembling the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III polymer, as an important regulator of endosomal cholesterol transport. Knocking down VPS4 in HeLa cells resulted in prominent accumulation of LDL-C in LE/Ly, and disrupted cholesterol homeostatic responses at the endoplasmic reticulum. The level and localization of NPC1 and NPC2 appeared to be normal in VPS4 knockdown cells. Importantly, depleting any of the ESCRT-III components did not exert a significant effect on endosomal cholesterol transport. Our results thus identify an important cytoplasmic regulator of endosomal cholesterol trafficking and represent the first functional separation of VPS4 from ESCRT-III. PMID:23009658

  17. The AAA-type ATPase AtSKD1 contributes to vacuolar maintenance of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mojgan; Keshavaiah, Channa; Scheuring, David; Sabovljevic, Aneta; Pimpl, Peter; Häusler, Rainer E; Hülskamp, Martin; Schellmann, Swen

    2010-10-01

    The vacuole is the most prominent organelle of plant cells. Despite its importance for many physiological and developmental aspects of plant life, little is known about its biogenesis and maintenance. Here we show that Arabidopsis plants expressing a dominant-negative version of the AAA (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) ATPase AtSKD1 (SUPPRESSOR OF K+ TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1) under the control of the trichome-specific GLABRA2 (GL2) promoter exhibit normal vacuolar development in early stages of trichome development. Shortly after its formation, however, the large central vacuole is fragmented and finally disappears completely. Secretion assays with amylase fused to the vacuolar sorting signal of Sporamin show that dominant-negative AtSKD1 inhibits vacuolar trafficking of the reporter that is instead secreted. In addition, trichomes expressing dominant-negative AtSKD1 frequently contain multiple nuclei. Our results suggest that AtSKD1 contributes to vacuolar protein trafficking and thereby to the maintenance of the large central vacuole of plant cells, and might play a role in cell-cycle regulation. PMID:20663085

  18. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  19. Maintenance of mitochondrial genome distribution by mitochondrial AAA+ protein ClpX.

    PubMed

    Kasashima, Katsumi; Sumitani, Megumi; Endo, Hitoshi

    2012-11-01

    The segregation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is important for the maintenance and transmission of the genome between generations. Recently, we clarified that human mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is required for equal distribution and symmetric segregation of mtDNA in cultured cells; however, the molecular mechanism involved is largely unknown. ClpX is an ATPase associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) proteins that localize to the mitochondrial matrix and is suggested to associate with mtDNA. In this study, we found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of ClpX in HeLa cells resulted in enlarged mtDNA nucleoids, which is very similar to that observed in TFAM-knockdown cells in several properties. The expression of TFAM protein was not significantly reduced in ClpX-knockdown cells. However, the enlarged mtDNA nucleoids caused by ClpX-knockdown were suppressed by overexpression of recombinant TFAM and the phenotype was not observed in knockdown with ClpP, a protease subunit of ClpXP. Endogenous ClpX and TFAM exist in close vicinity, and ClpX enhanced DNA-binding activity of TFAM in vitro. These results suggest that human ClpX, a novel mtDNA regulator, maintains mtDNA nucleoid distribution through TFAM function as a chaperone rather than as a protease and its involvement in mtDNA segregation. PMID:22841477

  20. Design of a low-[beta-2]-gap spoke resonator for the AAA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F. L.; Garnett, R. W.; La Fave, R. P.; Kelley, J. P.; Schrage, D. L.; Tajima, T.; Roybal, P. L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present the electromagnetic and structural design of a low-b superconducting spoke resonator for a beam-test in the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA). This test is part of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) project. Recently, the use of superconducting resonators for energies greater than 6.7 MeV has been approved. The beam test will use the lowest-b resonator from this accelerator design. The choices of the cavity dimensions are driven by its use immediately downstream of the LEDA Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The frequency is 350 MHz. The length corresponds to a geometric b (bg) of 0.175. Our design approach has been to carry out an integrated RF and mechanical design from the start. The final cavity is well understood in terms of RF and mechanical properties. The RF properties, like Q, R/Q, peak surface fields and acceleration efficiency are very reasonable for such a low-b structure. The design also includes power coupler, vacuum and pick-up ports and their influences. The mechanical design added tuning sensitivities, tuning forces, stiffening schemes and the understanding of stresses under various load conditions.

  1. Subunit Interactions and Cooperativity in the Microtubule-severing AAA ATPase Spastin*

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Thomas; Link, Susanne; Le, Doan Tuong-Van; Sobczak, Jean-Philippe; Gieseke, Anja; Richter, Klaus; Woehlke, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Spastin is a hexameric ring AAA ATPase that severs microtubules. To see whether the ring complex funnels the energy of multiple ATP hydrolysis events to the site of mechanical action, we investigate here the cooperativity of spastin. Several lines of evidence indicate that interactions among two subunits dominate the cooperative behavior: (i) the ATPase activity shows a sigmoidal dependence on the ATP concentration; (ii) ATPγS displays a mixed-inhibition behavior for normal ATP turnover; and (iii) inactive mutant subunits inhibit the activity of spastin in a hyperbolic dependence, characteristic for two interacting species. A quantitative model based on neighbor interactions fits mutant titration experiments well, suggesting that each subunit is mainly influenced by one of its neighbors. These observations are relevant for patients suffering from SPG4-type hereditary spastic paraplegia and explain why single amino acid exchanges lead to a dominant negative phenotype. In severing assays, wild type spastin is even more sensitive toward the presence of inactive mutants than in enzymatic assays, suggesting a weak coupling of ATPase and severing activity. PMID:22637577

  2. AAA+ Chaperone ClpX Regulates Dynamics of Prokaryotic Cytoskeletal Protein FtsZ*

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Nishikori, Shingo; Miyagi, Atsushi; Ando, Toshio; Ogura, Teru

    2010-01-01

    AAA+ chaperone ClpX has been suggested to be a modulator of prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein FtsZ, but the details of recognition and remodeling of FtsZ by ClpX are largely unknown. In this study, we have extensively investigated the nature of FtsZ polymers and mechanisms of ClpX-regulated FtsZ polymer dynamics. We found that FtsZ polymerization is inhibited by ClpX in an ATP-independent manner and that the N-terminal domain of ClpX plays a crucial role for the inhibition of FtsZ polymerization. Single molecule analysis with high speed atomic force microscopy directly revealed that FtsZ polymer is in a dynamic equilibrium between polymerization and depolymerization on a time scale of several seconds. ClpX disassembles FtsZ polymers presumably by blocking reassembly of FtsZ. Furthermore, Escherichia coli cells overproducing ClpX and N-terminal domain of ClpX show filamentous morphology with abnormal localization of FtsZ. These data together suggest that ClpX modulates FtsZ polymer dynamics in an ATP-independent fashion, which is achieved by interaction between the N-terminal domain of ClpX and FtsZ monomers or oligomers. PMID:20022957

  3. Critical clamp loader processing by an essential AAA+ protease in Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Vass, Robert H.; Chien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome replication relies on sliding clamps that are loaded by energy-dependent complexes. In Escherichia coli, the ATP-binding clamp loader subunit DnaX exists as both long (τ) and short (γ) forms generated through programmed translational frameshifting, but the need for both forms is unclear. Here, we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, DnaX isoforms are unexpectedly generated through partial proteolysis by the AAA+ protease casein lytic proteinase (Clp) XP. We find that the normally processive ClpXP protease partially degrades DnaX to produce stable fragments upon encountering a glycine-rich region adjacent to a structured domain. Increasing the sequence complexity of this region prevents partial proteolysis and generates a τ-only form of DnaX in vivo that is unable to support viability on its own. Growth is restored when γ is provided in trans, but these strains are more sensitive to DNA damage compared with strains that can generate γ through proteolysis. Our work reveals an unexpected mode of partial processing by the ClpXP protease to generate DnaX isoforms, demonstrates that both τ and γ forms of DnaX are required for Caulobacter viability, and identifies a role for clamp loader diversity in responding to DNA damage. The conservation of distinct DnaX isoforms throughout bacteria despite fundamentally different mechanisms for producing them suggests there may be a conserved need for alternate clamp loader complexes during DNA damaging conditions. PMID:24145408

  4. The Archaeal Proteasome Is Regulated by a Network of AAA ATPases*

    PubMed Central

    Forouzan, Dara; Ammelburg, Moritz; Hobel, Cedric F.; Ströh, Luisa J.; Sessler, Nicole; Martin, Jörg; Lupas, Andrei N.

    2012-01-01

    The proteasome is the central machinery for targeted protein degradation in archaea, Actinobacteria, and eukaryotes. In its basic form, it consists of a regulatory ATPase complex and a proteolytic core particle. The interaction between the two is governed by an HbYX motif (where Hb is a hydrophobic residue, Y is tyrosine, and X is any amino acid) at the C terminus of the ATPase subunits, which stimulates gate opening of the proteasomal α-subunits. In archaea, the proteasome-interacting motif is not only found in canonical proteasome-activating nucleotidases of the PAN/ARC/Rpt group, which are absent in major archaeal lineages, but also in proteins of the CDC48/p97/VAT and AMA groups, suggesting a regulatory network of proteasomal ATPases. Indeed, Thermoplasma acidophilum, which lacks PAN, encodes one CDC48 protein that interacts with the 20S proteasome and activates the degradation of model substrates. In contrast, Methanosarcina mazei contains seven AAA proteins, five of which, both PAN proteins, two out of three CDC48 proteins, and the AMA protein, function as proteasomal gatekeepers. The prevalent presence of multiple, distinct proteasomal ATPases in archaea thus results in a network of regulatory ATPases that may widen the substrate spectrum of proteasomal protein degradation. PMID:22992741

  5. ATP-binding sites in brain p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein), a multifunctional AAA ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Zalk, Ran; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2003-01-01

    VCP (valosin-containing protein) or p97 is a member of the AAA family (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities family), a diverse group of proteins sharing a key conserved AAA module containing duplicate putative ATP-binding sites. Although the functions of the AAA family are related to their putative ATP-binding sites, the binding of ATP to these sites has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, the ATP-binding site(s) of brain VCP was characterized using the photoreactive ATP analogue, BzATP [3'- O -(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP]. Photo-activation of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP resulted in its covalent binding to a 97-kDa purified soluble or membrane-associated protein, identified by amino acid sequencing as VCP. Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP covalently bound to the purified homo-hexameric VCP with an apparent high affinity (74-111 nM). A molar stoichiometry of 2.23+/-0.14 BzATP bound per homo-hexameric VCP (n =6) was determined using different methods for analysis of radiolabelling and protein determination. Nucleotides inhibited the binding of Bz-[alpha-(32)P]ATP to VCP with the following efficiency: BzATP>ATP>ADP>>adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate>or=adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate, whereas AMP, GTP and CTP were ineffective. VCP was observed to possess very low ATPase activity, with nucleotide specificity similar to that for BzATP binding. Conformational changes induced by an alternating site mechanism for ATP binding are suggested as a molecular mechanism for coupling ATP binding to the diverse activities of the AAA family. PMID:12747802

  6. Architecture and Nucleotide-Dependent Conformational Changes of the Rvb1-Rvb2 AAA+ Complex Revealed by Cryoelectron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ewens, Caroline A; Su, Min; Zhao, Liang; Nano, Nardin; Houry, Walid A; Southworth, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    Rvb1 and Rvb2 are essential AAA+ proteins that interact together during the assembly and activity of diverse macromolecules including chromatin remodelers INO80 and SWR-C, and ribonucleoprotein complexes including telomerase and snoRNPs. ATP hydrolysis by Rvb1/2 is required for function; however, the mechanism that drives substrate remodeling is unknown. Here we determined the architecture of the yeast Rvb1/2 dodecamer using cryoelectron microscopy and identify that the substrate-binding insertion domain undergoes conformational changes in response to nucleotide state. 2D and 3D classification defines the dodecamer flexibility, revealing distinct arrangements and the hexamer-hexamer interaction interface. Reconstructions of the apo, ATP, and ADP states identify that Rvb1/2 undergoes substantial conformational changes that include a twist in the insertion-domain position and a corresponding rotation of the AAA+ ring. These results reveal how the ATP hydrolysis cycle of the AAA+ domains directs insertion-domain movements that could provide mechanical force during remodeling or helicase activities. PMID:27112599

  7. Chaperone-like activity of the AAA+ proteins Rvb1 and Rvb2 in the assembly of various complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nano, Nardin; Houry, Walid A.

    2013-01-01

    Rvb1 and Rvb2 are highly conserved and essential eukaryotic AAA+ proteins linked to a wide range of cellular processes. AAA+ proteins are ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities and are characterized by the presence of one or more AAA+ domains. These domains have the canonical Walker A and Walker B nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs. Rvb1 and Rvb2 have been found to be part of critical cellular complexes: the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 complex, chromatin remodelling complexes Ino80 and SWR-C, and the telomerase complex. In addition, Rvb1 and Rvb2 are components of the R2TP complex that was identified by our group and was determined to be involved in the maturation of box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) complexes. Furthermore, the Rvbs have been associated with mitotic spindle assembly, as well as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) signalling. This review sheds light on the potential role of the Rvbs as chaperones in the assembly and remodelling of these critical complexes. PMID:23530256

  8. Effect of phytohormones on pectate lyase activity in ripening Musa acuminata.

    PubMed

    Payasi, Anurag; Misra, P C; Sanwal, G G

    2004-12-01

    A differential activity peak of pectate lyase (PEL) was observed during ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata Harichhal) receiving different hormone treatments. Exposure of fruits to 25 ppm ethylene for 24 h, as well as dipping of M. acuminata fruits in 1 mM 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for 4 h, hastened fruit ripening. Both PEL activity peak and climacteric peak were observed on the 4th and 10th days of treatment with ethylene and 2,4-D, respectively, compared to the 16th day in control fruits. Gibberellic acid (GA) treatment retarded fruit ripening and both PEL activity and climacteric peaks were observed on the 19th day. Treatment of fruits with ethylene or 2,4-D also advanced the appearance of a polygalacturonase (PG) peak and GA delayed its appearance, but the activity peaks always appeared in post-climacteric fruits, in contrast to PEL activity peaks coinciding with the respiratory peaks. PMID:15694279

  9. MusA: Using Indoor Positioning and Navigation to Enhance Cultural Experiences in a Museum

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Irene; Xhembulla, Jetmir; Martina, Andrea; Bottino, Andrea; Malnati, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of multimedia mobile guides in museum environments. Mobile devices have the capabilities to detect the user context and to provide pieces of information suitable to help visitors discover and follow the logical and emotional connections that develop during the visit. In this scenario, location based services (LBS) currently represent an asset, and the choice of the technology to determine users' position, combined with the definition of methods that can effectively convey information, become key issues in the design process. In this work, we present Museum Assistant (MusA), a general framework for the development of multimedia interactive guides for mobile devices. Its main feature is a vision-based indoor positioning system that allows the provision of several LBS, from way-finding to the contextualized communication of cultural contents, aimed at providing a meaningful exploration of exhibits according to visitors' personal interest and curiosity. Starting from the thorough description of the system architecture, the article presents the implementation of two mobile guides, developed to respectively address adults and children, and discusses the evaluation of the user experience and the visitors' appreciation of these applications. PMID:24351645

  10. Using histopathological changes as a biomarker to trace contamination loading of Musa Creeks (Persian Gulf).

    PubMed

    Salamat, Negin; Soleimani, Zahra; Safahieh, Alireza; Savari, Ahmad; Ronagh, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-08-01

    Gill histological changes were used as a biomarker to evaluate the health of yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus (A. latus), collected from different sites in Musa Creeks including: (A) Petrochemical, (B) Jaafari, (C) Ghazaleh, (D) Majidieh, and (E) Zangi creeks. Also Genaveh with relatively clean water was selected as reference. The gills of 60 A. latus were fixed in Bouin's solution for 12 hr, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol, and embedded in paraffin. Five micrometer thick sections were stained in H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff for microscopic examination. Also, the presence of gill histological alterations was assessed by the histopathologic alteration index (HAI). The gill morphological abnormalities include mucus secretion increase, debris, blood plaque, and shortening of filaments. The gill pathological changes included lamellar cells hyperplasia, aneurysm, lamellar fusion, and epithelial lifting. The HAI means were varied from moderate to severe in sites A and B, thus these sites are considered as being of low quality. Some severe pathological alterations were observed in site D, but their distribution was lower than sites A and B. The least HAI means of sites C and E demonstrated their good environmental quality. The results suggest that there is close relation between amounts of pathological alterations and environmental contamination. PMID:23242578

  11. MusA: using indoor positioning and navigation to enhance cultural experiences in a museum.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Irene; Xhembulla, Jetmir; Martina, Andrea; Bottino, Andrea; Malnati, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of multimedia mobile guides in museum environments. Mobile devices have the capabilities to detect the user context and to provide pieces of information suitable to help visitors discover and follow the logical and emotional connections that develop during the visit. In this scenario, location based services (LBS) currently represent an asset, and the choice of the technology to determine users' position, combined with the definition of methods that can effectively convey information, become key issues in the design process. In this work, we present Museum Assistant (MusA), a general framework for the development of multimedia interactive guides for mobile devices. Its main feature is a vision-based indoor positioning system that allows the provision of several LBS, from way-finding to the contextualized communication of cultural contents, aimed at providing a meaningful exploration of exhibits according to visitors' personal interest and curiosity. Starting from the thorough description of the system architecture, the article presents the implementation of two mobile guides, developed to respectively address adults and children, and discusses the evaluation of the user experience and the visitors' appreciation of these applications. PMID:24351645

  12. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata).

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  13. Molecular Characterisation of Endophytic Fungi from Roots of Wild Banana (Musa acuminata)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Jamil, Muhamad Izham Muhamad; Anuar, Intan Sakinah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. Therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (Musa acuminata). A total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. The endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified using the sequences of the translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) gene of Fusarium spp. and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of other fungi. The most common fungal isolates were species of the genus Fusarium, which were identified as F. proliferatum, Fusarium sp., F. solani species complex, and F. oxysporum. Other isolated endophytic fungi included Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma atroviride, Calonectria gracilis, Rhizoctonia solani, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Stromatoneurospora phoenix (Xylariceae). Several of the fungal genera, such as Fusarium, Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, and Xylariceae, are among the common fungal endophytes reported in plants. This study showed that the roots of wild banana harbour a diverse group of endophytic fungi. PMID:27019688

  14. Isolation and characterization of an α-glucosidase inhibitor from Musa spp. (Baxijiao) flowers.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhanwu; Dai, Haofu; Pan, Siyi; Wang, Hui; Hu, Yingying; Ma, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    The use of α-glucosidase inhibitors is considered to be an effective strategy in the treatment of diabetes. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation technique, five Bacillus stearothermophilus α-glucosidase inhibitors were isolated from the flowers of Musa spp. (Baxijiao). Using NMR spectroscopy analysis they were identified as vanillic acid (1), ferulic acid (2), β-sitosterol (3), daucosterol (4) and 9-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methoxyphenalen-1-one (5). The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of compounds 1-5 were 2004.58, 1258.35, 283.67, 247.35 and 3.86 mg/L, respectively. Compared to a known α-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose, IC50=999.31 mg/L), compounds 3, 4 and 5 showed a strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that compound 5 is a mixed-competitive inhibitor, while compounds 3 and 4 are competitive inhibitors. The inhibition constants (Ki) of compounds 3, 4 and 5 were 20.09, 2.34 and 4.40 mg/L, respectively. Taken together, these data show that the compounds 3, 4 and 5 are potent α-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:25045894

  15. Rare Earth Element Complementarity in CO and CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Friedrich, J. M.; Ebel, D. S.

    2014-09-01

    LREE/HREE ratios in each component of CO and CV chondrites combine to produce complementary, flat bulk REE pattern, while individually yielding insight into mineral controls and precursor characteristics.

  16. Crystal structure of a novel archaeal AAA+ ATPase SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L.; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Elsliger, Marc-André; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Hale, Joanna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; van den Bedem, Henry; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-08-28

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND), a large class of P-loop NTPases, belong to AAA+ ATPases. They include AP(apoptotic)-ATPases (e.g., animal apoptosis regulators CED4/Apaf-1, plant disease resistance proteins, and bacterial AfsR-like transcription regulators), NACHT NTPases (e.g. CARD4, NAIP, Het-E-1, TLP1), and several other less well-characterized families. STAND differ from other P-loop NTPases by their unique sequence motifs, which include an hhGRExE (h, hydrophobic; x, any residue) motif at the N-terminal region, a GxP/GxxP motif at the C-terminal region of the NTPase domain, in addition to a C-terminal helical domain and additional domains such as WD40, TPR, LRR or catalytic modules. Despite significant biological interests, structural coverage of STAND proteins is very limited and only two other structures are currently known: the cell death regulators Apaf-1 and CED-4. Here, we report the crystal structure of SSO1545 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, which was determined using the semi-automated, high-throughput pipeline of the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG; http://www.jcsg.org), as part of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences' Protein Structure Initiative (PSI). SSO1545 (NP-342973.1), a representative of the archaeal STANDs, is a member of Pfam PF01637 and encodes a protein of 356 residues with calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of 41.7 kD and 8.2, respectively.

  17. A proteomic study of Corynebacterium glutamicum AAA+ protease FtsH

    PubMed Central

    Lüdke, Alja; Krämer, Reinhard; Burkovski, Andreas; Schluesener, Daniela; Poetsch, Ansgar

    2007-01-01

    Background The influence of the membrane-bound AAA+ protease FtsH on membrane and cytoplasmic proteins of Corynebacterium glutamicum was investigated in this study. For the analysis of the membrane fraction, anion exchange chromatography was combined with SDS-PAGE, while the cytoplasmic protein fraction was studied by conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Results In contrast to the situation in other bacteria, deletion of C. glutamicum ftsH has no significant effect on growth in standard minimal medium or response to heat or osmotic stress. On the proteome level, deletion of the ftsH gene resulted in a strong increase of ten cytoplasmic and membrane proteins, namely biotin carboxylase/biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accBC), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), homocysteine methyltransferase (metE), malate synthase (aceB), isocitrate lyase (aceA), a conserved hypothetical protein (NCgl1985), succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA), succinate dehydrogenase B (sdhB), succinate dehydrogenase CD (sdhCD), and glutamate binding protein (gluB), while 38 cytoplasmic and membrane-associated proteins showed a decreased abundance. The decreasing amount of succinate dehydrogenase A (sdhA) in the cytoplasmic fraction of the ftsH mutant compared to the wild type and its increasing abundance in the membrane fraction indicates that FtsH might be involved in the cleavage of a membrane anchor of this membrane-associated protein and by this changes its localization. Conclusion The data obtained hint to an involvement of C. glutamicum FtsH protease mainly in regulation of energy and carbon metabolism, while the protease is not involved in stress response, as found in other bacteria. PMID:17254330

  18. Single-molecule denaturation and degradation of proteins by the AAA+ ClpXP protease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yongdae; Davis, Joseph H.; Brau, Ricardo R.; Martin, Andreas; Kenniston, Jon A.; Baker, Tania A.; Sauer, Robert T.; Lang, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    ClpXP is an ATP-fueled molecular machine that unfolds and degrades target proteins. ClpX, an AAA+ enzyme, recognizes specific proteins, and then uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to denature any native structure and to translocate the unfolded polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, we develop and apply single-molecule fluorescence assays to probe the kinetics of protein denaturation and degradation by ClpXP. These assays employ a single-chain variant of the ClpX hexamer, linked via a single biotin to a streptavidin-coated surface, and fusion substrates with an N-terminal fluorophore and a C-terminal GFP-titin-ssrA module. In the presence of adenosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate (ATPγS), ClpXP degrades the titin-ssrA portion of these substrates but stalls when it encounters GFP. Exchange into ATP then allows synchronous resumption of denaturation and degradation of GFP and any downstream domains. GFP unfolding can be monitored directly, because intrinsic fluorescence is quenched by denaturation. The time required for complete degradation coincides with loss of the substrate fluorophore from the protease complex. Fitting single-molecule data for a set of related substrates provides time constants for ClpX unfolding, translocation, and a terminal step that may involve product release. Comparison of these single-molecule results with kinetics measured in bulk solution indicates similar levels of microscopic and macroscopic ClpXP activity. These results support a stochastic engagement/unfolding mechanism that ultimately results in highly processive degradation and set the stage for more detailed single-molecule studies of machine function. PMID:19892734

  19. Maintenance of Nucleosomal Balance in cis by Conserved AAA-ATPase Yta7

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Laura M.; Davis, Matthew D.; Rine, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    The extent of chromatin compaction is a fundamental driver of nuclear metabolism . Yta7 is a chromatin-associated AAA-ATPase, the human ortholog of which, ANCCA/ATAD2 transcriptionally activates pathways of malignancy in a broad range of cancers. Yta7 directly binds histone H3, and bulk chromatin exhibits increased nucleosomal density in yta7Δ mutants. The suppression of yta7Δ mutant growth and transcriptional phenotypes in budding yeast by decreased dosage of histones H3 and H4 indicates the acute sensitivity of cells to deviations in nucleosome spacing. This study investigated the global changes in chromatin structure upon Yta7 loss or overexpression and determined which of these effects reflected direct Yta7 activity. Metagene analysis of Yta7’s genome-wide localization indicated peak binding of Yta7 just downstream of the transcription start site. Cells lacking Yta7 exhibited increased nucleosome density within genes downstream of the +1 nucleosome, as defined by decreased internucleosomal distance, resulting in progressively 5′-shifted nucleosomes within the gene. In contrast, cells overexpressing Yta7 displayed profound 3′-shifts in nucleosome position and reduced nucleosome density within genes. Importantly, Yta7-bound regions were enriched for nucleosomal shifts, indicating that Yta7 acted locally to modulate nucleosome spacing. The phenotype of cells lacking both Yta7 and Rtt106, the histone H3/H4 chaperone, indicated that Yta7 functions in both Rtt106-dependent and Rtt106-independent ways to modulate nucleosome spacing within genes. This study suggested that Yta7 affected nucleosome density throughout the gene by both blocking Rtt106 from entering the gene, as shown previously at HTA1, and facilitating the loss of nucleosomes from the 5′-end. PMID:25406467

  20. Insights from High Precision Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Reduced CV Meteorite Separates: CV Matrix Homogeneity and Preservation of Nebular Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.

    2011-03-01

    The oxygen-isotopic composition of matrix from reduced CVs Efremovka and Vigarano has been measured and is indistinguishable from Allende. This indicates a similar nebular history and a preservation of different nebular conditions within reduced CV meteorites.

  1. Prevalence of previously undiagnosed abdominal aortic aneurysms in the area of Como: the ComoCuore "looking for AAA" ultrasonography screening.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giovanni; Durante, Alessandro; Genchi, Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Loris; Beretta, Sandro; Rovelli, Enza; Foglia-Manzillo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is poor. Long-term follow-up of population-based randomized trials has demonstrated that ultrasound (US) screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) measuring 3 cm or greater decreases AAA-related mortality rates and is cost-effective. We though to prospectively perform during a 26-month period a limited US examination of the infrarenal aorta in volunteers of both gender aged 60-85 years without history of AAA living in the area of Como, Italy. From September 2010 to November 2013 ComoCuore, a no-profit nongovernmental association, enrolled 1555 people (aged 68.8 ± 6.8 years; 48.6 % males). Clinical data and a US imaging of the aorta were collected for each participant. AAA was found in 22 volunteers (1.4 %) mainly males (2.5 % in males vs. 0.4 % in females p = 0.005). Overall, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was higher in patients with vs. without AAA (mean 2.9 ± 3.0 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0 respectively, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors of AAA on multivariate analysis were age (OR 1.14, 1.06-1.22; p < 0.0001), male gender (OR 8.23, 1.79-37.91; p = 0.007), and both current (OR 4.98, 1.57-15.79; p = 0.007) and previous smoking (OR 2.76, 1.12-8.94; p = 0.03). Our study confirms the feasibility of one time US screening for AAA in a large cohort of asymptomatic people. Independent predictors of AAA were male sex, older age and a history of smoking. Accordingly to recent data the prevalence of AAA seems to be declining, maybe due to a reduction of smoking in Italy. PMID:27215751

  2. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Cárdenas, Carlos I.; Miranda-Ham, María L.; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A.; Ku-Cauich, José R.; Vergauwen, Rudy; Reijnders, Timmy; Van den Ende, Wim; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    The water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) glucose, fructose, and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructans represent another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of 11 accessions (I to XI), including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA) identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfill across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water) provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes, potentially leading to

  3. Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondias mombin L. fractions.

    PubMed

    Accioly, Marina Parissi; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Rondon, Fernanda C M; de Morais, Selene Maia; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Almeida, Camila A; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; Cardoso, Roselaine P A

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease characterized by infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Leishmania chagasi. The primary vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis and the dog is the main domestic reservoir. The control and current treatment of dogs using synthetic drugs have not shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of disease in man. In attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal action, plant secondary metabolites have been studied in search of treatments of VL. This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of Musa paradisiaca (banana tree) and Spondias mombin (cajazeira) chemical constituents on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. chagasi. Phytochemical analysis by column chromatography was performed on ethanol extracts of two plants and fractions were isolated. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare the fractions and for isolation the substances to be used in vitro tests. The in vitro tests on promastigotes of L. chagasi used the MTT colorimetric method and the method of ELISA in situ was used against amastigotes besides the cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the eight fractions tested, Sm1 and Sm2 from S. mombin had no action against promastigotes, but had good activity against amastigotes. The fractions Mp1 e Mp4 of M. paradisiaca were very cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells. The best result was obtained with the fraction Sm3 from S. mombin with IC(50) of 11.26 μg/ml against promastigotes and amastigotes of 0.27 μg/ml. The fraction Sm3 characterized as tannic acid showed the best results against both forms of Leishmania being a good candidate for evaluation in in vivo tests. PMID:22521971

  4. Musa sapientum with exercises attenuates hyperglycemia and pancreatic islet cells degeneration in alloxan-diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Akinlolu, Adelaja Abdulazeez; Salau, Bamidele A.; Ekor, Martins; Otulana, Jubril

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We tested the hypothesis that administrations of methanolic extracts of Musa sapientum sucker (MEMS) with exercises attenuated hyperglycemia in alloxan-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 adult male rats were divided into equal eight groups. Normoglycemic Group A was Control. Alloxan (180 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to rats in Groups B - H to induce diabetes. Group B (diabetic control) received physiological saline. Groups C - H received MEMS (5 mg/kg), MEMS (10 mg/kg), Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg), MEMS (5 mg/kg) + exercises, MEMS (10 mg/kg) + exercises and Exercises only, respectively. Changes in body weight, blood glucose levels (BGL) and pancreatic histology were evaluated during or at the end of experiment. Body weights and BGL of rats were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using the statistical software program SPSS 15. Statistical comparisons were done using the Student’s t-test for unpaired samples. Differences between groups were determined as significant at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significantly (P < 0.05) decreased bodyweight was observed in B and H compared to A and C - G. Treatment with MEMS significantly (P < 0.05) decreased elevated BGL in C and D. Hypoglycemic effect of MEMS appeared enhanced with exercises in F and G. Exercises regimen alone (H) resulted in percentage reduction in BGL lower than those of C - G. Histopathological examinations revealed normal pancreas (A), atrophied islet cells (B), hyperplasia with adequate population of islet cells (C - G), and reduced hyperplasia of islet cells (H). Conclusion: MEMS with exercises attenuated hyperglycemia in alloxan-diabetic rats. PMID:26401408

  5. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cárdenas, Carlos I; Miranda-Ham, María L; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Ku-Cauich, José R; Vergauwen, Rudy; Reijnders, Timmy; Van den Ende, Wim; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    The water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) glucose, fructose, and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructans represent another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of 11 accessions (I to XI), including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA) identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfill across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water) provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes, potentially leading to

  6. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  7. Heterologous oligonucleotide microarrays for transcriptomics in a non-model species; a proof-of-concept study of drought stress in Musa

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Mark W; Graham, Neil S; Vanholme, Bartel; Swennen, Rony; May, Sean T; Keulemans, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Background 'Systems-wide' approaches such as microarray RNA-profiling are ideally suited to the study of the complex overlapping responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, commercial microarrays are only available for a limited number of plant species and development costs are so substantial as to be prohibitive for most research groups. Here we evaluate the use of cross-hybridisation to Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip® microarrays to profile the response of the banana (Musa spp.) leaf transcriptome to drought stress using a genomic DNA (gDNA)-based probe-selection strategy to improve the efficiency of detection of differentially expressed Musa transcripts. Results Following cross-hybridisation of Musa gDNA to the Rice GeneChip® Genome Array, ~33,700 gene-specific probe-sets had a sufficiently high degree of homology to be retained for transcriptomic analyses. In a proof-of-concept approach, pooled RNA representing a single biological replicate of control and drought stressed leaves of the Musa cultivar 'Cachaco' were hybridised to the Affymetrix Rice Genome Array. A total of 2,910 Musa gene homologues with a >2-fold difference in expression levels were subsequently identified. These drought-responsive transcripts included many functional classes associated with plant biotic and abiotic stress responses, as well as a range of regulatory genes known to be involved in coordinating abiotic stress responses. This latter group included members of the ERF, DREB, MYB, bZIP and bHLH transcription factor families. Fifty-two of these drought-sensitive Musa transcripts were homologous to genes underlying QTLs for drought and cold tolerance in rice, including in 2 instances QTLs associated with a single underlying gene. The list of drought-responsive transcripts also included genes identified in publicly-available comparative transcriptomics experiments. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that despite the general paucity of nucleotide sequence data in

  8. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses.

    PubMed

    Santos, C M R; Martins, N F; Hörberg, H M; de Almeida, E R P; Coelho, M C F; Togawa, R C; da Silva, F R; Caetano, A R; Miller, R N G; Souza, M T

    2005-05-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5 degrees C to 25 degrees C and from 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C was used to produce a COLD and a HOT cDNA library, respectively. We sequenced 1,440 clones from each library. Following quality analysis and vector trimming, we assembled 2,286 sequences from both libraries into 1,019 putative transcripts, consisting of 217 clusters and 802 singletons, which we denoted Musa acuminata assembled expressed sequence tagged (EST) sequences (MaAES). Of these MaAES, 22.87% showed no matches with existing sequences in public databases. A global analysis of the MaAES data set indicated that 10% of the sequenced cDNAs are present in both cDNA libraries, while 42% and 48% are present only in the COLD or in the HOT libraries, respectively. Annotation of the MaAES data set categorized them into 22 functional classes. Of the 2,286 high-quality sequences, 715 (31.28%) originated from full-length cDNA clones and resulted in a set of 149 genes. PMID:15841358

  9. Determination of mercury and vanadium concentration in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in Musa estuary in Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Fard, Neamat Jaafarzadeh Haghighi; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Ramezani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi; Javid, Ahmad Zare

    2015-08-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of mercury and vanadium in Johnius belangerii (C) fish in the Musa estuary. A total of 67 fishes were caught from the Musa estuary during five intervals of 15days in the summer of 2013. After biometric measurements were conducted, the concentrations of mercury and vanadium were measured in the muscle tissue of fish using a direct method analyzer (DMA) and a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The mean concentration of mercury and vanadium in the muscle tissue of fish was 3.154±1.981 and 2.921±0.873mg/kg w.w, respectively. The generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed a significantly positive relationship among mercury concentration, length, and weight (P=0.000). In addition, there was a significantly negative relationship between vanadium concentration and fish length (P=0.000). A reverse association was found between concentrations of mercury and vanadium. Mercury concentration exceeded the allowable standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in J. belangerii (C). PMID:26117818

  10. A dosimetric evaluation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm and Millennium 120 MLC for cranial intensity-modulated radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; José, Sol San; Puertas, Enrique; Fernández, Jaime; Casals, Joan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a convolution-based algorithm (anisotropic analytical algorithm [AAA]) implemented in the Eclipse planning system for intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) planning of small cranial targets by using a 5-mm leaf-width multileaf collimator (MLC). Overall, 24 patient-based IMRS plans for cranial lesions of variable size (0.3 to 15.1 cc) were planned (Eclipse, AAA, version 10.0.28) using fixed field-based IMRS produced by a Varian linear accelerator equipped with a 120 MLC (5-mm width on central leaves). Plan accuracy was evaluated according to phantom-based measurements performed with radiochromic film (EBT2, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Film 2D dose distributions were performed with the FilmQA Pro software (version 2011, Ashland, OH) by using the triple-channel dosimetry method. Comparison between computed and measured 2D dose distributions was performed using the gamma method (3%/1 mm). Performance of the MLC was checked by inspection of the DynaLog files created by the linear accelerator during the delivery of each dynamic field. The absolute difference between the calculated and measured isocenter doses for all the IMRS plans was 2.5% ± 2.1%. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high average passing rates of 98.9% ± 1.4% (red channel) and 98.9% ± 1.5% (blue and green channels). DynaLog file analysis revealed a maximum root mean square error of 0.46 mm. According to our results, we conclude that the Eclipse/AAA algorithm provides accurate cranial IMRS dose distributions that may be accurately delivered by a Varian linac equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC.

  11. Nanomechanical and Thermophoretic Analyses of the Nucleotide-Dependent Interactions between the AAA(+) Subunits of Magnesium Chelatase.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nathan B P; Vasilev, Cvetelin; Brindley, Amanda A; Hunter, C Neil

    2016-05-25

    In chlorophyll biosynthesis, the magnesium chelatase enzyme complex catalyzes the insertion of a Mg(2+) ion into protoporphyrin IX. Prior to this event, two of the three subunits, the AAA(+) proteins ChlI and ChlD, form a ChlID-MgATP complex. We used microscale thermophoresis to directly determine dissociation constants for the I-D subunits from Synechocystis, and to show that the formation of a ChlID-MgADP complex, mediated by the arginine finger and the sensor II domain on ChlD, is necessary for the assembly of the catalytically active ChlHID-MgATP complex. The N-terminal AAA(+) domain of ChlD is essential for complex formation, but some stability is preserved in the absence of the C-terminal integrin domain of ChlD, particularly if the intervening polyproline linker region is retained. Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used to determine the factors that stabilize formation of the ChlID-MgADP complex at the single molecule level; ChlD was attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe in two different orientations, and the ChlI subunits were tethered to a silica surface; the probability of subunits interacting more than doubled in the presence of MgADP, and we show that the N-terminal AAA(+) domain of ChlD mediates this process, in agreement with the microscale thermophoresis data. Analysis of the unbinding data revealed a most probable interaction force of around 109 pN for formation of single ChlID-MgADP complexes. These experiments provide a quantitative basis for understanding the assembly and function of the Mg chelatase complex. PMID:27133226

  12. Nanomechanical and Thermophoretic Analyses of the Nucleotide-Dependent Interactions between the AAA+ Subunits of Magnesium Chelatase

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In chlorophyll biosynthesis, the magnesium chelatase enzyme complex catalyzes the insertion of a Mg2+ ion into protoporphyrin IX. Prior to this event, two of the three subunits, the AAA+ proteins ChlI and ChlD, form a ChlID–MgATP complex. We used microscale thermophoresis to directly determine dissociation constants for the I-D subunits from Synechocystis, and to show that the formation of a ChlID–MgADP complex, mediated by the arginine finger and the sensor II domain on ChlD, is necessary for the assembly of the catalytically active ChlHID–MgATP complex. The N-terminal AAA+ domain of ChlD is essential for complex formation, but some stability is preserved in the absence of the C-terminal integrin domain of ChlD, particularly if the intervening polyproline linker region is retained. Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used to determine the factors that stabilize formation of the ChlID–MgADP complex at the single molecule level; ChlD was attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe in two different orientations, and the ChlI subunits were tethered to a silica surface; the probability of subunits interacting more than doubled in the presence of MgADP, and we show that the N-terminal AAA+ domain of ChlD mediates this process, in agreement with the microscale thermophoresis data. Analysis of the unbinding data revealed a most probable interaction force of around 109 pN for formation of single ChlID–MgADP complexes. These experiments provide a quantitative basis for understanding the assembly and function of the Mg chelatase complex. PMID:27133226

  13. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  14. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing a native plasma membrane aquaporin MusaPIP1;2 display high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Shareena; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2013-10-01

    Water transport across cellular membranes is regulated by a family of water channel proteins known as aquaporins (AQPs). As most abiotic stresses like suboptimal temperatures, drought or salinity result in cellular dehydration, it is imperative to study the cause-effect relationship between AQPs and the cellular consequences of abiotic stress stimuli. Although plant cells have a high isoform diversity of AQPs, the individual and integrated roles of individual AQPs in optimal and suboptimal physiological conditions remain unclear. Herein, we have identified a plasma membrane intrinsic protein gene (MusaPIP1;2) from banana and characterized it by overexpression in transgenic banana plants. Cellular localization assay performed using MusaPIP1;2::GFP fusion protein indicated that MusaPIP1;2 translocated to plasma membrane in transformed banana cells. Transgenic banana plants overexpressing MusaPIP1;2 constitutively displayed better abiotic stress survival characteristics. The transgenic lines had lower malondialdehyde levels, elevated proline and relative water content and higher photosynthetic efficiency as compared to equivalent controls under different abiotic stress conditions. Greenhouse-maintained hardened transgenic plants showed faster recovery towards normal growth and development after cessation of abiotic stress stimuli, thereby underlining the importance of these plants in actual environmental conditions wherein the stress stimuli is often transient but severe. Further, transgenic plants where the overexpression of MusaPIP1;2 was made conditional by tagging it with a stress-inducible native dehydrin promoter also showed similar stress tolerance characteristics in in vitro and in vivo assays. Plants developed in this study could potentially enable banana cultivation in areas where adverse environmental conditions hitherto preclude commercial banana cultivation. PMID:23745761

  15. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  16. Aqueous alteration in the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results from TEM and SEM examinations of the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite are presented, showing that the chondrules and the matrix of Kaba have undergone pervasive low-temperature aqueous alteration, resulting in the formation of Fe-bearing saponite from glass and enstatite in chondrules, and from anhydrous silicates in matrix. The alteration products in Kaba were found to resemble those in other aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites such as the Mokoia CV3 and in Orgueil CI chondrites and Y-82162 chondrites. However, Kaba lacks the abundant high-Al phyllosilicates, reported for CAIs from Mokoia, and the serpentine and ferrihydrite, found in Orgueil.

  17. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  18. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    PubMed

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance. PMID:23549844

  19. RP-HPLC characterization of lupenone and β-sitosterol in rhizoma musae and evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of lupenone in diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Wu, Hongmei; Wang, Xiangpei; Yang, Ye; Wang, Yuanmin; Qian, Haibing; Zhang, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of characterizing the active ingredients lupenone and β-sitosterol in Rhizoma Musae samples a reversed-phase HPLC method for the separation of these two compounds in Rhizoma Musae samples was developed (regression coefficient>0.9996). The method was further applied to quantify lupenone and β-sitosterol content in Rhizoma Musae samples cultured in different growth environments. Different variables such as geographical location, growth stage, and harvest time, demonstrated differential effects on lupenone and β-sitosterol levels. Moreover, we determined the optimum conditions for cultivation and harvesting of Rhizoma Musae herbs. Lupenone administration caused a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in diabetic rats at doses of 1.78, 5.33, and 16.00 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹ for 14 days, the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of diabetic rats also significantly reduced at doses of 5.33, and 16.00 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹, indicating a robust antidiabetic activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an optimized HPLC method successfully applied to quantify lupenone and β-sitosterol, and its applicability in optimizing Rhizoma Musae growth. Animal experiments also showed for the first time that lupenone from Rhizoma Musae has anti-diabetic activity. PMID:25207716

  20. Unfolding the mechanism of the AAA+ unfoldase VAT by a combined cryo-EM, solution NMR study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Ripstein, Zev A; Augustyniak, Rafal; Lazniewski, Michal; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Kay, Lewis E; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-19

    The AAA+ (ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities) enzymes play critical roles in a variety of homeostatic processes in all kingdoms of life. Valosin-containing protein-like ATPase of Thermoplasma acidophilum (VAT), the archaeal homolog of the ubiquitous AAA+ protein Cdc48/p97, functions in concert with the 20S proteasome by unfolding substrates and passing them on for degradation. Here, we present electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) maps showing that VAT undergoes large conformational rearrangements during its ATP hydrolysis cycle that differ dramatically from the conformational states observed for Cdc48/p97. We validate key features of the model with biochemical and solution methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopY (TROSY) NMR experiments and suggest a mechanism for coupling the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to substrate unfolding. These findings illustrate the unique complementarity between cryo-EM and solution NMR for studies of molecular machines, showing that the structural properties of VAT, as well as the population distributions of conformers, are similar in the frozen specimens used for cryo-EM and in the solution phase where NMR spectra are recorded. PMID:27402735

  1. Improved Structures of Full-Length P97, An AAA ATPase: Implications for Mechanisms of Nucleotide-Dependent Conformational Change

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.M.; Brunger, A.T.; Weis, W.I.

    2009-05-14

    The ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA) protein p97 has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation and homotypic membrane fusion. p97 belongs to a subgroup of AAA proteins that contains two nucleotide binding domains, D1 and D2. We determined the crystal structure of D2 at 3.0 {angstrom} resolution. This model enabled rerefinement of full-length p97 in different nucleotide states against previously reported low-resolution diffraction data to significantly improved R values and Ramachandran statistics. Although the overall fold remained similar, there are significant improvements, especially around the D2 nucleotide binding site. The rerefinement illustrates the importance of knowledge of high-resolution structures of fragments covering most of the whole molecule. The structures suggest that nucleotide hydrolysis is transformed into larger conformational changes by pushing of one D2 domain by its neighbor in the hexamer, and transmission of nucleotide-state information through the D1-D2 linker to displace the N-terminal, effector binding domain.

  2. The AAA ATPase Vps4 Plays Important Roles in Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and is Inhibited by DBeQ.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yahui; Li, Wanjie; Chu, Mi; Chen, Hengye; Yu, Haoyuan; Fang, Chaoguang; Sun, Ningze; Wang, Qiming; Luo, Tian; Luo, Kaiju; She, Xueping; Zhang, Mengqian; Yang, Dong

    2016-06-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen, and its pathogenicity is associated with hyphal formation. Previous studies have shown that at neutral-to-alkaline pH, hyphal growth is dependent on the Rim101 pathway whose activation requires Snf7, a member of the ESCRT system. In this work, we described the purification and characterization of the C. albicans Vps4, an AAA ATPase required for recycling of the ESCRTs. Its role on hyphal growth has been investigated. Our data suggest deletion of Vps4 decreases overall hyphal growth at pH 7 and increases the growth of multiple hyphae induced by serum, which indicates that the ESCRTs may make a Rim101-independent contribution to hyphal growth. Furthermore, DBeQ, an inhibitor of the AAA ATPase p97, was shown to inhibit the ATPase activity of Vps4 with an IC50 of about 11.5 μM. To a less degree, it also inhibits hyphal growth. Our work may provide a new strategy to control C. albicans infection. PMID:26700222

  3. Nucleotide binding and allosteric modulation of the second AAA+ domain of ClpB probed by transient kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Werbeck, Nicolas D; Kellner, Julian N; Barends, Thomas R M; Reinstein, Jochen

    2009-08-01

    The bacterial AAA+ chaperone ClpB provides thermotolerance by disaggregating aggregated proteins in collaboration with the DnaK chaperone system. Like many other AAA+ proteins, ClpB is believed to act as a biological motor converting the chemical energy of ATP into molecular motion. ClpB has two ATPase domains, NBD1 and NBD2, on one polypeptide chain. The functional unit of ClpB is a homohexameric ring, with a total of 12 potential nucleotide binding sites. Previously, two separate constructs, one each containing NBD1 or NBD2, have been shown to form a functional complex with chaperone activity when mixed. Here we aimed to elucidate the nucleotide binding properties of the ClpB complex using pre-steady state kinetics and fluorescent nucleotides. For this purpose, we first disassembled the complex and characterized in detail the binding kinetics of a construct comprising NBD2 and the C-terminal domain of ClpB. The monomeric construct bound nucleotides very tightly. ADP bound 2 orders of magnitude more tightly than ATP; this difference in binding affinity resulted almost exclusively from different dissociation rate constants. The nucleotide binding properties of NBD2 changed when this construct was complemented with a construct comprising NBD1 and the middle domain. Our approach shows how complex formation can influence the binding properties of the individual domains and allows us to assign nucleotide binding features of this highly complex, multimeric enzyme to specific domains. PMID:19594134

  4. Recent Advances in Deciphering the Structure and Molecular Mechanism of the AAA+ ATPase N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minglei; Brunger, Axel T

    2016-05-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), first discovered in 1988, is a key factor for eukaryotic trafficking, including protein and hormone secretion and neurotransmitter release. It is a member of the AAA+ family (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities). NSF disassembles soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes in conjunction with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP). Structural studies of NSF and its complex with SNAREs and SNAPs (known as 20S supercomplex) started about 20years ago. Crystal structures of individual N and D2 domains of NSF and low-resolution electron microscopy structures of full-length NSF and 20S supercomplex have been reported over the years. Nevertheless, the molecular architecture of the 20S supercomplex and the molecular mechanism of NSF-mediated SNARE complex disassembly remained unclear until recently. Here we review recent atomic-resolution or near-atomic resolution structures of NSF and of the 20S supercomplex, as well as recent insights into the molecular mechanism and energy requirements of NSF. We also compare NSF with other known AAA+ family members. PMID:26546278

  5. Anthelmintic activity of Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Musa paradisiaca L. against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Altaf; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Iqbal, Zafar; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2011-06-30

    Evaluation of anthelmintic effects of Trianthema (T.) portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) whole plant and Musa (M.) paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) leaves against prevalent gastrointestinal worms of sheep was done that may justify their traditional use in veterinary clinical medicine. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the crude aqueous methanolic extract (CAME) of both the plants was determined using mature female Haemonchus (H.) contortus and their eggs in adult motility assay (AMA) and egg hatch test (EHT), respectively. In vivo anthelmintic activity of crude powder (CP) and CAME in increasing doses (1.0-8.0 g kg(-1)) was determined in sheep naturally infected with mixed species of nematodes using fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and larval counts. The study design also included untreated as well as treated controls. Fecal egg count reduction and larval counts from coprocultures were performed pre- and post-treatments to assess the anthelmintic activity of the plants. CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca showed a strong in vitro anthelmintic activity and pronounced inhibitory effects on H. contortus egg hatching as observed through AMA and EHT, respectively. Both plants exhibited dose and time dependent anthelmintic effects on live worms as well as egg hatching. M. paradisiaca (LC(50)=2.13 μg mL(-1)) was found to be more potent than T. portulacastrum (LC(50)=2.41 μg mL(-1)) in EHT. However, in vivo, maximum reduction in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was recorded as 85.6% and 80.7% with CAME of T. portulacastrum and M. paradisiaca at 8.0 g kg(-1) on 15th day post-treatment, respectively as compared to that of Levamisole (7.5 mg kg(-1)) that caused 97.0% reduction in EPG. All the species of gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs), i.e. Haemonchus contortus, Trichostronglyus spp., Oesophagostomum columbianum and Trichuris ovis which were prevalent, found susceptible (P<0.01) to the different doses of CP and CAME of both plants. The data showed that both T

  6. Purification and characterization of Mn-peroxidase from Musa paradisiaca (banana) stem juice.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pratibha; Singh, V K; Yadav, Meera; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Yadava, Sudha; Yadav, K D S

    2012-02-01

    Mn-peroxidase (MnP), a biotechnologically important enzyme was purified for the first time from a plant source Musa paradisiaca (banana) stem, which is an agro-waste easily available after harvest of banana fruits. MnP was earlier purified only from the fungal sources. The enzyme was purified from stem juice by ultrafiltration and anion-exchange column chromatography on diethylamino ethylcellulose with 8-fold purification and purification yield of 65%. The enzyme gave a single protein band in SDS-PAGE corresponding to molecular mass 43 kDa. The Native-PAGE of the enzyme also gave a single protein band, confirming the purity of the enzyme. The UV/VIS spectrum of the purified enzyme differed from the other heme peroxidases, as the Soret band was shifted towards lower wavelength and the enzyme had an intense absorption band around 250 nm. The K(m) values using MnSO4 and H2O2 as the substrates of the purified enzyme were 21.0 and 9.5 microM, respectively. The calculated k(cat) value of the purified enzyme using Mn(II) as the substrate in 50 mM lactate buffer (pH 4.5) at 25 degrees C was 6.7s(-1), giving a k(cat)/K(m) value of 0.32 microM(-1)s(-1). The k(cat) value for the MnP-catalyzed reaction was found to be dependent of the Mn(III) chelator molecules malonate, lactate and oxalate, indicating that the enzyme oxidized chelated Mn(II) to Mn(III). The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 4.5 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme in combination with H2O2 liberated bromine and iodine in presence of KBr and KI respectively. All these enzymatic characteristics were similar to those of fungal MnP. The enzyme has the potential as a green brominating and iodinating agent in combination with KBr/KI and H2O2. PMID:22435143

  7. From AAA to Acuros XB-clinical implications of selecting either Acuros XB dose-to-water or dose-to-medium.

    PubMed

    Zifodya, Jackson M; Challens, Cameron H C; Hsieh, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    When implementing Acuros XB (AXB) as a substitute for anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse Treatment Planning System, one is faced with a dilemma of reporting either dose to medium, AXB-Dm or dose to water, AXB-Dw. To assist with decision making on selecting either AXB-Dm or AXB-Dw for dose reporting, a retrospective study of treated patients for head & neck (H&N), prostate, breast and lung is presented. Ten patients, previously treated using AAA plans, were selected for each site and re-planned with AXB-Dm and AXB-Dw. Re-planning was done with fixed monitor units (MU) as well as non-fixed MUs. Dose volume histograms (DVH) of targets and organs at risk (OAR), were analyzed in conjunction with ICRU-83 recommended dose reporting metrics. Additionally, comparisons of plan homogeneity indices (HI) and MUs were done to further highlight the differences between the algorithms. Results showed that, on average AAA overestimated dose to the target volume and OARs by less than 2.0 %. Comparisons between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, for all sites, also showed overall dose differences to be small (<1.5 %). However, in non-water biological media, dose differences between AXB-Dw and AXB-Dm, as large as 4.6 % were observed. AXB-Dw also tended to have unexpectedly high 3D maximum dose values (>135 % of prescription dose) for target volumes with high density materials. Homogeneity indices showed that AAA planning and optimization templates would need to be adjusted only for the H&N and Lung sites. MU comparison showed insignificant differences between AXB-Dw relative to AAA and between AXB-Dw relative to AXB-Dm. However AXB-Dm MUs relative to AAA, showed an average difference of about 1.3 % signifying an underdosage by AAA. In conclusion, when dose is reported as AXB-Dw, the effect that high density structures in the PTV has on the dose distribution should be carefully considered. As the results show overall small dose differences between the algorithms, when

  8. Whirling Dervish Dynamos: Magnetic Activity in CV Secondaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven

    2003-07-01

    The mass-losing secondary stars of cataclysmic variables {CVs} are the most rapidly rotating cool dwarfs observable. Other rapid rotators show a maximal, "saturated" level of magnetic activity {e.g., X-ray emission}, but there are hints from contact binaries and young clusters that activity may be suppressed at the highest rotation rates. CV secondaries are thus important probes of magnetic dynamos at rotational extremes. Implications for CV evolution {e.g., the ``period gap", accretion variability} may also be profound. Unfortunately, study of CV secondaries is hampered by pesky accretion-related phenomena and reflection effects. As a result, little systematic work has been done. To explore activity in these stars, we therefore propose to study far-UV spectra of AM Her-type systems {which have no accretion disks} in deep photometric minima in which accretion is shut off. Magnetic-related emission from the secondary will be separated {in velocity} from residual accretion emission by observations near quadratures. Lower chromospheric irradiation due to the white dwarf primary will be removed by modeling, yielding the true level of magnetic activity on the secondary. We will compare the results to other dMe stars and draw implications for magnetic dynamos and activity at rotational extremes, and for CV evolution and behavior.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Chromobacterium violaceum Strain CV017

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hinshaw, Kara C.; Macdonald, Stuart J.

    2016-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence for Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV017, used as a model and tool to understand acyl-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing. The assembly consists of 4,774,638-bp contained in 211 scaffolds. PMID:26941151

  10. Computational simulation of CV combination preferences in babbling

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hosung; Goldstein, Louis M.; Giulivi, Sara; Levitt, Andrea G.; Whalen, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a tendency for spoken consonant-vowel (CV) syllables, in babbling in particular, to show preferred combinations: labial consonants with central vowels, alveolars with front, and velars with back. This pattern was first described by MacNeilage and Davis, who found the evidence compatible with their “frame-then-content” (F/C) model. F/C postulates that CV syllables in babbling are produced with no control of the tongue (and therefore effectively random tongue positions) but systematic oscillation of the jaw. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman & Goldstein) predicts that CV preferences will depend on the degree of synergy of tongue movements for the C and V. We present computational modeling of both accounts using articulatory synthesis. Simulations found better correlations between patterns in babbling and the AP account than with the F/C model. These results indicate that the underlying assumptions of the F/C model are not supported and that the AP account provides a better and account with broader coverage by showing that articulatory synergies influence all CV syllables, not just the most common ones. PMID:24496111

  11. Isolation and characterization of BanLec-I, a mannoside-binding lectin from Musa paradisiac (banana).

    PubMed Central

    Koshte, V L; van Dijk, W; van der Stelt, M E; Aalberse, R C

    1990-01-01

    A lectin (BanLec-I) from banana (Musa paradisiac) with a binding specificity for oligomannosidic glycans of size classes higher than (Man)6GlcNAc was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-75 column. It did not agglutinate untreated human or sheep erythrocytes, but it did agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes. BanLec-I stimulated T-cell proliferation. On size-exclusion chromatography, BanLec-I has a molecular mass of approx. 27 kDa, and on SDS/PAGE the molecular mass is approx. 13 kDa. The isoelectric point is 7.2-7.5. BanLec-I was found to be very effective as a probe in detecting glycoproteins, e.g. on nitrocellulose blots. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2268297

  12. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of sterol rich methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum (banana) in cholesterol fed wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Piyush; Tyagi, Mool Kumar; Shukla, Kirtikar; Gambhir, Jasvindar K; Shukla, Rimi

    2016-03-01

    Musa sapientum Linn. (English 'Banana' family Musaceae), is a plant with nutritive, as well as medicinal value. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of stem of this plant was investigated in hypercholesterolemic rats. Rats were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding cholesterol (100 mg/kg/day) suspended in soya oil. Treatment groups received extract at a dose of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day in addition to cholesterol orally once daily. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks treatment. Animals were sacrificed and liver stored at -80 °C. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol were estimated in blood. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were measured in blood and liver. Total lipids, HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were investigated in liver. Most effective dose was found to be 20 mg/kg/day. Rise in total cholesterol, LDL + VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol in animals receiving only cholesterol was 179 %, 417 % and 74 % respectively, while in animals receiving 20 mg/kg dose rise in these parameters was restricted to 40 %, 106 % and 24 %. HDL-cholesterol decreased by 12 % in extract treated group, while it decreased to 36 % in untreated hypercholesterolemic rats. Malonaldialdehyde, marker of lipid peroxidation decreased while reduced glutathione and enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in blood and liver (p < 0.01). Total lipids in liver decreased and enzymes of lipid metabolism viz. HMG CoA redutase and lipoprotein lipase were restored to near normal. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy indicated high content of sterols in extract. Study demonstrated that methanol extract of stem of Musa sapientum has significant antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant effects. PMID:27570294

  13. SU-E-T-137: Dosimetric Validation for Pinnacle, Acuros, AAA, and Brainlab Algorithms with Induced Inhomogenieties

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P; Tambasco, M; LaFontaine, R; Burns, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Eclipse 11.0 Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution, and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms using measurement as the gold standard. Methods: Ion chamber and diode measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a phantom made up of slab densities corresponding to solid water, lung, and bone. The phantom was setup at source-to-surface distance of 100 cm, and the field sizes were 3.0 × 3.0, 5.0 × 5.0, and 10.0 × 10.0 cm2. Data from the planning systems were computed along the central axis of the beam. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber and edge diode for interface regions. Results: The best agreement between data from the algorithms and our measurements occurs away from the slab interfaces. For the 6 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 1.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 10 MV beam, iPlan 4.1 PB performs the best with 2.7% absolute average percent difference from measurement. For the 18 MV beam, Acuros performs the best with 2.0% absolute average percent difference from measurement. It is interesting to note that the steepest drop in dose occurred the at lung heterogeneity-solid water interface of the18 MV, 3.0 × 3.0 cm2 field size setup. In this situation, Acuros and AAA performed best with an average percent difference within −1.1% of measurement, followed by iPlan 4.1 MC, which was within 4.9%. Conclusion: This study shows that all of the algorithms perform reasonably well in computing dose in a heterogeneous slab phantom. Moreover, Acuros and AAA perform particularly well at the lung-solid water interfaces for higher energy beams and small field sizes.

  14. Petrology of the anorogenic, oxidised Jamon and Musa granites, Amazonian Craton: implications for the genesis of Proterozoic A-type granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Agnol, Roberto; Rämö, O. Tapani; de Magalhães, Marilia Sacramento; Macambira, Moacir José Buenano

    1999-03-01

    The 1.88 Ga Jamon and Musa granites are magnetite-bearing anorogenic, A-type granites of Paleoproterozoic age. They intrude the Archaean rocks of the Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone Terrain in the eastern part of the Amazonian Craton in northern Brazil. A suite of biotite±amphibole monzogranite to syenogranite, with associated dacite porphyry (DP) and granite porphyry (GP) dykes, dominates in these subalkaline granites that vary from metaluminous to peraluminous and show high FeO/(FeO+MgO) and K 2O/Na 2O. In spite of their broad geochemical similarities, the Jamon and Musa granites show some significant differences in their REE patterns and in the behaviour of Y. The Jamon granites are related by fractional crystallisation of plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, biotite, magnetite±amphibole±apatite±ilmenite. Geochemical modelling and Nd isotopic data indicate that the Archaean granodiorites, trondhjemites and tonalites of the Rio Maria region are not the source of the Jamon Granite and associated dyke magmas. Archaean quartz diorites, differentiated from the mantle at least 1000 m.y. before the emplacement of the granites, have a composition adequate to generate DP and the hornblende-biotite monzogranite magmas by different degrees of partial melting. A larger extent of amphibole fractionation during the evolution of the Musa pluton can explain some of the observed differences between it and the Jamon pluton. The studied granites crystallised at relatively high fO 2 and are anorogenic magnetite-series granites. In this aspect, as well as concerning geochemical characteristics, they display many affinities with the Proterozoic A-type granites of south-western United States. The Jamon and Musa granites differ from the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-rapakivi granite suites of north-eastern Canada and from the reduced rapakivi granites of the Fennoscandian Shield in several aspects, probably because of different magmatic sources.

  15. Targeting the AAA ATPase p97 as an approach to treat cancer through disruption of protein homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Daniel J.; Le Moigne, Ronan; Djakovic, Stevan; Kumar, Brajesh; Rice, Julie; Wong, Steve; Wang, Jinhai; Yao, Bing; Valle, Eduardo; von Soly, Szerenke Kiss; Madriaga, Antonett; Soriano, Ferdie; Menon, Mary-Kamala; Wu, Zhi Yong; Kampmann, Martin; Chen, Yuwen; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Aftab, Blake T.; Yakes, F. Michael; Shawver, Laura; Zhou, Han-Jie; Wustrow, David; Rolfe, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Summary p97 is a AAA-ATPase with multiple cellular functions, one of which is critical regulation of protein homeostasis pathways. We describe the characterization of CB-5083, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of p97. Treatment of tumor cells with CB-5083 leads to accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, retention of endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) substrates and generation of irresolvable proteotoxic stress leading to activation of the apoptotic arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In xenograft models, CB-5083 causes modulation of key p97-related pathways, induces apoptosis and has antitumor activity in a broad range of both hematological and solid tumor models. Molecular determinants of CB-5083 activity include expression of genes in the ERAD pathway providing a potential strategy for patient selection. PMID:26555175

  16. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W; Gonzalez, Raul C; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. We show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment. PMID:26538283

  17. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.

  18. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locusmore » include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.« less

  19. Three semidominant barley mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the smallest magnesium chelatase subunit form defective AAA+ hexamers

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, A.; Willows, R. D.; Roberts, T. H.; Hansson, M.

    2002-01-01

    Many enzymes of the bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll biosynthesis pathways have been conserved throughout evolution, but the molecular mechanisms of the key steps remain unclear. The magnesium chelatase reaction is one of these steps, and it requires the proteins BchI, BchD, and BchH to catalyze the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX upon ATP hydrolysis. Structural analyses have shown that BchI forms hexamers and belongs to the ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) family of proteins. AAA+ proteins are Mg2+-dependent ATPases that normally form oligomeric ring structures in the presence of ATP. By using ATPase-deficient BchI subunits, we demonstrate that binding of ATP is sufficient to form BchI oligomers. Further, ATPase-deficient BchI proteins can form mixed oligomers with WT BchI. The formation of BchI oligomers is not sufficient for magnesium chelatase activity when combined with BchD and BchH. Combining WT BchI with ATPase-deficient BchI in an assay disrupts the chelatase reaction, but the presence of deficient BchI does not inhibit ATPase activity of the WT BchI. Thus, the ATPase of every WT segment of the hexamer is autonomous, but all segments of the hexamer must be capable of ATP hydrolysis for magnesium chelatase activity. We suggest that ATP hydrolysis of each BchI within the hexamer causes a conformational change of the hexamer as a whole. However, hexamers containing ATPase-deficient BchI are unable to perform this ATP-dependent conformational change, and the magnesium chelatase reaction is stalled in an early stage. PMID:12357035

  20. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locus include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. We show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment. PMID:26538283

  1. Evidence from Chondrule Shapes and Modes for Shock Deformation in Reduced CV3 Chondrites Leoville and Efreomovka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Aoki, R.

    2015-07-01

    The reduced CV3 chondrites Efremovka and Leoville are characterized by (1) more elongate chondrules, and (2) lower matrix abundances compared to the oxidized CV3 Allende. Both observations can be explained by shock deformation of reduced CV3s.

  2. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  3. Spectroscopic Classification of ASASSN-16do as a CV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Shishkovsky, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We obtained an optical spectrum of ASASSN-16do (ATel #8888) on UT April 17.07 with the Goodman Spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The source has a blue continuum and broad double-peaked Balmer and He 5875 emission at z~0, with an H-alpha FWHM of about 2400 km/s. This value is high for a CV and suggests the source is observed close to edge-on.

  4. Children with ANSD fitted with hearing aids applying the AAA Pediatric Amplification Guideline: Current Practice and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elizabeth A.; McCreery, Ryan W.; Spratford, Meredith; Roush, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up to 15% of children with permanent hearing loss have auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD), which involves normal outer hair cell function and disordered afferent neural activity in the auditory nerve or brainstem. Given the varying presentations of ANSD in children, there is a need for more evidence-based research on appropriate clinical interventions for this population. Purpose This study compared the speech production, speech perception, and language outcomes of children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) who are hard of hearing and children with similar degrees of mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), all of whom were fitted with bilateral hearing aids based on the American Academy of Audiology (AAA) pediatric amplification guidelines. Research design Speech perception and communication outcomes data were gathered in a prospective accelerated longitudinal design, with entry into the study between six months and seven years of age. Three sites were involved in participant recruitment: Boys Town National Research Hospital, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Iowa. Study sample: The sample consisted of 12 children with ANSD and 22 children with SNHL. The groups were matched based on better-ear pure-tone average, better-ear aided speech intelligibility index, gender, maternal education level, and newborn hearing screening result (i.e., pass or refer). Data collection and analysis Children and their families participated in an initial baseline visit, followed by visits twice a year for children under age 2 years and once a year for children older than 2 years. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare children with ANSD to children with SNHL. Results Paired t-tests indicated no significant differences between the ANSD and SNHL groups on language and articulation measures. Children with ANSD displayed functional speech perception skills in quiet. Although the number of

  5. Magnetic CVs in the UCT CCD CV Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.

    2004-12-01

    An overview is given of all the magnetic CVs found in the UCT CCD CV Survey (Woudt & Warner 2001, 2002, 2003a). We have identified eight new candidate Intermediate Polars (IP), of which six are classical novae (RR Cha, DD Cir, AP Cru, V697 Sco, V373 Sct, and RX J1039.7-0507). The two other candidate IPs are Aqr1 (2236+0052) and RX J0944.5+0357. In addition, there are two probable Polars, namely V351 Pup (= Nova Puppis 1991) and FIRST J102347.6+003841.

  6. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  7. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P < 0.05) of blood glucose; RLW; RKW; RPW; serum and hepatic AST, ALT, and ALP; serum total and conjugated bilirubin; and serum lipase activities compared with nondiabetic while these parameters were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the rats fed unripe plantain. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the amylase levels of the diabetic rats compared with the nondiabetic, but there was nonsignificant increase (P > 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Conclusion Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications. PMID:25838921

  8. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4. PMID:21547366

  9. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10. PMID:26028740

  10. Dried, ground banana plant leaves (Musa spp.) for the control of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in sheep.

    PubMed

    Gregory, L; Yoshihara, E; Ribeiro, B L M; Silva, L K F; Marques, E C; Meira, E B S; Rossi, R S; Sampaio, P H; Louvandini, H; Hasegawa, M Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p < 0.05) was noted for T. colubriformis. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity. PMID:26350377

  11. Roles of the N domain of the AAA+ Lon protease in substrate recognition, allosteric regulation and chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Wohlever, Matthew L; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Degron binding regulates the activities of the AAA+ Lon protease in addition to targeting proteins for degradation. The sul20 degron from the cell-division inhibitor SulA is shown here to bind to the N domain of Escherichia coli Lon, and the recognition site is identified by cross-linking and scanning for mutations that prevent sul20-peptide binding. These N-domain mutations limit the rates of proteolysis of model sul20-tagged substrates and ATP hydrolysis by an allosteric mechanism. Lon inactivation of SulA in vivo requires binding to the N domain and robust ATP hydrolysis but does not require degradation or translocation into the proteolytic chamber. Lon-mediated relief of proteotoxic stress and protein aggregation in vivo can also occur without degradation but is not dependent on robust ATP hydrolysis. In combination, these results demonstrate that Lon can function as a protease or a chaperone and reveal that some of its ATP-dependent biological activities do not require translocation. PMID:24205897

  12. Disassembly of mitotic checkpoint complexes by the joint action of the AAA-ATPase TRIP13 and p31comet

    PubMed Central

    Eytan, Esther; Wang, Kexi; Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Kaisari, Sharon; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao; Hershko, Avram

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic (or spindle assembly) checkpoint system delays anaphase until all chromosomes are correctly attached to the mitotic spindle. When the checkpoint is active, a Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC) assembles and inhibits the ubiquitin ligase Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). MCC is composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Bub3 associated with the APC/C activator Cdc20. When the checkpoint signal is turned off, MCC is disassembled and the checkpoint is inactivated. The mechanisms of the disassembly of MCC are not sufficiently understood. We have previously observed that ATP hydrolysis is required for the action of the Mad2-binding protein p31comet to disassemble MCC. We now show that HeLa cell extracts contain a factor that promotes ATP- and p31comet-dependent disassembly of a Cdc20–Mad2 subcomplex and identify it as Thyroid Receptor Interacting Protein 13 (TRIP13), an AAA-ATPase known to interact with p31comet. The joint action of TRIP13 and p31comet also promotes the release of Mad2 from MCC, participates in the complete disassembly of MCC and abrogates checkpoint inhibition of APC/C. We propose that TRIP13 plays centrally important roles in the sequence of events leading to MCC disassembly and checkpoint inactivation. PMID:25092294

  13. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Interacting Protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase Is a Novel Mitotic Checkpoint-silencing Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C.; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K.; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-01-01

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31comet. Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31comet-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development. PMID:25012665

  14. The linker region plays a regulatory role in assembly and activity of the Vps4 AAA ATPase.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Curtiss, Matt; Davies, Brian A; Katzmann, David J; Babst, Markus

    2013-09-13

    The AAA-type ATPase Vps4 functions with components of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery in membrane fission events that are essential for endosomal maturation, cytokinesis, and the formation of retroviruses. A key step in these events is the assembly of monomeric Vps4 into the active ATPase complex, which is aided in part by binding of Vps4 via its N-terminal MIT (microtubule interacting and trafficking) domain to its substrate ESCRT-III. We found that the 40-amino acid linker region between the MIT and the ATPase domain of Vps4 is not required for proper function but plays a role in regulating Vps4 assembly and ATPase activity. Deletion of the linker is expected to bring the MIT domains into close proximity to the central pore of the Vps4 complex. We propose that this localization of the MIT domain in linker-deleted Vps4 mimics a repositioning of the MIT domain normally caused by binding of Vps4 to ESCRT-III. This structure would allow the Vps4 complex to engage ESCRT-III subunits with both the pore and the MIT domain simultaneously, which might be essential for the ATP-driven disassembly of ESCRT-III. PMID:23913684

  15. Structural insights into the Escherichia coli lysine decarboxylases and molecular determinants of interaction with the AAA+ ATPase RavA

    PubMed Central

    Kandiah, Eaazhisai; Carriel, Diego; Perard, Julien; Malet, Hélène; Bacia, Maria; Liu, Kaiyin; Chan, Sze W. S.; Houry, Walid A.; Ollagnier de Choudens, Sandrine; Elsen, Sylvie; Gutsche, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The inducible lysine decarboxylase LdcI is an important enterobacterial acid stress response enzyme whereas LdcC is its close paralogue thought to play mainly a metabolic role. A unique macromolecular cage formed by two decamers of the Escherichia coli LdcI and five hexamers of the AAA+ ATPase RavA was shown to counteract acid stress under starvation. Previously, we proposed a pseudoatomic model of the LdcI-RavA cage based on its cryo-electron microscopy map and crystal structures of an inactive LdcI decamer and a RavA monomer. We now present cryo-electron microscopy 3D reconstructions of the E. coli LdcI and LdcC, and an improved map of the LdcI bound to the LARA domain of RavA, at pH optimal for their enzymatic activity. Comparison with each other and with available structures uncovers differences between LdcI and LdcC explaining why only the acid stress response enzyme is capable of binding RavA. We identify interdomain movements associated with the pH-dependent enzyme activation and with the RavA binding. Multiple sequence alignment coupled to a phylogenetic analysis reveals that certain enterobacteria exert evolutionary pressure on the lysine decarboxylase towards the cage-like assembly with RavA, implying that this complex may have an important function under particular stress conditions. PMID:27080013

  16. Regulation of the transcriptional activator NtrC1: structural studies of the regulatory and AAA+ ATPase domains

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok-Yong; De La Torre, Armando; Yan, Dalai; Kustu, Sydney; Nixon, B. Tracy; Wemmer, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Transcription by σ54 RNA polymerase depends on activators that contain ATPase domains of the AAA+ class. These activators, which are often response regulators of two-component signal transduction systems, remodel the polymerase so that it can form open complexes at promoters. Here, we report the first crystal structures of the ATPase domain of an activator, the NtrC1 protein from the extreme thermophile Aquifex aeolicus. This domain alone, which is active, crystallized as a ring-shaped heptamer. The protein carrying both the ATPase and adjacent receiver domains, which is inactive, crystallized as a dimer. In the inactive dimer, one residue needed for catalysis is far from the active site, and extensive contacts among the domains prevent oligomerization of the ATPase domain. Oligomerization, which completes the active site, depends on surfaces that are buried in the dimer, and hence, on a rearrangement of the receiver domains upon phosphorylation. A motif in the ATPase domain known to be critical for coupling energy to remodeling of polymerase forms a novel loop that projects from the middle of an α helix. The extended, structured loops from the subunits of the heptamer localize to a pore in the center of the ring and form a surface that could contact σ54. PMID:14561776

  17. Multiple sequence signals direct recognition and degradation of protein substrates by the AAA+ protease HslUV.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Shankar; McGinness, Kathleen E; Baker, Tania A; Sauer, Robert T

    2010-10-29

    Proteolysis is important for protein quality control and for the proper regulation of many intracellular processes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Discerning substrates from other cellular proteins is a key aspect of proteolytic function. The Escherichia coli HslUV protease is a member of a major family of ATP-dependent AAA+ degradation machines. HslU hexamers recognize and unfold native protein substrates and then translocate the polypeptide into the degradation chamber of the HslV peptidase. Although a wealth of structural information is available for this system, relatively little is known about mechanisms of substrate recognition. Here, we demonstrate that mutations in the unstructured N-terminal and C-terminal sequences of two model substrates alter HslUV recognition and degradation kinetics, including changes in V(max). By introducing N- or C-terminal sequences that serve as recognition sites for specific peptide-binding proteins, we show that blocking either terminus of the substrate interferes with HslUV degradation, with synergistic effects when both termini are obstructed. These results support a model in which one terminus of the substrate is tethered to the protease and the other terminus is engaged by the translocation/unfolding machinery in the HslU pore. Thus, degradation appears to consist of discrete steps, which involve the interaction of different terminal sequence signals in the substrate with different receptor sites in the HslUV protease. PMID:20837023

  18. Loss of the m-AAA protease subunit AFG₃L₂ causes mitochondrial transport defects and tau hyperphosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kondadi, Arun Kumar; Wang, Shuaiyu; Montagner, Sara; Kladt, Nikolay; Korwitz, Anne; Martinelli, Paola; Herholz, David; Baker, Michael J; Schauss, Astrid C; Langer, Thomas; Rugarli, Elena I

    2014-05-01

    The m-AAA protease subunit AFG₃L₂ is involved in degradation and processing of substrates in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mutations in AFG₃L₂ are associated with spinocerebellar ataxia SCA28 in humans and impair axonal development and neuronal survival in mice. The loss of AFG₃L₂ causes fragmentation of the mitochondrial network. However, the pathogenic mechanism of neurodegeneration in the absence of AFG₃L₂ is still unclear. Here, we show that depletion of AFG₃L₂ leads to a specific defect of anterograde transport of mitochondria in murine cortical neurons. We observe similar transport deficiencies upon loss of AFG₃L₂ in OMA1-deficient neurons, indicating that they are not caused by OMA1-mediated degradation of the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1 and inhibition of mitochondrial fusion. Treatment of neurons with antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E, or decreasing tau levels in axons restored mitochondrial transport in AFG₃L₂-depleted neurons. Consistently, tau hyperphosphorylation and activation of ERK kinases are detected in mouse neurons postnatally deleted for Afg3l2. We propose that reactive oxygen species signaling leads to cytoskeletal modifications that impair mitochondrial transport in neurons lacking AFG₃L₂. PMID:24681487

  19. In-situ monitoring of blood glucose level for dialysis machine by AAA-battery-size ATR Fourier spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Sato, Shun; Ishida, Akane; Suzuki, Yo; Inohara, Daichi; Nogo, Kosuke; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    For blood glucose level measurement of dialysis machines, we proposed AAA-battery-size ATR (Attenuated total reflection) Fourier spectroscopy in middle infrared light region. The proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imaging is a near-common path and spatial phase-shift interferometer with high time resolution. Because numerous number of spectral data that is 60 (= camera frame rare e.g. 60[Hz]) multiplied by pixel number could be obtained in 1[sec.], statistical-averaging improvement realize high-accurate spectral measurement. We evaluated the quantitative accuracy of our proposed method for measuring glucose concentration in near-infrared light region with liquid cells. We confirmed that absorbance at 1600[nm] had high correlations with glucose concentrations (correlation coefficient: 0.92). But to measure whole-blood, complex light phenomenon caused from red blood cells, that is scattering and multiple reflection or so, deteriorate spectral data. Thus, we also proposed the ultrasound-assisted spectroscopic imaging that traps particles at standing-wave node. Thus, if ATR prism is oscillated mechanically, anti-node area is generated around evanescent light field on prism surface. By elimination complex light phenomenon of red blood cells, glucose concentration in whole-blood will be quantify with high accuracy. In this report, we successfully trapped red blood cells in normal saline solution with ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]).

  20. FY05 LDRD Fianl Report Investigation of AAA+ protein machines that participate in DNA replication, recombination, and in response to DNA damage LDRD Project Tracking Code: 04-LW-049

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, D; de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M S; Barsky, D; Venclovas, C

    2006-12-04

    The AAA+ proteins are remarkable macromolecules that are able to self-assemble into nanoscale machines. These protein machines play critical roles in many cellular processes, including the processes that manage a cell's genetic material, but the mechanism at the molecular level has remained elusive. We applied computational molecular modeling, combined with advanced sequence analysis and available biochemical and genetic data, to structurally characterize eukaryotic AAA+ proteins and the protein machines they form. With these models we have examined intermolecular interactions in three-dimensions (3D), including both interactions between the components of the AAA+ complexes and the interactions of these protein machines with their partners. These computational studies have provided new insights into the molecular structure and the mechanism of action for AAA+ protein machines, thereby facilitating a deeper understanding of processes involved in DNA metabolism.

  1. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  2. Elements in nucleotide sensing and hydrolysis of the AAA+ disaggregation machine ClpB: a structure-based mechanistic dissection of a molecular motor

    SciTech Connect

    Zeymer, Cathleen Barends, Thomas R. M.; Werbeck, Nicolas D.; Schlichting, Ilme; Reinstein, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    High-resolution crystal structures together with mutational analysis and transient kinetics experiments were utilized to understand nucleotide sensing and the regulation of the ATPase cycle in an AAA+ molecular motor. ATPases of the AAA+ superfamily are large oligomeric molecular machines that remodel their substrates by converting the energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical force. This study focuses on the molecular chaperone ClpB, the bacterial homologue of Hsp104, which reactivates aggregated proteins under cellular stress conditions. Based on high-resolution crystal structures in different nucleotide states, mutational analysis and nucleotide-binding kinetics experiments, the ATPase cycle of the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2), one of the motor subunits of this AAA+ disaggregation machine, is dissected mechanistically. The results provide insights into nucleotide sensing, explaining how the conserved sensor 2 motif contributes to the discrimination between ADP and ATP binding. Furthermore, the role of a conserved active-site arginine (Arg621), which controls binding of the essential Mg{sup 2+} ion, is described. Finally, a hypothesis is presented as to how the ATPase activity is regulated by a conformational switch that involves the essential Walker A lysine. In the proposed model, an unusual side-chain conformation of this highly conserved residue stabilizes a catalytically inactive state, thereby avoiding unnecessary ATP hydrolysis.

  3. Structure of RavA MoxR AAA+ protein reveals the design principles of a molecular cage modulating the inducible lysine decarboxylase activity

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Majida; Gutsche, Irina; Kanjee, Usheer; Zhao, Boyu; Yu, Miao; Goret, Gael; Schoehn, Guy; Burmeister, Wim P.; Houry, Walid A.

    2010-01-01

    The MoxR family of AAA+ ATPases is widespread throughout bacteria and archaea but remains poorly characterized. We recently found that the Escherichia coli MoxR protein, RavA (Regulatory ATPase variant A), tightly interacts with the inducible lysine decarboxylase, LdcI/CadA, to form a unique cage-like structure. Here, we present the X-ray structure of RavA and show that the αβα and all-α subdomains in the RavA AAA+ module are arranged as in magnesium chelatases rather than as in classical AAA+ proteins. RavA structure also contains a discontinuous triple-helical domain as well as a β-barrel-like domain forming a unique fold, which we termed the LARA domain. The LARA domain was found to mediate the interaction between RavA and LdcI. The RavA structure provides insights into how five RavA hexamers interact with two LdcI decamers to form the RavA-LdcI cage-like structure. PMID:21148420

  4. Genomic organization and mapping of the mouse P26s4 ATPase gene: A member of the remarkably conserved AAA gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, J.; Fisher, E.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome contains a large family of ATPases in which each member has at least one highly conserved domain of approximately 200 amino acids with an ATP binding motif (the {open_quotes}AAA{close_quotes} domain). AAA ATPases play diverse roles in the cell and are of considerable interest to researchers investigating a number of different phenomena, including control of the cell cycle. We have characterized the mouse P26s4 AAA ATPase gene that encodes a subunit of the 26S protease, a multimeric complex that is responsible for the ubiquitin- and ATP-dependent degradation of specific proteins. The normal functioning of eukaryotic cells depends on this pathway to remove regulatory proteins such as cyclins or signal transduction molecules from the intracellular environment, with the appropriate timing to allow normal cell division and development. We have isolated mouse P26s4 cDNAs and mapped the P26s4 gene to chromosome 12. We have analyzed the intron-exon structure of the P26s4 genomic locus and have determined that the gene contains at least 10 introns, the first of which separates the start methionine from the rest of the coding sequence. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Substrate delivery by the AAA+ ClpX and ClpC1 unfoldases activates the mycobacterial ClpP1P2 peptidase

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Karl R.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mycobacterial Clp-family proteases function via collaboration of the heteromeric ClpP1P2 peptidase with a AAA+ partner, ClpX or ClpC1. These enzymes are essential for M. tuberculosis viability and are validated antibacterial drug targets, but the requirements for assembly and regulation of functional proteolytic complexes are poorly understood. Here, we report the reconstitution of protein degradation by mycobacterial Clp proteases in vitro and describe novel features of these enzymes that distinguish them from orthologs in other bacteria. Both ClpX and ClpC1 catalyze ATP-dependent unfolding and degradation of native protein substrates in conjunction with ClpP1P2, but neither mediates protein degradation with just ClpP1 or ClpP2. ClpP1P2 alone has negligible peptidase activity, but is strongly stimulated by translocation of protein substrates into ClpP1P2 by either AAA+ partner. Interestingly, our results support a model in which both binding of a AAA+ partner and protein-substrate delivery are required to stabilize active ClpP1P2. Our model has implications for therapeutically targeting ClpP1P2 in dormant M. tuberculosis, and our reconstituted systems should facilitate identification of novel Clp protease inhibitors and activators. PMID:24976069

  6. Fall of blood ionized calcium on watching a provocative TV program and its prevention by active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca).

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Ohgitani, S; Nomura, M

    1999-01-01

    In December 1997, more than 680 children developed convulsive seizures while watching a notorious audiovisually provocative TV program, "Pocket Monster." Emotional stimulation via hyperventilation may cause respiratory alkalosis, fall of blood ionized calcium (Ca), and sensitization of the nervous system to excessive emotional stress. A study was therefore undertaken to follow the changes of blood ionized Ca in eight healthy volunteers after watching the "Pocket Monster" and also a quiet program, "Classical Music," as a control for 20min from 4 P.M. Although neither marked hyperventilation nor convulsions developed in any of these adult volunteers, blood ionized Ca showed a significantly more pronounced fall during and after watching "Pocket Monster," and their plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was significantly higher 120min after the beginning of "Pocket Monster" than the "Classical Music" program. Plasma total Ca, pH, and albumin were free of detectable changes. Ingestion of 600mg Ca as active absorbable algal Ca (AAA Ca) with high bioavailability completely prevented the fall of ionized Ca and suppressed iPTH. Plama osteocalcin was also significantly suppressed after ingestion of AAA Ca. It may be worthwhile to ingest AAA Ca before anticipated emotional stress such as watching a provocative TV program to prevent possible neuromuscular instability. PMID:10340641

  7. CV-6209, a highly potent antagonist of platelet activating factor in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Terashita, Z; Imura, Y; Takatani, M; Tsushima, S; Nishikawa, K

    1987-07-01

    2-[N-acetyl-N-(2-methoxy-3-octadecylcarbamoyloxypropoxycarbonyl) aminomethyl]-1-ethylpyridinium chloride (CV-6209) inhibited aggregation of rabbit and human platelets induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) with the IC50 values of 7.5 X 10(-8) and 1.7 X 10(-7) M, respectively, and had little effects on the aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen. The inhibitory effect of CV-6209 on the PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation was 104, 9, 8 and 3 times more potent than the PAF antagonists CV-3988, ONO-6240, Ginkgolide B and etizolam, respectively. CV-6209 inhibited [3H]serotonin release from rabbit platelets stimulated with PAF (3 X 10(-8) M) with a similar potency as the inhibition on the platelet aggregation. CV-6209 inhibited PAF (0.3 microgram/kg i.v.)-induced hypotension in rats (ED50, 0.009 mg/kg i.v.) with no effect on the hypotension induced by arachidonic acid, histamine, bradykinin and isoproterenol. CV-6209 (1 mg/kg) inhibited slightly the acetylcholine-induced hypotension. In rats, post-treatment with CV-6209 reversed the PAF (1 microgram/kg i.v.)-induced hypotension rapidly (ED50, 0.0046 mg/kg i.v.); CV-6209 was 74, 20, 185 and over 2100 times more potent than CV-3988, ONO-6240, Ginkgolide B and etizolam, respectively. Thus, the relative potency of the anti-PAF action of PAF analog (CV-6209, CV-3988 and ONO-6240) differed little between the inhibition of PAF-induced platelet aggregation and the reversal of PAF-induced hypotension, but that of nonPAF analogs (Ginkgolide B and etizolam) differed greatly with these assay systems, when standardized with CV-6209.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3612533

  8. The stinging Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Apocrita) in Iranian islands, Qeshm, Abu-Musa, Great Tunb and Lesser Tunb on the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Khoobdel, Mehdi; Tavassoli, Maryam; Salari, Mehdi; Firozi, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the stinging flying Hymenoptera (Apidae and Vespidae) fauna in four Iranian Islands, Qeshm, Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu-Musa on the Persian Gulf. Methods The flies were captured by used of Malaise trap, fly trap, bottle trap and insect net-hashing from March 2011 to July 2012. Results In this study, 11 species of stinging Hymenoptera were reported for the first time in Persian Gulf region. Conclusions Some of this species such as Vespa orientalis and Polistes olivaceus are more common in the Persian Gulf islands and can cause clinical problem to islands resident and travelers. PMID:25183092

  9. So you want to be a specialist registrar?--What to put in your CV.

    PubMed

    Ellis, P E; Ellis, S G S; O'Brien, K D; Joshi, R I

    2002-02-01

    Dentists applying to a specialist training programme often receive conflicting advice over what to put in their curriculum vitae (CV). We conducted a survey of the Training Programme Directors of the dental specialties to determine what aspects of CV content and presentation styles are considered important. This has allowed us to construct guidelines for what to put in a CV. Recently, structured application forms have become increasingly popular and may be a more objective way to carry out the shortlisting process. The guidelines presented could also be used as a framework for medical personnel departments if structured application forms eventually replace the CV. PMID:11865819

  10. Experimental verification of the Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation adjacent to heterogeneous media for IMRT and RapidArc of nasopharygeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Monica W. K.; Leung, Lucullus H. T.; So, Ronald W. K.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the doses calculated by the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) with experimentally measured data adjacent to and within heterogeneous medium using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and RapidArc{sup Registered-Sign} (RA) volumetric arc therapy plans for nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Two-dimensional dose distribution immediately adjacent to both air and bone inserts of a rectangular tissue equivalent phantom irradiated using IMRT and RA plans for NPC cases were measured with GafChromic{sup Registered-Sign} EBT3 films. Doses near and within the nasopharygeal (NP) region of an anthropomorphic phantom containing heterogeneous medium were also measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and EBT3 films. The measured data were then compared with the data calculated by AAA and AXB. For AXB, dose calculations were performed using both dose-to-medium (AXB{sub Dm}) and dose-to-water (AXB{sub Dw}) options. Furthermore, target dose differences between AAA and AXB were analyzed for the corresponding real patients. The comparison of real patient plans was performed by stratifying the targets into components of different densities, including tissue, bone, and air. Results: For the verification of planar dose distribution adjacent to air and bone using the rectangular phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the {+-} 3%/3mm criteria were 98.7%, 99.5%, and 97.7% on the axial plane for AAA, AXB{sub Dm}, and AXB{sub Dw}, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans, while they were 97.6%, 98.2%, and 97.7%, respectively, on the coronal plane. For the verification of planar dose distribution within the NP region of the anthropomorphic phantom, the percentages of pixels that passed the gamma analysis with the {+-} 3%/3mm criteria were 95.1%, 91.3%, and 99.0% for AAA, AXB{sub Dm}, and AXB{sub Dw}, respectively, averaged over all IMRT and RA plans. Within the NP region where

  11. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. PMID:26209936

  12. The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Chumak, Nina; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Nishimura, Toshiro; Schoft, Vera K.; Bindics, János; Ślusarz, Lucyna; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Opravil, Susanne; Mechtler, Karl; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L.; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases such as cancer. However, active mechanisms of centromere disassembly are unknown. Nondividing Arabidopsis pollen vegetative cells, which transport engulfed sperm by extended tip growth, undergo loss of CenH3; centromeric heterochromatin decondensation; and bulk activation of silent rRNA genes, accompanied by their translocation into the nucleolus. Here, we show that these processes are blocked by mutations in the evolutionarily conserved AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone, CDC48A, homologous to yeast Cdc48 and human p97 proteins, both of which are implicated in ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted protein degradation. We demonstrate that CDC48A physically associates with its heterodimeric cofactor UFD1-NPL4, known to bind ubiquitin and SUMO, as well as with SUMO1-modified CenH3 and mutations in NPL4 phenocopy cdc48a mutations. In WT vegetative cell nuclei, genetically unlinked ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci are uniquely clustered together within the nucleolus and all major rRNA gene variants, including those rDNA variants silenced in leaves, are transcribed. In cdc48a mutant vegetative cell nuclei, however, these rDNA loci frequently colocalized with condensed centromeric heterochromatin at the external periphery of the nucleolus. Our results indicate that the CDC48ANPL4 complex actively removes sumoylated CenH3 from centromeres and disrupts centromeric heterochromatin to release bulk rRNA genes into the nucleolus for ribosome production, which fuels single nucleus-driven pollen tube growth and is essential for plant reproduction. PMID:25344531

  13. A yeast gene, MGS1, encoding a DNA-dependent AAA(+) ATPase is required to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    Hishida, T; Iwasaki, H; Ohno, T; Morishita, T; Shinagawa, H

    2001-07-17

    Changes in DNA superhelicity during DNA replication are mediated primarily by the activities of DNA helicases and topoisomerases. If these activities are defective, the progression of the replication fork can be hindered or blocked, which can lead to double-strand breaks, elevated recombination in regions of repeated DNA, and genome instability. Hereditary diseases like Werner's and Bloom's Syndromes are caused by defects in DNA helicases, and these diseases are associated with genome instability and carcinogenesis in humans. Here we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene, MGS1 (Maintenance of Genome Stability 1), which encodes a protein belonging to the AAA(+) class of ATPases, and whose central region is similar to Escherichia coli RuvB, a Holliday junction branch migration motor protein. The Mgs1 orthologues are highly conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The Mgs1 protein possesses DNA-dependent ATPase and single-strand DNA annealing activities. An mgs1 deletion mutant has an elevated rate of mitotic recombination, which causes genome instability. The mgs1 mutation is synergistic with a mutation in top3 (encoding topoisomerase III), and the double mutant exhibits severe growth defects and markedly increased genome instability. In contrast to the mgs1 mutation, a mutation in the sgs1 gene encoding a DNA helicase homologous to the Werner and Bloom helicases suppresses both the growth defect and the increased genome instability of the top3 mutant. Therefore, evolutionarily conserved Mgs1 may play a role together with RecQ family helicases and DNA topoisomerases in maintaining proper DNA topology, which is essential for genome stability. PMID:11459965

  14. Hansenula polymorpha Pex1p and Pex6p are peroxisome-associated AAA proteins that functionally and physically interact.

    PubMed

    Kiel, J A; Hilbrands, R E; van der Klei, I J; Rasmussen, S W; Salomons, F A; van der Heide, M; Faber, K N; Cregg, J M; Veenhuis, M

    1999-08-01

    We have cloned the Hansenula polymorpha PEX1 and PEX6 genes by functional complementation of the corresponding peroxisome-deficient (pex) mutants. The gene products, HpPex1p and HpPex6p, are ATPases which both belong to the AAA protein family. Cells deleted for either gene (Deltapex1 or Deltapex6) were characterized by the presence of small peroxisomal remnants which contained peroxisomal membrane proteins and minor amounts of matrix proteins. The bulk of the matrix proteins, however, resided in the cytosol. In cell fractionation studies HpPex1p and HpPex6p co-sedimented with the peroxisomal membrane protein HpPex3p in both wild-type cells and in Deltapex4, Deltapex8 or Deltapex14 cells. Both proteins are loosely membrane-bound and face the cytosol. Furthermore, HpPex1p and HpPex6p physically and functionally interact in vivo. Overexpression of PEX6 resulted in defects in peroxisomal matrix protein import. By contrast, overexpression of PEX1 was not detrimental to the cells. Interestingly, co-overproduction of HpPex1p rescued the protein import defect caused by HpPex6p overproduction. Overproduced HpPex1p and HpPex6p remained predominantly membrane-bound, but only partially co-localized with the peroxisomal membrane protein HpPex3p. Our data indicate that HpPex1p and HpPex6p function in a protein complex associated with the peroxisomal membrane and that overproduced, mislocalized HpPex6p prevents HpPex1p from reaching its site of activity. PMID:10455230

  15. The AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone Cdc48/p97 disassembles sumoylated centromeres, decondenses heterochromatin, and activates ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Chumak, Nina; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Nishimura, Toshiro; Schoft, Vera K; Bindics, János; Slusarz, Lucyna; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Opravil, Susanne; Mechtler, Karl; Zilberman, Daniel; Fischer, Robert L; Tamaru, Hisashi

    2014-11-11

    Centromeres mediate chromosome segregation and are defined by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3)/centromere protein A (CENP-A). Removal of CenH3 from centromeres is a general property of terminally differentiated cells, and the persistence of CenH3 increases the risk of diseases such as cancer. However, active mechanisms of centromere disassembly are unknown. Nondividing Arabidopsis pollen vegetative cells, which transport engulfed sperm by extended tip growth, undergo loss of CenH3; centromeric heterochromatin decondensation; and bulk activation of silent rRNA genes, accompanied by their translocation into the nucleolus. Here, we show that these processes are blocked by mutations in the evolutionarily conserved AAA-ATPase molecular chaperone, CDC48A, homologous to yeast Cdc48 and human p97 proteins, both of which are implicated in ubiquitin/small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted protein degradation. We demonstrate that CDC48A physically associates with its heterodimeric cofactor UFD1-NPL4, known to bind ubiquitin and SUMO, as well as with SUMO1-modified CenH3 and mutations in NPL4 phenocopy cdc48a mutations. In WT vegetative cell nuclei, genetically unlinked ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci are uniquely clustered together within the nucleolus and all major rRNA gene variants, including those rDNA variants silenced in leaves, are transcribed. In cdc48a mutant vegetative cell nuclei, however, these rDNA loci frequently colocalized with condensed centromeric heterochromatin at the external periphery of the nucleolus. Our results indicate that the CDC48A(NPL4) complex actively removes sumoylated CenH3 from centromeres and disrupts centromeric heterochromatin to release bulk rRNA genes into the nucleolus for ribosome production, which fuels single nucleus-driven pollen tube growth and is essential for plant reproduction. PMID:25344531

  16. Cloning of an ADP-ribosylation factor gene from banana (Musa acuminata) and its expression patterns in postharvest ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Jing; Xu, Bi-Yu; Liu, Ju-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Jia, Cai-Hong; Jin, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-08-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) from banana (Musa acuminata) fruit was cloned and named MaArf. It contains an open reading frame encoding a 181-amino-acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that MaArf shared high similarity with ARF of other plant species. The genomic sequence of MaArf was also obtained using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence analysis showed that MaArf was a split gene containing five exons and four introns in genomic DNA. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to analyze the spatial expression of MaArf. The results showed that MaArf was expressed in all the organs examined: root, rhizome, leaf, flower and fruit. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to explore expression patterns of MaArf in postharvest banana. There was differential expression of MaArf associated with ethylene biosynthesis. In naturally ripened banana, expression of MaArf was in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis. However, in 1-methylcyclopropene-treated banana, the expression of MaArf was inhibited and changed little. When treated with ethylene, MaArf expression in banana fruit significantly increased in accordance with ethylene biosynthesis; the peak of MaArf was 3 d after harvest, 11 d earlier than for naturally ripened banana fruits. These results suggest that MaArf is induced by ethylene in regulating postharvest banana ripening. Finally, subcellular localization assays showed the MaArf protein in the cytoplasm. PMID:20435371

  17. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening.

    PubMed

    Verma, Charu; R K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3(rd) day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of KIN10 and cold-acclimation related genes in wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans).

    PubMed

    Liu, Weihua; Cheng, Chunzhen; Lai, Gongti; Lin, Yuling; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2015-01-01

    Banana cultivars may experience chilling or freezing injury in some of their cultivated regions, where wild banana can still grow very well. The clarification of the cold-resistant mechanism of wild banana is vital for cold-resistant banana breeding. In this study, the central stress integrator gene KIN10 and some cold-acclimation related genes (HOS1 and ICE1s) from the cold-resistant wild banana 'Huanxi' (Musa itinerans) were cloned and their expression patterns under different temperature treatments were analyzed. Thirteen full-length cDNA transcripts including 6 KIN10s, 1 HOS1 and 6 ICE1s were successfully cloned. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that all these genes had the highest expression levels at the critical temperature of banana (13 °C). Under chilling temperature (4 °C), the expression level of KIN10 reduced significantly but the expression of HOS1 was still higher than that at the optimal temperature (28 °C, control). Both KIN10 and HOS1 showed the lowest expression levels at 0 °C, the expression level of ICE1, however, was higher than control. As sucrose plays role in plant cold-acclimation and in regulation of KIN10 and HOS1 bioactivities, the sucrose contents of wild banana under different temperatures were detected. Results showed that the sucrose content increased as temperature lowered. Our result suggested that KIN10 may participate in cold stress response via regulating sucrose biosynthesis, which is helpful in regulating cold acclimation pathway in wild banana. PMID:26753116

  19. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    PubMed

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  20. Structures of Chlorophyll Catabolites in Bananas (Musa acuminata) Reveal a Split Path of Chlorophyll Breakdown in a Ripening Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  1. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on quality and shelf life of 'Robusta' banana (Musa sp.) stored at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Kudachikar, V B; Kulkarni, S G; Prakash, M N Keshava

    2011-06-01

    Banana (Musa sp var. 'Robusta') stored under active and passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) at 12 ± 1°C and 85-90% RH for 2 seasons were evaluated for fruit quality and shelf-life. A steady state of about 8.6 and 8.2% of CO2 and 2.8 and 2.6% of O2 in passive MAP and MAP+GK (Green Keeper) packages, respectively, were established after 3 weeks of storage. Passive MAP and MAP+GK treatments of banana resulted in reduction in physiological loss in weight (PLW) of 0.7 and 0.8% after 5 and 7 weeks of storage, respectively as against 5% PLW in openly kept green banana after 3 weeks. Both MAP and MAP+GK treatments delayed colour, texture, pulp to peel ratio and total soluble solids (TSS) content as compared to openly kept control banana. Results indicated that the shelf life of fruits packed under MAP and MAP+GK could be extended up to 5 and 7 weeks, respectively as compared to 3 weeks for openly kept control fruits. Sensory quality of fully ripe fruits of both passive MAP and MAP+GK treatments, 5 days after ethrel dip was very good. Thus, MAP+GK at 12 ± 1°C and 85-90% RH could be commercially used for long term storage and long distance transportation of banana with maximum shelf-life of 7 weeks. PMID:23572753

  2. Biochemical and In-silico Studies on Pectin Methylesterase from G9 Variety of Musa acuminata for Delayed Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Charu; R.K, Singh; Singh, Ram B; Mishra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Ripening of fruit is a very important process but in some fruits early ripening leads to a great damage during long distance transportation. There are various biochemical changes taking place during the phase of ripening of fruit such as changes in respiration, aroma, flavor, ethylene production and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes. Some important cell wall degrading enzymes are Polygalacturonase (PG), Pectin methylesterase (PME), Pectin lyase, RGase. PME is known to act as a cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme, responsible for demethyl esterification of cell wall polygalacturonan. The present study includes the biochemical and molecular characterization of PME from Grand naine variety of Musa acuminata (banana). This study also deals with the in-silico study reflecting inhibition of PME activity in context to delayed ripening in banana. It mainly deals with the identification of a PME1 gene from Grand naine variety of banana. The expression of this gene is related with the process of ripening. The expression of PME1 gene was observed to be peaked on 3rd day in ethylene treated samples of banana but the activity in untreated samples called control was rather slow and then there was a sudden decrease in their activity in both treated as well as untreated samples. With the help of in-silico study, we observed that banana has maximum homology with carrot by using cross species analysis.The designed model has been reported to be of good quality on the basis of its verification and validation. The designed model was observed to be appropriate for docking. The information of binding sites of ligand provides new insights into the predictable functioning of relevant protein. PMID:25926894

  3. Death of pastures syndrome: tissue changes in Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Júnior, N G; Ariano, A P R; Silva, I V

    2016-07-11

    The quality of forage production is a prerequisite to raising livestock. Therefore, income losses in this activity, primarily cattle raising, can result in the impossibility of economic activity. Through the qualitative and quantitative anatomical study of Urochloa hybrida cv. Mulato II and U. brizantha cv. Marandu, we searched for descriptions and compared changes in the individual vegetative body from populations with death syndrome pastures (DPS). Specimens were collected at different physiological stages from farms in northern Mato Grosso. After collection, the individuals were fixed in FAA50 and stored in 70% alcohol. Histological slides were prepared from the middle third of the sections of roots, rhizomes, and leaves, and the proportions and characteristics of tissues were evaluated in healthy, intermediate, and advanced stages of DPS. Changes were compared between cultivars. With the advancement of the syndrome, the following changes were observed: a more marked decrease in the length of roots in U. hybrida; disorganization of the cortical region of the roots and rhizome cultivars; fungal hyphae in roots and aerenchyma formation in U. hybrida; a decrease in sclerenchyma fiber proportions in roots and leaves; sclerification of the epidermis of U. brizantha rhizomes; and an increase in pericyclic fibers in U. hybrida. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the volume of epidermal cells of the abaxial face of the leaves of both cultivars, with a greater reduction in U. hybrida; a gradual decrease in thickness in the midrib of leaves similar to leaf mesophyll; conduction system obstructions; partial or total cell lysis in roots and rhizomes affected by the syndrome. Obstructions in sieve tube element and companion cells, and sometimes obstruction in xylem vessel elements. The evolution of DPS in cultivars was similar, but there were variations, arising probably from the physiological response to stress, such as aerenchyma formation in the root and increased

  4. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments. PMID:25938695

  5. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  6. Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (coCV), a new circovirus from pigeons.

    PubMed

    Mankertz, A; Hattermann, K; Ehlers, B; Soike, D

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is more distantly related (< 40% homology) to porcine circovirus type 1 and 2. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase and the putative capsid protein of CoCV. A region similar to the origin of replication of other circoviruses was found: it encompasses a stem-loop structure with the nonamer 5'-TAGTATTAC, conserved in circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest classification of CoCV as member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:11205099

  7. A Screen for Dominant Negative Mutants of SEC18 Reveals a Role for the AAA Protein Consensus Sequence in ATP Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Gregor J.; Harley, Carol; Boyd, Alan; Morgan, Alan

    2000-01-01

    An evolutionarily ancient mechanism is used for intracellular membrane fusion events ranging from endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi traffic in yeast to synaptic vesicle exocytosis in the human brain. At the heart of this mechanism is the core complex of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF), soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), and SNAP receptors (SNAREs). Although these proteins are accepted as key players in vesicular traffic, their molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. To illuminate important structure–function relationships in NSF, a screen for dominant negative mutants of yeast NSF (Sec18p) was undertaken. This involved random mutagenesis of a GAL1-regulated SEC18 yeast expression plasmid. Several dominant negative alleles were identified on the basis of galactose-inducible growth arrest, of which one, sec18-109, was characterized in detail. The sec18-109 phenotype (abnormal membrane trafficking through the biosynthetic pathway, accumulation of a membranous tubular network, growth suppression, increased cell density) is due to a single A-G substitution in SEC18 resulting in a missense mutation in Sec18p (Thr394→Pro). Thr394 is conserved in most AAA proteins and indeed forms part of the minimal AAA consensus sequence that serves as a signature of this large protein family. Analysis of recombinant Sec18-109p indicates that the mutation does not prevent hexamerization or interaction with yeast α-SNAP (Sec17p), but instead results in undetectable ATPase activity that cannot be stimulated by Sec17p. This suggests a role for the AAA protein consensus sequence in regulating ATP hydrolysis. Furthermore, this approach of screening for dominant negative mutants in yeast can be applied to other conserved proteins so as to highlight important functional domains in their mammalian counterparts. PMID:10749934

  8. Noncanonical Role for the Host Vps4 AAA+ ATPase ESCRT Protein in the Formation of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Replicase

    PubMed Central

    Pogany, Judit; Risco, Cristina; Nagy, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Assembling of the membrane-bound viral replicase complexes (VRCs) consisting of viral- and host-encoded proteins is a key step during the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the infected cells. Previous genome-wide screens with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in a yeast model host have revealed the involvement of eleven cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) proteins in viral replication. The ESCRT proteins are involved in endosomal sorting of cellular membrane proteins by forming multiprotein complexes, deforming membranes away from the cytosol and, ultimately, pinching off vesicles into the lumen of the endosomes. In this paper, we show an unexpected key role for the conserved Vps4p AAA+ ATPase, whose canonical function is to disassemble the ESCRT complexes and recycle them from the membranes back to the cytosol. We find that the tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with Vps4p and three ESCRT-III proteins. Interestingly, Vps4p is recruited to become a permanent component of the VRCs as shown by co-purification assays and immuno-EM. Vps4p is co-localized with the viral dsRNA and contacts the viral (+)RNA in the intracellular membrane. Deletion of Vps4p in yeast leads to the formation of crescent-like membrane structures instead of the characteristic spherule and vesicle-like structures. The in vitro assembled tombusvirus replicase based on cell-free extracts (CFE) from vps4Δ yeast is highly nuclease sensitive, in contrast with the nuclease insensitive replicase in wt CFE. These data suggest that the role of Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery is to aid building the membrane-bound VRCs, which become nuclease-insensitive to avoid the recognition by the host antiviral surveillance system and the destruction of the viral RNA. Other (+)RNA viruses of plants and animals might also subvert Vps4p and the ESCRT machinery for formation of VRCs, which require membrane deformation and spherule formation. PMID:24763736

  9. Determination of the self-association residues within a homomeric and a heteromeric AAA+ enhancer binding protein.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Edward; Jovanovic, Milija; Joly, Nicolas; Waite, Christopher; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Baojun; Burrows, Patricia; Buck, Martin

    2014-04-17

    The σ(54)-dependent transcription in bacteria requires specific activator proteins, bacterial enhancer binding protein (bEBP), members of the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) protein family. The bEBPs usually form oligomers in order to hydrolyze ATP and make open promoter complexes. The bEBP formed by HrpR and HrpS activates transcription from the σ(54)-dependent hrpL promoter responsible for triggering the Type Three Secretion System in Pseudomonas syringae pathovars. Unlike other bEBPs that usually act as homohexamers, HrpR and HrpS operate as a highly co-dependent heterohexameric complex. To understand the organization of the HrpRS complex and the HrpR and HrpS strict co-dependence, we have analyzed the interface between subunits using the random and directed mutagenesis and available crystal structures of several closely related bEBPs. We identified key residues required for the self-association of HrpR (D32, E202 and K235) with HrpS (D32, E200 and K233), showed that the HrpR D32 and HrpS K233 residues form interacting pairs directly involved in an HrpR-HrpS association and that the change in side-chain length at position 233 in HrpS affects self-association and interaction with the HrpR and demonstrated that the HrpS D32, E200 and K233 are not involved in negative regulation imposed by HrpV. We established that the equivalent residues K30, E200 and E234 in a homo-oligomeric bEBP, PspF, are required for the subunit communication and formation of an oligomeric lock that cooperates with the ATP γ-phosphate sensing PspF residue R227, providing insights into their roles in the heteromeric HrpRS co-complex. PMID:24434682

  10. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  11. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of CV-580 lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Poh H.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical models developed for the study of lightning strike data acquired by in-flight aircraft are applied to the data measured on the CV-580. The basic technique used is the three dimensional time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations. Both linear and nonlinear models are used in the analysis. In the linear model, the lightning channel and the aircraft are assumed to form a linear time invariant system. A transfer function technique can then be used to study the response of the aircraft to a given lightning strike current. Conversely, the lightning current can be inferred from the measured response. In the nonlinear model, the conductivity of air in the vicinity of the aircraft is calculated and incorporated into the solution of the Maxwell's equations. The nonlinear model thus simulates corona formation and air breakdown. Results obtained from the models are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. This study provides another validation of the models and increases confidence that the models may be used to predict aircraft response to any general lightning strike.

  12. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  13. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  14. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  15. MIZEX-WEST NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the Bering Sea marginal ice zone winter experiment (MIZEX-WEST), the CV-990 airborne laboratory was flown to assess the potential of using an extended range of wavelengths for improving passive microwave sea ice observations from spacecraft and second to provide an overview of the MIZ for large-scale processes studies. The aircraft was equipped with both imaging and fixed-beam, dual-polarized passive microwave radiometers ranging from 1.5 millimeter to 3 centimeter wavelengths. Visual, photographic, and thermal (10.7 micron) infrared surface observations were also made from the aircraft to complement the microwave measurements. The flight operations and in-flight observations are discussed and each flight is summarized including flight objective and instrument status. Preliminary mosaic images obtained with the ESMR imager, Nimbus-7 orbits over the Bering Sea, ice observations obtained by an ice observer on board, and composite maps of the general ice conditions for the month of February are also presented.

  16. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  17. Mechanisms of haplotype divergence at the RGA08 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat gene locus in wild banana (Musa balbisiana)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Comparative sequence analysis of complex loci such as resistance gene analog clusters allows estimating the degree of sequence conservation and mechanisms of divergence at the intraspecies level. In banana (Musa sp.), two diploid wild species Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome) contribute to the polyploid genome of many cultivars. The M. balbisiana species is associated with vigour and tolerance to pests and disease and little is known on the genome structure and haplotype diversity within this species. Here, we compare two genomic sequences of 253 and 223 kb corresponding to two haplotypes of the RGA08 resistance gene analog locus in M. balbisiana "Pisang Klutuk Wulung" (PKW). Results Sequence comparison revealed two regions of contrasting features. The first is a highly colinear gene-rich region where the two haplotypes diverge only by single nucleotide polymorphisms and two repetitive element insertions. The second corresponds to a large cluster of RGA08 genes, with 13 and 18 predicted RGA genes and pseudogenes spread over 131 and 152 kb respectively on each haplotype. The RGA08 cluster is enriched in repetitive element insertions, in duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences including low complexity regions and shows structural variations between haplotypes. Although some allelic relationships are retained, a large diversity of RGA08 genes occurs in this single M. balbisiana genotype, with several RGA08 paralogs specific to each haplotype. The RGA08 gene family has evolved by mechanisms of unequal recombination, intragenic sequence exchange and diversifying selection. An unequal recombination event taking place between duplicated non-coding intergenic sequences resulted in a different RGA08 gene content between haplotypes pointing out the role of such duplicated regions in the evolution of RGA clusters. Based on the synonymous substitution rate in coding sequences, we estimated a 1 million year divergence time for these M

  18. Comparison of build-up region doses in oblique tangential 6 MV photon beams calculated by AAA and CCC algorithms in breast Rando phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunun, P.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Dumrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the build-up region doses on breast Rando phantom surface with the bolus covered, the doses in breast Rando phantom and also the doses in a lung that is the heterogeneous region by two algorithms. The AAA in Eclipse TPS and the collapsed cone convolution algorithm in Pinnacle treatment planning system were used to plan in tangential field technique with 6 MV photon beam at 200 cGy total doses in Breast Rando phantom with bolus covered (5 mm and 10 mm). TLDs were calibrated with Cobalt-60 and used to measure the doses in irradiation process. The results in treatment planning show that the doses in build-up region and the doses in breast phantom were closely matched in both algorithms which are less than 2% differences. However, overestimate of doses in a lung (L2) were found in AAA with 13.78% and 6.06% differences at 5 mm and 10 mm bolus thickness, respectively when compared with CCC algorithm. The TLD measurements show the underestimate in buildup region and in breast phantom but the doses in a lung (L2) were overestimated when compared with the doses in the two plannings at both thicknesses of the bolus.

  19. MAP-1 and IAP-1, two novel AAA proteases with catalytic sites on opposite membrane surfaces in mitochondrial inner membrane of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Klanner, C; Prokisch, H; Langer, T

    2001-09-01

    Eukaryotic AAA proteases form a conserved family of membrane-embedded ATP-dependent proteases but have been analyzed functionally only in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we have identified two novel members of this protein family in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, which were termed MAP-1 and IAP-1. Both proteins are localized to the inner membrane of mitochondria. They are part of two similar-sized high molecular mass complexes, but expose their catalytic sites to opposite membrane surfaces, namely, the intermembrane and the matrix space. Disruption of iap-1 by repeat-induced point mutation caused a slow growth phenotype at high temperature and stabilization of a misfolded inner membrane protein against degradation. IAP-1 could partially substitute for functions of its yeast homolog Yme1, demonstrating functional conservation. However, respiratory growth at 37 degrees C was not restored. Our results identify two components of the quality control system of the mitochondrial inner membrane in N. crassa and suggest that AAA proteases with catalytic sites exposed to opposite membrane surfaces are present in mitochondria of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:11553723

  20. The Torsin-family AAA+ Protein OOC-5 Contains a Critical Disulfide Adjacent to Sensor-II That Couples Redox State to Nucleotide Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Wrabl, James O.; Hayashi, Adam P.; Rose, Lesilee S.

    2008-01-01

    A subgroup of the AAA+ proteins that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope including human torsinA, a protein mutated in hereditary dystonia, is called the torsin family of AAA+ proteins. A multiple-sequence alignment of this family with Hsp100 proteins of known structure reveals a conserved cysteine in the C-terminus of torsin proteins within the Sensor-II motif. A structural model predicts this cysteine to be a part of an intramolecular disulfide bond, suggesting that it may function as a redox sensor to regulate ATPase activity. In vitro experiments with OOC-5, a torsinA homolog from Caenorhabditis elegans, demonstrate that redox changes that reduce this disulfide bond affect the binding of ATP and ADP and cause an attendant local conformational change detected by limited proteolysis. Transgenic worms expressing an ooc-5 gene with cysteine-to-serine mutations that disrupt the disulfide bond have a very low embryo hatch rate compared with wild-type controls, indicating these two cysteines are essential for OOC-5 function. We propose that the Sensor-II in torsin family proteins is a redox-regulated sensor. This regulatory mechanism may be central to the function of OOC-5 and human torsinA. PMID:18550799

  1. The Multivesicular Bodies (MVBs)-Localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 Inhibits Immunity and Cell Death Likely through Regulating MVBs-Mediated Vesicular Trafficking in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Yin, Junjie; Liang, Sihui; Liang, Ruihong; Zhou, Xiaogang; Chen, Zhixiong; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Jing; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Yuan, Can; Miyamoto, Koji; Ma, Bingtian; Wang, Jichun; Qin, Peng; Chen, Weilan; Wang, Yuping; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhu, Lihuang; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/endosomes-mediated vesicular trafficking may play key roles in plant immunity and cell death. However, the molecular regulation is poorly understood in rice. Here we report the identification and characterization of a MVBs-localized AAA ATPase LRD6-6 in rice. Disruption of LRD6-6 leads to enhanced immunity and cell death in rice. The ATPase activity and homo-dimerization of LRD6-6 is essential for its regulation on plant immunity and cell death. An ATPase inactive mutation (LRD6-6E315Q) leads to dominant-negative inhibition in plants. The LRD6-6 protein co-localizes with the MVBs marker protein RabF1/ARA6 and interacts with ESCRT-III components OsSNF7 and OsVPS2. Further analysis reveals that LRD6-6 is required for MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking and inhibits the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds. Collectively, our study shows that the AAA ATPase LRD6-6 inhibits plant immunity and cell death most likely through modulating MVBs-mediated vesicular trafficking in rice. PMID:27618555

  2. Influence of Lachancea thermotolerans on cv. Emir wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Balikci, Eren Kemal; Tanguler, Hasan; Jolly, Neil P; Erten, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    The present paper describes the behaviour of Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in pure, co-cultured and sequential fermentations in cv. Emir grape must. Faster fermentation rates were observed in wine made with a pure culture of S. cerevisiae and wine produced with simultaneously inoculated cultures of L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae. Both L. thermotolerans and S. cerevisiae gave high population numbers. The use of L. thermotolerans in mixed and sequential cultures led to an increase in final total acidity content in the wines, varying in the range 5.40-6.28 g/l (as tartaric acid), compared to pure culture S. cerevisiae, which gave the lowest level of total acidity (5 g/l). The increase was in the order of 1.18-2.06 g/l total acidity. Increase in final acidity by the use of L. thermotolerans might be useful to improve wines with low acidity due to global climate change. Volatile acidity levels (as acetic acid) were in the range 0.53-0.73 g/l, while the concentration of ethyl alcohol varied in the range 10.76-11.62% v/v. Sequential fermentations of wines and pure culture fermentation of L. thermotolerans resulted in reduction in the concentrations of acetaldehyde and higher alcohols, with exception of N-propanol and esters. According to the sensory analysis, wine obtained with sequential inoculation of L. thermotolerans followed by inoculation of S. cerevisiae after 24 h, and simultaneous inoculation of these yeasts, was the most preferred. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27113383

  3. Self-assembling of impurity clusters in AlN:(Ga, BV, CV), (BV, CV = P, As; P, Sb; As, Sb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyukhin, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The self-assembling conditions of arrays of tetrahedral impurity clusters of two types in zinc blende AlN:(Ga, BV, CV), (BV, CV = P, As; P, Sb; As, Sb) are represented. Doping with one cation and two anion isoelectronic impurities transforms AlN into AlN-rich GaxAl1-xBVyCVzN1-y-z alloy of GaBV, GaCV, GaN, AlBV, AlCV and AlN. The cause of self-assembling is the preference of GaBV, GaCV and AlN bonding over that of GaN, AlBV, AlCV. The conditions are considered from 0 °C to 1000 °C in the dilute and ultra dilute limits for the cation and anion impurities, correspondingly. The temperature ranges between the cluster occurrence and self-assembling completion when the same anion impurities are in clusters are very small. 1P4Ga and 1As4Ga cluster occurrence temperatures are equal, correspondingly, to 797 °C and 736 °C at Ga content 2% and P and As contents 0.01%. 1P4Ga and 1Sb4Ga cluster occurrence temperatures are equal, correspondingly, to 976 °C and 736 °C at the same impurity contents. The cluster densities in AlN:(Ga, As, Sb) are close to those in AlN:(Ga, P, Sb). The results demonstrate that studied semiconductors are promising materials to produce arrays of identical ∼1 nm low band gap objects of two types embedded in the wide band gap matrix.

  4. Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcome Network Early Anti-inflammatory Treatment in Patients with Acute ACL Tear” (MOON-AAA) Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lattermann, Christian; Proffitt, Mary; Huston, Laura J.; Gammon, Lee; Johnson, Darren L.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We present the early results from the “Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcome Network Early Anti-inflammatory Treatment in Patients with Acute ACL Tear and Painful Effusions” (MOON-AAA) clinical trial (figure 1). This trial allows for a well controlled prospective cohort of patients with isolated ACL injury at risk for OA. We compared the effect of a single versus a repeated dosage of Kenalog within the first two weeks after ACL injury and its effect on chondral degradation in the first 4 weeks prior to surgical reconstruction of the ACL. Methods: 49 patients with isolated ACL tears were enrolled. Knee joints were aspirated and patients received an injection with 40 mg Kenalog either within 4 days, 10 days, both time points or not at all (saline injection control). Serum, synovial fluid and urine were collected at 3 time points. Permutated block randomization, triple blinding, independent monitoring and standardized x-ray was performed to comply with GCP standards. Patient reported outcomes were collected at 6 time points up to 6 months post-ACL reconstruction(IKDC, KOOS and Marx activity level). A standardized synovial fluid biomarker panel was analyzed according to OARSI guidelines. Statistical analysis were performed using SAS mixed models analysis. Results: Serum analysis shows significant change after injury. Chondrodegradatory markers such as CTX-II, MMP-1 and MMP-3 as well as COMP indicate a progressive destruction of chondral matrix and collagen breakdown . There is a dramatic (250%) increase of CTX-II in the first 4 weeks. Matrix proteins such as MMP-1 and 3 as well as COMP show an initial increase and then a steep decline (see figure 1). Inflammatory markers (IL-1 alpha, IL-1beta, IRAP) show a decline from the time of injury. IL-1 alpha, however shows a dramatic uptake after week 2. This longitudinal data confirms a dramatic onset of early osteoarthritic biomarker profiles immediately after ACL injury as measured in synovial fluid

  5. Banana fruit NAC transcription factor MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKYs to enhance the expression of pathogenesis-related genes against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Shan, Wei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Plants respond to pathogen attack by the modulation of a large set of genes, which are regulated by different types of transcription factor (TF). NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) and WRKY are plant-specific families of TFs, and have received much attention as transcriptional regulators in plant pathogen defence. However, the cooperation between NAC and WRKY TFs in the disease response remains largely unknown. Our previous study has revealed that two banana fruit WRKY TFs, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2, are involved in salicylic acid (SA)- and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced resistance against Colletotrichum musae via binding to promoters of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Here, we found that MaNAC1, MaNAC2 and MaNAC5 were up-regulated after C. musae infection, and were also significantly enhanced by SA and MeJA treatment. Protein-protein interaction analysis showed that MaNAC5 physically interacted with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2. More importantly, dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay revealed that MaNAC5, MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 were transcriptional activators, and individually or cooperatively activated the transcriptional activities of MaPR1-1, MaPR2, MaPR10c and MaCHIL1 genes. Collectively, our results indicate that MaNAC5 cooperates with MaWRKY1 and MaWRKY2 to regulate the expression of a specific set of PR genes in the disease response, and to contribute at least partially to SA- and MeJA-induced pathogen resistance. PMID:26033522

  6. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  7. Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torson, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http

  8. Expression of a rice chitinase gene in transgenic banana ('Gros Michel', AAA genome group) confers resistance to black leaf streak disease.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gabriella; Sági, László; Jacon, Géraldine; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Busogoro, Jean-Pierre; Thiry, Els; Strosse, Hannelore; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge

    2013-02-01

    Transgenic banana (Musa acuminata 'Gros Michel') integrating either of two rice chitinase genes was generated and its resistance to Black Leaf Streak disease caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis was tested using a leaf disk bioassay. PCR screening indicated the presence of the hpt selectable marker gene in more than 90 % of the lines tested, whereas more than three quarters of the lines contained the linked rice chitinase gene resulting in a co-transformation frequency of at least 71.4 %. Further, a unique stable integration of the transgenes in each line revealed some false negative PCR results and the expected co-transformation frequency of 100 %. The transgene insert number per line ranged from 1 to 5 and single transgene insert lines (25 % of all) were identified. Considerable delay in disease development (up to 63 days post-incoculation) over a monitoring period of 108 days occurred in nine lines with extracellularly targeted chitinase out of 17 transgenic lines tested and their necrotic leaf area decreased by 73-94 % compared to the untransformed susceptible control line. Finally, correlation between symptom development and rice chitinase expression was confirmed in two lines by Western analysis. The potential of rice chitinase genes to enhance resistance against M. fijiensis in banana was demonstrated as well as the usefulness of the leaf disk bioassay for early disease screening in transgenic banana lines. PMID:22791138

  9. TU-C-BRE-05: Clinical Implications of AAA Commissioning Errors and Ability of Common Commissioning ' Credentialing Procedures to Detect Them

    SciTech Connect

    McVicker, A; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Adamson, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To test the ability of the TG-119 commissioning process and RPC credentialing to detect errors in the commissioning process for a commercial Treatment Planning System (TPS). Methods: We introduced commissioning errors into the commissioning process for the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) within the Eclipse TPS. We included errors in Dosimetric Leaf Gap (DLG), electron contamination, flattening filter material, and beam profile measurement with an inappropriately large farmer chamber (simulated using sliding window smoothing of profiles). We then evaluated the clinical impact of these errors on clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans (head and neck, low and intermediate risk prostate, mesothelioma, and scalp) by looking at PTV D99, and mean and max OAR dose. Finally, for errors with substantial clinical impact we determined sensitivity of the RPC IMRT film analysis at the midpoint between PTV and OAR using a 4mm distance to agreement metric, and of a 7% TLD dose comparison. We also determined sensitivity of the 3 dose planes of the TG-119 C-shape IMRT phantom using gamma criteria of 3% 3mm. Results: The largest clinical impact came from large changes in the DLG with a change of 1mm resulting in up to a 5% change in the primary PTV D99. This resulted in a discrepancy in the RPC TLDs in the PTVs and OARs of 7.1% and 13.6% respectively, which would have resulted in detection. While use of incorrect flattening filter caused only subtle errors (<1%) in clinical plans, the effect was most pronounced for the RPC TLDs in the OARs (>6%). Conclusion: The AAA commissioning process within the Eclipse TPS is surprisingly robust to user error. When errors do occur, the RPC and TG-119 commissioning credentialing criteria are effective at detecting them; however OAR TLDs are the most sensitive despite the RPC currently excluding them from analysis.

  10. Circulating HFMD-Associated Coxsackievirus A16 Is Genetically and Phenotypically Distinct from the Prototype CV-A16

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingliang; Ren, Sangsang; Wei, Zhenhong; Bao, Wanguo; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Wenyan; Zhou, Yulai; Sun, Fei; Markham, Richard; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEV) have been linked to hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Pacific and Southeast Asia for decades. Many cases of HFMD have been attributed to coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, CA16), based on only partial viral genome determination. Viral phenotypes are also poorly defined. Herein, we have genetically and phenotypically characterized multiple circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients and determined multiple full-length sequences of these circulating viruses. We discovered that the circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients are genetically distinct from the proto-type CV-A16 G10. We have also isolated circulating CV-A16 viruses from hospitalized HFMD patients and compared their virological differences. Interestingly, circulating CV-A16 viruses are more pathogenic in a neonatal mouse model than is CV-A16 G10. Thus, we have found circulating recombinant forms of CV-A16 (CRF CV-A16) that are related to, but different from, the prototype CV-A16 G10 that have distinct biological phenotypes. PMID:24736564

  11. Non-contact C-V measurements of ultra thin dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelman, P.; Savtchouk, A.; Wilson, M.; D'Amico, J.; Kochey, J. N.; Marinskiy, D.; Lagowski, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we present a non-contact C-V technique for ultra-thin dielectrics on silicon. The technique uses incremental corona charging of dielectric and a measurement of the surface potential with a vibrating capacitive electrode. A differential quasistatic C-V curve is generated using time-resolved measurements. The technique incorporates transconductance corrections that enable corresponding ultra-low electrical oxide thickness (EOT) determination down to the sub-nanometer range. It also provides a means for monitoring the flat band voltage, V{FB}, the interface trap spectrum, D{IT}, and the total dielectric charge, Q{TOT}. This technique is seen as a replacement for not only MOS C-V measurements but also for mercury-probe C-V. In addition, EOT measurement by the corona C-V has a major advantage over optical thickness methods because it is not affected by water adsorption and molecular airborne contamination, MAC. These effects have been a problem for optical metrology of ultra-thin dielectrics.

  12. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 °C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater. PMID:25700813

  13. The Ningqiang meteorite - Classification and petrology of an anomalous CV chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. E.; Wang, D.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Wasson, J. T.

    1988-03-01

    Ningqiang is an anomalous CV chondrite (oxidized subgroup) containing a high abundance of aggregational inclusions (13.7 vol pct) and low abundances of refractory inclusions (1.0 + 1.0 or - 0.5 vol pct) and bulk refractory lithophiles (about 0.82 x CV). Ningqiang may have agglomerated after most refractory inclusions at the nebular midplane had already been incorporated into other objects. Coarse-grained rims surround only about 5 percent of Ningqiang chondrules, compared to about 50 percent in normal CV chondrites. Aggregational inclusions appear to have formed by incipient melting of fine-grained aggregates at relatively low temperatures in the solar nebula, possibly by the mechanism responsible for chondrule formation.

  14. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  15. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  16. The dichotic lead effect of CV syllables in sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Cattey, T J

    1981-01-01

    This study investigated central processing of dichotic CV syllables on 10 patients with sensorineural hearing losses. Porter's Dichotic Lag Index (DLI) was established for each S at asynchronies of alignment of 30, 60, 90, and 150 msec by presenting the lagging syllable first to the R and then to the L ear. Ss were required to record a response to both CV syllables. Patients exhibited a dichotic lead advantage while 10 normal-hearing control Ss exhibited a dichotic lag advantage. A R ear advantage was not abolished when the lagging syllable was presented to the L ear and was not enhanced when the lagging syllable was presented to the R ear. The lead advantage of the patients may be attributed to the distortion of acoustic encoding for speech, causing a reduction in the special processing requirements of CV syllables. The reduction in special processing may then be responsible for the shift in temporal advantage. PMID:7349869

  17. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  18. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics. PMID:27481298

  19. Hairpin loops consisting of single adenine residues closed by sheared A.A and G.G pairs formed by the DNA triplets AAA and GAG: solution structure of the d(GTACAAAGTAC) hairpin.

    PubMed

    Chou, S H; Zhu, L; Gao, Z; Cheng, J W; Reid, B R

    1996-12-20

    The DNA undecamers GTACAAAGTAC (AAA 11-mer) and GTACGAGGTAC (GAG 11-mer) have been studied in solution by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Both duplexes form stable hairpins containing single deoxyadenosine loops and stems containing five base-pairs that are closed at the loop end by sheared AxA and GxC pairs, respectively. These molecules thus contain new AAA and GAG loop turn motifs. All protons, including the chiral H5'/H5" protons of the loop residues, were assigned using NOESY, DQF-COSY and heteronuclear 1H-31P COSY experiments. The backbone torsion angles were constrained using experimental data from NOE crosspeaks, three-bond 1H-1H coupling constants and four-bond 1H-31P coupling constants and four-bond 1H-31P coupling constants. The AAA and GAG 11-mers form similar structures in solution. The detailed structure of the AAA 11-mer was determined by the combined use of NMR, distance geometry and energy minimization methods. This structure exhibits good stacking of the loop adenosine base on the closing 5Ax7A sheared pair, with the 6A base stacking on the 5A base and the 6A deoxyribose stacking with the 7A base. All sugars in the AAA 11-mer hairpin adopt the typical DNA C2'-endo conformation and a sharp backbone turn occurs between residues 6A and 7A. This loop turn is brought about mainly by a change in the backbone phosphate torsion angles from zeta(g-) alpha(g-) to zeta(g+) alphat(g+) at the turn. The gamma torsion angle of residue 7A in the closing sheared pair also changes from gauche+ to trans. In Pu1NPu2 loop turns of the GCA, AAA and GAG types, the chemical shift of the H4' proton of the loop deoxyribose depends on the nature of Pu2; this reflects the stacking of the loop sugar on the Pu2 base and the different ring current effects of A or G in this position. PMID:9000625

  20. A Study on the Morphological and PhysicoChemical Characteristics of Five Cooking Bananas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field evaluation of five banana clones was carried out at the National Germplasm Repository in Miami, Florida, USA from July 2006 to July 2008. Bananas (Musa acuminata Colla [AA, AAA]; Musa x paradisiaca Colla (ABB, AAAB, AABB), are one of the worlds most important food crops. Five clones of cookin...

  1. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  2. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. PMID:24716518

  3. Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Effect of Musa balbisiana Root Extract: A Potent Agent for Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Himadri; Boruah, Dulal C; Deori, Meetali; Hazarika, Ankita; Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Folklore studies have revealed that Musa balbisiana Colla (MB; Family: Musaceae) has high medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity of MB extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of MB extracts, i.e., root extract (RE), shoot extract and inflorescence extract were determined by using various methods viz 1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a method to assess their possible effect on glucose diffusion across gastrointestinal tract and identify bioactive compound of potent extract. In vivo antilipidemic and antidiabetic activity was evaluated by administrating oral dose of RE for 15 days on STZ- induced diabetic rat. RE showed highest antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radical (IC50 32.96 μg/ml) and inhibit 30% glucose movement in vitro. The methanol extract of root showed the presence of calyx [4] arene category of the compound. Furthermore, RE treated rat revealed a reduction in fasting blood glucose (62.5%), serum total cholesterol (36.2%), triglyceride (54.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (50.94%) after 15 days as compared to STZ treated animal. There was an initiation of regenerative structures of the affected organs after 15 days of RE treatment. Histopathological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney of STZ and RE treated group. The presence of calyx [4] arene class of compound may be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties by absorbing glucose in vivo. PMID:27199747

  4. Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Effect of Musa balbisiana Root Extract: A Potent Agent for Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Himadri; Boruah, Dulal C.; Deori, Meetali; Hazarika, Ankita; Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Folklore studies have revealed that Musa balbisiana Colla (MB; Family: Musaceae) has high medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity of MB extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of MB extracts, i.e., root extract (RE), shoot extract and inflorescence extract were determined by using various methods viz 1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a method to assess their possible effect on glucose diffusion across gastrointestinal tract and identify bioactive compound of potent extract. In vivo antilipidemic and antidiabetic activity was evaluated by administrating oral dose of RE for 15 days on STZ- induced diabetic rat. RE showed highest antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radical (IC50 32.96 μg/ml) and inhibit 30% glucose movement in vitro. The methanol extract of root showed the presence of calyx [4] arene category of the compound. Furthermore, RE treated rat revealed a reduction in fasting blood glucose (62.5%), serum total cholesterol (36.2%), triglyceride (54.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (50.94%) after 15 days as compared to STZ treated animal. There was an initiation of regenerative structures of the affected organs after 15 days of RE treatment. Histopathological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney of STZ and RE treated group. The presence of calyx [4] arene class of compound may be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties by absorbing glucose in vivo. PMID:27199747

  5. Dietary Administration of Banana (Musa acuminata) Peel Flour Affects the Growth, Antioxidant Status, Cytokine Responses, and Disease Susceptibility of Rohu, Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Sukumaran, Venkatachalam; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of Musa acuminata (banana) peels as a feed additive, effects of banana peel flour (BPF) on the growth and immune functions of Labeo rohita were evaluated. Diets containing five different concentrations of BPF (0% [basal diet], 1% [B1], 3% [B3], 5% [B5], and 7% [B7]) were fed to the fish (average weight: 15.3 g) for 60 days. The final weight gain and specific growth rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the B5 group. The most significant improvements in immune parameters such as lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, leukocyte phagocytic, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed in the B5 group. However, the B5 group exhibited the lowest malondialdehyde activity. IgM and glutathione peroxidise activities were significantly elevated in the treatment groups, except in B1, after only 30 days of feeding. Of the examined cytokine-related genes, IL-1β, TNF-α, and HSP70 were upregulated in the head kidney and hepatopancreas, and expressions were generally higher in the B3 and B5 groups. Moreover, B5 group challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila 60 days after feeding exhibited the highest survival rate (70%; P < 0.05). These results suggest that dietary BPF at 5% could promote growth performance and strengthen immunity in L. rohita. PMID:27294156

  6. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  7. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23971053

  8. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins from purple potato (Cv. Purple Majesty) and their impact on antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradation parameters of purified anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato (Purple Majesty cv.) heated at high temperatures (100 - 150 °C) was determined. Purified anthocyanins, prepared by removing salts, sugars and colorless non-anthocyanin phenolics from the crude extract, were quantified using H...

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 72 faint CV candidates in CRTS (Breedt+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breedt, E.; Gansicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Szkody, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    We obtained identification spectra of a total of 72 faint CV candidates identified by the CRTS, using the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC; La Palma, Spain) and the Gemini telescopes (North: Mauna Kea, Hawaii and South: Cerro Pachon, Chile). The observations were carried out in service mode during 2010, 2011 and 2013. (5 data files).

  10. Some Improvements in the Design of a CA/CV Moessbauer Velocity Drive

    SciTech Connect

    Seberini, Milan

    2008-10-28

    A constant velocity Moessbauer drive was built with velocity range {+-}15 mm/s and velocity resolution 0.005 mm/s. Based on good experience with its performance, a new universal CA/CV drive was designed. The new drive is supposed to have velocity range of {+-}80 mm/s with a velocity resolution below 0.002 mm/s.

  11. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  12. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  13. Identification of HoCV-1 virus in Texas Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new strain of leafhopper virus was discovered in leafhoppers which are vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The original leafhopper infecting virus, HoCV-1, was isolated from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, from samples collected in California and Florida. Using the orig...

  14. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  15. 75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ..., for the extension of a patent which claims that medical device. ADDRESSES: Submit electronic comments... 17, 2010, FDA advised the Patent and Trademark Office that this medical device had undergone a... Patent Extension; REPEL-CV AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  16. Pre-Accretionary Distribution of Ca and Al Between Matrix and Chondrules in CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, D. C.; Palme, H.

    2007-03-01

    Ca/Al-ratios in Y-86751 (CV) chondrules are super- and in matrix sub-chondritic. The opposite is true for Allende and Efremovka. Incorporation of spinel in Allende and Efremovka chondrule precursors in a nebular setting can explain this observation.

  17. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  18. Prevalence and natural host range of Homalodisca coagulata virus-1 (HoCV-1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of a potential biological agent, the newly discovered leafhopper-infecting virus, HoCV-1 was examined across the USA. Few biological agents exist for use against leafhopper pests. We examined and compared leafhopper salivary gland and midgut tissues using transmission electron micro...

  19. Outburst of CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungana, G.; Ferrante, F. V.; Staten, R.; Kehoe, R.

    2015-02-01

    Further to ATel#1272, we report observations of an outburst of the U Geminorum-type CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0 in unfiltered CCD images taken by the 0.45 m ROTSE-IIIb telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas.

  20. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  1. Presolar Grain Inventories of the Ungrouped C3 Adelaide and the CV3 RBT 04133

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, J.; Busemann, H.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2010-03-01

    Here we report the presolar grain inventories (silicates, oxides, SiC, and other C-anomalous phases) determined for Adelaide (an ungrouped C3 chondrite) and RBT 04133 (a mildly thermally altered CV3) by NanoSIMS raster ion imaging.

  2. Safe, Effective and Easily Reproducible Fusion Technique for CV Junction Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) refers to a bony enclosure where the occipital bone surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas and the axis vertebrae. Because of the complexity of structures, CVJ instability is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Posterior CV fusion procedures have evolved a lot over the last couple of decades. There has been a lookout for one such surgical procedure which is inherently safe, simple, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound. In our study, we present the initial experience the cases of CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw & rod construct operated by the author. Aims and Objectives: The current study is a descriptive analysis of the cases of CVJ instability treated by us with instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective, analytical study in which cases of CV junction instability operated by the author between January 2010 to March 2014 were analysed using various clinical, radiological and outcome parameters. Conclusion: CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique proved to be safe, effective, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound technique which can be adopted by all surgeons who may be at any stage of their learning curve. PMID:25954660

  3. Isolation and Characterization of CvIV4: A Pain Inducing α- Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Ashlee H.; Xiao, Yucheng; Scales, Joseph; Linse, Klaus D.; Rowe, Matthew P.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Zakon, Harold H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among scorpion species, the Buthidae produce the most deadly and painful venoms. However, little is known regarding the venom components that cause pain and their mechanism of action. Using a paw-licking assay (Mus musculus), this study compared the pain-inducing capabilities of venoms from two species of New World scorpion (Centruroides vittatus, C. exilicauda) belonging to the neurotoxin-producing family Buthidae with one species of non-neurotoxin producing scorpion (Vaejovis spinigerus) in the family Vaejovidae. A pain-inducing α-toxin (CvIV4) was isolated from the venom of C. vittatus and tested on five Na+ channel isoforms. Principal Findings C. vittatus and C. exilicauda venoms produced significantly more paw licking in Mus than V. spinigerus venom. CvIV4 produced paw licking in Mus equivalent to the effects of whole venom. CvIV4 slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.7, a Na+ channel expressed in peripheral pain-pathway neurons (nociceptors), but did not affect the Nav1.8-based sodium currents of these neurons. CvIV4 also slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.4. The effects of CvIV4 are similar to Old World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 (AahII, BmK MI, LqhIII, OD1), however the primary structure of CvIV4 is not similar to these toxins. Mutant Nav1.7 channels (D1586A and E1589Q, DIV S3–S4 linker) reduced but did not abolish the effects of CvIV4. Conclusions This study: 1) agrees with anecdotal evidence suggesting that buthid venom is significantly more painful than non-neurotoxic venom; 2) demonstrates that New World buthids inflict painful stings via toxins that modulate Na+ channels expressed in nociceptors; 3) reveals that Old and New World buthids employ similar mechanisms to produce pain. Old and New World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 have diverged in sequence, but the activity of these toxins is similar. Pain-inducing toxins may have evolved in a common ancestor. Alternatively, these toxins may be the product of convergent

  4. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles < banana pulp noodles < control noodles. Since the peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered. PMID:19757248

  5. Identification of an AAA ATPase VPS4B-Dependent Pathway That Modulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Abundance and Signaling during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, H. Helen; Li, Xu; Chen, Jo-Lin; Sun, Xiuzhu; Cooper, Fariba Norouziyan; Chen, Yun-Ru; Zhang, Wenyu; Chung, Yiyin; Li, Angela; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Yang, Lixin; Deng, XuTao; Liu, Xiyong; Yen, Yun; Johnson, Deborah L.; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Yang, Austin

    2012-01-01

    VPS4B, an AAA ATPase (ATPase associated with various cellular activities), participates in vesicular trafficking and autophagosome maturation in mammalian cells. In solid tumors, hypoxia is a common feature and an indicator of poor treatment outcome. Our studies demonstrate that exogenous or endogenous (assessed with anchorage-independent three-dimensional multicellular spheroid culture) hypoxia induces VPS4B downregulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Inhibition of VPS4B function by short hairpin VPS4B (sh-VPS4B) or expression of dominant negative VPS4B(E235Q) promotes anchorage-independent breast cancer cell growth and resistance to gefitinib, U0126, and genotoxicity. Biochemically, hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for cell proliferation and survival, accompanied by increased EGFR accumulation and altered intracellular compartmentalization, is observed in cells with compromised VPS4B. Furthermore, enhanced FOS/JUN induction and AP-1 promoter activation are noted in EGF-treated cells with VPS4B knockdown. However, VPS4B depletion does not affect EGFRvIII stability or its associated signaling. An inverse correlation between VPS4B expression and EGFR abundance is observed in breast tumors, and high-grade or recurrent breast carcinomas exhibit lower VPS4B expression. Together, our findings highlight a potentially critical role of VPS4B downregulation or chronic-hypoxia-induced VPS4B degradation in promoting tumor progression, unveiling a nongenomic mechanism for EGFR overproduction in human breast cancer. PMID:22252323

  6. Ubiquitination of the N-terminal Region of Caveolin-1 Regulates Endosomal Sorting by the VCP/p97 AAA-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Philipp; Bug, Monika; Meyer, Hemmo

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is the defining constituent of caveolae at the plasma membrane of many mammalian cells. For turnover, CAV1 is ubiquitinated and sorted to late endosomes and lysosomes. Sorting of CAV1 requires the AAA+-type ATPase VCP and its cofactor UBXD1. However, it is unclear in which region CAV1 is ubiquitinated and how ubiquitination is linked to sorting of CAV1 by VCP-UBXD1. Here, we show through site-directed mutagenesis that ubiquitination of CAV1 occurs at any of the six lysine residues, 5, 26, 30, 39, 47, and 57, that are clustered in the N-terminal region but not at lysines in the oligomerization, intramembrane, or C-terminal domains. Mutation of Lys-5–57 to arginines prevented binding of the VCP-UBXD1 complex and, importantly, strongly reduced recruitment of VCP-UBXD1 to endocytic compartments. Moreover, the Lys-5–57Arg mutation specifically interfered with trafficking of CAV1 from early to late endosomes. Conversely and consistently, depletion of VCP or UBXD1 led to accumulation of ubiquitinated CAV1, suggesting that VCP acts downstream of ubiquitination and is required for transport of the ubiquitinated form of CAV1 to late endosomes. These results define the N-terminal region of CAV1 as the critical ubiquitin conjugation site and, together with previous data, demonstrate the significance of this ubiquitination for binding to the VCP-UBXD1 complex and for sorting into lysosomes. PMID:23335559

  7. In response to an open invitation for comments on AAAS project 2061's Benchmark books on science. Part 1: documentation of serious errors in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ling, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Project 2061 was founded by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to improve secondary school science education. An in-depth study of ten 9 to 12th grade biology textbooks led to the verdict that none conveyed "Big Ideas" that would give coherence and meaning to the profusion of lavishly illustrated isolated details. However, neither the Project report itself nor the Benchmark books put out earlier by the Project carries what deserves the designation of "Big Ideas." Worse, in the two earliest-published Benchmark books, the basic unit of all life forms--the living cell--is described as a soup enclosed by a cell membrane, that determines what can enter or leave the cell. This is astonishing since extensive experimental evidence has unequivocally disproved this idea 60 years ago. A "new" version of the membrane theory brought in to replace the discredited (sieve) version is the pump model--currently taught as established truth in all high-school and college biology textbooks--was also unequivocally disproved 40 years ago. This comment is written partly in response to Bechmark's gracious open invitation for ideas to improve the books and through them, to improve US secondary school science education. PMID:17405412

  8. A Fragment-Based Ligand Screen Against Part of a Large Protein Machine: The ND1 Domains of the AAA+ ATPase p97/VCP.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Michael S; Bulfer, Stacie L; Neitz, R Jeffrey; Renslo, Adam R; Jacobson, Matthew P; James, Thomas L; Arkin, Michelle R; Kelly, Mark J S

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquitous AAA+ ATPase p97 functions as a dynamic molecular machine driving several cellular processes. It is essential in regulating protein homeostasis, and it represents a potential drug target for cancer, particularly when there is a greater reliance on the endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to degrade an overabundance of secreted proteins. Here, we report a case study for using fragment-based ligand design approaches against this large and dynamic hexamer, which has multiple potential binding sites for small molecules. A screen of a fragment library was conducted by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and followed up by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), two complementary biophysical techniques. Virtual screening was also carried out to examine possible binding sites for the experimental hits and evaluate the potential utility of fragment docking for this target. Out of this effort, 13 fragments were discovered that showed reversible binding with affinities between 140 µM and 1 mM, binding stoichiometries of 1:1 or 2:1, and good ligand efficiencies. Structural data for fragment-protein interactions were obtained with residue-specific [U-(2)H] (13)CH3-methyl-labeling NMR strategies, and these data were compared to poses from docking. The combination of virtual screening, SPR, and NMR enabled us to find and validate a number of interesting fragment hits and allowed us to gain an understanding of the structural nature of fragment binding. PMID:25690569

  9. Engagement of Arginine Finger to ATP Triggers Large Conformational Changes in NtrC1 AAA+ ATPase for Remodeling Bacterial RNA Polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baoyu; Sysoeva, Tatyana A.; Chowdhury, Saikat; Guo, Liang; De Carlo, Sacha; Hanson, Jeffrey A.; Yang, Haw; Nixon, B. Tracy

    2010-11-19

    The NtrC-like AAA+ ATPases control virulence and other important bacterial activities through delivering mechanical work to {sigma}54-RNA polymerase to activate transcription from {sigma}54-dependent genes. We report the first crystal structure for such an ATPase, NtrC1 of Aquifex aeolicus, in which the catalytic arginine engages the {gamma}-phosphate of ATP. Comparing the new structure with those previously known for apo and ADP-bound states supports a rigid-body displacement model that is consistent with large-scale conformational changes observed by low-resolution methods. First, the arginine finger induces rigid-body roll, extending surface loops above the plane of the ATPase ring to bind {sigma}54. Second, ATP hydrolysis permits Pi release and retraction of the arginine with a reversed roll, remodeling {sigma}54-RNAP. This model provides a fresh perspective on how ATPase subunits interact within the ring-ensemble to promote transcription, directing attention to structural changes on the arginine-finger side of an ATP-bound interface.

  10. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ε183W anomalies of several ε-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ε182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ∼2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a

  11. Modal mineralogy of CV3 chondrites by X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2010-09-01

    Using position sensitive detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) we determine a complete modal mineralogy for all phases present in abundances greater than 1 wt% in Vigarano, Efremovka, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Kaba and Allende. Reduced CV3 samples are comprised of (vol%): olivine (83-85%); enstatite (6.5-8.1%); anorthite (1.1-1.2%); magnetite (1.4-1.8%); sulphide (2.4-5.1%); Fe, Ni metal (2-2.2%). The oxidized samples are comprised of: olivine (76.3-83.9%); enstatite (4.8-7.8%); anorthite (1.1-1.7%); magnetite (0.3-6.1%); sulphide (2.9-8.1%); Fe, Ni metal (0.2-1.1%); Fe-oxide (0-2.7%) and phyllosilicate (1.9-4.2%). When our modal data is used to calculate a bulk chemistry that is compared to literature data a near 1:1 correlation is observed. PSD-XRD data indicates that olivine compositions may span almost the entire Fe-Mg solid solution series in all CV samples and that these contain a component (4-13%) of fine-grained olivine that is more Fe-rich (>Fa 60) than is typically reported. Modal mineralogy shows that there are mineralogic differences between CV3 samples classified as oxidized and reduced but that these sub-classes are most clearly distinguished by the relative abundance of metal and Ni content of sulphide, rather than abundance of magnetite. The most significant difference in modal mineralogy observed is the relative absence of phyllosilicate in reduced CV that essentially escaped aqueous alteration. Fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite are typically considered secondary alteration products. The abundances of these minerals overlap in oxidized and reduced samples and correlate positively supporting common conditions of formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. The abundances of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite show no relationship to petrographic type and if these abundances were used as a proxy for alteration, Allende would be the least altered CV - contrary to all previous data. The implication is that thermal metamorphism on the parent body

  12. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

  13. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  14. The control volume radial basis function method CV-RBF with Richardson extrapolation in geochemical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.

  15. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded. PMID:25952871

  16. A model for the C-V characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Sun, Jing; Zheng, Xue Jun

    2009-02-01

    A model is developed to describe the characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure based on the dipole switching theory (DST) and the silicon physics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure. The ferroelectric dipole distribution function is used to simulate the history-dependent electric field effect of the ferroelectric layer. Using the model, the thickness effects of the ferroelectric and insulator layers on the capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristic and the memory window were investigated for Pt/SBT/ZrO 2/Si and Pt/BLT/MgO/Si structures. All the simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the model is suitable for simulating the C-V characteristic and the memory window of MFIS structure. In addition, the mathematical description is simple and can be easily integrated into the electronic design automation (EDA) software for circuit simulation.

  17. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  18. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  19. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  20. A Ser/Thr protein kinase phosphorylates MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase 1) during banana fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis during ripening. ACS isozymes are regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. However, in banana, an important climacteric fruit, little is known about post-translational regulation of ACS. Here, we report the post-translational modification of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACS1), a ripening inducible isozyme in the ACS family, which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis during banana fruit ripening. Immunoprecipitation analyses of phospholabeled protein extracts from banana fruit using affinity-purified anti-MA-ACS1 antibody have revealed phosphorylation of MA-ACS1, particularly in ripe fruit tissue. We have identified the induction of a 41-kDa protein kinase activity in pulp at the onset of ripening. The 41-kDa protein kinase has been identified as a putative protein kinase by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Biochemical analyses using partially purified protein kinase fraction from banana fruit have identified the protein kinase as a Ser/Thr family of protein kinase and its possible involvement in MA-ACS1 phosphorylation during ripening. In vitro phosphorylation analyses using synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenized recombinant MA-ACS1 have revealed that serine 476 and 479 residues at the C-terminal region of MA-ACS1 are phosphorylated. Overall, this study provides important novel evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of MA-ACS1 at the molecular level as a possible mechanism of post-translational regulation of this key regulatory protein in ethylene signaling pathway in banana fruit during ripening. PMID:22419220

  1. Suitability of Pueraria phaseoloides, Chromolaena odorata and Tithonia diversifolia as in-situ mulch for nematode management in musa cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Schösser, B; Hauser, S; Sikora, R A

    2006-01-01

    Mulching with plant organic matter has been shown to reduce nematode population densities in various cropping systems. The level of nematode control is increased when such mulches are incorporated into the soil as organic amendments. Chromolaena odorata, Tithonia diversifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides are common cover crops in West and Central Africa that produce large quantities of nutrient rich biomass. The aim of this study was to determine, if in-situ mulching of C. odorata, T. diversifolia and P. phaseoloides is suitable for nematode control in Musa production. In a pot trial, the susceptibility of these plants to spiral nematodes was investigated. The effects of different quantities of surface mulch on nematode population densities in the soil and in banana roots also were determined. All mulch types and all quantities led to a reduction in nematode population densities in the soil. The strongest nematode reductions were observed in the Pueraria treatments. In treatments containing banana plants mulching improved plant growth compared to the clean-fallowed soil and induced lower root infestation rates. However, nematode soil populations were higher in mulched than in non-mulched banana treatments. Plant parasitic nematodes also were isolated from roots of all three cover crop species and all three plants caused an increase in nematode numbers in the soil. Therefore, the tested cover crops proved unsuitable for nematode control in a system with the highly susceptible bananas. Further examinations are needed to determine whether or not the positive effects of surface mulching on plantain plant growth and root infestation rates also have positive effects on yield in an in-situ mulching system in the presence of nematodes. PMID:17390809

  2. Comparison of direct mercury analyzer and FIA-CV-AAS in determination of methylmercury in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Nakatsubo, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been determined in fish reference materials by direct mercury analyzer (DMA 80) and FIA-CV-AAS. In order to evaluate accuracy, certified reference materials (Fish protein, NRCC - Dorm 4 and fish material, Ipen - Dourada 1) were analyzed after extraction and separation of mercury species. Good agreement of the results have been obtained (relative error of the determination between the methods varied from 1.5% to 39%). The repeatability of the results varied from 4% to 26%.

  3. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  4. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  5. TST from geofinder traverse data on HP41CV programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, G.J. )

    1989-02-01

    Using program subroutines designed for the HP41CV programmable calculator and the geometric data recorded from Geofinder traversing or other pace-and-compass-type methods, the true stratigraphic thickness (TST) of dipping or gently folded strata is calculated at a rate of about 30 seconds per station. TST information is therefore readily available for reviewing stratigraphic and structure data and for post survey graphical plots.

  6. Isolation of an immunosuppressive lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Cacahuate using stroma.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Albores, F; Hernández, J; Córdoba, F; Zenteno, E

    1993-11-01

    An immunosuppressive lectin was isolated from seed of Phaseolus vulgaris cv Cacahuate using physically entrapped stroma. The lectin was found to be a 94 kDa tetrameric protein. When 50 micrograms, of this lectin were administered intraperitoneally 2 days before the immunization with sheep red blood cells, humoral response against the immunogen was completely inhibited. Other properties of the protein are discussed. PMID:8248029

  7. CV population densities: Using CFHT as the worlds largest time-series photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, D. A.; Haswell, C. A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Ringwald, F.

    2002-01-01

    Known samples of cataclysmic variables (CVs) are sparse and/or rife with selection effects and do not provide adequate tests of theories of their evolution. We have used the CFHT12k mosaic camera as the worlds largest time-series photometer, observing a 0.3 sq.deg. Galactic field with 3 minute time-resolution. The resulting unbiased, magnitude-limited sample of CVs, and their progenitors will be used to test the predictions of CV population models.

  8. Mode of interaction of TRIP13 AAA-ATPase with the Mad2-binding protein p31comet and with mitotic checkpoint complexes

    PubMed Central

    Miniowitz-Shemtov, Shirly; Kaisari, Sharon; Sitry-Shevah, Danielle; Hershko, Avram

    2015-01-01

    The AAA-ATPase thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13), jointly with the Mad2-binding protein p31comet, promotes the inactivation of the mitotic (spindle assembly) checkpoint by disassembling the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). This checkpoint system ensures the accuracy of chromosome segregation by delaying anaphase until correct bipolar attachment of chromatids to the mitotic spindle is achieved. MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a ubiquitin ligase that targets for degradation securin, an inhibitor of anaphase initiation. MCC is composed of the checkpoint proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Bub3, in association with the APC/C activator Cdc20. The assembly of MCC in active checkpoint is initiated by the conversion of Mad2 from an open (O-Mad2) to a closed (C-Mad2) conformation, which then binds tightly to Cdc20. Conversely, the disassembly of MCC that takes place when the checkpoint is turned off involves the conversion of C-Mad2 back to O-Mad2. Previously, we found that the latter process is mediated by TRIP13 together with p31comet, but the mode of their interaction remained unknown. Here, we report that the oligomeric form of TRIP13 binds both p31comet and MCC. Furthermore, p31comet and checkpoint complexes mutually promote the binding of each other to oligomeric TRIP13. We propose that p31comet bound to C-Mad2–containing checkpoint complex is the substrate for the ATPase and that the substrate-binding site of TRIP13 is composed of subsites specific for p31comet and C-Mad2–containing complex. The simultaneous occupancy of both subsites is required for high-affinity binding to TRIP13. PMID:26324890

  9. Multiple genes, including a member of the AAA family, are essential for degradation of unassembled subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Yasuhara, T; Fujiki, Y; Ohashi, A

    1995-08-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase consists of three mitochondrion- and several nucleus-encoded subunits. We previously found that in a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking nucleus-encoded subunit 4 of this enzyme (CoxIV), subunits 2 and 3 (CoxII and CoxIII), both encoded by the mitochondrial DNA, were unstable and rapidly degraded in mitochondria, presumably because the subunits cannot assemble normally. To analyze the molecular machinery involved in this proteolytic pathway, we obtained four mutants defective in the degradation of unassembled CoxII (osd mutants) by screening CoxIV-deficient cells for the accumulation of CoxII. All of the mutants were recessive and were classified into three different complementation groups. Tetrad analyses revealed that the phenotype of each mutant was caused by a single nuclear mutation. These results suggest strongly that at least three nuclear genes (the OSD genes) are required for this degradation system. Interestingly, degradation of CoxIII was not affected in the mutants, implying that the two subunits are degraded by distinct pathways. We also cloned the OSD1 gene by complementation of the temperature sensitivity of osd1-1 mutants with a COXIV+ genetic background on a nonfermentable glycerol medium. We found it to encode a member of a family (the AAA family) of putative ATPases, which proved to be identical to recently described YME1 and YTA11. Immunological analyses revealed that Osd1 protein is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Disruption of the predicted ATP-binding cassette by site-directed mutagenesis eliminated biological activities, thereby underscoring the importance of ATP for function. PMID:7623837

  10. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki; Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko; Nagahama, Masami

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. - Highlights: • ATPase-deficient mutants of NVL2 have decreased pre-rRNA processing. • NVL2 associates with the nuclear exosome through interactions with MTR4 and RRP6. • MPP6 stabilizes MTR4-RRP6 interaction and allows NVL2 to interact with the complex.

  11. Multiple genes, including a member of the AAA family, are essential for degradation of unassembled subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase in yeast mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, T; Yasuhara, T; Fujiki, Y; Ohashi, A

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase consists of three mitochondrion- and several nucleus-encoded subunits. We previously found that in a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking nucleus-encoded subunit 4 of this enzyme (CoxIV), subunits 2 and 3 (CoxII and CoxIII), both encoded by the mitochondrial DNA, were unstable and rapidly degraded in mitochondria, presumably because the subunits cannot assemble normally. To analyze the molecular machinery involved in this proteolytic pathway, we obtained four mutants defective in the degradation of unassembled CoxII (osd mutants) by screening CoxIV-deficient cells for the accumulation of CoxII. All of the mutants were recessive and were classified into three different complementation groups. Tetrad analyses revealed that the phenotype of each mutant was caused by a single nuclear mutation. These results suggest strongly that at least three nuclear genes (the OSD genes) are required for this degradation system. Interestingly, degradation of CoxIII was not affected in the mutants, implying that the two subunits are degraded by distinct pathways. We also cloned the OSD1 gene by complementation of the temperature sensitivity of osd1-1 mutants with a COXIV+ genetic background on a nonfermentable glycerol medium. We found it to encode a member of a family (the AAA family) of putative ATPases, which proved to be identical to recently described YME1 and YTA11. Immunological analyses revealed that Osd1 protein is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane. Disruption of the predicted ATP-binding cassette by site-directed mutagenesis eliminated biological activities, thereby underscoring the importance of ATP for function. PMID:7623837

  12. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  13. Utrophins compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx3cv in adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragón, Ricardo; Candelario, Aurora; García-Sierra, Francisco; Mornet, Dominique; Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila

    2008-01-01

    Platelet adhesion is a critical step due to its hemostatic role in stopping bleeding after vascular damage. Short dystrophins are the most abundant dmd gene products in nonmuscle tissues, and in association with cytoskeleton proteins contribute to their intrinsic function; while utrophins are dystrophin-homologous related family proteins with structural and functional similarities. We previously demonstrated the presence of Dp71 isoforms, utrophins, and various dystrophin-associated proteins and their participation in cytoskeleton re-organization, filopodia and lamellipodia extension, and in centralizing cytoplasmic granules during the adhesion process of human platelets. To evaluate the morphologic changes and actin-based structures of mdx(3cv) platelets during the adhesion process, we compared the topographic distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Delta110(m) and dystrophin-associated protein in adhered platelets from dystrophic mdx(3cv) mouse. By confocal microscopy, we showed that absence of Dp71 isoforms in platelets from this animal model disrupted dystrophin-associated protein expression and distribution without modifying the platelet morphology displayed during the glass-adhesion process. By immunoprecipitation assays, we proved that up-regulated utrophins were associated with dystrophin-associated proteins to conform the dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to utrophins, which might compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx(3cv) platelets. PMID:18180614

  14. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  15. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  16. Modelling the Galactic CV distribution for the ChaMPlane Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogel, A. B.; Lugger, P. M.; Cohn, H. N.

    2004-12-01

    We model the cataclysmic variable (CV) distribution in the Galaxy to better understand CV detection rates for the ChaMPlane survey of accreting X-ray sources in the Galactic plane. The CV distribution is modeled as a warped, flared exponential disk with a Gaussian vertical structure. Extinction is based on the recently published Galactic dust and gas model by Drimmel, et al. A luminosity function for CVs is also incorporated, based on a smoothed version of published data by Patterson. We use Monte-Carlo techniques to distribute of order 1-2 × 106 CVs throughout the Galaxy. We then determine the expected number per NOAO 4m telescope Mosaic field as a function of limiting magnitude and Galactic coordinates, within the plane but outside of the bulge (20o

  17. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from

  18. Modal Mineralogy of CV3 Chondrites by PSD-XRD: Mineralogic Insights into a Complex Evolutionary History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2009-03-01

    CV3 chondrites Vigarano, Efremovka, Allende, Mokoia, Grosnaja and Kaba are amongst the most studied rocks in existence. By XRD we define the first quantitative modal mineralogy of these samples and explore implications of our data to petrogenesis.

  19. Thermal performance of a top heat mode closed-loop oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (THMCLOHP/CV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Parametthanuwat, T.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a top heat mode closed-looped oscillating heat pipe with check valves (THMCLOHP/CV). Ethanol is used as a working fluid with filling ratios of 30, 50, and 80% of the total volume of the tube. The THMCLOHP/CV is made of a copper tube with an inside diameter of 2.03 mm. The angle of inclination is 90° from the horizontal axis with 40 turns, two check valves, and an evaporator length of 50, 100, and 150 mm. The operating temperatures are 44 and 55°C. It is found that the thermal resistance decreases significantly as the working temperature is increased. Thus, the evaporator length affects the thermal resistance of the THMCLOHP/CV. The presence of the THMCLOHP/CV is clearly demonstrated to contribute to thermal performance improvement.

  20. Defective secretion of mucilage is the cellular basis for agravitropism in primary roots of Zea mays cv. Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I.; Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Root caps of primary, secondary, and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Kys secrete large amounts of mucilage and are in close contact with the root all along the root apex. These roots are strongly graviresponsive. Secondary and seminal roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are also strongly graviresponsive. Similarly, their caps secrete mucilage and closely appress the root all along the root apex. However, primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are non-responsive to gravity. Their caps secrete negligible amounts of mucilage and contact the root only at the extreme apex of the root along the calyptrogen. These roots become graviresponsive when their tips are coated with mucilage or mucilage-like materials. Peripheral cells of root caps of roots of Z. mays cv. Kys contain many dictyosomes associated with vesicles that migrate to and fuse with the plasmalemma. Root-cap cells of secondary and seminal (i.e. graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic are similar to those of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Kys. However, root-cap cells of primary (i.e. non-graviresponsive) roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic have distended dictyosomal cisternae filled with an electron-dense, granular material. Large vesicles full of this material populate the cells and apparently do not fuse with the plasmalemma. Taken together, these results suggest that non-graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Z. mays cv. Ageotropic results from the lack of apoplastic continuity between the root and the periphery of the root cap. This is a result of negligible secretion of mucilage by cells along the edge of the root cap which, in turn, appears to be due to the malfunctioning of dictyosomes in these cells.

  1. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... of distracted driving in school zones - whnt.com Car crash deaths climb despite better auto safety - USA Today - USA TODAY Teen seatbelt usage rising slightly - Neosho Daily News Driverless Cars to Carry Uber Passengers in Pittsburgh - Voice of ...

  2. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  3. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  4. Expression of ACO1, ERS1 and ERF1 genes in harvested bananas in relation to heat-induced defense against Colletotrichum musae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangfei; Wang, Aiping; Zhu, Shijiang; Zhang, Lubin

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the connection between heat-induced ethylene signal changes and enhanced disease resistance. Heat enhanced ripening and elevated MaACO1 expression in naturally ripened bananas (NRB), while it delayed ripening and reduced MaACO1expression in the ethephon-treated bananas (ETB). However, in both cases, heat reduced lesion sizes infected by Colletotrichum musae. This indicates that heat-induced disease resistance in bananas was independent of ripening rate. The expression of MaERS1 gene was inhibited by heat treatment in both NRB and ETB, implying that heat as a physical signal could be sensed by banana fruits through the inhibition of ethylene receptor gene expression. The intensity of MaERF1 transcript signals was elevated in heated bananas, suggesting that the enhanced accumulation of MaERF1 transcript following heat treatment could play an important role in activation of the defense system. In ETB, inhibition of JA biosynthesis by application of IBU down-regulated the expression of MaERF and significantly weakened disease resistance, suggesting involvement of endogenous JA in induction of the gene expression, which was reconfirmed by the fact that exposure to exogenous MeJA following the combination of heat plus IBU treatment restored part of the gene expression. On the other hand, in NRB, application of IBU elevated level of MaERF1 expression at 24h and enhanced disease resistance, suggesting that, when banana was not exposed to ethephon, the expression of MaERF1 gene was not JA dependent, which was verified by the fact that MeJA application did not enhance MaERF1 gene expression. In conclusion, heat-induced disease resistance in harvested bananas could involve down-regulation of MaERS1 expression and up-regulation of MaERF1 expression and JA pathway could be involved in heat activation of the defense system in bananas exposed to ethephon. PMID:21511361

  5. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  6. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. A.; Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1990-03-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  7. Three in one go: consequential angular momentum loss can solve major problems of CV evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. R.; Zorotovic, M.; Wijnen, T. P. G.

    2016-01-01

    The average white dwarf (WD) masses in cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been measured to significantly exceed those of single WDs, which is the opposite of what is theoretically expected. We present the results of binary population synthesis models taking into account consequential angular momentum loss (CAML) that is assumed to increase with decreasing WD mass. This approach cannot only solve the WD mass problem but also brings in agreement theoretical predictions and observations of the orbital period distribution and the space density of CVs. We speculate that frictional angular momentum loss following nova eruptions might cause such CAML and could be the missing ingredient of CV evolution.

  8. Organelle genome stability in anther-derived doubled haploids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'Moisson').

    PubMed

    Rode, A; Hartmann, C; Dron, M; Picard, E; Ouetier, F

    1985-12-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial compartments of a parental line of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'Moisson') and its anther-derived doubled haploid lines have been analyzed and compared on the basis of their DNA restriction patterns. The results obtained show that no noticeable difference can be detected between doubled haploid lines and parental line at the level of ctDNA and mtDNA organization. It may be concluded that in vitro culture by itself does not systematically generate a cytoplasmic variation in germ cells. PMID:24247401

  9. Regeneration by somatic embryogenesis of triploid plants from endosperm of walnut, Juglans regia L. cv Manregian.

    PubMed

    Tulecke, W; McGranahan, G; Ahmadi, H

    1988-08-01

    Plants were regenerated by somatic embryogenesis from endosperm tissue of open-pollinated seeds of Juglans regia L. cv Manregian. These plants were obtained by growing endosperm tissue on media similar to those used for plant regeneration from walnut cotyledons (Tulecke and McGranahan 1985). The plants appear morphologically uniform and have a triploid chromosome number of 3n=48. Nine plants have been grown to a young sapling stage in soil. This embryogenic line from endosperm has been maintained in culture for two years by the process of repetitive somatic embryogenesis. PMID:24241869

  10. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1990-01-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  11. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  12. Compositional and petrographic similarities of CV and CK chondrites: A single group with variations in textures and volatile concentrations attributable to impact heating, crushing and oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Isa, Junko; Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-05-01

    Greenwood et al. (2010) gathered data on O-isotopic and elemental compositions and reevaluated literature data for CV and CK chondrites. They concluded that these two chondrite groups originated on the same parent asteroid, with CK chondrites being metamorphosed CV chondrites (which are otherwise missing types 4 through 6). To test this interpretation we have gathered new instrumental neutron-activation-analysis (INAA) data for CV and CK chondrites and reexamined their petrographic features. The new INAA data like the older data show scatter attributable to weathering effects, but we conclude that the refractory lithophile abundances are the same in CV and CK, in agreement with the Greenwood et al. interpretation. Several volatile elements are significantly lower in CK than in CV chondrites. Among the elements we determine, the greatest difference between CV and CK is found for Br, for which the CV/CK ratio is ∼4; As and Sb are about 20% lower in CK than CV and smaller differences are observed for Zn, Ga and Se. It seems likely that volatiles were lost during impact-heating events that also provided the heat responsible for metamorphic recrystallization. Within statistical uncertainty, chondrules in CV and CK chondrites are the same size and have similar textural distributions. A significant petrographic difference between CK and CV chondrites cited by Kallemeyn et al. (1991) was the much higher percentage of igneous rims around CV chondrules. However, we now recognize that many chondrules in CK3.8 NWA 1559 have igneous rims and in CK4 chondrites, igneous rims are recognizable by their associated sulfide-rich rings; there are no quantifiable CV-CK differences in igneous-rim abundances. We used Ca and Al maps to show that CK chondrites have CAI abundances similar to those of CV chondrites. It thus appears that there are no resolvable pre-metamorphic petrographic differences between CV and CK chondrites. We recommend that the “CK” designation be abandoned and

  13. Biophenols from Table Olive cv Bella di Cerignola: Chemical Characterization, Bioaccessibility, and Intestinal Absorption.

    PubMed

    D'Antuono, Isabella; Garbetta, Antonella; Ciasca, Biancamaria; Linsalata, Vito; Minervini, Fiorenza; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Logrieco, Antonio F; Cardinali, Angela

    2016-07-20

    In this study, the naturally debittered table olives cv Bella di Cerignola were studied in order to (i) characterize their phenolic composition; (ii) evaluate the polyphenols bioaccessibility; (iii) assess their absorption and transport, across Caco2/TC7. LC-MS/MS analysis has confirmed the presence of hydroxytyrosol acetate, caffeoyl-6'-secologanoside, and comselogoside. In vitro bioaccessibility ranged from 7% of luteolin to 100% of tyrosol, highlighting the flavonoids sensitivity to the digestive conditions. The Caco2/TC7 polyphenols accumulation was rapid (60 min) with an efficiency of 0.89%; the overall bioavailability was 1.86% (120 min), with hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol the highest bioavailables, followed by verbascoside and luteolin. In the cells and basolateral side, caffeic and coumaric acids metabolites, probably derived from esterase activities, were detected. In conclusion, the naturally debittered table olives cv Bella di Cerignola can be considered as a source of bioaccessible, absorbable, and bioavailable polyphenols that, for their potential health promoting effect, permit inclusion of table olives as a functional food suitable for a balanced diet. PMID:27355793

  14. In vitro induction of tetraploid plants from diploid Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua.

    PubMed

    Gu, X F; Yang, A F; Meng, H; Zhang, J R

    2005-12-01

    Tetraploid plants of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua were obtained with in vitro colchicine treatment. Shoot tips from in vitro-grown plants were treated with five different concentrations of colchicine (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3%) in liquid MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962), and shaken (100 rpm) at 25 degrees C in darkness for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h, respectively. Tetraploids were obtained at a frequency of over 3% by using 0.05% colchicine (48 h, 72 h) and 0.1% colchicine (24 h, 48 h) treatment as determined by flow cytometry. Cytological and morphological evidence confirmed the results of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome number of diploid plants was 24 and that of tetraploid plants was 48. The stomata sizes of tetraploid plants were significantly larger than those of diploid plants, while the frequency of stomata were reduced significantly. Similarly, the chloroplast number of guard cells of tetraploid plants increased significantly. The selected tetraploid plants were grafted onto mature trees of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. Zhanhua in the field, resulted in thicker stems, rounder and succulent leaves, larger flowers and a delay in florescence time (3-4 days later) than diploid plants. PMID:16094528

  15. Antioxidant and anticancer aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Ming; Kao, Chiu-Li; Wu, Hui-Ming; Li, Wei-Jen; Huang, Cheng-Tsung; Li, Hsing-Tan; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena. These compounds include liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) cepharadione B (11), β-sitostenone (12), stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one (13) and two chlorophylls: pheophytin-a (14) and aristophyll-C (15). The anti-oxidation activity of the compounds was examined by antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power assays. The results have shown that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the antiproliferation activity of the isolated compounds against human melanoma, prostate and gastric cancer cells. The results shown that 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma, prostate and gastric cancer cells. Together, these findings suggest that leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena are a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances with antioxidant properties. PMID:25372397

  16. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  17. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp. PMID:23898551

  18. The Glycine max cv. Enrei Genome for Improvement of Japanese Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michihiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Setsuko; Namiki, Nobukazu; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kamatsuki, Kaori; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Ryoichi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kaga, Akito; Katayose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We elucidated the genome sequence of Glycine max cv. Enrei to provide a reference for characterization of Japanese domestic soybean cultivars. The whole genome sequence obtained using a next-generation sequencer was used for reference mapping into the current genome assembly of G. max cv. Williams 82 obtained by the Soybean Genome Sequencing Consortium in the USA. After sequencing and assembling the whole genome shotgun reads, we obtained a data set with about 928 Mbs total bases and 60,838 gene models. Phylogenetic analysis provided glimpses into the ancestral relationships of both cultivars and their divergence from the complex that include the wild relatives of soybean. The gene models were analyzed in relation to traits associated with anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis and an overall profile of the proteome. The sequence data are made available in DAIZUbase in order to provide a comprehensive informatics resource for comparative genomics of a wide range of soybean cultivars in Japan and a reference tool for improvement of soybean cultivars worldwide. PMID:26199933

  19. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  20. Determination of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca cv. baile berries.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Grape juice and grape skin extracts are important commercial source of polyphenolic compounds which exert different functional properties such as color potential, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, and health benefits. In this paper we describe a sensitive and specific assay for determination of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile). Five polyphenolic components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 Column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 μm) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.2%, v/v); and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25 degrees C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 280, 360, and 520 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.90%, and the average recoveries were 95.5-105% for analytes. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH radical assay, ranged from 86-105 for extracts, and 165-252 for studied standards (μM trolox/100 g dry wt.). The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for quality control in functional food and modernization of Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile) as potent antioxidant agents. PMID:26665298

  1. CV Protection in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial: A "Thrifty Substrate" Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Mark, Michael; Mayoux, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The striking and unexpected relative risk reductions in cardiovascular (CV) mortality (38%), hospitalization for heart failure (35%), and death from any cause (32%) observed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial using an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in patients with type 2 diabetes and high CV risk have raised the possibility that mechanisms other than those observed in the trial-modest improvement in glycemic control, small decrease in body weight, and persistent reductions in blood pressure and uric acid level-may be at play. We hypothesize that under conditions of mild, persistent hyperketonemia, such as those that prevail during treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors, β-hydroxybutyrate is freely taken up by the heart (among other organs) and oxidized in preference to fatty acids. This fuel selection improves the transduction of oxygen consumption into work efficiency at the mitochondrial level. In addition, the hemoconcentration that typically follows SGLT2 inhibition enhances oxygen release to the tissues, thereby establishing a powerful synergy with the metabolic substrate shift. These mechanisms would cooperate with other SGLT2 inhibition-induced changes (chiefly, enhanced diuresis and reduced blood pressure) to achieve the degree of cardioprotection revealed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. This hypothesis opens up new lines of investigation into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic and nondiabetic heart disease. PMID:27289126

  2. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  3. Galectin CvGal2 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Displays Unique Specificity for ABH Blood Group Oligosaccharides and Differentially Recognizes Sympatric Perkinsus Species.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Tasumi, Satoshi; Pasek, Marta; Banerjee, Aditi; Shridhar, Surekha; Wang, Lai-Xi; Bianchet, Mario A; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are highly conserved lectins that are key to multiple biological functions, including pathogen recognition and regulation of immune responses. We previously reported that CvGal1, a galectin expressed in phagocytic cells (hemocytes) of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), is hijacked by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it causes systemic infection and death. Screening of an oyster hemocyte cDNA library revealed a novel galectin, which we designated CvGal2, with four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). Phylogentic analysis of the CvGal2 CRDs suggests close relationships with homologous CRDs from CvGal1. Glycan array analysis, however, revealed that, unlike CvGal1 which preferentially binds to the blood group A tetrasaccharide, CvGal2 recognizes both blood group A and B tetrasaccharides and related structures, suggesting that CvGal2 has broader binding specificity. Furthermore, SPR analysis demonstrated significant differences in the binding kinetics of CvGal1 and CvGal2, and structural modeling revealed substantial differences in their interactions with the oligosaccharide ligands. CvGal2 is homogeneously distributed in the hemocyte cytoplasm, is released to the extracellular space, and binds to the hemocyte surface. CvGal2 binds to P. marinus trophozoites in a dose-dependent and β-galactoside-specific manner. Strikingly, negligible binding of CvGal2 was observed for Perkinsus chesapeaki, a sympatric parasite species mostly prevalent in the clams Mya arenaria and Macoma balthica. The differential recognition of Perkinsus species by the oyster galectins is consistent with their relative prevalence in oyster and clam species and supports their role in facilitating parasite entry and infectivity in a host-preferential manner. PMID:26158802

  4. Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Montagnac, Gilles

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) ˜3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) ˜3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may

  5. Electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via Wnt-β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    FAN, HUAILING; JI, FENG; LIN, YING; ZHANG, MULAN; QIN, WEI; ZHOU, QI; WU, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 (also termed Guanyuan) on femoral osteocalcin also termed bone gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanics, as well as the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (4.5-months old) were randomly divided into sham, Ovx, CV4 and mock groups (n=10/group). With the exception of those in the sham group, the rats were ovariectomized to induce postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rats in the CV4 and mock groups were given electroacupuncture at CV4 and non-acupoint, respectively. The rats in the Ovx model and sham groups underwent identical fixing procedures, but did not undergo electroacupuncture. Following treatment, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphological changes in the left femoral trabecular bone, and a three-point-bending test was used to analyze femur biomechanics and determine the BMD. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of ALP/BGP and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used detect the expression levels of Wnt3a, β-catenin and Runx2. In the present study, it was demonstrated that electroacupuncture at CV4 significantly improved the osteoporotic morphological changes that occurred in the ovariectomized rats, increased serum ALP and BGP levels, enhanced the maximum and fracture loads, increased BMD (P<0.01), and activated the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 affected bone formation and promoted bone metabolism in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by activating the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26846191

  6. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  7. More evidence for a partially differentiated CV chondrite parent body from paleomagnetic studies of ALH 84028 and ALH 85006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B. Z.; Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of the CV carbonaceous chondrites Allende and Kaba and numerical modeling studies have suggested that the CV chondrite parent body may have been partially differentiated, with a molten metallic core, dynamo magnetic field, and an unmelted chondritic lid. To further evaluate this hypothesis, here we present new paleomagnetic analyses of two previously unstudied CV3 chondrites: the unshocked, Allende-type oxidized chondrite ALH 84028 and the weakly shocked, Bali-type oxidized chondrite ALH 85006. We preformed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization experiments, AF-based paleointensity experiments, and rock magnetic experiments on mutually oriented subsamples of each meteorite. Both meteorites pass fusion crust baked contact tests, indicating that their interiors retain a magnetization predating atmospheric entry. In the interior of ALH 84028, we identified a unidirectional medium temperature (blocked to 300°C), high coercivity (blocked to >420 mT) component. In the interior of ALH 85006, we identified MT components blocked up to 400-475°C. The unblocking temperatures and unidirectional nature of the MT components in both meteorites indicates their origin as a partial thermoremanence or thermochemical remanence acquired during metamorphism following accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. Our paleointensity experiments indicate paleofield intensities of 32-73 μT for ALH 84028 and 14-45 μT for ALH 85006 . When combined with similar recent results for Allende and Kaba, there is now consistent evidence for dynamo fields from four CV chondrites with collectively diverse lithologies and shock states. Therefore, the magnetic field on the CV parent body was not a localized event like that expected for a field generated by meteoroid impact plasmas and instead likely had a wide spatial extent. Further, given the younger I-Xe ages for Kaba compared to Allende (9-10 Ma and 2-3 Ma after Stillwater respectively), CV parent body

  8. C-V measurements of micron diameter metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using a scanning-electron-microscope-based nanoprobe.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Jia, H; Wallace, R M; Gnade, B E

    2007-10-01

    The C-V electrical characterization of microstructures on a standard probe station is limited by the magnification of the imaging system and the precision of the probe manipulators. To overcome these limitations, we examine the combination of in situ electrical probing and a dual column scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam system. The imaging parameters and probing procedures are carefully chosen to reduce e-beam damage to the metal oxide semiconductor capacitor device under test. Estimation of shunt capacitance is critical when making femtofarad level measurements. C-V measurements of micron size metal-oxide-silicon capacitors are demonstrated. PMID:17979444

  9. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice. PMID:26604412

  10. Petrography and classification of refractory inclusions in the Allende and Mokoia CV3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, A. S.; Cohen, R. E.; Wood, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Results are reported for a comprehensive petrographic survey of the refractory inclusions in the Allende and Mokoia CV3 chondrites. More than 600 refractory inclusions in 22 thin sections of the meteorites were studied by optical and scanning-electron microscopy. Olivine-rich inclusions and Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are aggregates of various combinations of three fundamental petrographic constituents: rimmed concentric objects, Ca, Si-rich chaotic material, and mafic inclusion matrix. A new classification system for refractory inclusions is developed that is based on the size and abundance of these three fundamental constituents. The new classification system avoids several problems that are inherent in other classification systems, which use the term 'coarse-grained' too restrictively for many simple CAIs and inaccurately for most mililite-rich complex CAIs.

  11. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  12. Inducing gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays cv Ageotropic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Evans, M. L.; Fondren, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    Primary roots of the mutant 'Ageotropic' cultivar of Zea mays are nonresponsive to gravity. Their root caps secrete little or no mucilage and touch the root only at the extreme apex. A gap separates the cap and root at the periphery of the cap. Applying mucilage from normal roots or substances with a consistency similar to that of mucilage to tips of mutant roots causes these roots to become strongly graviresponsive. Gravicurvature stops when these substances are removed. Caps of some mutants secrete small amounts of mucilage and are graviresponsive. These results indicate that (a) the lack of graviresponsiveness in the mutant results from disrupting the transport pathway between the cap and root, (b) movement of the growth-modifying signal from the cap to the root occurs via an apoplastic pathway, and (c) mucilage is necessary for normal communication between the root cap and root in Zea mays cv Ageotropic.

  13. Ectopic expression of Atleafy in Brassica juncea cv. Geeta for early flowering.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Sumit; Ganie, Showkat Hussain; Narula, Alka; Srivastava, Prem Shankar; Singh, Hari Bansh

    2013-07-01

    High temperature stress during pod filling severely affects the yield of Brassica juncea. Early flowering can evade the terminal heat stress and result in early maturity of the crop. In this study, a regeneration and transformation protocol has been standardized for B. juncea cv. Geeta. Hypocotyl from 5-day-old seedlings were used as explants. Of the various combinations of auxins and cytokinins tried along with Murashige and Skoog's (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium, MS + IAA (0.2 mg/l) + BA (3 mg/l) proved best for shoot regeneration with 89.9 % regeneration efficiency. To induce early flowering Leafy gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was transformed using Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. After 12 weeks transgenic plants showed flowering in vitro whereas their untransformed counterpart did not flower even after 16 weeks. The maximum transformation frequency was 4 %. PMID:24431514

  14. Analysis of ultraviolet atmospheric eclipses in the Wolf-Rayet binary CV Serpentis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Khaliullin, Kh. F.

    1985-01-01

    While no eclipses deeper than 0.04 mag are noted in the present UV spectra, covering one-half of an orbital cycle of CV Ser, in the electron scattering continuum at 2400-3200 A or in fine error sensor observations, marked atmospheric eclipses of up to 0.5 mag depth are observed in individual strong lines and over large ranges of the continuum at shorter wavelengths. The flux above the continuum in the C II 1247 A, Si IV 1400 A, and Si IV 1723 lines showed similar phase dependence with emission weakening, as well as with the emission's going into absorption as phase progresses from superior to inferior conjunction of the WC star (primary eclipse). These observations show effects very similar to the behavior of WN stars in the UV.

  15. Flight-determined derivatives and dynamic characteristics of the CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Flight-determined longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives are presented for the CV-990 airplane for various combinations of Mach number, altitude, and flap setting throughout the flight envelope up to a Mach number of 0.87. Also presented are the dynamic characteristics of the aircraft calculated from the flight-obtained derivatives and the measured phugoid characteristics. The derivative characteristics were obtained from flight records of longitudinal and lateral-directional transient oscillation maneuvers by using a modified Newton-Raphson digital derivative determination technique. Generally the derivatives exhibited consistent variation with lift coefficient in the low-speed data and with Mach number and altitude in the high-speed data. Many also varied with flap deflection, notably spoiler effectiveness and directional stability.

  16. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  17. Partial melting of the Allende (CV3) meteorite - Implications for origins of basaltic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jones, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Eucrites and angrites are distinct types of basaltic meteorites whose origins are poorly known. Experiments in which samples of the Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite were partially melted indicate that partial melts can resemble either eucrites or angrites, depending only on the oxygen fugacity. Melts are eucritic if this variable is below that of the iron-wuestite buffer or angritic if above it. With changing pressure, the graphite-oxygen redox reaction can produce oxygen fugacities that are above or below those of the iron-wuestite buffer. Therefore, a single, homogeneous, carbonaceous planetoid greater than 110 kilometers in radius could produce melts of drastically different composition, depending on the depth of melting.

  18. Metal phase in a B1-type CAI fragment of the CV Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1991-09-01

    Results are presented from petrographical, mineralogical, and chemical analyses of metal particles in two B1-type CAI fragments obtained from the Efremovka CV chondrite. The fragments were found to have a broken outer border consisting mainly of grains of Ca phosphates and a Fe/Ni phase. Both fragments are associated with V2O3-rich pyroxene. All individual particles and veins of the fragments are made up from high-Ni tenite, sometimes enriched in V. It is suggested that all features of the metal phase of this chondrite are a consequence of oxidation, or of partial evaporation of the metal followed by its oxidation, and that the characteristics of the metal phase of the CAI phase of the Efremovka chondrite may correspond to those of the protomatter of some fremdlings, such as the Allende chondrite.

  19. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  20. Comparing Spreading Resistance Profiling and C-V characterisation to identify defects in silicon sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragicevic, M.; Bergauer, T.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Treberspurg, W.; Valentan, M.

    2013-02-01

    The quality and functionality of a silicon sensor strongly depends on the effective doping concentration of the active silicon bulk. The creation of additional defects, by certain steps in the production or through irradiation in a particle beam, can heavily influence its performance. Several methods exist to characterise the bulk material for a silicon sensor. C-V characterisation is a widely implemented, non-destructive method to extract the depth profile of Neff. A technique which is rarely used at laboratories developing silicon sensors is Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP) which directly measures the resistivity of the silicon. We will show, that a comparison of measurements from these two methods can yield important information on the defect concentration in the bulk of the silicon. To demonstrate the technique, we investigated a sensor material where the active region was reduced using a deep diffusion process which is assumed to create additional defects in the bulk.

  1. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    PubMed

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit. PMID:12166965

  2. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  3. Humudifucol and Bioactive Prenylated Polyphenols from Hops (Humulus lupulus cv. "Cascade").

    PubMed

    Forino, Martino; Pace, Simona; Chianese, Giuseppina; Santagostini, Laura; Werner, Markus; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Fico, Gelsomina; Werz, Oliver; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-03-25

    Humulus lupulus (hop plant) has long been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and antimicrobial agent. More recently, attention has been devoted to the phytoestrogenic activity of the plant extracts as well as to the anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties of the prenylated chalcones present. In this study, an Italian sample of H. lupulus cv. "Cascade" has been investigated and three new compounds [4-hydroxycolupulone (6), humudifucol (7) and cascadone (8)] have been purified and identified by means of NMR spectroscopy along with four known metabolites. Notably, humudifucol (7) is the first prenylated dimeric phlorotannin discovered in nature. Because structurally related phloroglucinols from natural sources were found previously to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), the isolated compounds were evaluated for their bioactivity against these pro-inflammatory target proteins. The prenylated chalcone xanthohumol inhibited both enzymes at low μM concentrations. PMID:26918635

  4. Influence of different drying methods on carotenoids and capsaicinoids of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno).

    PubMed

    Topuz, Ayhan; Dincer, Cuneyt; Ozdemir, Kubra Sultan; Feng, Hao; Kushad, Mosbah

    2011-12-01

    Influence of Refractance Window™ Drying (RWD), a novel contact drying method, on carotenoids, capsaicinoids, Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE) and Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno) was investigated in comparison with freeze drying (FD), oven drying (OD), and natural convective drying (NCD) methods. Eight carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, capsolutein, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, mutatoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) and five capsaicinoid analogues (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, isodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin) were identified in paprika. All these components were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by the RWD, FD and OD methods. However, due to ongoing synthesis, the NCD method resulted in higher carotenoids, except violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin, and capsaicinoids content than those of the others, even puree. Mutatoxanthin, naturally occurring pigment in red pepper, could only be detected in FD paprika. The highest RAE and SHU values, which were derived from the data of carotenoids and capsaicinoids, respectively, were also determined in NCD paprika. PMID:25212310

  5. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development. PMID:27462328

  6. Analytic expressions for rate and CV of a type I neuron driven by white gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Benjamin; Longtin, André; Bulsara, Adi

    2003-08-01

    We study the one-dimensional normal form of a saddle-node system under the influence of additive gaussian white noise and a static "bias current" input parameter, a model that can be looked upon as the simplest version of a type I neuron with stochastic input. This is in contrast with the numerous studies devoted to the noise-driven leaky integrate-and-fire neuron. We focus on the firing rate and coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike interval density, for which scaling relations with respect to the input parameter and noise intensity are derived. Quadrature formulas for rate and CV are numerically evaluated and compared to numerical simulations of the system and to various approximation formulas obtained in different limiting cases of the model. We also show that caution must be used to extend these results to the Theta neuron model with multiplicative gaussian white noise. The correspondence between the first passage time statistics for the saddle-node model and the Theta neuron model is obtained only in the Stratonovich interpretation of the stochastic Theta neuron model, while previous results have focused only on the Ito interpretation. The correct Stratonovich interpretation yields CVs that are still relatively high, although smaller than in the Ito interpretation; it also produces certain qualitative differences, especially at larger noise intensities. Our analysis provides useful relations for assessing the distance to threshold and the level of synaptic noise in real type I neurons from their firing statistics. We also briefly discuss the effect of finite boundaries (finite values of threshold and reset) on the firing statistics. PMID:14511512

  7. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora Phyllody Phenotype Is Associated with Misexpression of Flower Organ Identity Genes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huijun; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qigang; Jian, Hongying; Qiu, Xianqin; Baudino, Sylvie; Just, Jeremy; Raymond, Olivier; Gu, Lianfeng; Wang, Jihua; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Tang, Kaixue

    2016-01-01

    Phyllody is a flower abnormality in which leaf-like structures replace flower organs in all whorls. Here, we investigated the origin and the molecular mechanism of phyllody phenotype in Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, an ancient naturally occurring Chinese mutant cultivar. Reciprocal grafting experiments and microscopy analyses, demonstrated that the phyllody phenotype in Viridiflora is not associated with phytoplasmas infection. Transcriptome comparisons by the mean of RNA-Seq identified 672 up-regulated and 666 down-regulated genes in Viridiflora compared to its closely related genotype R. chinensis cv. Old Blush. A fraction of these genes are putative homologs of genes known to be involved in flower initiation and development. We show that in flower whorl 2 of Viridiflora, a down-regulation of the floral organ identity genes RcPISTILLATA (RcPI), RcAPETALA3 (RcAP3) and RcSEPALLATA3 (RcSEP3), together with an up-regulation of the putative homolog of the gene SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS1 (RcSOC1) are likely at the origin of the loss of petal identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 3 of Viridiflora, ectopic expression of RcAPETALA2 (RcAP2) along with the down regulation of RcPI, RcAP3, and RcSEP3 is associated with loss of stamens identity and leaf-like structures formation. In whorl 4, the ectopic expression of RcAP2 associated with a down-regulation of RcSEP3 and of the C-class gene RcAGAMOUS correlate with loss of pistil identity. The latter also suggested the antagonist effect between the A and C class genes in the rose. Together, these data suggest that modified expression of the ABCE flower organ identity genes is associated with the phyllody phenotype in the rose Viridiflora and that these genes are important for normal flower organs development. PMID:27462328

  8. Chemical evolution of metal in refractory inclusions in CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Andrew J.; Simon, Steven B.; Humayun, Munir; Grossman, Lawrence

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to measure distributions of the siderophile elements V, Fe, Co, Ni, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in Fremdlinge with a spatial resolution of 15 to 25 μm. A sulfide vein in a refractory inclusion in Allende (CV3-oxidized) is enriched in Rh, Ru, and Os with no detectable Pd, Re, Ir, or Pt, indicating that Rh, Ru, and Os were redistributed by sulfidation of the inclusion, causing fractionation of Re/Os and other siderophile element ratios in Allende CAIs. Fremdlinge in compact Type-A inclusions from Efremovka (CV3-reduced) exhibit subsolidus exsolution into kamacite and taenite and minimal secondary formation of V-magnetite and schreibersite. Siderophile element partitioning between taenite and kamacite is similar to that observed previously in iron meteorites, while preferential incorporation of the light PGEs (Ru, Rh, Pd) relative to Re, Os, Ir, and Pt by schreibersite was observed. Fremdling EM2 (CAI Ef2) has an outer rim of P-free metal that preserves the PGE signature of schreibersite, indicating that EM2 originally had a phosphide rim and lost P to the surrounding inclusion during secondary processing. Most Fremdlinge have chondrite-normalized refractory PGE patterns that are unfractionated, with PGE abundances derived from a small range of condensation temperatures, ˜1480 to 1468 K at P tot = 10 -3 bar. Some Fremdlinge from the same CAI exhibit sloping PGE abundance patterns and Re/Os ratios up to 2 × CI that likely represent mixing of grains that condensed at various temperatures.

  9. Confirmation By QTL mapping Of The Malus Robusta (Cv. Robusta 5) derived powdery mildew resistance gene Pl1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has made extensive use of Malus robusta cv. Robusta 5 as a source of resistance to fire blight. Robusta 5 has also been used as the source of powdery mildew resistance by other breeding programs and a single locus Pl1 has been associated with this resist...

  10. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  11. Using Multidimensional Rasch Analysis to Validate the Chinese Version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ-CV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Zhang, Zhonghua; Yin, Hongbiao

    2010-01-01

    This article used the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model to examine the construct validity and detect the substantial differential item functioning (DIF) of the Chinese version of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ-CV). A total of 1,354 Hong Kong junior high school students were administered the…

  12. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  13. Inherited transgene expression of the uidA and bar genes in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of two transgenes, bar and uidA, was studied in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants. ‘Nellie White’ had been transformed using the gene gun to bombard with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that eight ...

  14. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  15. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  16. Synchronizing the Absolute and Relative Clocks: Pb-Pb and Al-Mg Systematics in CAIs from the Allende and NWA 2364 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2009-03-01

    A Pb-Pb internal isochron of a type-B CAI from the NWA 2364 CV3 chondrite gives an absolute age of 4568.6 ± 0.2 Ma which contrasts with previous internal Pb-Pb ages of CAIs from Allende and Efremovka. Al-Mg systematics are also reported for CV3 CAIs.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease).

    PubMed

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C; Nelson, David R

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  18. Isolation and characterization of a virus (CvV-BW1) that infects symbiotic algae of Paramecium bursaria in Lake Biwa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We performed an environmental study of viruses infecting the symbiotic single-celled algae of Paramecium bursaria (Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus, PBCV) in Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan. The viruses detected were all Chlorella variabilis virus (CvV = NC64A virus). One of them, designated CvV-BW1, was subjected to further characterization. Results CvV-BW1 formed small plaques and had a linear DNA genome of 370 kb, as judged by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Restriction analysis indicated that CvV-BW1 DNA belongs to group H, one of the most resistant groups among CvV DNAs. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the dnapol gene, CvV was classified into two clades, A and B. CvV-BW1 belonged to clade B, in contrast to all previously identified virus strains of group H that belonged to clade A. Conclusions We conclude that CvV-BW1 composes a distinct species within C. variabilis virus. PMID:20831832

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  20. Abundance, major element composition and size of components and matrix in CV, CO and Acfer 094 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Denton S.; Brunner, Chelsea; Konrad, Kevin; Leftwich, Kristin; Erb, Isabelle; Lu, Muzhou; Rodriguez, Hugo; Crapster-Pregont, Ellen J.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The relative abundances and chemical compositions of the macroscopic components or "inclusions" (chondrules and refractory inclusions) and fine-grained mineral matrix in chondritic meteorites provide constraints on astrophysical theories of inclusion formation and chondrite accretion. We present new techniques for analysis of low count/pixel Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and Fe X-ray intensity maps of rock sections, and apply them to large areas of CO and CV chondrites, and the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. For many thousands of manually segmented and type-identified inclusions, we are able to assess, pixel-by-pixel, the major element content of each inclusion. We quantify the total fraction of refractory elements accounted for by various types of inclusion and matrix. Among CO chondrites, both matrix and inclusion Mg/Si ratios approach the solar (and bulk CO) ratio with increasing petrologic grade, but Si remains enriched in inclusions relative to matrix. The oxidized CV chondrites with higher matrix/inclusion ratios exhibit more severe aqueous alteration (oxidation), and their excess matrix accounts for their higher porosity relative to reduced CV chondrites. Porosity could accommodate an original ice component of matrix as the direct cause of local alteration of oxidized CV chondrites. We confirm that major element abundances among inclusions differ greatly, across a wide range of CO and CV chondrites. These abundances in all cases add up to near-chondritic (solar) bulk abundance ratios in these chondrites, despite wide variations in matrix/inclusion ratios and inclusion sizes: chondrite components are complementary. This complementarity provides a robust meteoritic constraint for astrophysical disk models.

  1. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  2. The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) binds to blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A; Bianchet, Mario A; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B H; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2013-08-23

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is "hijacked" by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 "self"-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  3. Chondrules in CK carbonaceous chondrites and thermal history of the CV-CK parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumard, NoëL.; Devouard, Bertrand

    2016-03-01

    CK chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites with petrologic types ranging from 3 to 6. It is commonly reported than ~15 vol% of CK4-6 samples are composed of chondrules. The modal abundance of chondrules estimated here for 18 CK3-6 (including five CK3s) ranges from zero (totally recrystallized) to 50.5%. Although almost all chemically re-equilibrated with the host matrix, we recognized in CK3s and Tanezrouft (Tnz) 057 (CK4) up to 85% of chondrules as former type I chondrules. Mean diameters of chondrules range from 0.22 to 1.05 mm for Karoonda (CK4) and Tnz 057 (CK4), respectively. Up to ~60% of chondrules in CK3-4 are surrounded by igneous rims (from ~20 μm to 2 mm width). Zoned olivines were found in unequilibrated chondrules from DaG 431 (CK3-an), NWA 4724 (CK3.8), NWA 4423 (CK3.9), and Tnz 057 (CK4). We modeled Fe/Mg interdiffusion profiles measured in zoned olivines to evaluate the peak metamorphic temperatures and time scales of the CK parent body metamorphism, and proposed a two-stage diffusion process in order to account for the position of inflection points situated within chondrules. Time scales inferred from Fe/Mg interdiffusion in olivine from unequilibrated chondrules are on the order of tens to a hundred thousand years (from 50 to 70,000 years for peak metamorphic temperatures of 1140 and 920 K, respectively). These durations are longer than what is commonly accepted for shock metamorphism and shorter than what is required for nuclide decay. Using the concept of a continuous CV-CK metamorphic series, which is reinforced by this study, we estimated peak metamorphic temperatures <850 K for CV, 850-920 K for CK3, and 920-1140 K for CK4-6 chondrites considering a duration of 70,000 years.

  4. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), 3N from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) CAI and UR CAI 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB CAI are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA CAI and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073"><span id="translatedtitle">Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span> Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance. PMID:25053073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075142','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075142"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of Cytokinin Oxidase Activity in Callus Tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Great Northern 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chatfield, J. Mark; Armstrong, Donald J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The regulation of cytokinin oxidase activity in callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Great Northern has been examined using an assay based on the oxidation of N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine-8-14C (i6 Ade-8-14C) to adenine. Solutions of exogenous cytokinins applied directly to the surface of the callus tissues induced relatively rapid increases in cytokinin oxidase activity. The increase in activity was detectable after 1 hour and continued for about 8 hours, reaching values two- to three-fold higher than the controls. The cytokinin-induced increase in cytokinin oxidase activity was inhibited in tissues pretreated with cordycepin or cycloheximide, suggesting that RNA and protein synthesis may be required for the response. Rifampicin and chloramphenicol, at concentrations that inhibited the growth of Great Northern callus tissues, were ineffective in inhibiting the increase in activity. All cytokinin-active compounds tested, including both substrates and nonsubstrates of cytokinin oxidase, were effective in inducing elevated levels of the enzyme in Great Northern callus tissue. The cytokinin-active urea derivative, Thidiazuron, was as effective as any adenine derivative in inducing this response. The addition of Thidiazuron to the reaction volumes used to assay cytokinin oxidase activity resulted in a marked inhibition of the degradation of the labeled i6 Ade-8-14C substrate. On the basis of this result, it is possible that Thidiazuron may serve as a substrate for cytokinin oxidase, but other mechanisms of inhibition have not yet been excluded. PMID:16664650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030934&hterms=aluminum+inclusions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Daluminum%2Binclusions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030934&hterms=aluminum+inclusions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Daluminum%2Binclusions"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and petrology of chondrules and inclusions in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, R. E.; Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The inclusions and chondrules of the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite are studied systematically and compared with those in the Allende meteorite. Five polished thin sections of Mokoia were examined by optical microscopy, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, and electronprobe microanalysis, and objects greater than about 100 microns in apparent diameter were measured and classified petrographically. Three major types of olivine chondrules are distinguished: igneous chondrules, which evidently crystallized from droplets of silicate melt; recrystallized chondrules, apparently metamorphosed at relatively high temperatures; and accretional aggregates, which are probably fragments of igneous chondrules. Refractory inclusions in Mokoia are generally similar to those found in Allende, although Mokoia inclusions include phyllosilicates rather than feldspathoids and melilite-rich Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are more abundant in Allende. The small, fine-grained CAIs, which are more abundant than coarse-grained CAIs in both meteorites, are observed to represent aggregates of three distinct constituents: concentric objects, chaotic material and inclusion matrix. It is concluded that most of the CAIs probably formed during metamorphism, partial melting, and incomplete distillation of primitive dust aggregates heated in the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.426.1720D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.426.1720D"><span id="translatedtitle">Using MOST to reveal the secrets of the mischievous Wolf-Rayet binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Ser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>David-Uraz, Alexandre; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Chené, André-Nicolas; Rowe, Jason F.; Lange, Nicholas; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The Wolf-Rayet (WR) binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Serpentis (= WR113, WC8d + O8-9IV) has been a source of mystery since it was shown that its atmospheric eclipses change with time over decades, in addition to its sporadic dust production. The first high-precision time-dependent photometric observations obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) space telescope in 2009 show two consecutive eclipses over the 29-d orbit, with varying depths. A subsequent MOST run in 2010 showed a seemingly asymmetric eclipse profile. In order to help make sense of these observations, parallel optical spectroscopy was obtained from the Mont Megantic Observatory (2009, 2010) and from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (2009). Assuming these depth variations are entirely due to electron scattering in a β-law wind, an unprecedented 62 per cent increase in M⊙ is observed over one orbital period. Alternatively, no change in mass-loss rate would be required if a relatively small fraction of the carbon ions in the wind globally recombined and coaggulated to form carbon dust grains. However, it remains a mystery as to how this could occur. There also seems to be evidence for the presence of corotating interaction regions (CIR) in the WR wind: a CIR-like signature is found in the light curves, implying a potential rotation period for the WR star of 1.6 d. Finally, a new circular orbit is derived, along with constraints for the wind collision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15054660','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15054660"><span id="translatedtitle">Rhythmic emission of floral volatiles from Rosa damascena semperflorens <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Quatre Saisons'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Picone, Joanne M; Clery, Robin A; Watanabe, Naoharu; MacTavish, Hazel S; Turnbull, Colin G N</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The control of rhythmic emission of floral volatiles emitted from Rosa damascena semperflorens <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Quatre Saisons' throughout floral development under various light regimes was studied. 2-Phenylethanol was the major volatile emitted in addition to monoterpenols, oxidised monoterpenols, monoterpenes and aromatic compounds. All detected volatiles were emitted rhythmically, with maximum peaks coinciding 8-10 h into a 12-h photoperiod. For some compounds a secondary, nocturnal peak was apparent. The primary and secondary maxima both occurred at approximately 24-h intervals. Rhythms appeared to be regulated endogenously: rhythmic emission continued upon exposure to continuous light or continuous darkness, and a phase shift in emission was induced upon inversion of the photoperiod. Additionally, emission continued after flower excision. A similar profile of free volatiles was stored within the floral tissue, together with glycosidic forms of 2-phenylethanol (>99% beta-D-glucoside), benzyl alcohol, citronellol and geraniol. Regression analysis indicated a significant decrease in glycosylated 2-phenylethanol through the photoperiod. These results suggest that glycosylated volatiles stored within petals may be a source of rhythmically emitted volatiles. PMID:15054660</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25674504"><span id="translatedtitle">Jasmonates elicit different sets of stilbenes in Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Negramaro cell cultures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taurino, Marco; Ingrosso, Ilaria; D'amico, Leone; De Domenico, Stefania; Nicoletti, Isabella; Corradini, Danilo; Santino, Angelo; Giovinazzo, Giovanna</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The plant phenol trans-resveratrol, which is mainly found in grape, displays a wide range of biological effects. A cell suspension culture was developed from calli of grape leaves of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Negramaro in order to study the bioproduction of resveratrol. The effects of a number of secondary plant metabolism elicitors, namely chitosan, methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, coronatine, and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, were tested on this cell suspension culture. The identification and quantification of stilbenes was achieved with high performance liquid chromatography, with both spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric detection. Of the tested elicitors, methyl jasmonate was the most effective in inducing the biosynthesis of approximately 4 mg g(-1) dry weight (about 60 mg L(-1)) of resveratrol. Conversely, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, jasmonic acid, and coronatine were able to trigger the synthesis of approximately 20 mg g(-1) dry weight (200-210 mg L(-1)) of viniferins. Taken together, our results show for the first time different modulatory effects of closely-related jasmonates on stilbene biosynthesis. PMID:25674504</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26442011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26442011"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23723045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23723045"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable MSAP markers for the distinction of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pinot noir clones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ocaña, Juan; Walter, Bernard; Schellenbaum, Paul</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops. Molecular markers have been used to study grapevine diversity. For instance, simple sequence repeats are a powerful tool for identification of grapevine cultivars, while amplified fragment length polymorphisms have shown their usefulness in intra-varietal diversity studies. Other techniques such as sequence-specific amplified polymorphism are based on the presence of mobile elements in the genome, but their detection lies upon their activity. Relevant attention has been drawn toward epigenetic sources of variation. In this study, a set of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pinot noir clones were analyzed using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique with isoschizomers MspI and HpaII. Nine out of fourteen selective primer combinations were informative and generated two types of polymorphic fragments which were categorized as "stable" and "unstable." In total, 23 stable fragments were detected and they discriminated 92.5 % of the studied clones. Detected stable polymorphisms were either common to several clones, restricted to a few clones or unique to a single clone. The identification of these stable epigenetic markers will be useful in clonal diversity studies. We highlight the relevance of stable epigenetic variation in V. vinifera clones and analyze at which level these markers could be applicable for the development of forthright techniques for clonal distinction. PMID:23723045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) Peel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23692745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23692745"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aglianico).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. PMID:23692745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700"><span id="translatedtitle">Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. (Anasazi Beans)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Arishya; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Lin, Peng</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80°C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells with an IC50 of 1.3 μM, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 μM. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. PMID:19343172</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz) latex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees’ latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins’ autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643"><span id="translatedtitle">Priming and temperature limits for germination of dispersal units of Urochloa brizantha (Stapf) Webster <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakao, E A; Cardoso, V J M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming treatments on the upper and lower thermal limits for germination of Urochloa brizantha <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk, and testing the hypothesis that pré-imbibition affect thermal parameters of the germination. Pre-imbibed seeds both in distilled water (0 MPa) and PEG 6000 solution (-0.5 MPa) were put to germinate in different temperatures. It is suggested that U. brizantha seeds have low response to priming when they were placed to germinate in medium where water is not limiting. The response of U. brizantha seeds to priming is dependent on the temperature and water potential conditions at which the seeds are pre-imbibed, as well as on the germination temperature. The optimum temperature for germination of U. brizantha shift toward warmer temperatures in primed seeds. Priming effect was more pronounced at temperatures closer to the upper and lower limit for germination, but probably that response cannot be accounted for changes in the thermal time constant (θT(g)) and ceiling temperature (Tc(g)). Otherwise, a decrease in the base temperature (Tb) was observed in primed seeds, suggesting that the Tb distribution in U. brizantha seeds is influenced by priming. PMID:25945643</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27595066"><span id="translatedtitle">Resequencing of Curcuma longa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kedaram through transcriptome profiling reveals various novel transcripts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahoo, Ambika; Jena, Sudipta; Sahoo, Suprava; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Kar, Basudeba</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), of the family Zingiberaceae, is one of the economically as well as medicinally important plant species. It is a sterile, polyploid and vegetatively propagated spice crop cultivated usually in Southeast Asia. In the current study, we carried out re-sequencing through transcriptome profiling of Curcuma longa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kedaram (Cl_Ked_6). We acquired a total of 1 GB raw data by resequencing through paired-end sequencing using Nextseq 500 platform. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in NCBI database with accession number of SRR3928562 with bioproject accession number PRJNA324755. Cufflinks-2.2.1 tool was used for transcriptome assembly which resulted in 39,554 numbers of transcripts. The transcript length ranged from 76 to 15,568, having N50 value of 1221 and median transcript length of 860. We annotated the transcripts using multiple databases. This data will be beneficial for studying sequence variations particularly SNPs between cultivars of turmeric towards authentic identification and discovery of novel functional transcripts in Kedaram. PMID:27595066</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129"><span id="translatedtitle">The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter</p> <p>2014-04-20</p> <p>As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26202971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26202971"><span id="translatedtitle">G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> fluorescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua</p> <p>2015-09-18</p> <p>G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson-Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome. PMID:26202971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796713"><span id="translatedtitle">[In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation. PMID:25796713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenolics from strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi and their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Dan; Xie, Haihui; Jiang, Yueming; Wei, Xiaoyi</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Three new phenolic glucosides, falandiosides A (1), B (2), and C (6) were isolated from strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi fruit, together with three flavone glucuronides (3-5), eleven lignan glycosides (12-22), and five others. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All the known phenolics were reported from strawberry for the first time. They were evaluated for antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Three new and fifteen known phenolics showed potent 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity with IC50 values of 22.50-4.28μM in comparison to l-ascorbic acid (14.21μM). Quercetin 3-(6-methylglucuronide) (4), (+)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (12), and (-)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (13) were active in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Moreover, compounds 12 and 13 had moderate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Further, two new and seven known phenolics exhibited more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 537.43-25.39μM than acarbose (619.94μM). PMID:26471628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561174"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hojiblanca.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., <span class="hlt">cv</span> Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. PMID:23561174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination and Plantlet Regeneration of Encapsulated Microshoots of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3–5 mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1 mg/L BAP, and 0.1 mg/L α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15–30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1 mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds. PMID:22919338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25160909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25160909"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Fusarium wilt resistant somaclonal variants of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali by cDNA-RAPD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is counted among the most destructive diseases of crop plants in India. In the absence of any credible control measure to manage this disease, development of resistant cultivars is the best option. Somaclonal variations arising out of long term in vitro culture of plant tissues is an important source of genetic variability and the selection of somaclones having desired characteristics is a promising strategy to develop plants with improved characters. In the present study, we isolated a group of somaclonal variants of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali which showed efficient resistance towards Foc race 1 infection in repeated bioassays. cDNA-RAPD methodology using 96 decamer primers was used to characterize these somaclonal variants. Among the four differentially amplified bands obtained, one mapping to the coding region of a lipoxygenase gene was confirmed to be down regulated in the somaclones as compared to controls by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results correlated well with earlier studies with lipoxygenase mutants in maize wherein reduced expression of lipoxygenase led to enhanced resistance towards Fusarium infection. PMID:25160909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26871543"><span id="translatedtitle">Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span> Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016. PMID:26871543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=tires&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtires','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=tires&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtires"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the <span class="hlt">CV</span>990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27264640"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bethlehem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax. PMID:27264640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765"><span id="translatedtitle">G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> fluorescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson–Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome. PMID:26202971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1677i0013H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AIPC.1677i0013H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequence analysis of ORF IV RTBV isolated from tungro infected Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ciherang</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Astuti, Dwi; Estiati, Amy; Nugroho, Satya</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Effort to increase rice production is often constrained by pest and disease such as Tungro. The Tungro disease is caused by the joint infection with two dissimilar viruses; a bacil-form-DNA virus, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus(RTBV) and the spherical RNA virus, Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and transmitted by Green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens). The symptom of disease is caused by the presence of RTBV. The genome of RTBV consists of four Open reading frames (ORFs) which encode functional proteins. Of the four, ORF IV is unique because it exists only in RTBV. The most efficient method of generating disease resistance plants is to look for natural sources of resistance genes in wild or germplasm and then transfer the gene and the accompanying resistance in cultivated crop varieties. The aim of this study is, therefore, to isolate and analyze of 1170 bp gene of ORF 4 of Tungro virus isolated from an Indonesian rice cultivar, Ciherang (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Indica). DNA sequencing analysis using BLAST showed 94% similarity with the reference sequence gen bank Acc.M65026.1. The comparisons and mutation analysis of DNA sequences were discussed in this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12749079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12749079"><span id="translatedtitle">Coumarin inhibits the growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Saint Valery) cells in suspension culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sorgonà, Agostino; Sidari, Maria; Badiani, Maurizio; Fuggi, Amodio</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>We used a carrot (Daucus carota L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Saint Valery) cell suspension culture as a simplified model system to study the effects of the allelochemical compound coumarin (1,2 benzopyrone) on cell growth and utilisation of exogenous nitrate, ammonium and carbohydrates. Exposure to micromolar levels of coumarin caused severe inhibition of cell growth starting from the second day of culture onwards. At the same time, the presence of 50 mumol/L coumarin caused accumulation of free amino acids and of ammonium in the cultured cells, and stimulated their glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities. Malate dehydrogenase, on the other hand, was inhibited under the same conditions. These effects were interpreted in terms of the stimulation of protein catabolism and/or interference with protein biosynthesis induced by coumarin. This could have led to a series of compensatory changes in the activities of enzymes linking nitrogen and carbon metabolism. Because coumarin seemed to abolish the exponential phase and to accelerate the onset of the stationary phase of cell growth, we hypothesise that such allelochemical compounds may act in nature as an inhibitor of the cell cycle and/or as a senescence-promoting substance. PMID:12749079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21212957"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 μM acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 μM acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana. PMID:21212957</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B43C0447S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B43C0447S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Transpiration, crop coefficient and water use of Olive tree (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil) in Southern Portugal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, F. L.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Orchard olive transpiration, soil water status and stomatal response in relation to water deficit were investigated to clarify mechanisms of tree water uptake and stomatal control to improve the irrigation scheduling of low-density olive trees of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil grown in typical Mediterranean environment of Southern Portugal. Trees were subject to three irrigation treatments. Treatment A received 100% of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system, a sustained deficit (SDI)treatment B received 60% of crop evapotranspiration, a regulated deficit(RDI) irrigation treatment C received irrigation water before-flowering and just before pit-hardening, and a Dry-farming treatment. Tree and orchard transpiration and the dynamics of water uptake by roots were estimated from sap flow measurements and water balance technique. Stomatal conductance was modeled from local meteorological variables, measured sap flow and tree canopy variables. Higher than treatment A and B stomatal conductance and the high tree fruit production recommend treatment C as most suitable for scheduling irrigation of olive orchards in wet years of well distributed late summer rainfall. For drier years of no summer and early autumn rains that minimizes available water to extract by roots outside the wet bulb of drip irrigation and for the scarce readily available irrigation water years, as so often occurs in the region, the sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) regime seems a better option. Nonetheless, for years of limited available water resources that preclude sustained deficit irrigation, careful management of the proposed RDI could also allow for efficient use of irrigation water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067057','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067057"><span id="translatedtitle">Promotion of Flowering in Brassica campestris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ceres by Sucrose</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Friend, Douglas J. C.; Bodson, Monique; Bernier, Georges</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Flower initiation of the quantitative long-day plant Brassica campestris <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ceres was earlier and at a lower final leaf number when sucrose was added to the medium in which plants were grown in sterile culture. The optimal concentration of sucrose was 40 to 80 millimolar. This flower-promoting effect of sucrose was not osmotic, as mannitol, sodium chloride, and polyethylene glycol were not effective at equal osmotic potentials. Seedlings grown heterotrophically after treatment with 4-chloro-5-(dimethylamino)-2-phenyl-3-(2H)-pyridazinone to prevent chlorophyll accumulation were also induced to form flower primordia earlier as the sucrose concentration in the medium was increased up to 80 millimolar. Inclusion of 4 millimolar sodium nitrate in the culture medium of green plants did not reduce the flower-promoting effects of sucrose but delayed initiation in plants grown without added sucrose. Removal of CO2 during a single main or supplementary light period, or both, greatly reduced flower initiation. It is concluded that sucrose may be an important controlling factor determining floral initiation in Brassica. PMID:16663739</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26358178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26358178"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Insight into Cell Wall Architecture of Micanthus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. using Correlative Microscopy Approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Jianfeng; Lv, Xunli; Yang, Shumin; Tian, Genlin; Liu, Xing'e</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Structural organization of the plant cell wall is a key parameter for understanding anisotropic plant growth and mechanical behavior. Four imaging platforms were used to investigate the cell wall architecture of Miscanthus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. internode tissue. Using transmission electron microscopy with potassium permanganate, we found a great degree of inhomogeneity in the layering structure (4-9 layers) of the sclerenchymatic fiber (Sf). However, the xylem vessel showed a single layer. Atomic force microscopy images revealed that the cellulose microfibrils (Mfs) deposited in the primary wall of the protoxylem vessel (Pxv) were disordered, while the secondary wall was composed of Mfs oriented in parallel in the cross and longitudinal section. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy images indicated no variation in the Mf orientation of Pxv and the Mfs in Pxv were oriented more perpendicular to the cell axis than that of Sfs. Based on the integrated results, we have proposed an architectural model of Pxv composed of two layers: an outermost primary wall composed of a meshwork of Mfs and inner secondary wall containing parallel Mfs. This proposed model will support future ultrastructural analysis of plant cell walls in heterogeneous tissues, an area of increasing scientific interest particularly for liquid biofuel processing. PMID:26358178</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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