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Sample records for muscle relaxant mebeverine

  1. Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant.

    PubMed

    See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina

    2008-08-01

    Skeletal muscle relaxants are widely used in treating musculoskeletal conditions. However, evidence of their effectiveness consists mainly of studies with poor methodologic design. In addition, these drugs have not been proven to be superior to acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for low back pain. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support using skeletal muscle relaxants for short-term relief of acute low back pain when nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen are not effective or tolerated. Comparison studies have not shown one skeletal muscle relaxant to be superior to another. Cyclobenzaprine is the most heavily studied and has been shown to be effective for various musculoskeletal conditions. The sedative properties of tizanidine and cyclobenzaprine may benefit patients with insomnia caused by severe muscle spasms. Methocarbamol and metaxalone are less sedating, although effectiveness evidence is limited. Adverse effects, particularly dizziness and drowsiness, are consistently reported with all skeletal muscle relaxants. The potential adverse effects should be communicated clearly to the patient. Because of limited comparable effectiveness data, choice of agent should be based on side-effect profile, patient preference, abuse potential, and possible drug interactions. PMID:18711953

  2. Identification of mebeverine acid as the main circulating metabolite of mebeverine in man.

    PubMed

    Stockis, Arnel; Guelen, P J M; de Vos, D

    2002-06-20

    The intestinal spasmolytic drug mebeverine is known to undergo fast in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis into mebeverine alcohol and veratric acid. A reversed-phase HPLC method with coulometric detection was developed in order to assay the hitherto unidentified secondary metabolite mebeverine acid. After intake of a single oral dose of 405 mg mebeverine hydrochloride in four healthy human volunteers, peak plasma concentrations of mebeverine acid were found to be 1000-fold higher than those of mebeverine alcohol, i.e. approximately 3 microg/ml versus 3 ng/ml. The appearance of mebeverine acid in plasma (median T(max)=1.25 h) as well as its disappearance (median apparent t(1/2)=1.1 h) were rapid. The urinary excretion of mebeverine acid within the first 4 h after dosing amounted to 67% of the mebeverine dose (median range: 23-107%). Mebeverine acid appears to be a valuable marker of oral exposure to mebeverine. PMID:12062694

  3. Muscle Relaxation Therapy in Hyperkinesis: Is It Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatara, Vinod; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The literature on two forms of muscle relaxation training (electro-myographic (EMG) biofeedback and progressive muscle relaxation) with learning disabled and hyperkinetic children is reviewed and the authors' own study is discussed. (Author/PHR)

  4. Cortex phellodendri Extract Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Chen, Weiwei; Dan, Hong; Tan, Li; Zhu, He; Yang, Guangzhong; Shen, Jinhua; Peng, Yong-Bo; Zhao, Ping; Xue, Lu; Yu, Meng-Fei; Ma, Liqun; Si, Xiao-Tang; Wang, Zhuo; Dai, Jiapei; Qin, Gangjian; Zou, Chunbin; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Cortex phellodendri is used to reduce fever and remove dampness and toxin. Berberine is an active ingredient of C. phellodendri. Berberine from Argemone ochroleuca can relax airway smooth muscle (ASM); however, whether the nonberberine component of C. phellodendri has similar relaxant action was unclear. An n-butyl alcohol extract of C. phellodendri (NBAECP, nonberberine component) was prepared, which completely inhibits high K+- and acetylcholine- (ACH-) induced precontraction of airway smooth muscle in tracheal rings and lung slices from control and asthmatic mice, respectively. The contraction induced by high K+ was also blocked by nifedipine, a selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels. The ACH-induced contraction was partially inhibited by nifedipine and pyrazole 3, an inhibitor of TRPC3 and STIM/Orai channels. Taken together, our data demonstrate that NBAECP can relax ASM by inhibiting L-type Ca2+ channels and TRPC3 and/or STIM/Orai channels, suggesting that NBAECP could be developed to a new drug for relieving bronchospasm. PMID:27239213

  5. Contribution of intracortical inhibition in voluntary muscle relaxation.

    PubMed

    Motawar, Binal; Hur, Pilwon; Stinear, James; Seo, Na Jin

    2012-09-01

    Terminating a voluntary muscle contraction is an important aspect of motor control, and yet, its neurophysiology is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the role of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) by comparing SICIs during relaxation from a power grip versus during a sustained power grip at the matching muscle activity level. Right-handed healthy young adults gripped and relaxed from power grip following auditory cues. The relaxation period was determined as the time for the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle to reach its pre-contraction baseline level after the cue to relax. SICI during relaxation was obtained at different times into the relaxation period in two separate studies (70, 80, 90 % into relaxation in Study 1; 25, 50, 75 % into relaxation in Study 2). In addition, SICI during sustained contraction was assessed while subjects maintained a power grip at the matching FDS EMG levels (obtained during relaxation, for both Studies). Results showed that the mean SICI was greater during relaxation than during sustained contraction at the matching muscle activity level in both Studies (p < 0.05), indicating increased activation of intracortical inhibitory circuits for muscle relaxation. SICI gradually increased from 25 to 50 and 75 % into relaxation (Study 2, p < 0.05), but did not change from 70 to 80 and 90 % into relaxation (Study 1). MEP decreased with progression of relaxation (p < 0.05) in both Studies, reflecting gradual decreases in corticomotor excitability. This work supports the hypothesis that relaxation from a voluntary muscle contraction involves inhibitory activity in the primary motor cortex. PMID:22791231

  6. [Viscoelastic properties of relaxed papillary muscle at physiological hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Smoliuk, L T; Lisin, R V; Kuznetsov, D A; Protsenko, Iu L

    2012-01-01

    Viscoelastic properties of relaxed rat papillary muscles at physiological hypertrophy (intensive swimming for 5 weeks) have been obtained. It has been ascertained that viscoelastic properties of hypertrophied muscles are not significantly distinguished from those of control papillary muscles. A three-dimensional model of myocardial fascicle has been verified in compliance with experimental data of biomechanical tests of hypertrophied muscles. Elastic and viscous parameters of structural elements of the model negligibly differ from the parameters of the model of a control muscle. It is shown that physiological hypertrophy has a slight influence on viscoelastic properties of papillary muscles. PMID:23035537

  7. Caffeine relaxes smooth muscle through actin depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Tazzeo, Tracy; Bates, Genevieve; Roman, Horia Nicolae; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Khasnis, Mukta D; Eto, Masumi; Janssen, Luke J

    2012-08-15

    Caffeine is sometimes used in cell physiological studies to release internally stored Ca(2+). We obtained evidence that caffeine may also act through a different mechanism that has not been previously described and sought to examine this in greater detail. We ruled out a role for phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, since the effect was 1) not reversed by inhibiting PKA or adenylate cyclase; 2) not exacerbated by inhibiting PDE4; and 3) not mimicked by submillimolar caffeine nor theophylline, both of which are sufficient to inhibit PDE. Although caffeine is an agonist of bitter taste receptors, which in turn mediate bronchodilation, its relaxant effect was not mimicked by quinine. After permeabilizing the membrane using β-escin and depleting the internal Ca(2+) store using A23187, we found that 10 mM caffeine reversed tone evoked by direct application of Ca(2+), suggesting it functionally antagonizes the contractile apparatus. Using a variety of molecular techniques, we found that caffeine did not affect phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by MLC kinase, actin-filament motility catalyzed by MLC kinase, phosphorylation of CPI-17 by either protein kinase C or RhoA kinase, nor the activity of MLC-phosphatase. However, we did obtain evidence that caffeine decreased actin filament binding to phosphorylated myosin heads and increased the ratio of globular to filamentous actin in precontracted tissues. We conclude that, in addition to its other non-RyR targets, caffeine also interferes with actin function (decreased binding by myosin, possibly with depolymerization), an effect that should be borne in mind in studies using caffeine to probe excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle. PMID:22683573

  8. The Effects of Exercise on Muscle Tension and Subsequent Muscle Relaxation Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, Linda Farrah

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated effects of acute exercise: (1) on overall body relaxation, as measured by the reaction of the frontalis muscle; and (2) as an aid to biofeedback-induced relaxation. Exercise did not promote generalized relaxation in this study, nor did it affect the learning of biofeedback techniques. (Author/PP)

  9. The origin of biexponential T2 relaxation in muscle water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, W. C.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    Two theories have been proposed to explain the multiexponential transverse relaxation of muscle water protons: "anatomical" and "chemical" compartmentation. In an attempt to obtain evidence to support one or the other of these two theories, interstitial and intracellular macromolecular preparations were studied and compared with rat muscle tissue by proton NMR transverse relaxation (T2) measurements. All macromolecule preparations displayed monoexponential T2 decay. Membrane alteration with DMSO/glycerin did not eliminate the biexponential T2 decay of muscle tissue. Maceration converted biexponential T2 decay of muscle tissue to single exponential decay. It is concluded that the observed two component exponential T2 decay of muscle represents anatomical compartmentation of tissue water, probably intracellular versus extracellular.

  10. Iontophoretic study of speed of action of various muscle relaxants.

    PubMed

    Min, J C; Bekavac, I; Glavinovic, M I; Donati, F; Bevan, D R

    1992-08-01

    The speed of action of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants is inversely related to potency. The hypothesis that this effect occurs at the end plate was tested in a frog (Rana pipiens) cutaneous pectoris muscle preparation. Brief acetylcholine pulses (10-100 ms) were applied iontophoretically from a central barrel of a triple-barrelled microelectrode located near an end plate. Long pulses (10-200 s) of muscle relaxant (gallamine, rocuronium, d-tubocurarine, atracurium, vecuronium, pancuronium, and doxacurium) were applied from one of two other barrels. The responses were a voltage change at the end plate, measured with an intracellular electrode. To evaluate potency, intracellular voltage changes following iontophoretic acetylcholine pulses were measured after application of various concentrations of muscle relaxants. The following were the equilibrium dissociation constants, which represent concentration of relaxant for 50% inhibition of response (mean plus or minus standard deviation): gallamine, 4.56 +/- 0.44 microM (n = 5); rocuronium, 0.71 +/- 0.09 microM (n = 6); d-tubocurarine, 0.59 +/- 0.07 microM (n = 4); atracurium, 0.31 +/- 0.03 microM (n = 4); vecuronium, 0.23 +/- 0.02 microM (n = 5); pancuronium, 0.18 +/- 0.03 microM (n = 3); doxacurium, 0.11 +/- 0.03 microM (n = 5). Both onset and offset of effect of muscle relaxant proceeded with an exponential time course.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1353667

  11. Relaxation rate in the assessment of masseter muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Lyons, M F; Aggarwal, A

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a simple method of measuring relaxation rate in the jaw-closing system for the purpose of quantifying jaw muscle fatigue. A summary of the various different methods of measuring relaxation rate is also provided. The rates of twitch contraction and relaxation were measured in 30 symptom-free subjects following bilateral direct electrical stimulation of the masseter muscles. The resulting twitch force was recorded via a force transducer placed between the anterior teeth. The transducer was held between the teeth with as little force as possible while four single stimuli were delivered at 5-s intervals. The stimulating electrodes were then removed and replaced and the experiment was repeated. The force records of the resulting twitches were averaged and the half-contraction time, twitch amplitude and half-relaxation time were measured. There was a significant difference in half-relaxation time between males and females, being faster in females (P=0.0045, independent t-test). No significant difference was found in twitch amplitude and half-contraction time between males and females. Half-relaxation time and half-contraction time were independent of twitch amplitude. This method of measuring the relaxation rate of the masseter muscles was found to be practical and the results were reproducible between sessions. PMID:11298267

  12. Study on contraction and relaxation of experimentally denervated and immobilized muscles: Comparison with dystrophic muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takamori, M.; Tsujihata, M.; Mori, M.; Hazama, R.; Ide, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The contraction-relaxation mechanism of experimentally denervated and immobilized muscles of the rabbit is examined. Results are compared with those of human dystrophic muscles, in order to elucidate the role and extent of the neurotrophic factor, and the role played by the intrinsic activity of muscle in connection with pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this disease.

  13. Effect of maximum ventilation on abdominal muscle relaxation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Kyroussis, D.; Mills, G. H.; Polkey, M. I.; Hamnegard, C. H.; Wragg, S.; Road, J.; Green, M.; Moxham, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When the demand placed on the respiratory system is increased, the abdominal muscles become vigorously active to achieve expiration and facilitate subsequent inspiration. Abdominal muscle function could limit ventilatory capacity and a method to detect abdominal muscle fatigue would be of value. The maximum relaxation rate (MRR) of skeletal muscle has been used as an early index of the onset of the fatiguing process and precedes failure of force generation. The aim of this study was to measure MRR of abdominal muscles and to investigate whether it slows after maximum isocapnic ventilation (MIV). METHODS: Five normal subjects were studied. Each performed short sharp expiratory efforts against a 3 mm orifice before and immediately after a two minute MIV. Gastric pressure (PGA) was recorded and MRR (% pressure fall/10 ms) for each PGA trace was determined. RESULTS: Before MIV the mean (SD) maximum PGA MRR for the five subjects was 7.1 (0.8)% peak pressure fall/10 ms. Following MIV mean PGA MRR was decreased by 30% (range 25-35%), returning to control values within 5-10 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The MRR of the abdominal muscles, measured from PGA, is numerically similar to that described for the diaphragm and other skeletal muscles. After two minutes of maximal isocapnic ventilation abdominal muscle MRR slows, indicating that these muscles are sufficiently heavily loaded to initiate the fatiguing process. PMID:8711679

  14. Muscle Relaxation of the Foot Reduces Corticospinal Excitability of Hand Muscles and Enhances Intracortical Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kouki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Kento; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study was to clarify the effects of foot muscle relaxation on activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) of the hand area. Subjects were asked to volitionally relax the right foot from sustained contraction of either the dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior; TA relaxation) or plantarflexor (soleus; SOL relaxation) in response to an auditory stimulus. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left M1 at different time intervals before and after the onset of TA or SOL relaxation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR caused by single-pulse TMS temporarily decreased after TA and SOL relaxation onset, respectively, as compared with those of the resting control. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of ECR evaluated with paired-pulse TMS temporarily increased after TA relaxation onset. Our findings indicate that muscle relaxation of the dorsiflexor reduced corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral hand muscles. This is most likely caused by an increase in intracortical inhibition. PMID:27242482

  15. Muscle Relaxation of the Foot Reduces Corticospinal Excitability of Hand Muscles and Enhances Intracortical Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kouki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Kento; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study was to clarify the effects of foot muscle relaxation on activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) of the hand area. Subjects were asked to volitionally relax the right foot from sustained contraction of either the dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior; TA relaxation) or plantarflexor (soleus; SOL relaxation) in response to an auditory stimulus. Single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left M1 at different time intervals before and after the onset of TA or SOL relaxation. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR). MEP amplitudes of ECR and FCR caused by single-pulse TMS temporarily decreased after TA and SOL relaxation onset, respectively, as compared with those of the resting control. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) of ECR evaluated with paired-pulse TMS temporarily increased after TA relaxation onset. Our findings indicate that muscle relaxation of the dorsiflexor reduced corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral hand muscles. This is most likely caused by an increase in intracortical inhibition. PMID:27242482

  16. Effects of muscle relaxation on sustained contraction of ipsilateral remote muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kouki; Watanabe, Tasuku; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the temporal change of muscle activity during relaxation of ipsilateral remote muscles. While participants maintained a constant right wrist extensor isometric force, they dorsiflexed the ipsilateral ankle from resting position or relaxed from dorsiflexed position in response to an audio signal. The wrist extensor force magnitude increased in the 0–400 msec period after the onset of foot contraction compared to that of the resting condition (P < 0.05). On the other hand, wrist extensor force magnitude and electromyographic (EMG) activity decreased in the 0–400 msec period after the onset of ankle dorsiflexion compared to that of the resting condition (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that foot muscle relaxation induces temporal reduction in hand muscle EMG activity and force magnitude. PMID:26611464

  17. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Nogara, Leonardo; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  19. Muscle relaxation techniques: a therapeutic tool for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, M. S.; Thomas, M. R.; Leith, M. G.

    1984-01-01

    Muscle relaxation techniques are important adjunctive therapy for anxiety-related conditions. Family physicians can learn to teach the techniques so as to try helping anxious patients themselves rather than automatically referring them to a psychiatrist. The exercises are generally acceptable to patients, are easy to learn and do not require expensive equipment. They are beneficial in insomnia and tension headache, of some value in chronic anxiety states and a useful adjunct in hypertension. In this paper the evidence supporting the value of muscle relaxation therapy is briefly reviewed, methods of teaching and of practising the techniques are described in detail, and answers to some of the questions and problems that may arise are presented. PMID:6365300

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation in muscle water.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, B M; Puon, P S

    1981-01-01

    The origin of the nonexponentiality of proton spin echoes of skeletal muscle has been carefully examined. It is shown that the slowly decaying part of the proton spin echoes is not due to extracellular water. First, for muscle from mice with in vivo deuteration, the deuteron spin echoes were also nonexponential, but the slowly decaying part had a larger weighing factor. Second, for glycerinated muscle in which cell membranes were disrupted, the proton spin echoes were similar to those in intact muscle. Third, the nonexponentiality of the proton spin echoes in intact muscle increased when postmortem rigor set in. Finally, when the lifetimes of extracellular water and intracellular water were taken into account in the exchange, it was found that the two types of water would not give two resolvable exponentials with the observed decay constants. It is suggested that the unusually short T2's and the nonexponential character of the spin echoes of proton and deuteron in muscle water are mainly due to hydrogen exchange between water and functional groups in the protein filaments. These groups have large dipolar or quadrupolar splittings, and undergo hydrogen exchange with water at intermediate rates. The exchange processes and their effects on the spin echoes are pH-dependent. The dependence of transverse relaxation of pH was observed in glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibers. PMID:7272437

  1. Potency of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants on muscle-type acetylcholine receptors in denervated mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Yang, Bin; Han, Guang-wei; Li, Shi-tong

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the changing resistance to nondepolarizing muscle relaxants (NDMRs) during the first month after denervation. Methods: The denervated and innervated skeletal muscle cells were examined on days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after denervation. Individual denervated and innervated cells were prepared from the flexor digitorum brevis of the surgically denervated and contralateral hind feet, respectively. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the cells were activated with 30 μmol/L acetylcholine, either alone or in combination with various concentrations of vecuronium. Currents were recorded using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Results: The concentrations of vecuronium resulting in half-maximal inhibitory responses (IC50) increased 1.2- (P>0.05), 1.7-, 3.7-, 2.5-, 1.9-, and 1.8-fold (P<0.05) at Days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after denervation, respectively, compared to the innervated control. Resistance to vecuronium appeared at Day 4, peaked at Day 7, and declined at Day 14 after denervation. Nevertheless, IC50 values at Day 28 remained significantly higher than those for the innervated control, suggesting that the resistance to vecuronium had not disappeared at Day 28. Conclusion: The NDMR doses required to achieve satisfactory clinical effects differ at different times after muscle denervation. PMID:21102480

  2. A comparison of mebeverine with high-fibre dietary advice and mebeverine plus ispaghula in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an open, prospectively randomised, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, N D; Grillage, M G; Mazumder, R; Atkinson, S N

    1990-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and acceptability of mebeverine and high-fibre dietary advice versus mebeverine and ispaghula in fixed combination in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. DESIGN Open, prospectively randomised, parallel group comparison of mebeverine/dietary advice and mebeverine/ispaghula during an eight-week study period. SETTING General practices in the UK. PATIENTS One hundred and eleven patients with irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed by symptom profile or negative investigations between the ages of 18 and 75 years were entered. All patients had a history of abdominal pain occurring at least once a week for a period of three months or more. INTERVENTION Dosage was 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride, three times daily before meals, together with advice on high-fibre dietary intake, or 135 mg of mebeverine hydrochloride plus 3.5 g of ispaghula husk twice or three times daily before meals. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Details of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bowel frequency and stool consistency were recorded by means of clinicians' assessments and patient diaries. Pre-treatment assessments revealed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the parameters. Both treatment groups demonstrated highly significant improvements in the numbers of pain attacks and their severity; no statistically significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated. Five patients in the mebeverine/dietary advice group reported five concurrent effects and nine patients in the mebeverine/ispaghula group reported 13 concurrent effects. All of the mebeverine/dietary advice group found their treatment acceptable but up to 28% of the mebeverine/ispaghula group found their treatment unpalatable. CONCLUSION Both treatments are effective in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in adults. The fixed combination of mebeverine/ispaghula, however, was found to be unpalatable by up to 28% of the patients in that group

  3. Late cortical disinhibition in relaxed versus active hand muscles.

    PubMed

    Caux-Dedeystère, A; Derambure, P; Devanne, H

    2015-07-01

    Recent research suggests that long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is followed by a transitory period of late cortical disinhibition (LCD) that can even lead to a net increase in cortical excitability. The relationship between LICI/LCD and voluntary drive remains poorly understood. Our study aims at investigating the influence of index abduction on LICI and LCD in an actively engaged muscle and a neighboring muscle, while varying the intensity of the conditioning stimulus (CS). Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles in 13 subjects. Paired-pulses were delivered with 10 different interstimulus intervals (ranging from 60 to 290 ms). Whatever the condition (relaxed or active FDI), the test stimulus was set to evoke an MEP of 1mV. The time course of conditioned MEP amplitude was compared for relaxed and active conditions when the CS intensity was set to (i) 130% of the rest motor threshold (RMT) or (ii) to evoke the same size of MEP under both conditions. LICI lasted longer (i.e. disinhibition occurred later) at rest than during abduction when evoked either by similar or matched conditioning stimuli. No post-LICI facilitation was observed at rest - even when the CS intensity was set to 160% RMT. In contrast, long-interval intracortical facilitation (LICF) was observed in the quiescent ADM when FDI was active. LICF may then be associated with voluntary activity albeit with lack of topographic specificity. PMID:25888934

  4. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Measurements in Frog Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Edward D.; Homer, Louis D.

    1974-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements are reported for frog muscle as a function of temperature and Larmor frequency. Each T1ρ, T2, and T1 measurement covered a time domain sufficient to identify the average relaxation time for most intracellular water. Using regression analysis the data were fit with a model where intracellular water molecules are exchanging between a large compartment in which mobility is similar to ordinary water and a small compartment in which motion is restricted. The regression results suggest that: the restricted compartment exhibits a distribution of motions skewed toward that of free water; the residence time of water molecules in the restricted compartment is approximately 1 ms; and, the activation entropy for some water molecules in the restricted compartment is negative. PMID:4547668

  5. Motor imagery of voluntary muscle relaxation induces temporal reduction of corticospinal excitability.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kouki; Watanabe, Jun; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Voluntary muscle relaxation is an "active process" requiring cortical activation. However, cortical activation during motor imagery of muscle relaxation has not been well understood. The purpose of this study was to clarify time-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability during the imagery of muscle relaxation. Ten participants imagined volitional muscle relaxation from an imagined pinching with their right index finger and thumb in response to an auditory cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied at the left primary motor area of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at different time intervals after the auditory cue. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right hand and forearm muscles. The MEP amplitudes of the FDI and the synergist temporally decreased after the auditory cue as compared with those present in the resting condition. Our finding indicates that motor imagery of muscle relaxation induces a temporal reduction of the corticospinal excitability related to the targeted muscle. PMID:25448688

  6. The comparative effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics and muscle relaxants on electrical field stimulation response in rat bladder smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Min, Chang Ho; Min, Young Sil; Lee, Sang Joon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-06-01

    It has been reported that several aminoglycoside antibiotics have a potential of prolonging the action of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants by drug interactions acting pre-synaptically to inhibit acetylcholine release, but antibiotics itself also have a strong effect on relaxing the smooth muscle. In this study, four antibiotics of aminoglycosides such as gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin and neomycin were compared with skeletal muscle relaxants baclofen, tubocurarine, pancuronium and succinylcholine, and a smooth muscle relaxant, papaverine. The muscle strips isolated from the rat bladder were stimulated with pulse trains of 40 V in amplitude and 10 s in duration, with pulse duration of 1 ms at the frequency of 1-8 Hz, at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 Hz respectively. To test the effect of four antibiotics on bladder smooth muscle relaxation, each of them was treated cumulatively from 1 μM to 0.1 mM with an interval of 5 min. Among the four antibiotics, gentamicin and neomycin inhibited the EFS response. The skeletal muscle relaxants (baclofen, tubocurarine, pancuronium and succinylcholine) and inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA and glycine) did not show any significant effect. However, papaverine, had a significant effect in the relaxation of the smooth muscle. It was suggested that the aminoglycoside antibiotics have inhibitory effect on the bladder smooth muscle. PMID:27260628

  7. Muscle relaxants--the current position in the treatment of spasticity in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tone often exists concomitantly with pain symptoms in different neurological and orthopaedic disease entities. In order to overcome that painful symptom, it is crucial to integrate painkillers with adjunctive therapy using muscle relaxants which decrease the muscle tone. Muscle relaxants available in pharmaceutical trade suppress motor outflow through different mechanisms of action, these include drugs such as: Tizanidine, botulinum toxin, Baclofen, Tolperisone, Methocarbamol. Combining muscle relaxants with analgesics significantly improves the effectiveness of the treatment and allows to reduce drugs doses. PMID:26468180

  8. [Muscle relaxants in the morphometric study of the respiratory muscles in human beings].

    PubMed

    Aguar, M C; Gea, J; Orozco-Levi, M; Corominas, J; Pastó, M; Broquetas, J M

    1995-10-01

    The morphological examination of respiratory muscle can be affected by muscular contraction following biopsy. Most morphometric studies of respiratory muscles, however, have been carried out without taking into account this factor, the effect of which can be reduced by using relaxants when taking samples. Objective. To examine the effect of using a relaxant in the morphometric analysis of muscle fibers. We examined 31 muscle samples from 7 patients. Immediately after removal, each pipe was divided in half. One was placed in an isotonic physiological solution and the other in a solution of curare 0.02%. Later, both samples were processed for morphometric study with ATP-ase, NADTH and PAS tincture. Morphological data recorded for the different types of fibers included measurement of minimum diameter (Dmin), atrophy and hypertrophy indices (AI and HI) and heterogeneity of distribution (SDDmin). The Dmin was smaller in fibers transported in a curare solution than in those transported in physiological solution (67 +/- 2 microns vs. 71 +/- microns, p < 0.05). The same was true of SDDmin (13 +/- 3 vs. 12 +/- 3, p < 0.05), HI (300 +/- 88 vs. 457 +/- 107, p < 0.05). Likewise, we found a similar direct correlation between size of fibers processed with physiological solution and those processed in curare (Dmin, r = 0.731, p < 0.001; HI, r = 0.827, p < 0.001; SDDmin, r = 0.636, p < 0.0001). The use of relaxants in processing muscle samples prevents contraction and should be used systematically in the morphological analysis of muscle fibers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582429

  9. Time Course of Corticospinal Excitability and Intracortical Inhibition Just before Muscle Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Tomotaka; Sugawara, Kenichi; Ogahara, Kakuya; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we investigated how short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was involved with transient motor cortex (M1) excitability changes observed just before the transition from muscle contraction to muscle relaxation. Ten healthy participants performed a simultaneous relaxation task of the ipsilateral finger and foot, relaxing from 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force after the go signal. In the simple reaction time (RT) paradigm, single or paired TMS pulses were randomly delivered after the go signal, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We analyzed the time course prior to the estimated relaxation reaction time (RRT), defined here as the onset of voluntary relaxation. SICI decreased in the 80–100 ms before RRT, and MEPs were significantly greater in amplitude in the 60–80 ms period before RRT than in the other intervals in single-pulse trials. TMS pulses did not effectively increase RRT. These results show that cortical excitability in the early stage, before muscle relaxation, plays an important role in muscle relaxation control. SICI circuits may vary between decreased and increased activation to continuously maintain muscle relaxation during or after a relaxation response. With regard to M1 excitability dynamics, we suggest that SICI also dynamically changes throughout the muscle relaxation process. PMID:26858619

  10. Time Course of Corticospinal Excitability and Intracortical Inhibition Just before Muscle Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomotaka; Sugawara, Kenichi; Ogahara, Kakuya; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we investigated how short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was involved with transient motor cortex (M1) excitability changes observed just before the transition from muscle contraction to muscle relaxation. Ten healthy participants performed a simultaneous relaxation task of the ipsilateral finger and foot, relaxing from 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force after the go signal. In the simple reaction time (RT) paradigm, single or paired TMS pulses were randomly delivered after the go signal, and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We analyzed the time course prior to the estimated relaxation reaction time (RRT), defined here as the onset of voluntary relaxation. SICI decreased in the 80-100 ms before RRT, and MEPs were significantly greater in amplitude in the 60-80 ms period before RRT than in the other intervals in single-pulse trials. TMS pulses did not effectively increase RRT. These results show that cortical excitability in the early stage, before muscle relaxation, plays an important role in muscle relaxation control. SICI circuits may vary between decreased and increased activation to continuously maintain muscle relaxation during or after a relaxation response. With regard to M1 excitability dynamics, we suggest that SICI also dynamically changes throughout the muscle relaxation process. PMID:26858619

  11. Smooth muscle relaxing flavonoids and terpenoids from Conyza filaginoides.

    PubMed

    Mata, R; Rojas, A; Acevedo, L; Estrada, S; Calzada, F; Rojas, I; Bye, R; Linares, E

    1997-02-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the smooth muscle relaxing, chloroform-methanol (1:1) extract of Conyza filaginoides (D.C.) Hieron (Asteraceae) led to the isolation of three flavonoids (quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin, and pinostrobin), one sterol (alpha-spinasterol), a sesquiterpenoid (beta-caryophyllene 4,5-alpha-oxide), and two triterpenoids (erythrodiol and 3-beta-tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene). 3-beta-Tridecanoyloxy-28-hydroxy-olean-12-ene is a new naturally occurring terpenoid. All the isolated compounds induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous contractions of rat ileum. The spasmolytic activity exhibited by the extract and active principles tends to support the traditional use of C filaginoides as an antispasmodic agent. PMID:9063094

  12. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Therapy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeng Jin; Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation therapy (PMRT) on cortisol level, the Stress Arousal Checklist (SACL) score, blood pressure, and heart rate in colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Forty-six patients were divided into control and experimental groups. Cortisol levels, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before surgery and between 8:00 and 11:00 a.m. on the first, third, and fifth days after surgery. SACL score was measured before surgery and on the fifth day after surgery at the same time points. PMRT was performed twice a day for 5 days. Analyses of covariance with advanced covariate levels and t tests showed that PMRT helps colorectal cancer patients achieve a lower stress response and provides an important basis for stress control. PMID:26945016

  13. Oxygen mediates vascular smooth muscle relaxation in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Dada, Jessica; Pinder, Andrew G; Lang, Derek; James, Philip E

    2013-01-01

    The activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by nitric oxide (NO) and other ligands has been extensively investigated for many years. In the present study we considered the effect of molecular oxygen (O2) on sGC both as a direct ligand and its affect on other ligands by measuring cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production, as an index of activity, as well as investigating smooth muscle relaxation under hypoxic conditions. Our isolated enzyme studies confirm the function of sGC is impaired under hypoxic conditions and produces cGMP in the presence of O2, importantly in the absence of NO. We also show that while O2 could partially affect the magnitude of sGC stimulation by NO when the latter was present in excess, activation by the NO independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) was unaffected. Our in vitro investigation of smooth muscle relaxation confirmed that O2 alone in the form of a buffer bolus (equilibrated at 95% O2/5% CO2) had the ability to dilate vessels under hypoxic conditions and that this was dependent upon sGC and independent of eNOS. Our studies confirm that O2 can be a direct and important mediator of vasodilation through an increase in cGMP production. In the wider context, these observations are key to understanding the relative roles of O2 versus NO-induced sGC activation. PMID:23451175

  14. Oxygen Mediates Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxation in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Derek; James, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) by nitric oxide (NO) and other ligands has been extensively investigated for many years. In the present study we considered the effect of molecular oxygen (O2) on sGC both as a direct ligand and its affect on other ligands by measuring cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production, as an index of activity, as well as investigating smooth muscle relaxation under hypoxic conditions. Our isolated enzyme studies confirm the function of sGC is impaired under hypoxic conditions and produces cGMP in the presence of O2, importantly in the absence of NO. We also show that while O2 could partially affect the magnitude of sGC stimulation by NO when the latter was present in excess, activation by the NO independent, haem-dependent sGC stimulator 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) was unaffected. Our in vitro investigation of smooth muscle relaxation confirmed that O2 alone in the form of a buffer bolus (equilibrated at 95% O2/5% CO2) had the ability to dilate vessels under hypoxic conditions and that this was dependent upon sGC and independent of eNOS. Our studies confirm that O2 can be a direct and important mediator of vasodilation through an increase in cGMP production. In the wider context, these observations are key to understanding the relative roles of O2 versus NO-induced sGC activation. PMID:23451175

  15. Modification of motor cortex excitability during muscle relaxation in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Kenichi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Suzuki, Tomotaka; Saitoh, Kei; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We postulated that gradual muscle relaxation during motor learning would dynamically change activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) and modify short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI). Thus, we compared changes in M1 excitability both pre and post motor learning during gradual muscle relaxation. Thirteen healthy participants were asked to gradually relax their muscles from an isometric right wrist extension (30% maximum voluntary contraction; MVC) using a tracking task for motor learning. Single or paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied at either 20% or 80% of the downward force output during muscle release from 30% MVC, and we compared the effects of motor learning immediately after the 1st and 10th blocks. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the extensor and flexor carpi radialis (ECR and FCR) were then measured and compared to evaluate their relationship before and after motor learning. In both muscles and each downward force output, motor cortex excitability during muscle relaxation was significantly increased following motor learning. In the ECR, the SICI in the 10th block was significantly increased during the 80% waveform decline compared to the SICI in the 1st block. In the FCR, the SICI also exhibited a greater inhibitory effect when muscle relaxation was terminated following motor learning. During motor training, acquisition of the ability to control muscle relaxation increased the SICI in both the ECR and FCR during motor termination. This finding aids in our understanding of the cortical mechanisms that underlie muscle relaxation during motor learning. PMID:26341320

  16. Relaxant effect of 6-deoxyclitoriacetal on smooth muscle preparations.

    PubMed

    Itthipanichpong, C; Ruangrungsi, N; Saibundasak, K

    2001-06-01

    The pharmacological effect of 6-deoxyclitoriacetal (6-DA), a rotenoid compound isolated from the roots of Clitoria macrophylla Wall. (Papilionaceae), was examined on different smooth muscle preparations. 6-Deoxyclitoriacetal 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous contraction of isolated rat uterus. It also suppressed the contraction induced by acetylcholine 5x10(-6) M and oxytocin 5x10(-3) IU/ml. The cumulative contractile responses of rat aortic strips caused by serotonin 10(-8)-10(-4) M and norepinephrine 10(-11)-10(-7) M were reduced by 6-DA 0.4 mg/ml. In calcium free Kreb's solution, 6-DA inhibited the aortic contraction produced by a cumulative dose of calcium chloride (0.1-30 mM). In guinea-pig ileum, 6-DA 0.15 mg/ml exerted the spasmolytic activity by inhibition of the contractile response evoked by various contractile agents e.g. acetylcholine 10(-9)-10(-5) M, serotonin 10(-9)-10(-5) M and histamine 10(-9)-10(-5) M. All of the results indicated that 6-DA could induce a smooth muscle relaxant effect by interference with intracellular calcium metabolism. PMID:11529336

  17. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Female Health Care Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, A; Ray, M; Saldanha, D; Bandopadhyay, AK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing population, fast paced industrialization, increased, competitiveness, unanticipated problems in the work place have increased the stress among the females working in health care in recent times. Aim: The aim of the following study is to detect the stress levels among female health care professionals in the age group of 25-35 years and its impact on health. Subjects and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional pilot project was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern part of India, after receiving approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and informed consent form was taken from the subjects. Stress level in the subjects was assessed according to the presumptive life event stress scale. Females with scores above 200 were selected. For these, initial assessment of anthropometric measurement, electrocardiogram and lipid profile analysis, resting pulse rate, blood pressure, physical fitness index (PFI), breath holding time (BHT), isometric hand grip (IHG) test results were evaluated and recorded. All subjects were given training of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for 3 months. After 3 months, the lipid profile and vital parameters, Perceived Stress Scale values were re-evaluated and subjects were asked to repeat the same exercises and data thus recorded were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.). Results: Significant decrease in resting heart rate, blood pressure and Perceived Stress Scale levels was seen after PMR training in the subjects. Results of BHT, IHG tests and PFI were significantly increased after PMR training. There was a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subjects after practicing PMR for 3 months. Conclusions: Increasing stress among female health care professionals is a cause for concern and there is a need to adopt early life

  18. Multivariable Dynamic Ankle Mechanical Impedance With Relaxed Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunglae; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Neurological or biomechanical disorders may distort ankle mechanical impedance and thereby impair locomotor function. This paper presents a quantitative characterization of multivariable ankle mechanical impedance of young healthy subjects when their muscles were relaxed, to serve as a baseline to compare with pathophysiological ankle properties of biomechanically and/or neurologically impaired patients. Measurements using a highly backdrivable wearable ankle robot combined with multi-input multi-output stochastic system identification methods enabled reliable characterization of ankle mechanical impedance in two degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) simultaneously, the sagittal and frontal planes. The characterization included important ankle properties unavailable from single DOF studies: coupling between DOFs and anisotropy as a function of frequency. Ankle impedance in joint coordinates showed responses largely consistent with a second-order system consisting of inertia, viscosity, and stiffness in both seated (knee flexed) and standing (knee straightened) postures. Stiffness in the sagittal plane was greater than in the frontal plane and furthermore, was greater when standing than when seated, most likely due to the stretch of bi-articular muscles (medial and lateral gastrocnemius). Very low off-diagonal partial coherences implied negligible coupling between dorsiflexion-plantarflexion and inversion-eversion. The directions of principal axes were tilted slightly counterclockwise from the original joint coordinates. The directional variation (anisotropy) of ankle impedance in the 2-D space formed by rotations in the sagittal and frontal planes exhibited a characteristic “peanut” shape, weak in inversion-eversion over a wide range of frequencies from the stiffness dominated region up to the inertia dominated region. Implications for the assessment of neurological and biomechanical impairments are discussed. PMID:24686292

  19. Different magnitude of resistance to nondepolarizing muscle relaxants in the denervated mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Yang, Bin; Xu, Yong-fu; Yan, Tao; Li, Shi-tong

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that different magnitude of resistance of denervated skeletal muscle to nondepolarizing muscle relaxants (NDMRs) is related to their varying potencies at ɛ-AChR and γ-AChR. Methods: Both innervated and denervated mouse muscle cells, and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing ɛ-AChR or γ-AChR were used. The effects of NDMRs on nAChR were explored using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results: NDMRs vecuronium (VEC), atracurium (ATR) and rocuronium (ROC) produced reversible, dose-dependent inhibition on the currents induced by 30 μmol/L acetylcholine both in innervated and denervated skeletal muscle cells. Compared to those obtained in innervated skeletal muscle cells, denervation shifted the concentration-response curves rightward and significantly increased the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values (VEC: from 11.2 to 39.2 nmol/L, P<0.01; ATR: from 24.4 to 129.0 nmol/L, P<0.01; ROC: from 37.9 to 101.4 nmol/L, P<0.01). In HEK293 cell expression system, ATR was less potent at γ-AChR than ɛ-AChR (IC50 values: 35.9 vs 22.3 nmol/L, P<0.01), VEC was equipotent at both receptor subtypes (IC50 values: 9.9 vs 10.2 nmol/L, P>0.05), while ROC was more potent at γ-AChR than ɛ-AChR (IC50 values: 22.3 vs 33.5 nmol/L, P<0.05). Conclusion: Magnitude differences of resistance to different NDMRs caused by denervation are associated with distinct potencies of NDMRs at nAChR subtypes. PMID:20305678

  20. Is systematic preoperative screening for muscle relaxant and latex allergy advisable?

    PubMed

    Porri, F; Pradal, M; Rud, C; Charpin, D; Alazia, M; Gouin, F; Vervloet, D

    1995-04-01

    We investigated a female population prior to general anaesthesia, using skin prick tests with latex and muscle relaxants to appraise the validity and feasibility of a systematic preoperative screening for these substances. Anaesthetists performed skin tests, and positive and doubtful tests were checked in our allergy department. Of 114 patients, 42 had uninterpretable tests because of dermographism (28 patients) or suppression of skin reactivity (14 patients). Among the other 72, nine had a positive or doubtful test to latex, and seven a positive or doubtful test to one or more muscle relaxants. After checking, only four sensitizations to latex and one to muscle relaxant were confirmed. In conclusion, a systematic screening for latex and muscle relaxant allergy is not advisable. In contrast, screening for latex allergy in selected high-risk groups (spina bifida, health-care workers) is necessary. PMID:7573824

  1. Anaphylaxis to muscle relaxants: rational for skin tests.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2002-09-01

    IgE-dependent allergy to muscle relaxants (MR) has an estimated prevalence of 1 out of 6500 General Anesthesias (GA). 62% of anaphylaxis during surgery are due to MR anaphylaxis. All the molecules are divalent, carrying two NH4+ epitopes (quaternary ammonium ions), either structurally or after rapid in vivo protonization (vecuronium). The excellent overall performance of skin test makes them the golden standard for the diagnosis of anaphylactoid reactions. Techniques include intradermal tests and prick-tests. The current localizations are the forearm and the back. Positivity criteria are 3 mm for prick-tests. For IDTs, the criterium is the doubling of the size of the injection papula, when 0.02 to 0.04 ml is injected: 8 mm. The recommended concentrations are not falsely negative. Commercial concentrations can be tested by prick tests, except for mivacurium and atracurium tested of 1:10 dilution. A scale of concentrations is advised for IDT starting with 1:10,000, up to a normally non reactive concentration that is: 100 micrograms/ml (succinylcholine), 200 micrograms/ml (gallamine), 10 micrograms/ml (atracurium), 2 micrograms/ml (mivacurium), 200 micrograms/ml (pancuronium), 400 micrograms/ml (vecuronium), 1,000 micrograms/ml (rocuronium), 200 micrograms/ml (cis atracurium). The specificity and sensitivity of the skin tests to MRs are greater than 95%. The reproducibility over years is 88%. The overall concordance of PT and IDR is 97%. Both types of tests can be used for the diagnosis. IDT have to be carried out for the search of the cross sensitization. 84% of patients do have cross sensitization to MRs but only 16% react to all MRs. The further use of MRs selected by negative IDTs has been proved to be safe. PMID:12389445

  2. Respiratory Muscle Paralysis Associated With Colistin, Polymyxin B, and Muscle Relaxants Drugs: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Myint, Thein; Evans, Martin E; Burgess, Donna R; Greenberg, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    Polymyxins B and E (colistin) exert a bactericidal effect on the gram-negative bacterial cell wall, causing permeability changes in the cytoplasmic membrane, leading to cell death. Their use was substantially decreased in clinical practice from the 1970s to 2000s due to their significant nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity compared to the newly introduced antibiotics. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria infections in this century has led to an upsurge in the use of these "older" drugs. Respiratory paralysis caused by neuromuscular blockage associated with the use of polymyxin B and E was reported mostly in literature published in the 1960s to 1970s with a few reports after 2000. In addition, such a reaction might be enhanced by the presence of other classes of drugs. We report a case of polymyxin B and E-induced apnea in a patient receiving "muscle relaxants." PMID:27047979

  3. Respiratory Muscle Paralysis Associated With Colistin, Polymyxin B, and Muscle Relaxants Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Thein; Evans, Martin E.; Burgess, Donna R.; Greenberg, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    Polymyxins B and E (colistin) exert a bactericidal effect on the gram-negative bacterial cell wall, causing permeability changes in the cytoplasmic membrane, leading to cell death. Their use was substantially decreased in clinical practice from the 1970s to 2000s due to their significant nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity compared to the newly introduced antibiotics. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria infections in this century has led to an upsurge in the use of these “older” drugs. Respiratory paralysis caused by neuromuscular blockage associated with the use of polymyxin B and E was reported mostly in literature published in the 1960s to 1970s with a few reports after 2000. In addition, such a reaction might be enhanced by the presence of other classes of drugs. We report a case of polymyxin B and E–induced apnea in a patient receiving “muscle relaxants.” PMID:27047979

  4. Stress Testing Recovery EMG for Evaluation of Biofeedback and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Wesley E.; DeGood, Douglas E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess biofeedback (BF) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and placebo-control training by means of a post-training transfer test. The subjects for the research were 30 women. Initial tests consisted of measuring the electromyographic response of the frontalis muscle of the forehead to stress. After…

  5. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  6. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  7. Nitric Oxide-mediated Relaxation by High K in Human Gastric Longitudinal Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Chul; Choi, Woong; Yun, Hyo-Young; Sung, Rohyun; Yoo, Ra Young; Park, Seon-Mee; Yun, Sei Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung; Song, Young-Jin; Xu, Wen-Xie; Lee, Sang Jin

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to elucidate high-K(+)induced response of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle from human gastric corpus using isometric contraction. Contraction from circular and longitudinal muscle stripes of gastric corpus greater curvature and lesser curvature were compared. Circular smooth muscle from corpus greater curvature showed high K(+) (50 mM)-induced tonic contraction. On the contrary, however, longitudinal smooth muscle strips showed high K(+) (50 mM)-induced sustained relaxation. To find out the reason for the discrepancy we tested several relaxation mechanisms. Protein kinase blockers like KT5720, PKA inhibitor, and KT5823, PKG inhibitor, did not affect high K(+)-induced relaxation. K(+) channel blockers like tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin (APA), glibenclamide (Glib) and barium (Ba(2+)) also had no effect. However, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo (4,3-A) quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and 4-AP (4-aminopyridine), voltage-dependent K(+) channel (K(V)) blocker, inhibited high K(+)-induced relaxation, hence reversing to tonic contraction. High K(+)-induced relaxation was observed in gastric corpus of human stomach, but only in the longitudinal muscles from greater curvature not lesser curvature. L-NNA, ODQ and K(V) channel blocker sensitive high K(+)-induced relaxation in longitudinal muscle of higher portion of corpus was also observed. These results suggest that longitudinal smooth muscle from greater curvature of gastric corpus produced high K(+)-induced relaxation which was activated by NO/sGC pathway and by K(V) channel dependent mechanism. PMID:22359479

  8. Endothelial-dependent relaxant actions of carbachol and substance P in arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Bolton, T B; Clapp, L H

    1986-04-01

    In helical strips cut from the small mesenteric artery of guinea-pig (GPSMA) (0.3-0.6 mm o.d.) relaxations induced by substance P were more susceptible to damage of the endothelium by rubbing than were relaxations evoked by carbachol. Relaxations induced by 2-nicotin-amidoethyl nitrate (SG75) were unaffected by this procedure. Relaxations evoked by the calcium ionophore A23187 persisted when those to substance P had been abolished by rubbing the endothelium in GPSMA, rabbit mesenteric and rabbit ear arteries. In guinea-pig pulmonary artery and aorta relaxations to A23187 were lost after this treatment. Carbachol and SG75 were more effective in inhibiting phasic than tonic tension induced by noradrenaline in GPSMA, but substance P was more effective against tonic tension. In the GPSMA, carbachol and substance P inhibited tension produced by noradrenaline to similar extents. However, carbachol was less, and substance P much less effective in inhibiting tension evoked by high-potassium solution than by noradrenaline. Susceptibility of relaxations to blockade by haemoglobin in GPSMA was: substance P greater than carbachol greater than ATP greater than SG75. The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells in the media of the GPSMA was recorded by microelectrode. Carbachol, but not substance P, hyperpolarized the cells both in the presence and absence of noradrenaline at concentrations which relaxed the muscle. These results suggest a heterogeneity in the mechanisms of endothelial-dependent relaxations induced by various vascular relaxants. PMID:2423170

  9. beta. -adrenergic relaxation of smooth muscle: differences between cells and tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Scheid, C.R.

    1987-09-01

    The present studies were carried out in an attempt to resolve the controversy about the Na/sup +/ dependence of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation in smooth muscle. Previous studies on isolated smooth muscle cells from the toad stomach had suggested that at least some of the actions of ..beta..-adrenergic agents, including a stimulatory effect on /sup 45/Ca efflux, were dependent on the presence of a normal transmembrane Na/sup +/ gradient. Studies by other investigators using tissues derived from mammalian sources had suggested that the relaxing effect of ..beta..-adrenergic agents was Na/sup +/ independent. Uncertainty remained as to whether these discrepancies reflected differences between cells and tissues or differences between species. Thus, in the present studies, the authors utilized both tissues and cells from the same source, the stomach muscle of the toad Bufo marinus, and assessed the Na/sup +/ dependence of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation. They found that elimination of a normal Na/sup +/ gradient abolished ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation of isolated cells. In tissues, however, similar manipulations had no effect on relaxation. The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear but do not appear to be attributable to changes in smooth muscle function following enzymatic dispersion. Thus the controversy concerning the mechanisms of ..beta..-adrenergic relaxation may reflect inherent differences between tissues and cells.

  10. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Fatigue and Quality of Life Among Iranian Aging Persons.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Jalali, Amir

    2016-07-01

    Since the elderly population is increasing rapidly in developing countries which may decrease the physical activity and exercise and in turn could affect the elderly's quality of life, this study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the elderly's quality of life in Iran. In a randomized clinical trial, participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. For the intervention group, muscular progressive relaxation was run three days per week for three months (totally 36 sessions). In relaxation, a patient contract a group of his/her muscles in each step and relaxes them after five seconds and finally loosens all muscles and takes five deep breaths. Each session lasts for 45 minutes. The instrument of data gathering consisted of questionnaires on individual's demographic data and quality of life SF-36. After intervention, quality of life increased significantly in the patients undergoing muscular progressive relaxation and fatigue severity decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to prior to intervention. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of physical performance, restricted activity after physical problem, energy, socially function, physical pain, overall hygiene, and quality of life between intervention and control groups. By implementing regular and continuous progressive muscle relaxation, quality of life could be increased in different dimensions in the elderly and the context could be provided to age healthily and enjoy higher health and autonomy. Therefore, all of the therapeutic staffs are recommended to implement this plan to promote the elderly's quality of life. PMID:27424013

  11. Characterization of muscarinic receptors mediating relaxation and contraction in the rat iris dilator muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Y; Yamahara, N S; Tanaka, M; Ryang, S; Kawai, T; Imaizumi, Y; Watanabe, M

    1995-01-01

    1. The characteristics of muscarinic receptors mediating relaxation and/or contraction in the rat iris dilator muscle were examined. 2. Relaxation was induced in a dilator muscle by application of acetylcholine (ACh) at low doses (3 microM or less) and contraction was induced by high doses. Methacholine and carbachol also showed biphasic effects similar to those of ACh; in contrast, bethanechol, arecoline, pilocarpine and McN-A-343 induced mainly relaxation but no substantial contraction. 3. After parasympathetic denervation by ciliary ganglionectomy, the relaxant response to muscarinic agonists disappeared upon nerve stimulation. Application of McN-A-343 and pilocarpine induced only small contractions in denervated dilator muscles, indicating that these are partial agonists for contraction. 4. pA2 values of pirenzepine, methoctramine, AF-DX 116, himbacine, and 4-DAMP for antagonism to pilocarpine-induced relaxation in normal dilator muscles and those for antagonism to ACh-induced contraction in denervated dilator muscles were determined. The pA2 values for antagonism to relaxation of all these antagonists were most similar to those for M3-type muscarinic receptors. 5. Although pA2 values for contraction of these antagonists, except for methoctramine, were very close to those for relaxation, contraction was not significantly antagonized by methoctramine. Contraction might be mediated by M3-like receptors which have a very low affinity for methoctramine. 6. In conclusion, ACh-induced biphasic responses in rat iris dilator muscles were clearly distinguished from each other by specific muscarinic agonists and parasympathetic denervation, whereas muscarinic receptors could not be subclassified according to the pA2 values of 5 specific antagonists only. PMID:7539696

  12. Should anesthesiologists have to confirm effective facemask ventilation before administering the muscle relaxant?

    PubMed

    Priebe, Hans-Joachim

    2016-02-01

    There is ongoing controversy as to whether effective facemask ventilation (FMV) should be established following induction of anesthesia before a muscle relaxant is administered. The rationale for such practice is the belief that, should FMV be ineffective, non-paralyzed patients can be woken up, and subsequently an alternative airway management can be considered. However, the chances of successfully restoring adequate spontaneous respiration before severe hypoxemia develops in an anesthetized, apneic patient who is prone to anesthetic-induced respiratory depression and airway collapse are very small. On the other hand, the overall evidence shows that muscle relaxation is likely to improve or leave unchanged, but not to worsen, the quality of FMV. Furthermore, muscle relaxation will facilitate placement of a supraglottic airway device and endotracheal intubation, interventions which may become essential should the patient become hypoxemic during failed FMV. Thus, the earliest administration of a muscle relaxant following induction of anesthesia may well be the most effective and safest practice. Insistence on demonstration of adequate FMV before administration of a muscle relaxant is more of a ritual than an evidence-based practice. It should therefore be abandoned. PMID:26335542

  13. Muscle relaxation for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment: possible effects regarding anxiety and pain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Faye; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Chen, Ching; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Shu-Ching; Tsai, Hsiu-Huang; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Effectively managing pain is vital for the well-being and satisfaction of patients undergoing dermatologic treatments involving lasers. This study investigates the potential outcome of using muscle relaxation techniques to reduce pain among people having their tattoos removed with laser treatment. This study consists of 56 participants (mean age 18.1 ± 2.1 years) that had tattoos removed using the principle of selective photothermolysis. These participants underwent muscle relaxation before receiving the laser treatment. Their peripheral skin temperatures (PST) were measured both at the beginning and the end of the muscle relaxation period. Then, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was applied to evaluate anxiety levels. Once the laser treatment was completed, pain levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. A total of 125 person-sessions of laser treatment and psychometric assessments were performed in this study. The muscle relaxation method significantly increased the PST of the participants while reducing the levels of anxiety and pain throughout the course of the laser treatment procedure. The PST, anxiety scores, and pain scores all showed significant correlations with one another. According to the results obtained, this study proposes that muscle relaxation techniques be considered possibly auxiliary treatment options for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment. Additional studies with a comparison group and a larger sample size are required in the future to confirm the effectiveness of such intervention. PMID:27184151

  14. The dependence of tension relaxation in skeletal muscle on the number of sarcomeres in series.

    PubMed

    Bartels, E M; Jensen, P; Sten-Knudsen, O S

    1976-08-01

    Mulieri (1972) has reported that the depth of the latency relaxation, tension relaxation, changes only insignificantly when about half of a fibre bundle is wound tightly around a small glass rod. From this observation he concludes that the tension relaxation is not correlated with the number of sarcomeres in series in a frog muscle fibre. The dependency of the tension relaxation on the number of sarcomeres in series has been reinvestigated using both Mulieri's method and other independent methods. When Mulieri's experimental procedure was repeated, his result was reproduced. In the other methods used the tension relaxation was found to be proportional to the number of sarcomeres in series which were activated initially. This result was also obtained by introducing a slight modification to the procedure used by Mulieri. The results could equally well be understood if the latency relaxation was caused by a definite elongation rather than an increase in compliance of the fibre. PMID:1086051

  15. Evidence for 5-HT7 receptors mediating relaxation of human colonic circular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Nicolaas H; Briejer, Michel R; Van Bergen, Patrick J E; Akkermans, Louis M A; Schuurkes, Jan A J

    1999-01-01

    5-HT4 receptors mediate relaxation of human colon circular muscle. However, after 5-HT4 receptor blockade (SB 204070 10 nM), 5-HT still induced a relaxation (pEC50 6.3). 5-HT4 receptors were sufficiently blocked, as the curves to 5-HT obtained in the presence of 10 and 100 nM SB 204070 were indistinguishable. This 5-HT-induced relaxation was tetrodotoxin-insensitive, indicative of a smooth muscle relaxant 5-HT receptor. This, and the rank order of potency (5-CT=5-MeOT=5-HT) suggested involvement of 5-HT1 or 5-HT7 receptors. Mesulergine, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist at nanomolar concentrations, and a 5-HT1 receptor antagonist at micromolar concentrations, competitively antagonized the 5-HT-induced relaxation (pKB 8.3) and antagonized the relaxation to 5-CT. Methysergide antagonized the 5-HT-induced relaxation (pA2 7.6). It is concluded that the profile of the smooth muscle inhibitory 5-HT receptor resembles that of the 5-HT7 receptor. These data provide the first evidence for functional human 5-HT7 receptors. PMID:10556917

  16. Effects of fiber type and diet on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times of skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mardini, I.A.; McCarter, R.J.; Fullerton, G.D.

    1986-03-01

    NMR studies of muscle have typically used muscles of mixed fiber composition and have not taken into account the metabolic state of the host. Samples of psoas (type IIB fibers) and soleus (type I fibers) muscles were obtained from 3 groups of rabbits: group C, fed regular chow; group DK fed a potassium deficient diet; and group HC fed a high cholesterol diet. The T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ relaxation times of psoas and soleus muscles were not significantly different for group C. Following dietary manipulation, (groups KD and HC), however, the relaxation times of the psoas and soleus muscles were significantly different. There was also a significant difference in water content of psoas muscles in groups KD and HC vs. group C but the observed differences in NMR results could be only partially accounted for by the shift in water content. The authors results suggest that (1) changes in ion or cholesterol concentration are capable of inducing changes in water bonding and structuring in muscle tissues; (2) diet must be added to the growing list of environmental factors that can cause NMR contrast changes; (3) selective use of muscles rich in one fiber type or another for NMR measurements could provide either control or diagnostic information, related to changes in body composition.

  17. Mebeverine for Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saneian, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 6–18 years) received mebeverine (135 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ≥2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or “no pain.” Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted. PMID:25089264

  18. Mebeverine for pediatric functional abdominal pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of an antispasmodic, mebeverine, in the treatment of childhood functional abdominal pain (FAP). Children with FAP (n = 115, aged 6-18 years) received mebeverine (135 mg, twice daily) or placebo for 4 weeks. Response was defined as ≥ 2 point reduction in the 6-point pain scale or "no pain." Physician-rated global severity was also evaluated. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. Eighty-seven patients completed the trial (44 with mebeverine). Per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Treatment response rate in the mebeverine and placebo groups based on per-protocol [ITT] analysis was 54.5% [40.6%] and 39.5% [30.3%] at week 4 (P = 0.117 [0.469]) and 72.7% [54.2%] and 53.4% [41.0] at week 12, respectively (P = 0.0503 [0.416]). There was no significant difference between the two groups in change of the physician-rated global severity score after 4 weeks (P = 0.723) or after 12 weeks (P = 0.870) in per-protocol analysis; the same results were obtained in ITT analysis. Mebeverine seems to be effective in the treatment of childhood FAP, but our study was not able to show its statistically significant effect over placebo. Further trials with larger sample of patients are warranted. PMID:25089264

  19. Mechanism of hydralazine-induced relaxation of arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Ebeigbe, A B; Aloamaka, C P

    1985-07-01

    The effect of hydralazine on contractile responses by various agents has been studied in isolated rat tail artery strips. Hydralazine caused dose-dependent relaxation of contractions produced by 10(-7) mol.litre-1 noradrenaline (N); 10(-7) mol.litre-1 5-HT or 100 mmol.litre-1 KCl, suggesting that the relaxation response is non-specific. CaCl2 dose-response (in the presence of 10(-5) mol.litre-1 N; 10(-5) mol.litre-1 5-HT or 100 mmol.litre-1 KC1) was significantly inhibited by 5 X 10(-4) mol.litre-1 hydralazine in the order: KCl greater than 5-HT greater than N. Hydralazine also inhibited BaCl2 dose-response curve (in K+-depolarised strips); maximal contraction to BaCl2 was depressed by 87%. In other experiments, hydralazine significantly depressed (by 20%) the phasic contractile response to N due to mobilisation of calcium from a membrane-bound pool. D 600, a calcium entry blocker, also caused dose-dependent relaxation of contractile responses to all three agents studied; and inhibited CaCl2 and BaCl2 dose-response curves in K+-depolarised media, as well as depressed the phasic contractile response to N in Ca-free media by 17%. These results suggest that in the rat tail artery, hydralazine interferes with Ca2+ influx, as well as release from a membrane-bound pool. PMID:4016816

  20. Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Aggression among Elementary Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopata, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as a proactive single-component aggression-reduction intervention for 24 students (ages 6- 9) classified as having emotional disabilities in a day school/treatment program. Students also had histories of aggressive behavior. Results supported PMR as a proactive short-term…

  1. Efficacy of Abbreviated Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training: A Quantitative Review of Behavioral Medicine Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Charles R.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    1993-01-01

    Conducted quantitative review of research in which abbreviated progressive muscle relaxation training (APRT) was used as intervention for psychophysiological and stress-related disorders. Calculated strength of association between APRT and outcome measures for 29 experiments published after 1980. APRT was most strongly associated with improvement…

  2. Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Cognitive Restructuring: Potential Problems and Proposed Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselica, Mark S.; Baker, Stanley B.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews common problems experienced by clients during progressive muscle relaxation training (PMRT) and summarizes pertinent solutions to those problems. Discusses difficulties and solutions related to cognitive restructuring training. Notes that cognitive restructuring is often used to enhance effectiveness of PMRT. Concludes with suggestions for…

  3. KV7 channels regulate muscle tone and nonadrenergic noncholinergic relaxation of the rat gastric fundus.

    PubMed

    Ipavec, V; Martire, M; Barrese, V; Taglialatela, M; Currò, D

    2011-10-01

    Voltage-dependent type 7 K+ (KV7) channels play important physiological roles in neurons and muscle cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the motor effects of KV7 channel modulators in the rat gastric fundus and the expression of KV7 channels in this tissue. Muscle tone and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked relaxations of precontracted longitudinal muscle strips of the rat gastric fundus were investigated under nonadrenergic noncholinergic conditions by organ bath studies. Gene expression was studied by real-time PCR and tissue localization of channels was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The KV7 channel blocker XE-991 induced concentration-dependent contractions, with mean pD2 and Emax of 5.4 and 48% of the maximal U46619-induced contraction, respectively. The KV7 channel activators retigabine and flupirtine concentration-dependently relaxed U46619-precontracted strips, with pD2s of 4.7 and 4.4 and Emax of 93% and 91% of the maximal relaxation induced by papaverine, respectively. XE-991 concentration-dependently inhibited retigabine-induced relaxation with a pIC50 of 6.2. XE-991 and DMP-543, another KV7 channel blocker, increased by 13-25% or reduced by 11-21% the relaxations evoked by low- or high-frequency EFS, respectively. XE-991 also reduced the relaxation induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) by 33% of controls. Transcripts encoded by all KV7 genes were detected in the fundus, with 7.4 and 7.5 showing the highest expression levels. KV7.4 and 7.5 channels were visualized by confocal immunofluorescence in both circular and longitudinal muscle layers. In conclusion, in the rat proximal stomach, KV7 channels appear to contribute to the resting muscle tone and to VIP- and high-frequency EFS-induced relaxation. KV7 channel activators could be useful relaxant agents of the gastric smooth muscle. PMID:21740972

  4. The relaxant effect of Nigella sativa on smooth muscles, its possible mechanisms and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossien

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa could be of therapeutic importance such as bronchodilation in asthma, vasodilation in hypertension and therapeutic effect on digestive or urogenital disorders. Therefore in the present article, the relaxant effects of N. sativa and its constituents on smooth muscles and its possible mechanisms as well as clinical application of this effect were reviewed. PMID:25859297

  5. Laryngeal mask airway without muscle relaxant in femoral head replacement in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    KONG, MING; LI, BEIPING; TIAN, YUNPING

    2016-01-01

    The number of elderly patients undergoing femoral head replacement surgeries is on the increase. These patients often suffer from comorbidity such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, which limits the ability of medical teams to employ anesthesia. Thus, alternative methods are required. The aim of this study was to examine the advantage of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in the absence of muscle relaxant in elderly patients undergoing femoral head replacement operations. Fifty patients (27 males and 23 females) undergoing femoral head replacements were selected for the study between March 2013 and May 2014. The mean value for the age in this group was 74.6±12.5 years. The patients were randomly distributed into two groups of 25. One group was designated as the treatment group and the second group as the control group. For the treatment group, LMA without muscle relaxant was used, and the control group received routine anesthesia. Variations in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and oxygen saturation (SPO2) in the two groups were monitored at different times. Clinical efficacy and muscle relaxation effects were also analyzed. For the treatment group, the HR, MAP and SPO2 measurements did not reveal any significant variation while these values in the control group demonstrated important dissimilarities. Time to recovery, time to extubation and incidence of throat pain in the treatment group were all markedly decreased as compared to those in control group. The operation time in the treatment group was not significantly different to that of control group. The satisfaction of the muscle relaxation effect in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group while the incidence of adverse reactions was not considerably different. In conclusion, the use of LMA without using muscle relaxant in femoral head replacement surgeries performed on elderly patients showed to be effective and safe. PMID:26889218

  6. Study of anisotropy in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of water protons in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kasturi, S R; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C F

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropy of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and the spin-spin relaxation times (T2) of water protons in skeletal muscle tissue have been studied by the spin-echo technique. Both T1 and T2 have been measured for the water protons of the tibialis anterior muscle of mature male rats for theta = 0, 55, and 90 degrees, where theta is the orientation of the muscle fiber with respect to the static field. The anisotropy in T1 and T2 has been measured at temperatures of 28, -5 and -10 degrees C. No significant anisotropy was observed in the T1 of the tissue water, while an average anisotropy of approximately 5% was observed in T2 at room temperature. The average anisotropy of T2 at -5 and -10 degrees C was found to be approximately 2 and 1.3%, respectively. PMID:6266530

  7. Magnesium relaxes arterial smooth muscle by decreasing intracellular Ca2+ without changing intracellular Mg2+.

    PubMed Central

    D'Angelo, E K; Singer, H A; Rembold, C M

    1992-01-01

    Elevations in extracellular [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]o) relax vascular smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that elevated [Mg2+]o induces relaxation through reductions in myoplasmic [Ca2+] and myosin light chain phosphorylation without changing intracellular [Mg2+] ([Mg2+]i). Histamine stimulation of endothelium-free swine carotid medial tissues was associated with increases in both Fura 2- and aequorin-estimated myoplasmic [Ca2+], myosin phosphorylation, and force. Elevated [Mg2+]o decreased myoplasmic [Ca2+] and force to near resting values. However, elevated [Mg2+]o only transiently decreased myosin phosphorylation values: sustained [Mg2+]o-induced decreases in myoplasmic [Ca2+] and force were associated with inappropriately high myosin phosphorylation values. The elevated myosin phosphorylation during [Mg2+]o-induced relaxation was entirely on serine 19, the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase substrate. Myoplasmic [Mg2+] (estimated with Mag-Fura 2) did not significantly increase with elevated [Mg2+]o. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased [Mg2+]o induces relaxation by decreasing myoplasmic [Ca2+] without changing [Mg2+]i. These data also demonstrate dissociation of myosin phosphorylation from myoplasmic [Ca2+] and force during Mg(2+)-induced relaxation. This finding suggests the presence of a phosphorylation-independent (yet potentially Ca(2+)-dependent) mechanism for regulation of force in vascular smooth muscle. Images PMID:1602005

  8. Interaction of neutrophils with vascular smooth muscle: identification of a neutrophil-derived relaxing factor.

    PubMed

    Rimele, T J; Sturm, R J; Adams, L M; Henry, D E; Heaslip, R J; Weichman, B M; Grimes, D

    1988-04-01

    Experiments were designed to study the interaction of rat peritoneal neutrophils with the vascular smooth muscle of the rat aorta. Rings of aorta, suspended in 10-ml organ chambers containing a physiologic salt solution, were precontracted with phenylephrine. Neutrophils (1 X 10(5) -4 X 10(7) cells/organ chamber) caused a cell number-dependent relaxation of the rat aorta that was augmented by superoxide dismutase (100 U/ml) or changing the oxygen content from 95 to 21%. The neutrophil-induced smooth muscle relaxation occurred in rings with and without endothelium and in rings precontracted with increasing concentrations of phenylephrine, prostaglandin F2 alpha or KCI. Catalase (1000 U/ml) and mannitol (1 X 10(-3) M) did not block the neutrophil-induced relaxation, whereas phenazine methosulfate (1 X 10(-5) M), hydroquinone (3 X 10(-5) M) and methylene blue (1 X 10(-5) M) reversed the neutrophil-induced relaxation. Pre-exposure of endothelium-rubbed rings to neutrophils (2 X 10(7) cells/organ chamber; 15 min) depressed the subsequent concentration-response curve to phenylephrine but augmented the relaxation induced by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast (1 X 10(-5) M). The effluent from a column restraining the neutrophils induced a relaxation of endothelium-rubbed aortic rings that was prevented by methylene blue (1 X 10(-5) M). These results demonstrate that rat neutrophils release a factor that has a pharmacologic profile similar to that previously reported for the relaxing factor released from the vascular endothelium. PMID:3129547

  9. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups. PMID:25729210

  10. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-08-18

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  11. The Conformation of Myosin Heads in Relaxed Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Myosin-Based Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fusi, Luca; Huang, Zhe; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    In isolated thick filaments from many types of muscle, the two head domains of each myosin molecule are folded back against the filament backbone in a conformation called the interacting heads motif (IHM) in which actin interaction is inhibited. This conformation is present in resting skeletal muscle, but it is not known how exit from the IHM state is achieved during muscle activation. Here, we investigated this by measuring the in situ conformation of the light chain domain of the myosin heads in relaxed demembranated fibers from rabbit psoas muscle using fluorescence polarization from bifunctional rhodamine probes at four sites on the C-terminal lobe of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The order parameter 〈P2〉 describing probe orientation with respect to the filament axis had a roughly sigmoidal dependence on temperature in relaxing conditions, with a half-maximal change at ∼19°C. Either lattice compression by 5% dextran T500 or addition of 25 μM blebbistatin decreased the transition temperature to ∼14°C. Maximum entropy analysis revealed three preferred orientations of the myosin RLC region at 25°C and above, two with its long axis roughly parallel to the filament axis and one roughly perpendicular. The parallel orientations are similar to those of the so-called blocked and free heads in the IHM and are stabilized by either lattice compression or blebbistatin. In relaxed skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperature and myofilament lattice spacing, the majority of the myosin heads have their light chain domains in IHM-like conformations, with a minority in a distinct conformation with their RLC regions roughly perpendicular to the filament axis. None of these three orientation populations were present during active contraction. These results are consistent with a regulatory transition of the thick filament in skeletal muscle associated with a conformational equilibrium of the myosin heads. PMID:26287630

  12. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin stabilizes the super-relaxed state in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Clyde; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The super-relaxed state of myosin (SRX), in which the myosin ATPase activity is strongly inhibited, has been observed in a variety of muscle types. It has been proposed that myosin heads in this state are inhibited by binding to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin has been shown in structural studies to stabilize the binding of myosin heads to the thick filament, and here we have utilized measurements of single ATP turnovers to show that blebbistatin also stabilizes the SRX in both fast and slow skeletal muscle, providing further support for the proposal that myosin heads in the SRX are also in the interacting-heads motif. We find that the SRX is stabilized using blebbistatin even in conditions that normally destabilize it, e.g., rigor ADP. Using blebbistatin we show that spin-labeled nucleotides bound to myosin have an oriented spectrum in the SRX in both slow and fast skeletal muscle. This is to our knowledge the first observation of oriented spin probes on the myosin motor domain in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers. The spectra for skeletal muscle with blebbistatin are similar to those observed in relaxed tarantula fibers in the absence of blebbistatin, demonstrating that the structure of the SRX is similar in different muscle types and in the presence and absence of blebbistatin. The mobility of spin probes attached to nucleotides bound to myosin shows that the conformation of the nucleotide site is closed in the SRX. PMID:25296316

  13. The Myosin Inhibitor Blebbistatin Stabilizes the Super-Relaxed State in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Clyde; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Cooke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The super-relaxed state of myosin (SRX), in which the myosin ATPase activity is strongly inhibited, has been observed in a variety of muscle types. It has been proposed that myosin heads in this state are inhibited by binding to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. The myosin inhibitor blebbistatin has been shown in structural studies to stabilize the binding of myosin heads to the thick filament, and here we have utilized measurements of single ATP turnovers to show that blebbistatin also stabilizes the SRX in both fast and slow skeletal muscle, providing further support for the proposal that myosin heads in the SRX are also in the interacting-heads motif. We find that the SRX is stabilized using blebbistatin even in conditions that normally destabilize it, e.g., rigor ADP. Using blebbistatin we show that spin-labeled nucleotides bound to myosin have an oriented spectrum in the SRX in both slow and fast skeletal muscle. This is to our knowledge the first observation of oriented spin probes on the myosin motor domain in relaxed skeletal muscle fibers. The spectra for skeletal muscle with blebbistatin are similar to those observed in relaxed tarantula fibers in the absence of blebbistatin, demonstrating that the structure of the SRX is similar in different muscle types and in the presence and absence of blebbistatin. The mobility of spin probes attached to nucleotides bound to myosin shows that the conformation of the nucleotide site is closed in the SRX. PMID:25296316

  14. Thrombospondin-1 limits ischemic tissue survival by inhibiting nitric oxide–mediated vascular smooth muscle relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Isenberg, Jeff S.; Hyodo, Fuminori; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Romeo, Martin J.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Wink, David A.; Krishna, Murali C.

    2007-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway, by relaxing vascular smooth muscle cells, is a major physiologic regulator of tissue perfusion. We now identify thrombospondin-1 as a potent antagonist of NO for regulating F-actin assembly and myosin light chain phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Thrombospondin-1 prevents NO-mediated relaxation of precontracted vascular smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that an NO-mediated increase in skeletal muscle perfusion was enhanced in thrombospondin-1–null relative to wild-type mice, implicating endogenous thrombospondin-1 as a physiologic antagonist of NO-mediated vasodilation. Using a random myocutaneous flap model for ischemic injury, tissue survival was significantly enhanced in thrombospondin-1–null mice. Improved flap survival correlated with increased recovery of oxygen levels in the ischemic tissue of thrombospondin-1–null mice as measured by electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. These findings demonstrate an important antag-onistic relation between NO/cGMP signaling and thrombospondin-1 in vascular smooth muscle cells to regulate vascular tone and tissue perfusion. PMID:17082319

  15. Identification of a novel starfish neuropeptide that acts as a muscle relaxant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Lin, Ming; Elphick, Maurice R; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-04-01

    Neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants have been identified in chordates and protostomian invertebrates but little is known about the molecular identity of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in deuterostomian invertebrates (e.g. echinoderms) that are 'evolutionary intermediates' of chordates and protostomes. Here, we have used the apical muscle of the starfish Patiria pectinifera to assay for myorelaxants in extracts of this species. A hexadecapeptide with the amino acid sequence Phe-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Leu-Ser-Ala-Gly-Phe-Thr-Asp was identified and designated starfish myorelaxant peptide (SMP). Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the SMP precursor protein revealed that it comprises 12 copies of SMP as well as 3 peptides (7 copies in total) that are structurally related to SMP. Analysis of the expression of SMP precursor transcripts in P. pectinifera using qPCR revealed the highest expression in the radial nerve cords and lower expression levels in a range of neuromuscular tissues, including the apical muscle, tube feet and cardiac stomach. Consistent with these findings, SMP also caused relaxation of tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations. Furthermore, SMP caused relaxation of apical muscle preparations from another starfish species - Asterias amurensis. Collectively, these data indicate that SMP has a general physiological role as a muscle relaxant in starfish. Interestingly, comparison of the sequence of the SMP precursor with known neuropeptide precursors revealed that SMP belongs to a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that include molluscan pedal peptides (PP) and arthropodan orcokinins (OK). This is the first study to determine the function of a PP/OK-type peptide in a deuterostome. Pedal peptide/orcokinin (PP/OK)-type peptides are a family of structurally related neuropeptides that were first identified and functionally characterised in protostomian invertebrates. Here, we report the discovery of starfish myorelaxant

  16. Comparative efficacy and safety of trimebutine versus mebeverine in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, D S; Mahmuduzzaman, M; Rahman, M A; Chowdhury, M S; Barua, R; Ishaque, S M

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort with bowel disturbances. This prospective, randomized clinical trial has been conducted on IBS patients, using trimebutine and Mebeverine in separate group in parallel design to compare the efficacy and safety of Trimebutine 100mg twice daily with mebeverine 135mg twice daily. Patients of 15 to 60 years old and both sexes were included from the out patient department (OPD) of gastroenterology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from June 2010 to December 2011. A validated IBS-QOL instrument consisted of 34 questions used to assess improvement of quality of life before and after treatment. A total of 140 patients were enrolled in this study. Eighteen patients dropped out. One hundred twenty two patients completed the trial. In this study at the end of 6 weeks therapy, improvement of symptoms was statistically significant. However, differences of improvement between the two groups in relieving various symptoms were not statistically significant. Mean QOL score before treatment was 103 in Trimebutine group and 106 in Mebeverine group. After 6 weeks of treatment mean QOL score was 82 in Trimebutine group and 95 in Mebeverine group indicating improvement in both groups was statistically significant. The difference between the two groups was also significant. No worsening of symptoms and no side effects of the therapeutic agents was observed in any patient during the trial. PMID:24584382

  17. Cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation induced by Schisandrol A via the NO-cGMP signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Choi, B R; Bak, Y O; Zhang, L T; Zhou, L X; Huang, Y R; Zhao, C; Park, J K

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Schisandrol A on rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and elucidate the potential mechanism. Penises were obtained from healthy male New Zealand White rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg). The pre-contracted penis with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µM) was treated with accumulative concentrations of Schisandrol A (10-7, 10-6, 10-5 and 10-4 M). The change in intracavernosum pressure (ICP) and tension was recorded, cyclic nucleotides in the cavernosum tissue were measured by radioimmunoassay, mRNA level and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) were measured by real time PCR and western blot respectively. The corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation induced by Schisandrol A was in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with NOS inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME) or guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ) significantly diminished the relaxation. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) level was significantly increased in the cavernosum tissue. Real time PCR and western blot showed the mRNA level and expression of eNOS and nNOS was also upregulated. Schisandrol A relaxes the cavernosum smooth muscle by activating NO-cGMP signaling pathway. It may be a new promising treatment for erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27064883

  18. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  19. A Synthetic Chloride Channel Relaxes Airway Smooth Muscle of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Kwok-hei; Mak, Judith Choi-wo; Leung, Susan Wai-sum; Yang, Dan; Vanhoutte, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic ion channels may have potential therapeutic applications, provided they possess appropriate biological activities. The present study was designed to examine the ability of small molecule-based synthetic Cl– channels to modulate airway smooth muscle responsiveness. Changes in isometric tension were measured in rat tracheal rings. Relaxations to the synthetic chloride channel SCC-1 were obtained during sustained contractions to KCl. The anion dependency of the effect of SCC-1 was evaluated by ion substitution experiments. The sensitivity to conventional Cl– transport inhibitors was also tested. SCC-1 caused concentration-dependent relaxations during sustained contractions to potassium chloride. This relaxing effect was dependent on the presence of extracellular Cl– and HCO3−. It was insensitive to conventional Cl– channels/transport inhibitors that blocked the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and calcium-activated Cl– channels. SCC-1 did not inhibit contractions induced by carbachol, endothelin-1, 5-hydroxytryptamine or the calcium ionophore A23187. SCC-1 relaxes airway smooth muscle during contractions evoked by depolarizing solutions. The Cl– conductance conferred by this synthetic compound is distinct from the endogenous transport systems for chloride anions. PMID:23049786

  20. Pulmonary surfactant in the airway physiology: a direct relaxing effect on the smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Calkovska, A; Uhliarova, B; Joskova, M; Franova, S; Kolomaznik, M; Calkovsky, V; Smolarova, S

    2015-04-01

    Beside alveoli, surface active material plays an important role in the airway physiology. In the upper airways it primarily serves in local defense. Lower airway surfactant stabilizes peripheral airways, provides the transport and defense, has barrier and anti-edematous functions, and possesses direct relaxant effect on the smooth muscle. We tested in vitro the effect of two surfactant preparations Curosurf® and Alveofact® on the precontracted smooth muscle of intra- and extra-pulmonary airways. Relaxation was more pronounced for lung tissue strip containing bronchial smooth muscle as the primary site of surfactant effect. The study does not confirm the participation of ATP-dependent potassium channels and cAMP-regulated epithelial chloride channels known as CFTR chloride channels, or nitric oxide involvement in contractile response of smooth muscle to surfactant.By controlling wall thickness and airway diameter, pulmonary surfactant is an important component of airway physiology. Thus, surfactant dysfunction may be included in pathophysiology of asthma, COPD, or other diseases with bronchial obstruction. PMID:25583659

  1. Metabolic alterations induced in cultured skeletal muscle by stretch-relaxation activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfaludy, Sophia; Shansky, Janet; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1989-01-01

    Muscle cells differentiated in vitro are repetitively stretched and relaxed in order to determine the presence of short- and long-term alterations occurring in glucose uptake and lactate efflux that are similar to the metabolic alterations occurring in stimulated organ-cultured muscle and in vivo skeletal muscle during the active state. It is observed that whereas mechanical stimulation increases these metabolic parameters within 4-6 h of starting activity, unstimulated basal rates in control cultures also increase during this period of time, and by 8 h, their rates have reached or exceeded the rates in continuously stimulated cells. Measurements of these parameters in media of different compositions show that activity-induced long-term alterations in the parameters occur independently of growth factors in serium and embryo extracts.

  2. PPARα-Independent Arterial Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effects of PPARα Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Silswal, Neerupma; Parelkar, Nikhil K.; Wacker, Michael J.; Badr, Mostafa; Andresen, Jon

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine direct vascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists using isolated mouse aortas and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). The PPARα agonists GW7647, WY14643, and gemfibrozil acutely relaxed aortas held under isometric tension and dilated pressurized MCAs with the following order of potency: GW7647≫WY14643>gemfibrozil. Responses were endothelium-independent, and the use of PPARα deficient mice demonstrated that responses were also PPARα-independent. Pretreating arteries with high extracellular K+ attenuated PPARα agonist-mediated relaxations in the aorta, but not in the MCA. In the aorta, the ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker glibenclamide also impaired relaxations whereas the other K+ channel inhibitors, 4-aminopyridine and Iberiotoxin, had no effect. In aortas, GW7647 and WY14643 elevated cGMP levels by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and inhibition of sGC with ODQ blunted relaxations to PPARα agonists. In the MCA, dilations were inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and also by ODQ. Our results demonstrated acute, nonreceptor-mediated relaxant effects of PPARα agonists on smooth muscle of mouse arteries. Responses to PPARα agonists in the aorta involved KATP channels and sGC, whereas in the MCA the PKC and sGC pathways also appeared to contribute to the response. PMID:23008696

  3. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Azam; Sirati-Nir, Masoud; Ebadi, Abbas; Aliasgari, Matin; Hajiamini, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy may be accompanied by serious physiological and psychological changes as it is a stressful period in a woman's life. So, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 60 primigravida women admitted to the prenatal clinic of selected hospitals in Iran constituted the study population. Using purposive sampling method, the level of general health of the women was measured with General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Then, the samples were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Three 1.5–2 h relaxation training sessions were held for the experimental group. After 8 weeks, the level of general health of both groups was measured again. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using Chi-square and paired t-test (P < 0.05). Results: Total mean score of general health of the experimental group and the control group before the intervention was 35.83 (6.92) and 29.46 (8.3), respectively, and after the intervention, the respective scores were 20.2 (5.61) and 27.85 (8.24). Although after the intervention both groups showed an increased level of general health, the difference in general health between before and after intervention was significant in the experimental group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, comparison of variations in mean scores of general health level before and after intervention in the two groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Given that the results showed the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health, the prenatal clinics can include a training program for progressive muscle relaxation in the routine training programs for pregnant women. PMID:26793248

  4. Relaxation of rabbit psoas muscle fibres from rigor by photochemical generation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Y E; Hibberd, M G; Trentham, D R

    1984-01-01

    Correlations have been made between the mechanical and biochemical descriptions of muscle relaxation. Skinned muscle fibres in the rigor state were incubated in a solution containing P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyladenosine-5'-triphosphate, 'caged ATP', an inert photolabile precursor of ATP, and free Ca2+ concentration less than 10(-8) M. The mechanical response of the fibre was monitored during relaxation initiated by liberating ATP with a pulse of 347 nm light from a frequency-doubled ruby laser. Tension first dropped and then rose briefly, before finally declining to the relaxed level. Stiffness, in phase with a sinusoidal length change, declined monotonically after the laser pulse. Out-of-phase stiffness increased briefly after a delay, then returned to the base line during the final relaxation. The development of the out-of-phase stiffness signal was taken as evidence that during the relaxation some cross-bridges were present with properties similar to those in an active contraction. The tension rise and slower phase of relaxation can be explained by a mechanism in which some of the cross-bridges reattach, generate force and finally detach in the absence of Ca2+ ions. In this model cross-bridge attachment is facilitated by protein co-operativity within the myofilaments. Detailed analysis of the mechanical transients makes other possible models for the initial tension rise unlikely. Stretching or releasing fibres prior to photolysis changed the time course of the early parts of the tension transient without significant effect on the later phases or on stiffness. The tension records from stretch, release and isometric trials converged to a final common time course of relaxation. Analysis of the convergence of tension records provided a means for measuring the cross-bridge detachment rate from the thin filament as a function of ATP concentration. The apparent second-order rate constant for detachment was at least 5 X 10(5) M-1 S-1 at 20-22 degrees C. The final

  5. Octopamine mediated relaxation of maintained and catch tension in locust skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P D; Siegler, M V

    1982-01-01

    1. The modulatory actions of an identified octopaminergic neurone (DUMETi) that projects to the extensor-tibiae muscle of the locust hind leg depend upon the frequency of stimulation of the slow motoneurone (SETi) to this muscle. 2. At low frequencies of SETi stimulation (1Hz and below) the predominant modulatory effects are increases in the amplitude and relaxation rate of twitch tension. At higher frequencies, where twitches summate but tetanus is incomplete (up to 20 Hz), the reduction of maintained tension becomes considerably more important. 3. Both octopamine application and DUMETi stimulation reduce the amount of catch tension displayed by the extensor muscle when SETi is fired in a variety of different stimulus patterns. The extensor-tibiae muscle is itself 'pattern sensitive' since is shows a 'positive spacing effect' when SETi is stimulated at an average frequency of 1 Hz. 4. It is suggested that a primary function of DUMETi is to change the response of the muscle from one that favours maintenance of posture to one that favours rapid changes in joint position or force, such as might occur during locomotion. PMID:6808122

  6. Mechanisms of action of hydrogen sulfide in relaxation of mouse distal colonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Dhaese, Ingeborg; Van Colen, Inge; Lefebvre, Romain A

    2010-02-25

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been suggested as a gaseous neuromodulator in mammals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of H(2)S on contractility in mouse distal colon. The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS; H(2)S donor) on prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha))-contracted circular muscle strips of mouse distal colon was investigated. In addition, tension and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) in the mouse distal colon strips were measured simultaneously in the presence of NaHS. NaHS caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the pre-contracted mouse distal colon strips. The NaHS-induced relaxation was not influenced by the K(+) channels blockers glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, barium chloride and 4-aminopyridine. The relaxation by NaHS was also not influenced by the nitric oxide inhibitor L-NAME, by the soluble guanylate cyclase respectively adenylate cyclase inhibitors ODQ and SQ 22536, by the nerve blockers capsazepine, omega-conotoxin and tetrodotoxin or by several channel and receptor blockers (ouabain, nifedipine, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, ryanodine and thapsigargin). The initiation of the NaHS-induced relaxation was accompanied by an increase in [Ca(2+)](cyt), but once the relaxation was maximal and sustained, no change in [Ca(2+)](cyt) was measured. This calcium desensitization is not related to the best known calcium desensitizing mechanism as the myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) inhibitor calyculin-A and the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 had no influence. We conclude that NaHS caused concentration-dependent relaxations in mouse distal colon not involving the major known K(+) channels and without a change in [Ca(2+)](cyt). This calcium desensitization is not related to inhibition of Rho-kinase or activation of MLCP. PMID:19919833

  7. Three-dimensional organization of troponin on cardiac muscle thin filaments in the relaxed state.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shixin; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Orzechowski, Marek; Craig, Roger; Trinick, John; White, Howard; Lehman, William

    2014-02-18

    Muscle contraction is regulated by troponin-tropomyosin, which blocks and unblocks myosin binding sites on actin. To elucidate this regulatory mechanism, the three-dimensional organization of troponin and tropomyosin on the thin filament must be determined. Although tropomyosin is well defined in electron microscopy helical reconstructions of thin filaments, troponin density is mostly lost. Here, we determined troponin organization on native relaxed cardiac muscle thin filaments by applying single particle reconstruction procedures to negatively stained specimens. Multiple reference models led to the same final structure, indicating absence of model bias in the procedure. The new reconstructions clearly showed F-actin, tropomyosin, and troponin densities. At the 25 Å resolution achieved, troponin was considerably better defined than in previous reconstructions. The troponin density closely resembled the shape of troponin crystallographic structures, facilitating detailed interpretation of the electron microscopy density map. The orientation of troponin-T and the troponin core domain established troponin polarity. Density attributable to the troponin-I mobile regulatory domain was positioned where it could hold tropomyosin in its blocking position on actin, thus suggesting the underlying structural basis of thin filament regulation. Our previous understanding of thin filament regulation had been limited to known movements of tropomyosin that sterically block and unblock myosin binding sites on actin. We now show how troponin, the Ca(2+) sensor, may control these movements, ultimately determining whether muscle contracts or relaxes. PMID:24559988

  8. SLOW MYOSIN ATP TURNOVER IN THE SUPER-RELAXED STATE IN TARANTULA MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger

    2011-01-01

    We measured the nucleotide turnover rate of myosin in tarantula leg-muscle fibers by observing single turnovers of the fluorescent nucleotide analog, mantATP, as monitored by the decrease in fluorescence when mantATP is replaced by ATP in a chase experiment. We find a multi-exponential process, with approximately two-thirds of the myosin showing a very slow nucleotide turnover time constant, ~30 minutes. This slow-turnover state is termed the super-relaxed state (SRX). If fibers are incubated in mantADP and chased with ADP, the SRX is not seen, indicating that trinucleotide-relaxed myosins are responsible for the SRX. Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain eliminates the fraction of myosin with the very long lifetime. The data imply that the very long-lived SRX in tarantula fibers is a highly novel adaptation for energy conservation in an animal that spends extremely long periods of time in a quiescent state employing a lie-in-wait hunting strategy. The presence of the SRX measured here correlates well with the binding of myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the “interacting-heads motif” observed previously by electron microscopy. Both the structural array and the long-lived SRX require relaxed filaments or relaxed fibers, both are lost upon myosin phosphorylation, and both appear to be more stable in tarantula than in vertebrate skeletal or vertebrate cardiac preparations. PMID:21763701

  9. Relaxant Action of Plumula Nelumbinis Extract on Mouse Airway Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li; Chen, Weiwei; Wei, Ming-Yu; Shen, Jinhua; Yu, Meng-Fei; Yang, Guangzhong; Guo, Donglin; Qin, Gangjian; Ji, Guangju; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional herb Plumula Nelumbinis is widely used in the world because it has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antihypertension, and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition. However, the action of Plumula Nelumbinis on airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation has not been investigated. A chloroform extract of Plumula Nelumbinis (CEPN) was prepared, which completely inhibited precontraction induced by high K+ in a concentration-dependent manner in mouse tracheal rings, but it had no effect on resting tension. CEPN also blocked voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel- (VDCC-) mediated currents. In addition, ACh-induced precontraction was also completely blocked by CEPN and partially inhibited by nifedipine or pyrazole 3. Besides, CEPN partially reduced ACh-activated nonselective cation channel (NSCC) currents. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CEPN blocked VDCC and NSCC to inhibit Ca2+ influx, resulting in relaxation of precontracted ASM. This finding indicates that CEPN would be a candidate of new potent bronchodilators. PMID:25763092

  10. Effect of some smooth muscle relaxant drugs on calcium-related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Ronca-Testoni, S; Hrelia, S; Hakim, G; Ronca, G; Rossi, C A

    1984-04-30

    Some smooth muscle relaxant drugs devoid of anticholinergic action have been tested for their interaction with calmodulin, calmodulin-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, and uterine membrane binding sites for nitrendipine and adenosine. The myolytic activity of octylonium bromide and pinaverium bromide may be due to their interaction with calmodulin-dependent systems. Trimebutine maleate does not bind either to calmodulin or to nitrendipine and adenosine receptors. Tiropramide has no effect on calmodulin-dependent systems and on Ca2+ channels but it shows a competition for the A2-type adenosine receptors. PMID:6329247

  11. Interaction of smooth muscle relaxant drugs with calmodulin and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Ronca-Testoni, S; Hrelia, S; Hakim, G; Rossi, C A

    1985-01-15

    Some smooth muscle relaxant drugs with an unknown mechanism of action have been tested for their interaction with calmodulin and with calmodulin-induced cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. The affinity of these drugs for calmodulin does not parallel their inhibitory effect on the calmodulin activation of PDE. The lack of parallelism could be due to a binding of the drugs to different sites on calmodulin; furthermore a binding of papaverine, octylonium bromide and felodipine to PDE molecule might also be considered to explain their inhibitory effect on PDE basal activity. The myolytic effect of octylonium bromide and pinaverium bromide may be due to their interaction with calmodulin-dependent systems. PMID:2981701

  12. HEF-19-induced relaxation of colonic smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Lu-Lu; Fu, Shou-Ting

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relaxant effect of chromane HEF-19 on colonic smooth muscles isolated from rabbits, and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The relaxant effect and action mechanisms of HEF-19 were investigated using descending colon smooth muscle of the rabbits. Preparations 1 cm long were mounted in 15-mL tissue baths containing Tyrode’s solution, maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C and aerated with a mixture of 5% CO2 in oxygen (Carbogen). The tension and amplitude of the smooth muscle strips were recorded after adding HEF-19 (10-6, 10-5 and 10-4 mol/L). After cumulative administration of four antispasmodic agents, including acetylcholine chloride (Ach) (10-4 mol/L), histamine (10-4 mol/L), high-K+ (60 mmol/L) and BaCl2 (8.2 mmol/L), HEF-19 (3 × 10-7-3 × 10-4 mol/L) was added to investigate the relaxant effect of HEF-19. CaCl2 (10-4-2.5 × 10-3 mol/L) was added cumulatively to the smooth muscle preparations pretreated with and without HEF-19 (1 × 10-6 or 3 × 10-6 mol/L) and verapamil (1 × 10-7 mol/L) to study the mechanisms involved. Finally, phasic contraction was induced with ACh (15 × 10-6 mol/L), and CaCl2 (4 × 10-3 mol/L) was added to the smooth muscle preparations pretreated with and without HEF-19 (3 × 10-6 mol/L or 1 × 10-5 mol/L) and verapamil (1 × 10-7 mol/L) in calcium-free medium to further study the underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: HEF-19 (1 × 10-6, 1 × 10-5 and 1 × 10-4 mol/L) suppressed spontaneous contraction of rabbit colonic smooth muscles. HEF-19 (3 × 10-7-3 × 10-4 mol/L) relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner colonic smooth muscle preparations pre-contracted with BaCl2, high-K+ solution, Ach or histamine with respective EC50 values of 5.15 ± 0.05, 5.12 ± 0.08, 5.58 ± 0.16 and 5.25 ± 0.24, thus showing a spasmolytic activity. HEF-19 (1 × 10-6 mol/L and 3 × 10-6 mol/L) shifted the concentration-response curves of CaCl2 to the right and depressed the maximum response to CaCl2. The two components contracted by Ach were

  13. Differential Effects of 7 and 16 Groups of Muscle Relaxation Training Following Repeated Submaximal Intensity Exercise in Young Football Players.

    PubMed

    Sharifah Maimunah, S M P; Hashim, H A

    2016-02-01

    This study compares two versions of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training (7 and 16 muscle groups) on oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rates, rating of perceived exertion and choice reaction time. Football (soccer) players (N = 26; M age = 13.4 yr., SD = 0.5) were randomly assigned to either 7 muscle groups PMR, 16 muscle groups PMR, or a control group. PMR training requires the participants to tense a muscle, hold the muscle contraction, and then relax it. Measurement was conducted prior to and after the completion of 12 sessions of PMR. The dependent variables were measured following four bouts of intermittent exercise consisting of 12 min. of running at 60% VO2max for 10 min. followed by running at 90% VO2max for 2 min. with a 3-min. rest for each bout. Lower VO2, heart rate, perceived exertion, and quicker reaction time were expected in both relaxation groups compared to the control group. The results revealed a significant reduction in heart rates and choice reaction time for both relaxation groups, but the longer version produced significantly quicker choice reaction time. PMID:27420318

  14. β-Alanine supplementation enhances human skeletal muscle relaxation speed but not force production capacity.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Ricci; Stannard, Rebecca Louise; Minshull, Claire; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Harris, Roger Charles; Sale, Craig

    2015-03-01

    β-Alanine (BA) supplementation improves human exercise performance. One possible explanation for this is an enhancement of muscle contractile properties, occurring via elevated intramuscular carnosine resulting in improved calcium sensitivity and handling. This study investigated the effect of BA supplementation on in vivo contractile properties and voluntary neuromuscular performance. Twenty-three men completed two experimental sessions, pre- and post-28 days supplementation with 6.4 g/day of BA (n = 12) or placebo (PLA; n = 11). During each session, force was recorded during a series of knee extensor contractions: resting and potentiated twitches and octet (8 pulses, 300 Hz) contractions elicited via femoral nerve stimulation; tetanic contractions (1 s, 1-100 Hz) via superficial muscle stimulation; and maximum and explosive voluntary contractions. BA supplementation had no effect on the force-frequency relationship, or the force responses (force at 25 and 50 ms from onset, peak force) of resting or potentiated twitches, and octet contractions (P > 0.05). Resting and potentiated twitch electromechanical delay and time-to-peak tension were unaffected by BA supplementation (P > 0.05), although half-relaxation time declined by 7-12% (P < 0.05). Maximum and explosive voluntary forces were unchanged after BA supplementation. BA supplementation had no effect on evoked force responses, implying that altered calcium sensitivity and/or release are not the mechanisms by which BA supplementation influences exercise performance. The reduced half-relaxation time with BA supplementation might, however, be explained by enhanced reuptake of calcium, which has implications for the efficiency of muscle contraction following BA supplementation. PMID:25539942

  15. The effects of music relaxation and muscle relaxation techniques on sleep quality and emotional measures among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Blanaru, Monica; Bloch, Boaz; Vadas, Limor; Arnon, Zahi; Ziv, Naomi; Kremer, Ilana; Haimov, Iris

    2012-07-26

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder with lifetime prevalence of 7.8%, is characterized by symptoms that develop following exposure to traumatic life events and that cause an immediate experience of intense fear, helplessness or horror. PTSD is marked by recurrent nightmares typified by the recall of intrusive experiences and by extended disturbance throughout sleep. Individuals with PTSD respond poorly to drug treatments for insomnia. The disadvantages of drug treatment for insomnia underline the importance of non-pharmacological alternatives. Thus, the present study had three aims: first, to compare the efficiency of two relaxation techniques (muscular relaxation and progressive music relaxation) in alleviating insomnia among individuals with PTSD using both objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine whether these two techniques have different effects on psychological indicators of PTSD, such as depression and anxiety; and finally, to examine how initial PTSD symptom severity and baseline emotional measures are related to the efficiency of these two relaxation methods. Thirteen PTSD patients with no other major psychiatric or neurological disorders participated in the study. The study comprised one seven-day running-in, no-treatment period, followed by two seven-day experimental periods. The treatments constituted either music relaxation or muscle relaxation techniques at desired bedtime. These treatments were randomly assigned. During each of these three experimental periods, subjects' sleep was continuously monitored with a wrist actigraph (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc.), and subjects were asked to fill out several questionnaires concerned with a wide spectrum of issues, such as sleep, depression, and anxiety. Analyses revealed a significant increase in objective and subjective sleep efficiency and a significant reduction in depression level following music relaxation. Moreover, following music relaxation, a highly

  16. β-Adrenoceptor-mediated Relaxation of Urinary Bladder Muscle in β2-Adrenoceptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Propping, Stefan; Lorenz, Kristina; Michel, Martin C.; Wirth, Manfred P.; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: In order to characterize the β-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes involved in agonist-stimulated relaxation of murine urinary bladder we studied the effects of (-)-isoprenaline and CL 316,243 on tonic contraction and spontaneous contractions in detrusor strips of wild-type (WT) and β2-AR knockout (β2-AR KO) mice. Materials and Methods: Urinary bladders were isolated from male WT and β2-AR KO mice. β-AR subtype expression was determined with quantitative real-time PCR. Intact muscle strips pre-contracted with KCl (40 mM) were exposed to cumulatively increasing concentrations of (-)-isoprenaline or β3-AR agonist CL 316,243 in the presence and absence of the subtype-selective β-AR blockers CGP 20712A (β1-ARs), ICI 118,551 (β2-ARs), and L748,337 (β3-ARs). Results: Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed lack of β2-AR expression in bladder tissue from β2-AR KO mice. In isolated detrusor strips, pre-contraction with KCl increased basal tone and enhanced spontaneous activity significantly more in β2-AR KO than in WT. (-)-Isoprenaline relaxed tonic tension and attenuated spontaneous activity with similar potency, but the concentrations required were two orders of magnitude higher in β2-AR KO than WT. The concentration-response curves (CRCs) for relaxation were not affected by CGP 20712A (300 nM), but were shifted to the right by ICI 118,551 (50 nM) and L748,337 (10 μM). The -logEC50 values for (-)-isoprenaline in WT and β2-AR KO tissue were 7.98 and 6.00, respectively, suggesting a large receptor reserve of β2-AR. (-)-CL 316,243 relaxed detrusor and attenuated spontaneous contractions from WT and β2-AR KO mice with a potency corresponding to the drug’s affinity for β3-AR. L743,337 shifted the CRCs to the right. Conclusion: Our findings in β2-AR KO mice suggest that there is a large receptor reserve for β2-AR in WT mice so that this β-AR subtype will mediate relaxation of tone and attenuation of spontaneous activity under physiological

  17. A Psychophysiological Comparison of the Effects of Three Relaxation Techniques: Respiratory Manipulation Training, Progressive Muscle Relaxation, and Pleasant Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.

    A within-subjects, three condition design was employed to examine the effects of three relaxation techniques on blood pressures, pulse rates, and self-report measures of relaxation for 12 college students. Respiratory Manipulation Training incorporated instructions to exhale and not to inhale for as long as possible. When breathing could no longer…

  18. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation method on test anxiety in nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Zargarzadeh, Maryam; Shirazi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerning the prevalence of test anxiety among nursing students and presence of stress in nursing education years, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation method on test anxiety among nursing students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in three stages on 49 male and female nursing students divided into two groups (study and control). In the pre-test stage, demographic data and Sarason anxiety questionnaires were filled by 94 students (of terms 3 and 4). Then, in the intervention stage, the students having test anxiety were assigned to two groups (study and control), and the progressive muscle relaxation method was performed in the experiment group in four sessions. Then, the students did this method two times a day until final exams, immediately following which they filled the self-reported checklists. On the first day of the final exams, test anxiety questionnaire was filled by the two groups again. The collected data were analyzed by the statistical tests, i.e. χ2, paired t-test, independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS 18. Results: Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety after intervention between the two groups of study and control (P = 0.00), but this difference was not significant before intervention (P = 0.76). Also, in the study group, there was a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety before and after intervention (P = 0.00), but this difference was not significant in the control group (P = 0.09). Mann–Whitney test showed no significant difference in categorization of test anxiety scores before intervention in the study and control groups (P = 0.60), but the difference was significant after intervention (P = 0.00). Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference in categorization of test anxiety scores in the study group

  19. Filament lattice of frog striated muscle. Radial forces, lattice stability, and filament compression in the A-band of relaxed and rigor muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Millman, B M; Irving, T C

    1988-01-01

    Repulsive pressure in the A-band filament lattice of relaxed frog skeletal muscle has been measured as a function of interfilament spacing using an osmotic shrinking technique. Much improved chemical skinning was obtained when the muscles were equilibrated in the presence of EGTA before skinning. The lattice shrank with increasing external osmotic pressure. At any specific pressure, the lattice spacing in relaxed muscle was smaller than that of muscle in rigor, except at low pressures where the reverse was found. The lattice spacing was the same in the two states at a spacing close to that found in vivo. The data were consistent with an electrostatic repulsion over most of the pressure range. For relaxed muscle, the data lay close to electrostatic pressure curves for a thick filament charge diameter of approximately 26 nm, suggesting that charges stabilizing the lattice are situated about midway along the thick filament projections (HMM-S1). At low pressures, observed spacings were larger than calculated, consistent with the idea that thick filament projections move away from the filament backbone. Under all conditions studied, relaxed and rigor, at short and very long sarcomere lengths, the filament lattice could be modeled by assuming a repulsive electrostatic pressure, a weak attractive pressure, and a radial stiffness of the thick filaments (projections) that differed between relaxed and rigor conditions. Each thick filament projection could be compressed by approximately 5 or 2.6 nm requiring a force of 1.3 or 80 pN for relaxed and rigor conditions respectively. PMID:3264728

  20. The role of ion-regulatory membrane proteins of excitation-contraction coupling and relaxation in inherited muscle diseases.

    PubMed

    Froemming, G R; Ohlendieck, K

    2001-01-01

    The excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle of skeletal muscle fibres depends on the finely tuned interplay between the voltage-sensing dihydropyridine receptor, the junctional ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. Inherited diseases of excitation-contraction coupling and muscle relaxation such as malignant hyperthermia, central core disease, hypokalemic periodic paralysis or Brody disease are caused by mutations in these Ca2+-regulatory elements. Over twenty different mutations in the Ca2+-release channel are associated with susceptibility to the pharmacogenetic disorder malignant hyperthermia. Other mutations in the ryanodine receptor trigger central core disease. Primary abnormalities in the alpha-1 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor underlie the molecular pathogenesis of both hypokalemic periodic paralysis and certain forms of malignant hyperthermia. Some cases of the muscle relaxation disorder named Brody disease were demonstrated to be based on primary abnormalities in the Ca2+-ATPase. Since a variety of other sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins modulate the activity of the voltage sensor, Ca2+-release channel and ion-binding proteins, mutations in these Ca2+-regulatory muscle components might be the underlying cause for novel, not yet fully characterized, genetic muscle disorders. The cell biological analysis of knock-out mice has been helpful in evaluating the biomedical consequences of defects in ion-regulatory muscle proteins. PMID:11145921

  1. Pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation produces endothelium-independent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Steg, P.G.; Rongione, A.J.; Gal, D.; DeJesus, S.T.; Clarke, R.H.; Isner, J.M.

    1989-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that continuous wave laser irradiation induces contraction of vascular smooth muscle, except at powers far below the threshold for tissue ablation. To determine the corresponding effects of pulsed laser irradiation on vascular smooth muscle tone, vascular rings of rabbit thoracic aorta were mounted isometrically with 1 g tension in Krebs-bicarbonate buffer and irradiated with 308 or 351 nm from an excimer laser through a 400-microns optical fiber. A total of 250 exposures were performed with 1-6.5 mJ/pulse (fluence = 0.8-5.5 J/cm2), 10-50 Hz, and cumulative exposures of 10-120 seconds. Excimer laser irradiation in combinations of pulse energy (PE), repetition rate (RR), and cumulative exposure below, at, or above threshold for tissue ablation consistently produced relaxation unassociated with contraction in each of the 250 exposures. For the total 250 exposures, the magnitude of relaxation (reduction in recorded tension, Rmax) was 55 +/- 4% (mean +/- SEM) of maximum vasomotor reactivity recorded in the specimen in response to administration of serotonin. Rmax varied directly with both PE and RR. When PE was increased from 1 to 5 mJ/pulse (n = 13), Rmax increased from 57 +/- 19% to 80 +/- 19% (p less than 0.0001); when RR was increased from 10 to 50 Hz (n = 10), Rmax increased from 27 +/- 8 to 46 +/- 8 (p less than 0.0001). Rmax varied independently of endothelial integrity (assessed anatomically and pharmacologically) and wavelength (308 vs. 351 nm). Simultaneously recorded tissue-temperature profiles disclosed that during pulsed laser irradiation, tissue temperature rise did not exceed 5/degree/C.

  2. Stretch and radial compression studies on relaxed skinned muscle fibers of the frog.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, D W; Godt, R E

    1979-01-01

    The influence of stretch and radial compression on the width of mechanically skinned fibers from the semitendinosus muscle of the frog (R. pipiens) was examined in relaxing solutions with high-power light microscopy. Fibers were skinned under mineral oil. We find that, after correcting for water uptake in the oil, fiber width increased by an average of 28% upon transfer from oil to relaxing medium, with some tendency for greater swelling at longer sarcomere lengths. Subsequently, fibers were compressed by addition of the long-chain polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-40, number average molecular weight 40,000) to relaxing solutions. Sarcomere length does not appear to be affected by addition of PVP. At any PVP concentration, the inverse square of the fiber width increased smoothly and linearly with increasing stretch for sarcomere lengths between 2.10 and 4.60 micrometer. At any fixed sarcomere length, fiber width decreased linearly with the logarithm of the osmotic compressive pressure exerted by PVP (2-10% concentration). From this logarithmic relation we estimate that the swelling pressure of the intact fiber is 3.40 x 10(3) N/m2, between that of a 2 and a 3% PVP solution. The pressure giving rise to fiber swelling is not due to dilation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), since the experimental results above were not significantly different after treatment with 0.5% BRIJ-58, a nonionic detergent that disrupts the SR. Swelling may be due simply to elastic structures within the fiber that are constrained in the intact cell. Values of bulk moduli of fibers, calculated from the compression experiments, and preliminary measurements of Young's modulus from stretch experiments, are quantitatively consistent with the idea that skinned fibers behave as nonisotropic elastic bodies. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:318072

  3. Logistic time constant of isometric relaxation force curve of ferret ventricular papillary muscle: reliable index of lusitropism.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, J; Araki, J; Mikane, T; Mohri, S; Imaoka, T; Matsubara, H; Okuyama, H; Kurihara, S; Ohe, T; Hirakawa, M; Suga, H

    2000-10-01

    We have found that a logistic function fits the left ventricular isovolumic relaxation pressure curve in the canine excised, cross-circulated heart more precisely than a monoexponential function. On this basis, we have proposed a logistic time constant (tau(L)) as a better index of ventricular isovolumic lusitropism than the conventional monoexponential time constant (tau(E)). We hypothesize in the present study that this tau(L) would also be a better index of myocardial isometric lusitropism than the conventional tau(E). We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the isometric relaxation force curve of 114 twitches of eight ferret isolated right ventricular papillary muscles. The muscle length was changed between 82 and 100% L(max) and extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](o)) between 0.2 and 8 mmol/l. We found that the logistic function always fitted the isometric relaxation force curve much more precisely than the monoexponential function at any muscle length and [Ca(2+)](o) level. We also found that tau(L) was independent of the choice of the end of isometric relaxation but tau(E) was considerably dependent on it as in ventricular relaxation. These results validated our present hypothesis. We conclude that tau(L) is a more reliable, though still empirical, index of lusitropism than conventional tau(E) in the myocardium as in the ventricle. PMID:11120914

  4. A Survey of the Use of Antiepileptic and Muscle Relaxant Medication in a Sample of Children with Neuromotor Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Bobby G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A longitudinal survey of 424 preschoolers and infants with neuromotor disorders served by a children's rehabilitation center was conducted to determine the number who were receiving muscle relaxant or anticonvulsant medication, as well as average daily dosages. An increase in the number of antiepileptic prescriptions was found from 1962 to 1986.…

  5. beta. -Adrenoceptors in human tracheal smooth muscle: characteristics of binding and relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    van Koppen, C.J.; Hermanussen, M.W.; Verrijp, K.N.; Rodrigues de Miranda, J.F.; Beld, A.J.; Lammers, J.W.J.; van Ginneken, C.A.M.

    1987-06-29

    Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol to human tracheal smooth muscle membranes was saturable, stereo-selective and of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5.3 +/- 0.9 pmol/l and R/sub T/ = 78 +/- 7 fmol/g tissue). The ..beta../sub 1/-selective antagonists atenolol and LK 203-030 inhibited specific (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol binding according to a one binding site model with low affinity in nearly all subjects, pointing to a homogeneous BETA/sub 2/-adrenoceptor population. In one subject using LK 203-030 a small ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptor subpopulation could be demonstrated. The beta-mimetics isoprenaline, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline recognized high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Isoprenaline's pK/sub H/- and pK/sub L/-values for the high and low affinity sites were 8.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.9 +/- 0.3 respectively. In functional experiments isoprenaline relaxed tracheal smooth muscle strips having intrinsic tone with a pD/sub 2/-value of 6.63 +/- 0.19. 32 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity of the ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. F.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinoriya, Pooja; Irchhaiya, R.; Sharma, Bhawna; Sahu, Gayatri; Kumar, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity. PMID:22144780

  7. A new nitrosyl ruthenium complex nitric oxide donor presents higher efficacy than sodium nitroprusside on relaxation of airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Patrícia F S; Pereira, Amanda de C; Rogrigues, Gerson J; Batista, Aline C; da Silva, Roberto S; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Rocha, Matheus L

    2011-08-17

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to be the primary agent in relaxing airways in humans and animals. We investigated the mechanisms involved in the relaxation induced by NO-donors, ruthenium complex [Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO(+)](3+) (TERPY) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in isolated trachea of rats contracted with carbachol in an isolated organs chamber. For instance, we verified the contribution of K(+) channels, the importance of sGC/cGMP pathway, the influence of the extra and intracellular Ca(2+) sources and the contribution of the epithelium on the relaxing response. Additionally, we have used confocal microscopy in order to analyze the action of the NO-donors on cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. The results demonstrated that both compounds led to the relaxation of trachea in a dependent-concentration way. However, the maximum effect (E(max)) of TERPY is higher than the SNP. The relaxation induced by SNP (but not TERPY) was significantly reduced by pretreatment with ODQ (sGC inhibitor). Only TERPY-induced relaxation was reduced by tetraethylammonium (K(+) channels blocker) and by pre-contraction with 75mM KCl (membrane depolarization). The response to both NO-donors was not altered by the presence of thapsigargin (sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor). The epithelium removal has reduced the relaxation only to SNP, and it has no effect on TERPY. The both NO-donors reduced the contraction evoked by Ca(2+) influx, while TERPY have shown a higher inhibitory effect on contraction. Moreover, the TERPY was more effective than SNP in reducing the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration measured by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, these results show that TERPY induces airway smooth muscle relaxation by cGMP-independent mechanisms, it involves the fluxes of Ca(2+) and K(+) across the membrane, it is more effective in reducing cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and inducing relaxation in the rat trachea than the standard drug, SNP. PMID:21605670

  8. Evaluation of capillary supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection for the analysis of a drug (mebeverine) in a dog plasma matrix.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, J D; Venkatramani, C J; Tulich, L J; Bowling, D J; Wehmeyer, K R

    1993-12-22

    Supercritical fluid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was evaluated as a technique for the analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Dog plasma was spiked with a model drug, mebeverine, and with a deuterium-labeled analog of mebeverine. The spiked plasma was prepared for analysis by solid-phase extraction on octadecylsilane cartridges. Mebeverine levels in the spiked dog plasma samples were determined by interpolation from a standard curve. Accuracy and precision of the analysis were determined within and between days. In general, accuracy was found to be 100 +/- 15% for plasma samples spiked with 6 to 60 ng mebeverine/ml. The relative standard deviation for replicate sample analysis over this concentration range was between 5 and 12.5%. PMID:8150867

  9. The effects of the muscle relaxant, CS-722, on synaptic activity of cultured neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Marszalec, W.; Song, J. H.; Narahashi, T.

    1996-01-01

    1. The pharmacological properties of the centrally acting muscle relaxant, CS-722, were studied in cultured hippocampal cells and dorsal root ganglion cells of the rat using the whole-cell variation of the patch clamp technique. 2. CS-722 inhibited the occurrence of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in hippocampal neurones at concentrations of 100-300 microM, but had no effect on postsynaptic currents evoked by the application of glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate. 3. CS-722 reduced voltage-gated sodium currents, while shifting the sodium channel inactivation curve to more negative membrane potentials. This effect is similar to that reported for local anaesthetics. Voltage-gated potassium currents were decreased by CS-722 by approximately 20%, whereas voltage-activated calcium currents were inhibited by about 25%. 4. CS-722 inhibited evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents. However, the spontaneous quantal release of inhibitory transmitter was not affected. 5. The inhibitory effect of CS-722 on spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents and excitatory postsynaptic currents in hippocampal cultures probably results from an inhibition of both sodium and calcium currents. This inhibitory effect is likely to be amplified in polysynaptic neuronal circuits. PMID:8872365

  10. Muscle relaxing activity of Hyssopus officinalis essential oil on isolated intestinal preparations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Battinelli, Lucia; Daniele, Claudia; Melchioni, Cristiana; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2002-03-01

    The muscle relaxing activity of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) and some of its main components (isopinocamphone, limonene and beta-pinene) was studied on isolated preparations of guinea-pig and rabbit intestine. The essential oil and isopinocamphone inhibited the acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 42.4 microg/ml and 61.9 microg/ml to acetylcholine; 48.3 microg/ml and 70.4 microg/ml to BaCl2) whereas limonene or beta-pinene left tissue contraction unchanged. In guinea-pig ileum H. officinalis essential oil also blocked the contractions induced by CaCl2. In isolated rabbit jejunum the essential oil reduced the amplitude of spontaneous movements and decreased the basal tone; neither haemoglobin, methylene blue, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or propranolol blocked the myorelaxant effect. PMID:11914956

  11. Role of membrane potential in endothelium-dependent relaxation of guinea-pig coronary arterial smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Parkington, H C; Tonta, M A; Coleman, H A; Tare, M

    1995-04-15

    was similar to that which was due to EDHF in intact tissues stimulated with acetylcholine. 7. It is concluded that the ability of NO or Iloprost to relax guinea-pig coronary artery does not depend upon hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle. In contrast, hyperpolarization is likely to play a major, if not the only, role in the relaxation in response to EDHF in this tissue. PMID:7541469

  12. Synthesis and pharmacological screening for muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and sedative activities of certain organic compounds produced by Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Said, Makarem M; Ahmed, Amany A E; El-Alfy, Abir T

    2004-12-01

    Michael addition of certain nucleophiles on alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones 1 led to the formation of adducts 2-7 as well as the reaction of arylidene derivatives with secondary amines afforded the amino compounds 9 and 11. Also, dialkylmalonates were treated with alpha-cyano cinnamide to afford 13. On the other hand, double Michael cycloaddition of ethylcyanoacetate or tetrachlorophthalic anhydride to the suitable divinylketone were synthesized to produce 15-17. Selected compounds (13 and 6) were screened for muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and sedative activities using established pharmacological models. Their activities were compared with that of phenobarbital sodium taken as standard. Compound 6 was the most potent muscle relaxant while compounds 13a and 13c offered the highest anticonvulsant activity. Meanwhile compound 13c showed the highest potentiation of phenobarbital induced sleep in mice. PMID:15646790

  13. In vitro effect of medicinal plants used to treat erectile dysfunction on smooth muscle relaxation and human sperm.

    PubMed

    Rakuambo, N C; Meyer, J J M; Hussein, A; Huyser, C; Mdlalose, S P; Raidani, T G

    2006-04-21

    Chloroform and ethanol extracts of root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata, Wrightia natalensis and Rhoicissus tridentata were investigated for their in vitro activity on the contraction of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle of white New Zealand rabbits. Some of the extracts of these plants relaxed the corpus cavernosal smooth muscle at low concentrations. The highest activity was obtained from Securidaca longepedunculata chloroform extracts at a concentration of 13.0 mg/ml, which induced 66.6% relaxation. Viagra was used as a positive control in this study. Extracts of Securidaca longepedunculata added to human spermatozoa affected certain sperm parameters negatively at 6.5 mg/ml and higher whilst there was no effect at 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:16309865

  14. Patients’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Guided Imagery and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Interventions Used for Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Hau, Hannah; Wanta, Britt; Bumpus, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Relaxation and guided imagery are useful strategies for cancer pain; however, their effects vary from patient to patient. Patients’ perceptions of these treatments and factors that contribute to their effectiveness have not previously been described. Data from interviews conducted after a trial of guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) interventions were analyzed to compare patients’ perceptions of treatment effects with observed changes in pain scores, and to explore patients’ ideas about factors that contributed to the effectiveness of each intervention. Post-study interviews were conducted with 26 hospitalized patients with cancer-pain who had completed trials of guided imagery and PMR. In most cases, participants’ perceptions of treatment effects matched observed changes in pain scores. Participants described treatment and patient characteristics that influenced effectiveness of the interventions such as active involvement in the intervention, guided instructions, providing a source of distraction, stimulating relaxation, individual abilities and preferences, and pain qualities. PMID:18640630

  15. Effect of smooth muscle relaxant drugs on proximal human ureteric activity in vivo: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Kim; Timoney, Anthony G; Keeley, Francis X

    2007-08-01

    Drugs are increasingly being used to promote stone passage in renal colic. Diclofenac, nifedipine and tamsulosin cause ureteric smooth muscle relaxation in vitro; however, in clinical trials nifedipine and tamsulosin promote stone passage whereas diclofenac has no apparent benefit. We adapted a ureteric pressure transducer catheter in an attempt to compare the human ureteric response to these drugs in vivo. The catheter was inserted into the contralateral ureter following ureteroscopy for stone disease. Contraction frequency, pressure and velocity measurements were recorded at 24 h. Each patient was randomly allocated to receive oral diclofenac, nifedipine or tamsulosin. Measurements were taken following drug administration. Eighteen patients (mean age 50 years) were recruited. Two patients were excluded intraoperatively and three required early removal of the catheter. Prior to drug administration, the mean number of contractions recorded was 0-4.1/min and the peak contraction pressure ranged from 11 to 35 mmHg. Conduction velocity ranged from 1.5 to 2.6 cm/s. Ureteric peristalsis persisted in all patients despite these drugs. Diclofenac and nifedipine produced inconsistent ureteric pressure responses but had little effect on contraction frequency. Tamsulosin significantly reduced ureteric pressure but had no effect on contraction frequency. There are many limitations associated with the use of ureteric catheters, however, they may provide some useful information when used to record the response to an intervention in the same patient. These preliminary results suggest a reduction in pressure generation may be the essential factor in the promotion of stone passage. More work is required but these drugs may work by preventing the increased, uncoordinated muscular activity seen in renal colic whilst maintaining peristalsis, thereby promoting stone passage. PMID:17530238

  16. Mechanical Impedance of the Non-loaded Lower Leg with Relaxed Muscles in the Transverse Plane

    PubMed Central

    Ficanha, Evandro Maicon; Ribeiro, Guilherme Aramizo; Rastgaar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the protocols and results of the experiments for the estimation of the mechanical impedance of the humans’ lower leg in the External–Internal direction in the transverse plane under non-load bearing condition and with relaxed muscles. The objectives of the estimation of the lower leg’s mechanical impedance are to facilitate the design of passive and active prostheses with mechanical characteristics similar to the humans’ lower leg, and to define a reference that can be compared to the values from the patients suffering from spasticity. The experiments were performed with 10 unimpaired male subjects using a lower extremity rehabilitation robot (Anklebot, Interactive Motion Technologies, Inc.) capable of applying torque perturbations to the foot. The subjects were in a seated position, and the Anklebot recorded the applied torques and the resulting angular movement of the lower leg. In this configuration, the recorded dynamics are due mainly to the rotations of the ankle’s talocrural and the subtalar joints, and any contribution of the tibiofibular joints and knee joint. The dynamic mechanical impedance of the lower leg was estimated in the frequency domain with an average coherence of 0.92 within the frequency range of 0–30 Hz, showing a linear correlation between the displacement and the torques within this frequency range under the conditions of the experiment. The mean magnitude of the stiffness of the lower leg (the impedance magnitude averaged in the range of 0–1 Hz) was determined as 4.9 ± 0.74 Nm/rad. The direct estimation of the quasi-static stiffness of the lower leg results in the mean value of 5.8 ± 0.81 Nm/rad. An analysis of variance shows that the estimated values for the stiffness from the two experiments are not statistically different. PMID:26697424

  17. The effects of caffeine on intracellular calcium, force and the rate of relaxation of mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D G; Westerblad, H

    1995-01-01

    1. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and force were measured from isolated single fibres of mouse skeletal muscle. The effects of 5 mM caffeine on muscle fibres at rest and during short tetani were examined. 2. Caffeine increased tetanic tension and slowed the rate of relaxation. [Ca2+]i was increased in the presence of caffeine both in the resting muscle and during tetani. The time course of decline of [Ca2+]i after a tetanus is complex with a large, early, rapid phase followed by a smaller and slower phase. Caffeine accelerated the early phase but slowed the later phase. 3. The sensitivity of the myofibrillar proteins to Ca2+ measured in the intact fibre was increased in the presence of caffeine, confirming earlier findings on skinned muscle fibres. 4. Analysis of the late phase of the decline of [Ca2+]i after a tetanus provides information about the properties of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump. Caffeine slowed the pump to 60-70% of the control value at a given [Ca2+]i but had no effect on the Ca2+ leak from the SR. 5. Analysis of relaxation made use of the Ca(2+)-derived force in which the [Ca2+]i during relaxation was converted to the Ca(2+)-derived force by means of the steady-state relation between [Ca2+]i and force. The Ca(2+)-derived force fell more slowly in the presence of caffeine but the lag between Ca(2+)-derived force and measured force was unaffected. Thus, the slowed relaxation was caused by changes in Ca2+ handling and not by slowed cross-bridge kinetics. 6. A model of the Ca2+ movements and force production of muscle was used to examine independently the effects of increased Ca2+ sensitivity, slowing of the SR Ca2+ pump and increased SR Ca2+ permeability. The effects of caffeine on [Ca2+]i, tetanic force and relaxation could be explained by a combination of these three effects. PMID:8558467

  18. Vascular smooth muscle-specific deletion of the leptin receptor attenuates leptin-induced alterations in vascular relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael J; Coleman, T Taylor; Sasser, Jennifer M; Pittman, Katarina M; Hankins, Michael W; Stec, David E

    2016-05-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is associated with increased plasma levels of the adipose-derived hormone leptin. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) express leptin receptors (LepR); however, their physiological role is unclear. We hypothesized that leptin, at levels to mimic morbid obesity, impairs vascular relaxation. To test this, we used control and VSM-LepR knockout mice (VSM-LepR KO) created with a tamoxifen-inducible specific Cre recombinase to delete the LepR gene in VSMC. Control (10-12 wk old) and VSM-LepR KO (10-12 wk old) mice were fed a diet containing tamoxifen (50 mg/kg) for 6 wk, after which vascular reactivity was studied in isolated carotid arteries using an organ chamber bath. Vessels were incubated with leptin (100 ng/ml) or vehicle (0.1 mM Tris·HCl) for 30 min. Leptin treatment resulted in significant impairment of vessel relaxation to the endothelial-specific agonist acetylcholine (ACh). When these experiments were repeated in the presence of the superoxide scavenger tempol, relaxation responses to ACh were restored. VSM-LepR deletion resulted in a significant attenuation of leptin-mediated impaired ACh-induced relaxation. These data show that leptin directly impairs vascular relaxation via a VSM-LepR-mediated mechanism, suggesting a potential pathogenic role for leptin to increase cardiovascular risk during obesity. PMID:26936780

  19. Conserved Intramolecular Interactions Maintain Myosin Interacting-Heads Motifs Explaining Tarantula Muscle Super-Relaxed State Structural Basis.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Qi, Dan; Wriggers, Willy; Pinto, Antonio; Zhu, Jingui; Bilbao, Aivett; Gillilan, Richard E; Hu, Songnian; Padrón, Raúl

    2016-03-27

    Tarantula striated muscle is an outstanding system for understanding the molecular organization of myosin filaments. Three-dimensional reconstruction based on cryo-electron microscopy images and single-particle image processing revealed that, in a relaxed state, myosin molecules undergo intramolecular head-head interactions, explaining why head activity switches off. The filament model obtained by rigidly docking a chicken smooth muscle myosin structure to the reconstruction was improved by flexibly fitting an atomic model built by mixing structures from different species to a tilt-corrected 2-nm three-dimensional map of frozen-hydrated tarantula thick filament. We used heavy and light chain sequences from tarantula myosin to build a single-species homology model of two heavy meromyosin interacting-heads motifs (IHMs). The flexibly fitted model includes previously missing loops and shows five intramolecular and five intermolecular interactions that keep the IHM in a compact off structure, forming four helical tracks of IHMs around the backbone. The residues involved in these interactions are oppositely charged, and their sequence conservation suggests that IHM is present across animal species. The new model, PDB 3JBH, explains the structural origin of the ATP turnover rates detected in relaxed tarantula muscle by ascribing the very slow rate to docked unphosphorylated heads, the slow rate to phosphorylated docked heads, and the fast rate to phosphorylated undocked heads. The conservation of intramolecular interactions across animal species and the presence of IHM in bilaterians suggest that a super-relaxed state should be maintained, as it plays a role in saving ATP in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. PMID:26851071

  20. Isolation of functional giant smooth muscle cells from an invertebrate: structural features of relaxed and contracted fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Nicaise, M L; Bilbaut, A; Malaval, L; Nicaise, G

    1982-01-01

    The giant smooth muscle fibers of a ctenophore were isolated by enzymatic digestion. These fibers are multinucleated cells, up to 50 micrometers in diameter and 2 cm in length. Their ultrastructure and membrane electrical properties are similar to those of in situ fibers. Relaxed, coiled (partially contracted), and fully shortened states were distinguished in isolated cells and studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Calcium-containing mitochondrial granules were found in the coiled cells but not in either the relaxed or the fully shortened cells. The relaxed cell is characterized in cross section by the density of myosin filaments (457 +/- 15 per micrometer2) and the thin-to-thick filament ratio (5.2 +/- 0.2). In the coiled cell, the muscle lattice does not expand uniformly, as shown by the variability of myosin spacing, and the thin-to-thick filament ratio decreases. Both clockwise and counterclockwise coiling occur along the same fiber. The implications of these findings with respect to the structure of the contractile apparatus are discussed. Images PMID:6952237

  1. In skeletal muscle the relaxation of the resting membrane potential induced by K(+) permeability changes depends on Cl(-) transport.

    PubMed

    Geukes Foppen, R J

    2004-01-01

    In resting skeletal muscle the potassium permeability is determined by the permeability of the inwardly potassium rectifier. Continuous resting membrane potential measurements are done to follow the relaxation of the membrane potential upon changes in potassium permeability. Inhibition of the inwardly potassium rectifier, by extracellular application of 80 microM Ba(2+), causes the cell to depolarize with mean time constants as follows: in control 127+/-7 s ( n=23), in the presence of bumetanide, as an inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter, 182+/-23 s ( n=7), in hypertonic media (340 mosmol/kg) 90.4+/-5 s ( n=7) and in reduced chloride medium 64+/-8 s ( n=5). The depolarizing relaxation of the membrane potential induced by reduction of extracellular potassium produces similar results. These time constants are at least three orders of magnitude slower than the time constants reported in the literature for the inhibition of the inwardly potassium rectifier. Chloride transport affects the relaxation of the membrane potential. A further characterization of chloride transport is done by following the relaxation of the membrane potential upon application of chloride transport modulators. It is argued that the electroneutral cotransporter, for which a flux was preliminarily estimated of 13.4 pmol cm(-2) s(-1), has a considerable role in the processes related to the resting membrane potential. PMID:14648122

  2. Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor induces endothelium-independent relaxation of coronary artery smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuan; Ma, Handong; Barman, Scott A; Liu, Alexander T; Sellers, Minga; Stallone, John N; Prossnitz, Eric R; White, Richard E; Han, Guichun

    2011-11-01

    Estrogens can either relax or contract arteries via rapid, nongenomic mechanisms involving classic estrogen receptors (ER). In addition to ERα and ERβ, estrogen may also stimulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in nonvascular tissue; however, a potential role for GPER in coronary arteries is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine how GPER activity influenced coronary artery reactivity. In vitro isometric force recordings were performed on endothelium-denuded porcine arteries. These studies were augmented by RT-PCR and single-cell patch-clamp experiments. RT-PCR and immunoblot studies confirmed expression of GPER mRNA and protein, respectively, in smooth muscle from either porcine or human coronary arteries. G-1, a selective GPER agonist, produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelium-denuded porcine coronary arteries in vitro. This response was attenuated by G15, a GPER-selective antagonist, or by inhibiting large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels with iberiotoxin, but not by inhibiting NO signaling. Last, single-channel patch-clamp studies demonstrated that G-1 stimulates BK(Ca) channel activity in intact smooth muscle cells from either porcine or human coronary arteries but had no effect on channels isolated in excised membrane patches. In summary, GPER activation relaxes coronary artery smooth muscle by increasing potassium efflux via BK(Ca) channels and requires an intact cellular signaling mechanism. This novel action of estrogen-like compounds may help clarify some of the controversy surrounding the vascular effects of estrogens. PMID:21791623

  3. The vestibular system does not modulate fusimotor drive to muscle spindles in relaxed leg muscles of subjects in a near-vertical position.

    PubMed

    Knellwolf, T P; Hammam, E; Macefield, V G

    2016-05-01

    It has been shown that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) has no effect on the firing of spontaneously active muscle spindles in either relaxed or voluntarily contracting human leg muscles. However, all previous studies have been conducted on subjects in a seated position. Given that independent vestibular control of muscle spindle firing would be more valuable during postural threat, we tested the hypothesis that this modulation would become apparent for subjects in a near-vertical position. Unitary recordings were made from 18 muscle spindle afferents via tungsten microelectrodes inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve of awake human subjects laying supine on a motorized tilt table. All recorded spindle afferents were spontaneously active at rest, and each increased its firing rate during a weak static contraction. Sinusoidal bipolar binaural galvanic vestibular stimulation (±2 mA, 100 cycles) was applied to the mastoid processes at 0.8 Hz. This continuous stimulation produced a sustained illusion of "rocking in a boat" or "swinging in a hammock." The subject was then moved into a near-vertical position (75°), and the stimulation repeated. Despite robust vestibular illusions, none of the fusimotor-driven spindles exhibited phase-locked modulation of firing during sinusoidal GVS in either position. We conclude that this dynamic vestibular stimulus was insufficient to modulate the firing of fusimotor neurons in the near-vertical position. However, this does not mean that the vestibular system cannot modulate the sensitivity of muscle spindles via fusimotor neurons in free unsupported standing, when reliance on proprioceptive feedback is higher. PMID:26936989

  4. Ebf factors and MyoD cooperate to regulate muscle relaxation via Atp2a1.

    PubMed

    Jin, Saihong; Kim, Jeehee; Willert, Torsten; Klein-Rodewald, Tanja; Garcia-Dominguez, Mario; Mosqueira, Matias; Fink, Rainer; Esposito, Irene; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Charnay, Patrick; Kieslinger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD and Myf5 lie at the core of vertebrate muscle differentiation. However, E-boxes, the cognate binding sites for these transcription factors, are not restricted to the promoters/enhancers of muscle cell-specific genes. Thus, the specificity in myogenic transcription is poorly defined. Here we describe the transcription factor Ebf3 as a new determinant of muscle cell-specific transcription. In the absence of Ebf3 the lung does not unfold at birth, resulting in respiratory failure and perinatal death. This is due to a hypercontractile diaphragm with impaired Ca(2+) efflux-related muscle functions. Expression of the Ca(2+) pump Serca1 (Atp2a1) is downregulated in the absence of Ebf3, and its transgenic expression rescues this phenotype. Ebf3 binds directly to the promoter of Atp2a1 and synergises with MyoD in the induction of Atp2a1. In skeletal muscle, the homologous family member Ebf1 is strongly expressed and together with MyoD induces Atp2a1. Thus, Ebf3 is a new regulator of terminal muscle differentiation in the diaphragm, and Ebf factors cooperate with MyoD in the induction of muscle-specific genes. PMID:24786561

  5. Activation of bitter taste receptors (tas2rs) relaxes detrusor smooth muscle and suppresses overactive bladder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Nyirimigabo, Eric; Mi, Yue; Wang, Yan; Liu, Qinghua; Man, Libo; Wu, Shiliang; Jin, Jie; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are traditionally thought to be expressed exclusively on the taste buds of the tongue. However, accumulating evidence has indicated that this receptor family performs non-gustatory functions outside the mouth in addition to taste. Here, we examined the role of TAS2Rs in human and mouse detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). We showed that mRNA for various TAS2R subtypes was expressed in both human and mouse detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) at distinct levels. Chloroquine (CLQ), an agonist for TAS2Rs, concentration-dependently relaxed carbachol- and KCl-induced contractions of human DSM strips. Moreover, 100 μM of CLQ significantly inhibited spontaneous and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of human DSM strips. After a slight contraction, CLQ (1 mM) entirely relaxed carbachol-induced contraction of mouse DSM strips. Furthermore, denatonium and quinine concentration-dependently decreased carbachol-induced contractions of mouse DSM strips. Finally, we demonstrated that CLQ treatment significantly suppressed the overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms of mice with partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). In conclusion, we for the first time provide evidence of the existence of TAS2Rs in the urinary DSM and demonstrate that TAS2Rs may represent a potential target for OAB. These findings open a new approach to develop drugs for OAB in the future. PMID:27056888

  6. [Sugammadex reversal after extubation under muscle relaxation to prevent cough reflex in a patient with intractable spontaneous pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Ota, Chiho; Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Imada, Tatsuyuki; Hayashi, Yukio; Mashimo, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    A 40-year-old man (168 cm tall and weighing 71 kg) with intractable pneumothorax was operated for resection of a bulla in the left lung. After insertion of epidural catheter via T 5-6 interspace, general anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. The duration of surgery was 1h 48 min and rocuronium given during surgery was 110 mg. After completion of surgery, the double-lumen tube was replaced with laryngeal mask airway to prevent cough reflex. However, infusion of sugammadex 200 mg induced mild cough reflex, resulting in air leakage from thoracic drainage. Because air leakage still continued after extubation, reoperation must be done and re-intubation was required. Since rocuronium 50 mg did not provide satisfactory muscle relaxation measured by train of four, additional dose of rocuronium 40 mg was administered and re-intubation was successfully performed without cough reflex. Reoperation lasted for 43 minutes and rocuronium infused was 100 mg. Nasal airway was inserted to prevent airway obstruction by the tongue and extubation was performed under muscle relaxation with infusion of rocuronium 10 mg. And then, immediate administration of sugammadex 400 mg could elicit spontaneous respiration without cough reflex. PMID:23984577

  7. Activation of bitter taste receptors (tas2rs) relaxes detrusor smooth muscle and suppresses overactive bladder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Kui; Yang, Zhiguang; Zhu, Xiaofei; Nyirimigabo, Eric; Mi, Yue; Wang, Yan; Liu, Qinghua; Man, Libo; Wu, Shiliang; Jin, Jie; Ji, Guangju

    2016-04-19

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are traditionally thought to be expressed exclusively on the taste buds of the tongue. However, accumulating evidence has indicated that this receptor family performs non-gustatory functions outside the mouth in addition to taste. Here, we examined the role of TAS2Rs in human and mouse detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). We showed that mRNA for various TAS2R subtypes was expressed in both human and mouse detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) at distinct levels. Chloroquine (CLQ), an agonist for TAS2Rs, concentration-dependently relaxed carbachol- and KCl-induced contractions of human DSM strips. Moreover, 100 µM of CLQ significantly inhibited spontaneous and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of human DSM strips. After a slight contraction, CLQ (1 mM) entirely relaxed carbachol-induced contraction of mouse DSM strips. Furthermore, denatonium and quinine concentration-dependently decreased carbachol-induced contractions of mouse DSM strips. Finally, we demonstrated that CLQ treatment significantly suppressed the overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms of mice with partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). In conclusion, we for the first time provide evidence of the existence of TAS2Rs in the urinary DSM and demonstrate that TAS2Rs may represent a potential target for OAB. These findings open a new approach to develop drugs for OAB in the future. PMID:27056888

  8. Selective targeting of the α5-subunit of GABAA receptors relaxes airway smooth muscle and inhibits cellular calcium handling

    PubMed Central

    Yocum, Gene T.; Siviski, Matthew E.; Yim, Peter D.; Fu, Xiao Wen; Poe, Michael M.; Cook, James M.; Harrison, Neil; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Emala, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical need for novel bronchodilators for the treatment of bronchoconstrictive diseases remains a major medical issue. Modulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) chloride via GABAA receptor activation to achieve relaxation of precontracted ASM represents a potentially beneficial therapeutic option. Since human ASM GABAA receptors express only the α4- and α5-subunits, there is an opportunity to selectively target ASM GABAA receptors to improve drug efficacy and minimize side effects. Recently, a novel compound (R)-ethyl8-ethynyl-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4] diazepine-3-carboxylate (SH-053-2′F-R-CH3) with allosteric selectivity for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors has become available. We questioned whether this novel GABAA α5-selective ligand relaxes ASM and affects intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulation. Immunohistochemical staining localized the GABAA α5-subunit to human ASM. The selective GABAA α5 ligand SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 relaxes precontracted intact ASM; increases GABA-activated chloride currents in human ASM cells in voltage-clamp electrophysiology studies; and attenuates bradykinin-induced increases in [Ca2+]i, store-operated Ca2+ entry, and methacholine-induced Ca2+ oscillations in peripheral murine lung slices. In conclusion, selective subunit targeting of endogenous α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors on ASM may represent a novel therapeutic option to treat severe bronchospasm. PMID:25659897

  9. Selective targeting of the α5-subunit of GABAA receptors relaxes airway smooth muscle and inhibits cellular calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Gallos, George; Yocum, Gene T; Siviski, Matthew E; Yim, Peter D; Fu, Xiao Wen; Poe, Michael M; Cook, James M; Harrison, Neil; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Emala, Charles W

    2015-05-01

    The clinical need for novel bronchodilators for the treatment of bronchoconstrictive diseases remains a major medical issue. Modulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) chloride via GABAA receptor activation to achieve relaxation of precontracted ASM represents a potentially beneficial therapeutic option. Since human ASM GABAA receptors express only the α4- and α5-subunits, there is an opportunity to selectively target ASM GABAA receptors to improve drug efficacy and minimize side effects. Recently, a novel compound (R)-ethyl8-ethynyl-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4] diazepine-3-carboxylate (SH-053-2'F-R-CH3) with allosteric selectivity for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors has become available. We questioned whether this novel GABAA α5-selective ligand relaxes ASM and affects intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) regulation. Immunohistochemical staining localized the GABAA α5-subunit to human ASM. The selective GABAA α5 ligand SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 relaxes precontracted intact ASM; increases GABA-activated chloride currents in human ASM cells in voltage-clamp electrophysiology studies; and attenuates bradykinin-induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i, store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and methacholine-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in peripheral murine lung slices. In conclusion, selective subunit targeting of endogenous α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors on ASM may represent a novel therapeutic option to treat severe bronchospasm. PMID:25659897

  10. A birefringence study of changes in myosin orientation during relaxation of skinned muscle fibers induced by photolytic ATP release.

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, M; Ferenczi, M A; Irving, M

    1994-01-01

    The birefringence of isolated skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle was measured continuously during relaxation from rigor produced by photolysis of caged ATP at sarcomere length 2.8-2.9 microns, ionic strength 0.1 M, 15 degrees C. Birefringence, the difference in refractive index between light components polarized parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis, depends on the average degree of alignment of the myosin head domain with the fiber axis. After ATP release birefringence increased by 5.8 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- SE, n = 6) with two temporal components. A small fast component had an amplitude of 0.9 +/- 0.2% and rate constant of 63 s-1. By the completion of this component, the instantaneous stiffness had decreased to about half the rigor value, and the force response to a step stretch showed a rapid (approximately 1000 s-1) recovery phase. Subsequently a large slow birefringence component with rate constant 5.1 s-1 accompanied isometric force relaxation. Inorganic phosphate (10 mM) did not affect the fast birefringence component but accelerated the slow component and force relaxation. The fast birefringence component was probably caused by formation of myosin.ATP or myosin.ADP.Pi states that are weakly bound to actin. The average myosin head orientation at the end of this component is slightly more parallel to the fiber axis than in rigor. PMID:7811926

  11. Muscle Relaxation in Laparoscopic Surgery: What is the Evidence for Improved Operating Conditions and Patient Outcome? A Brief Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ledowski, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    When neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) were introduced into clinical practice in 1942, the event was called the "second revolution in anesthesia." Despite some significant side effects, NMBAs have remained in the anesthetists' repertoire, not at least because muscle relaxation has been claimed to allow or facilitate many surgical procedures. Aim of this literature review was to investigate the evidence for the use of NMBA as well as the optimum depth of neuromuscular blockade during laparoscopic surgery. Muscle relaxation may optimize laparoscopic operating conditions by preventing patient movement and achieving more intra-abdominal space for a given intra-abdominal insufflation pressure. In this context, deeper than normally maintained levels of neuromuscular blockade appear to be superior. However, the decision to utilize deeper than standard muscle relaxation should currently be based on a risk-benefit analysis for each individual patient. Thus good communication between surgeon and anesthetist remains crucial to achieve best outcomes. PMID:26121545

  12. Modulation of beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of rat oesophagus smooth muscle by protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Oostendorp, Jaap; Obels, Peter Ph; Terpstra, A Rene; Nelemans, S Adriaan; Zaagsma, Johan

    2004-07-01

    Although a prominent role for protein kinase C (PKC) in the cross-talk between the phosphoinositide pathway and beta2-adrenoceptor signalling has been indicated, modulation of beta3-adrenoceptor function by PKC has not been studied thus far. In the present study, we have compared the relative capacity of PKC in modulating beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of methacholine-contracted rat oesophagus smooth muscle. To this purpose the effects of the PKC-inhibitor GF 109203X (2-[1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-maleimide) on relaxation induced by fenoterol, formoterol, (-)-noradrenaline, BRL 35135 (4-[2-[(2-hydroxy-2-(chlorophenyl)ethyl)amino]-propyl]-phenoxyacetic-acidmethylester) and IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine) were studied, in the absence and presence of the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 (erythro-1(7-methylindan-4-yloxy)-3-(isopropylamin)-butan-2-ol). Our results show that inhibition of PKC resulted in differential augmentation of both beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation. In contrast, relaxation induced by IBMX was not influenced at all by GF 109203X. The beta2-adrenoceptor bears phosphorylation sites for several kinases, including PKC. Since the beta3-adrenoceptor lacks these consensus sites, the results may also indicate that PKC-mediated Galphas phosphorylation is involved in the cross-talk between the muscarinic receptor-mediated phosphoinositide pathway and beta2- and, particularly, beta3-adrenoceptor signalling. PMID:15219823

  13. Mechanisms of relaxant action of a crude hexane extract of Gnaphalium liebmannii in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mendoza, María Elena; Torres, Gabriela; Arrieta, Jesús; Aguilar, Abigail; Castillo-Henkel, Carlos; Navarrete, Andrés

    2007-04-20

    We investigated the mechanisms of action of Gnaphalium liebmannii which is used as a folk medicine in México for treating various respiratory diseases such as gripe, fever, asthma, cough, cold, bronchitis, expectorating, and bronchial affections. The tension changes of guinea pig tracheal segments were isometrically recorder on a polygraph. Hexane extract of Gnaphalium liebmannii was the most active relaxant extract (IC(30)=54.23+/-19.79 microg/mL with 99.5+/-3.2 % of relaxation), followed by dichloromethane extract (IC(30)=120.22+/-5.27 microg/mL) and methanol extract (IC(30)=190.25+/-30.02 microg/mL). Hexane extract produced a parallel rightward shift of the concentration-response curve of carbachol in a competitive manner (pA(2)=-2.4), but did not modify the concentration-response curves for histamine. The relaxant effect of hexane extract of Gnaphalium liebmannii was unaffected by the presence of propranolol (3x10(-6)M) or glibenclamide (10 microM). However hexane extract produced a leftward shifts of the concentration-response curve of forskolin (10(-8) to 10(-3)M), nitroprusside (10(-10) to 10(-6)M), isoproterenol (3x10(-10) to 3x10(-5)M) and aminophylline (10(-11) to 10(-2)M). The above results suggest that Gnaphalium liebmannii induce relaxation of the tracheal muscle, probably via phosphodiesterase inhibition. The bronchodilator effect of Gnaphalium liebmannii might explain in part their traditional use as anti-asthmatic remedy. PMID:17141995

  14. Azithromycin has a direct relaxant effect on precontracted airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Daenas, Christos; Hatziefthimiou, Apostolia A; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Molyvdas, Paschalis Adam

    2006-12-28

    Macrolides have been proven to have beneficial bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties, but very little is known about the potential value of their bronchodilatory effect. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of azithromycin on contractile responses of isolated rabbit tracheal strips to carbachol or KCl. Azithromycin has a relaxant, concentration-dependent effect on tracheal strips precontracted with carbachol (300 nM), significant from the concentration of 1 muM. The mechanical removal of epithelium did not alter the effect of azithromycin. Azithromycin (100 microM) also relaxed tracheal strips precontracted with KCl (80 mM) even in the presence of atropine (100 microM). Moreover, azithromycin (100 microM) decreased contractions induced by 300 nM and 10 microM carbachol to 55.4% and 80.5% of initial contraction, respectively. The relaxant effect of azithromycin persisted in both calcium free solution and in the presence of the calcium channel antagonist, verapamil. The relaxant effect of azithromycin was not altered by the pre-treatment of preparations with the inhibitors of Ca(2+)-ATPase (cyclopiazonic acid), Na(+)-K(+) ATPase (ouabain), Rho-associated kinase [(R)-(+)-trans-4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide dihydrochloride] (Y-27632) or the non-specific cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterases inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-2,6(1H,3H)-purinedione (IBMX). These results suggest that azithromycin has a concentration-dependent, epithelium-independent, direct relaxant effect on precontracted tracheal strips that is not mediated via inhibition of Ca(2+) influx or Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Also, it is not due to alteration of the function of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and does not depend on the formation of cAMP/cGMP or the Rho/Rho-activated kinase pathway. PMID:17070799

  15. Relaxant and contractile responses of detrusor muscle strips obtained from bladder outlet-obstructed rats treated with doxazosin enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Ren, Xue-Jiao; Zhao, Qing-Hua; Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Xue; Zhao, Yan; Ren, Lei-Ming

    2011-12-01

    (-)Doxazosin, one of (±)doxazosin enantiomers, was speculated to have a pharmacological enantioselectivity between the cardiovascular system and the urinary system by comparison with (+)doxazosin. Therefore, to evaluate the potential benefits of (-)doxazosin in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia, we compared the effects of the 3 agents, using rat mesenteric artery preparations and obstructed bladder strips. Concentration-response curves for carbachol (contractile response) and isoprenaline (relaxant response) in detrusor muscle strips of the bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) rats were shifted to the left, with significant increases in the Emax values, and significant decreases in the EC50 values by comparison with the sham-operated rats (P < 0.05, n = 10). The enhanced responses in detrusor muscle strips of the BOO rats treated with (±)doxazosin and its enantiomers at 3 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1) for 2 weeks returned to normal levels, and the 3 agents inhibited the enhanced responses to carbachol and isoprenaline to the same extent. On the other hand, the 3 agents uncompetitively inhibited the vasoconstrictive response curves for NA in the rat isolated mesenteric artery, and the pKB value of (-)doxazosin at vascular α1-adrenoceptors was significantly smaller (P < 0.05, n = 6) than that of (+)doxazosin or (±)doxazosin. In conclusion, although (-)doxazosin inhibits vascular functional α1-adrenoceptors more weakly than (+)doxazosin, both agents equally ameliorate the enhanced responses in detrusor muscle of BOO rats, suggesting that the chiral carbon atom in the molecular structure of doxazosin does not affect its beneficial effects in the bladder smooth muscle of BOO rats. PMID:22115277

  16. Physiological pharmacokinetics of a new muscle-relaxant, inaperisone, combined with its pharmacological effect on blood flow rate.

    PubMed

    Nagata, O; Murata, M; Kato, H; Terasaki, T; Sato, H; Tsuji, A

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for drugs whose pharmacokinetics are influenced by their dose-dependent pharmacological effects. Since blood flow rate is one of the important factors that determine the distribution and elimination processes of drugs, we used inaperisone [IPS, (+/-)-4'-ethyl-2-methyl-3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-propiophenone hydrochloride], a novel centrally acting muscle relaxant that has been found by us to significantly alter muscle and fat blood flow rates in a dose-dependent manner, as a model compound. With regard to the changes in muscle blood flow rate exhibited by IPS, the brain was shown to be the major site of action based on changes in the observed blood flow rates, determined by the 51Cr-labeled microsphere method, in rats injected iv and intracerebroventricularly with various doses of IPS. Consequently, the blood flow rates in the muscle and fat were well correlated with the concentration of IPS in the brain using Hill's equation. Moreover, hepatic and renal intrinsic clearances of IPS at steady-state were determined by the constant iv infusion method. The saturation of in vivo hepatic and renal metabolisms of IPS was found at venous plasma concentrations higher than 1 microgram/ml. Taken all together, we developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of IPS combined with its pharmacological effect in rats, which could simulate the concentration-dependent changes in blood flow rates based on the drug concentrations at the site of action.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1981535

  17. Comparison of relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles from rabbits by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists; prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin.

    PubMed

    Seo, K K; Lee, M Y; Lim, S W; Kim, S C

    1999-02-01

    Alpha1a-adrenergic receptor (AR) primarily mediates the contraction of the prostatic and cavernous smooth muscles. Among clinically available alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), tamsulosin has a modest selectivity for alpha1A- and alpha1D- over alpha1B-ARs. To compare the effects of various alpha1-AR antagonists on relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles, isometric tension studies with relatively selective (tamsulosin) and non-selective (prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin) alpha1A-AR antagonists, were conducted in the cavernous and trigonal muscle strips of rabbits (n=10 each). Tamsulosin had the strongest inhibitory effect on contraction of trigonal smooth muscle among the various alpha1-AR antagonists, and the inhibitory activities of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin were not statistically different. All alpha1-AR antagonists caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the cavernous muscle strips. Tamsulosin was shown to have greater potency than prazosin (more than 100-fold), doxazosin (more than 1000-fold), and terazosin (more than 1000-fold), in relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle. In conclusion, tamsulosin might be the most effective drug among the four commonly used alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of BPH. Tamsulosin might be a potential substitute for phentolamine in combination with vasoactive agents as an intracavernous injection therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction. PMID:10102527

  18. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits Ca2+ release through InsP3 receptors and relaxes airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Piedras, Isabel; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a signalling molecule that appears to regulate diverse cell physiological process in several organs and systems including vascular and airway smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Decreases in endogenous H2S synthesis have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and asthma. Here we investigated the mechanism of airway SMC relaxation induced by H2S in small intrapulmonary airways using mouse lung slices and confocal and phase-contrast video microscopy. Exogenous H2S donor Na2S (100 μm) reversibly inhibited Ca2+ release and airway contraction evoked by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) uncaging in airway SMCs. Similarly, InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release and contraction was inhibited by endogenous H2S precursor l-cysteine (10 mm) but not by l-serine (10 mm) or either amino acid in the presence of dl-propargylglycine (PPG). Consistent with the inhibition of Ca2+ release through InsP3 receptors (InsP3Rs), Na2S reversibly inhibited acetylcholine (ACh)-induced Ca2+ oscillations in airway SMCs. In addition, Na2S, the H2S donor GYY-4137, and l-cysteine caused relaxation of airways pre-contracted with either ACh or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Na2S-induced airway relaxation was resistant to a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) and a protein kinase G inhibitor (Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS). The effects of H2S on InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release and contraction as well as on the relaxation of agonist-contracted airways were mimicked by the thiol-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 10 mm) and inhibited by the oxidizing agent diamide (30 μm). These studies indicate that H2S causes airway SMC relaxation by inhibiting Ca2+ release through InsP3Rs and consequent reduction of agonist-induced Ca2+ oscillations in SMCs. The results suggest a novel role for endogenously produced H2S that involves the modulation of InsP3-evoked Ca2+ release – a cell-signalling system of critical importance for many physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID

  19. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits Ca2+ release through InsP3 receptors and relaxes airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Castro-Piedras, Isabel; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose F

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a signalling molecule that appears to regulate diverse cell physiological process in several organs and systems including vascular and airway smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction. Decreases in endogenous H2S synthesis have been associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and asthma. Here we investigated the mechanism of airway SMC relaxation induced by H2S in small intrapulmonary airways using mouse lung slices and confocal and phase-contrast video microscopy. Exogenous H2S donor Na2S (100 μm) reversibly inhibited Ca(2+) release and airway contraction evoked by inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) uncaging in airway SMCs. Similarly, InsP3-evoked Ca(2+) release and contraction was inhibited by endogenous H2S precursor l-cysteine (10 mm) but not by l-serine (10 mm) or either amino acid in the presence of dl-propargylglycine (PPG). Consistent with the inhibition of Ca(2+) release through InsP3 receptors (InsP3Rs), Na2S reversibly inhibited acetylcholine (ACh)-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in airway SMCs. In addition, Na2S, the H2S donor GYY-4137, and l-cysteine caused relaxation of airways pre-contracted with either ACh or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Na2S-induced airway relaxation was resistant to a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (ODQ) and a protein kinase G inhibitor (Rp-8-pCPT-cGMPS). The effects of H2S on InsP3-evoked Ca(2+) release and contraction as well as on the relaxation of agonist-contracted airways were mimicked by the thiol-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 10 mm) and inhibited by the oxidizing agent diamide (30 μm). These studies indicate that H2S causes airway SMC relaxation by inhibiting Ca(2+) release through InsP3Rs and consequent reduction of agonist-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in SMCs. The results suggest a novel role for endogenously produced H2S that involves the modulation of InsP3-evoked Ca(2+) release - a cell-signalling system of critical importance for many physiological and pathophysiological processes

  20. Both Physical Exercise and Progressive Muscle Relaxation Reduce the Facing-the-Viewer Bias in Biological Motion Perception

    PubMed Central

    Heenan, Adam; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2014-01-01

    Biological motion stimuli, such as orthographically projected stick figure walkers, are ambiguous about their orientation in depth. The projection of a stick figure walker oriented towards the viewer, therefore, is the same as its projection when oriented away. Even though such figures are depth-ambiguous, however, observers tend to interpret them as facing towards them more often than facing away. Some have speculated that this facing-the-viewer bias may exist for sociobiological reasons: Mistaking another human as retreating when they are actually approaching could have more severe consequences than the opposite error. Implied in this hypothesis is that the facing-towards percept of biological motion stimuli is potentially more threatening. Measures of anxiety and the facing-the-viewer bias should therefore be related, as researchers have consistently found that anxious individuals display an attentional bias towards more threatening stimuli. The goal of this study was to assess whether physical exercise (Experiment 1) or an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2) would significantly affect facing-the-viewer biases. We hypothesized that both physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation would decrease facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers, but not for bottom- or top-half-only human stimuli, as these carry less sociobiological relevance. On the other hand, we expected that the anxiety induction task (Experiment 2) would increase facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. In both experiments, participants completed anxiety questionnaires, exercised on a treadmill (Experiment 1) or performed an anxiety induction/reduction task (Experiment 2), and then immediately completed a perceptual task that allowed us to assess their facing-the-viewer bias. As hypothesized, we found that physical exercise and progressive muscle relaxation reduced facing-the-viewer biases for full stick figure walkers only. Our results provide

  1. Individual Difference Variables and the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Analgesic Imagery Interventions on Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Wanta, Britt; Bumpus, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Clinicians in acute care settings are often called upon to manage cancer pain unrelieved by medications. Cognitive-behavioral strategies, such as relaxation and imagery, are recommended for cancer pain management; however, there appear to be individual differences in their effects. This pilot study examined variation in pain outcomes achieved with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and analgesic imagery interventions among hospitalized patients with cancer pain, and assessed the influence of four individual difference variables (cognitive ability, outcome expectancy, previous experience, and concurrent symptoms) on pain relief achieved with each intervention. A crossover design was used in which 40 hospitalized cancer patients received two trials of PMR, two trials of analgesic imagery, and two trials of a control condition. In comparing means between treatment and control conditions, both PMR and analgesic imagery produced greater improvements in pain intensity, pain-related distress, and perceived control over pain than the control condition. However, individual responder analysis revealed that only half of the participants achieved a clinically meaningful improvement in pain with each intervention. Patients who achieved a meaningful improvement in pain with analgesic imagery reported greater imaging ability, more positive outcome expectancy, and fewer concurrent symptoms than those who did not achieve a meaningful reduction in pain. Similar relationships were not significant for the PMR intervention. Investigators should continue efforts to identify factors that moderate the effects of cognitive-behavioral pain coping strategies so that clinicians can identify the most beneficial treatments for individual patients. PMID:18504089

  2. Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy as a worksite health promotion program in the automobile assembly line.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Bala Murali; Dahlui, Maznah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2016-06-10

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Independent sample t test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace. PMID:26726829

  3. Effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation therapy as a worksite health promotion program in the automobile assembly line

    PubMed Central

    SUNDRAM, Bala Murali; DAHLUI, Maznah; CHINNA, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) as part of a Worksite Health Promotion Program on self-perceived stress, anxiety and depression among male automotive assembly-line workers through a quasi-experimental trial. Two assembly plants were chosen with one receiving PMR therapy and the other Pamphlets. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of the relaxation therapy. Stress, Depression and Anxiety levels were measured using the shortened DASS-21 questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Independent sample t test and Repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the significance of the effects of intervention (time * group) for the measures of Stress, Depression and Anxiety. Significant favourable intervention effects on stress were found in the PMR group (Effect size=0.6) as compared to the Pamphlet group (Effect size=0.2). There was a significant group *time interaction effect (p<0.001) on Stress levels. Depression and Anxiety levels were minimal at baseline in both the groups with mild or no reduction in levels. The improvement in stress levels showed the potential of PMR therapy as a coping strategy at the workplace. Further research in this field is necessary to examine the beneficial effects of coping strategies in the workplace. PMID:26726829

  4. Education, progressive muscle relaxation therapy, and exercise for the treatment of night eating syndrome. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Jillon S; Maraldo, Toni M; Vercellone, Allison C; Gagne, Danielle A

    2015-06-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian rhythm disorder in which food intake is shifted toward the end of the day, interfering with sleep. According to the biobehavioral model of NES, the disorder is the result of a genetic predisposition that, coupled with stress, leads to enhanced reuptake of serotonin, thereby dysregulating circadian rhythms and decreasing satiety. Using the biobehavioral model as a guide, we developed a brief behavioral intervention using education, relaxation strategies, and exercise to address the core symptoms of NES. In this pilot randomized controlled clinical trial, 44 participants with NES were randomly assigned to an educational group (E; n = 14), E plus progressive muscle relaxation therapy (PMR; n = 15); or PMR plus exercise (PMR Plus, n = 15). Participants received a baseline intervention with 1- and 3-week follow-up sessions. Effectiveness analyses showed that participants in all three groups evidenced significant reductions on measures of NES symptoms (p < .001), depression (p < .05), anxiety (p < .01), and perceived stress (p < .05). However, the only significant between group change was for the percent of food eaten after the evening meal, with the PMR group showing the greatest reduction (-30.54%), followed by the PMR Plus group (-20.42%) and the E group (-9.5%); only the difference between the PMR and E groups was statistically significant (p = .012). Reductions in NES scores were significantly associated with reductions on measures of depression (r = .47; p < .01) and perceived stress (r = .37; p < .05), but not anxiety (r = .26, p = ns). Results support the role of education and relaxation in the behavioral treatment of NES. PMID:25660340

  5. Coherence between the sympathetic drives to relaxed and contracting muscles of different limbs of human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Wallin, B G; Burke, D; Gandevia, S C

    1992-01-01

    1. This study was undertaken to quantify the simultaneous sympathetic drives to muscles in the two legs of human subjects, and to elucidate the extent to which a common drive determines sympathetic outflow to different limbs at rest, during apnoea and during voluntary contractions. 2. Sympathetic efferent activity was recorded simultaneously from fascicles of both peroneal nerves, innervating the pretibial flexor muscles. At rest the similarity was quantified for a sample of records by manual measurement of equivalent bursts in the two recordings, and for all records by cross-correlation and power spectral analysis of the two recordings. During contractions, only the latter method was used. 3. At rest the correlation coefficient for the relationship between the burst amplitudes for the two recordings was 0.72 (S.D. 0.1). For the same sequences, the computed coherence between the two recordings was 85.6% (S.D. 6.7%) at the cardiac period. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between these two measures of similarity, and this was stronger when data from sequences recorded during apnoea were included in the analysis. At rest the mean difference in coherence between consecutive sequences with no intervening manoeuvre (apnoea, contraction, change in recording site) was 4.2% (S.D. 4.3%). In only two of forty-nine such instances was the difference in coherence > 10%. 4. Apnoea at end-expiration increased the amplitude and frequency of sympathetic bursts and increased the similarity between the two recordings. The correlation coefficients increased from a mean of 0.72 at rest to 0.89 during apnoea. Coherence increased from a mean of 82.1% at rest to 91.9% during apnoea. 5. On the right side, graded voluntary contractions were performed at 5, 10, 20 or 30% maximal force using the muscle innervated by the fascicle from which the recording was made. The coherence between the recordings made from the right and left legs decreased by > 10% at each

  6. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  7. Dual excitatory and smooth muscle-relaxing effect of Sideritis montana extract on guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Barbara; Bartho, Loránd; Vasas, Andrea; Sándor, Zsolt; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Pinke, Gyula; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-03-01

    The neuronal and smooth muscle effects of a methanol extract prepared from the air-dried flowering aerial parts of Sideritis montana L. (SME) was tested in vitro on Guinea-pig ileum. The chemical composition of the investigated extract was analysed by HPLC-MS, and chrysoeriol, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were detected as main constituents. The isolated organ assay showed that S. montana extract caused an immediate contraction and a more slowly developing inhibitory response in the ileum. The SME-induced contractions were strongly inhibited by the acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (0.5 μM), but not by either the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.5 μM) or the histamine H1 receptor antagonist chloropyramine (0.5 μM). Selective desensitization of capsaicin-sensitive neurons by the sensory neuron stimulant and blocker capsaicin did not influence the contractile effect of SME. As to the spasmolytic effect, SME inhibited the effects of electrical field stimulation, exogenous acetylcholine, and histamine. These smooth muscle-relaxing effects were reversible in 40 min by repeated renewals of the bathing solution. PMID:25924535

  8. In vitro potency and mode of action of ANQ9040: a novel fast acting muscle relaxant.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, G; Munday, I T; Edwards, M D; Jones, R M

    1994-01-01

    1. The in vitro potency and mode of action of the novel, rapid-onset steroidal relaxant ANQ9040 were characterized in the rat isolated phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm. 2. At 32 degrees C, ANQ9040 antagonized neurally evoked contractures with EC50s of 21.5 microM for unitary twitches; 14.4 microM for 2 Hz 'trains of four'; and 7.5 microM for 50 Hz (2 s) tetanic stimulus trains. 3. (+)-Tubocurarine was 22-24 times more potent than ANQ9040 in comparative organ bath experiments. 4. Intracellular recording from endplates revealed that ANQ9040 (0.53-10.0 microM) dose-dependently and reversibly decreased the amplitude of miniature-endplate potentials (IC50 of circa 0.95 microM) without changing transmembrane potential. 5. Surmountable antagonism of subthreshold responses to exogenous (ionophoretic) acetylcholine provided evidence for a non-depolarizing and competitive blockade of post-junctional nicotinic receptors. 6. Sucrose gap recordings of phrenic nerve action potentials revealed that, at concentrations up to 32 microM, ANQ9040 produced no tonic or frequency-dependent antagonism of axonic Na+ channels. 7. We conclude that ANQ9040 is a relatively low-affinity, non-depolarizing, nicotinic antagonist. The in vitro results are discussed in relation to factors impinging on relaxant kinetics and current models for frequency-dependent fade. PMID:7834218

  9. How muscle relaxation and laterotrusion resolve open locks of the temporomandibular joint. Forward dynamic 3D-modeling of the human masticatory system.

    PubMed

    Tuijt, M; Koolstra, J H; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2016-01-25

    Patients with symptomatic hypermobility of the temporomandibular joint report problems with the closing movement of their jaw. Some are even unable to close their mouth opening wide (open lock). Clinical experience suggests that relaxing the jaw muscles or performing a jaw movement to one side (laterotrusion) might be a solution. The aim of our study was to assess the potential of these strategies for resolving an open lock and we hypothesised that both strategies work equally well in resolving open locks. We assessed the interplay of muscle forces, joint reaction forces and their moments during closing of mouth, following maximal mouth opening. We used a 3D biomechanical model of the masticatory system with a joint shape and muscle orientation that predispose for an open lock. In a forward dynamics approach, the effect of relaxation and laterotrusion strategies was assessed. Performing a laterotrusion movement was predicted to release an open lock for a steeper anterior slope of the articular eminence than relaxing the jaw-closing muscles, herewith we rejected our hypothesis. Both strategies could provide a net jaw closing moment, but only the laterotrusion strategy was able to provide a net posterior force for steeper anterior slope angles. For both strategies, the temporalis muscle appeared pivotal to retrieve the mandibular condyles to the glenoid fossa, due to its' more dorsally oriented working lines. PMID:26726782

  10. Frequency-Specific Synchronization in the Bilateral Subthalamic Nuclei Depending on Voluntary Muscle Contraction and Relaxation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kenji; Yokochi, Fusako; Iwamuro, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Takashi; Hamada, Kohichi; Isoo, Ayako; Kimura, Katsuo; Okiyama, Ryoichi; Taniguchi, Makoto; Ushiba, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    The volitional control of muscle contraction and relaxation is a fundamental component of human motor activity, but how the processing of the subcortical networks, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), is involved in voluntary muscle contraction (VMC) and voluntary muscle relaxation (VMR) remains unclear. In this study, local field potentials (LFPs) of bilateral STNs were recorded in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) while performing externally paced VMC and VMR tasks of the unilateral wrist extensor muscle. The VMC- or VMR-related oscillatory activities and their functional couplings were investigated over the theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (14–35 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz) frequency bands. Alpha and beta desynchronizations were observed in bilateral STNs at the onset of both VMC and VMR tasks. On the other hand, theta and gamma synchronizations were prominent in bilateral STNs specifically at the onset of the VMC task. In particular, just after VMC, theta functional coupling between the bilateral STNs increased, and the theta phase became coupled to the gamma amplitude within the contralateral STN in a phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupled manner. On the other hand, the prominent beta-gamma cross-frequency couplings observed in the bilateral STNs at rest were reduced by the VMC and VMR tasks. These results suggest that STNs are bilaterally involved in the different performances of muscle contraction and relaxation through the theta-gamma and beta-gamma networks between bilateral STNs in patients with PD. PMID:27064969

  11. Neurosedative and muscle relaxant activities of aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum.

    PubMed

    Yemitan, O K; Salahdeen, H M

    2005-03-01

    The saline leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum was investigated on neuropharmacological activities to ascertain claims of local use. When tested in mice, it produced a dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis, reduction of exploratory activities in the head-dip and evasion tests. Moreover, a dose-dependent muscle in-coordination was observed in the inclined screen, traction and climbing tests. It delayed onset to convulsion in both strychnine- and picrotoxin-induced seizures in addition to minimal protection against picrotoxin seizures. PMID:15752629

  12. Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: a problem of limited smooth muscle relaxation with inspiration.

    PubMed Central

    Skloot, G; Permutt, S; Togias, A

    1995-01-01

    We hypothesized that hyperresponsiveness in asthma is caused by an impairment in the ability of inspiration to stretch airway smooth muscle. If the hypothesis was correct, we reasoned that the sensitivity to inhaled methacholine in normal and asthmatic subjects should be the same if the challenge was carried out under conditions where deep inspirations were prohibited. 10 asthmatic and 10 normal subjects received increasing concentrations of inhaled methacholine under conditions where forced expirations from a normal end-tidal inspiration were performed. When no deep inspirations were allowed, the response to methacholine was similar in the normal and asthmatic subjects, compatible with the hypothesis we propose. Completely contrary to our expectations, however, was the marked responsivity to methacholine that remained in the normal subjects after deep breaths were initiated. 6 of the 10 normal subjects had > 20% reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1) at doses of methacholine < 8 mg/ml, whereas there was < 15% reduction with 75 mg/ml during routine challenge. The ability of normal subjects to develop asthmatic responses when the modulating effects of increases in lung volume was voluntarily suppressed suggests that an intrinsic impairment of the ability of inspiration to stretch airway smooth muscle is a major feature of asthma. PMID:7593627

  13. Dorzolamide-induced relaxation of porcine retinal arterioles in vitro depends on nitric oxide but not on acidosis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    El-Galaly, A; Aalkjaer, C; Kringelholt, S K; Misfeldt, M W; Bek, T

    2014-11-01

    The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide can induce relaxation of retinal arterioles with a consequent increase in blood flow and oxygenation of the retina. It has been shown that the mechanisms underlying this relaxation are independent of extracellular acidosis and CO2. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular acidosis in dorzolamide-induced relaxation of retinal arterioles. Porcine retinal arterioles were mounted in a wire myograph and dorzolamide induced relaxation was studied after 1) the addition of the NO synthase inhibitor l-NAME (3 × 10(-4) M) or the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (3 × 10(-6) M), and 2) after loading the smooth muscle cells with the pH sensitive fluorophore SNARF-1-AM and studying changes in vascular tone and intracellular fluorescence after the induction of hypoxia, addition of lactate (10(-2) M), and extracellular acidification (pH = 7.0) alone and in the presence of dorzolamide (10(-3) M). Dorzolamide significantly relaxed retinal arterioles (p < 0.03), and the effect was significantly higher in the presence of perivascular tissue than in isolated vessels at the highest concentration (p < 0.01). In the presence of perivascular tissue dorzolamide-induced relaxation could be reduced by NO inhibition (p < 0.02). Dorzolamide increased intracellular acidification (p < 0.02) during extracellular acidosis, but there was no relation between relaxation and intracellular acidosis. In conclusion, dorzolamide-induced vasorelaxation depends on NO and the perivascular retinal tissue, but is independent of acidification in the extracellular and the intracellular space of retinal vascular smooth muscle cells. Other factors than NO and acidification are involved in dorzolamide-induced relaxation of retinal arterioles. PMID:25251883

  14. Simultaneous determination of mebeverine hydrochloride and chlordiazepoxide in their binary mixture using novel univariate spectrophotometric methods via different manipulation pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Fayez, Yasmin M.; Michael, Adel M.; Nessim, Christine K.

    2016-02-01

    Smart, sensitive, simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of a binary mixture of mebeverine hydrochloride (MVH) and chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) without prior separation steps via different manipulating pathways. These pathways were applied either on zero order absorption spectra namely, absorbance subtraction (AS) or based on the recovered zero order absorption spectra via a decoding technique namely, derivative transformation (DT) or via ratio spectra namely, ratio subtraction (RS) coupled with extended ratio subtraction (EXRS), spectrum subtraction (SS), constant multiplication (CM) and constant value (CV) methods. The manipulation steps applied on the ratio spectra are namely, ratio difference (RD) and amplitude modulation (AM) methods or applying a derivative to these ratio spectra namely, derivative ratio (DD1) or second derivative (D2). Finally, the pathway based on the ratio spectra of derivative spectra is namely, derivative subtraction (DS). The specificity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing the laboratory mixtures and was successfully applied for their combined dosage form. The proposed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. These methods exhibited linearity in the range of 2-28 μg/mL for mebeverine hydrochloride and 1-12 μg/mL for chlordiazepoxide. The obtained results were statistically compared with those of the official methods using Student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  15. Intubation without muscle relaxant: an alternative technique for rapid tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Wong, A K; Teoh, G S

    1996-04-01

    The quality of laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation with propofol augmented by alfentanil was investigated as an alternative technique for rapid tracheal intubation. 119 patients aged between 18 and 60 years (ASA 1 and 2) undergoing elective surgery were prospectively studied in a randomized double-blind controlled fashion. Tracheal intubation facilitated by suxamethonium 1.0 mg/kg alfentanil 15 mu g/kg alfentanil 30 mu g/kg or saline control was compared after propofol induction. The quality of laryngoscopy and intubation were graded according to jaw relaxation, ease of insertion of the endotracheal tube and coughing on intubation. Failure to intubate occurred in 4% and 17% with alfentanil 15 mu g/kg and saline control respectively Tracheal intubation was successful in all patients with alfentanil 30 mu g/kg and suxamethonium 1.0 mg/kg. Alfentanil 15 mu g/kg was not statistically significantly different from saline (P = 0.112). Alfentanil 30 mu g/kg provided similar overall intubating conditions (P = 0.5) to suxamethonium 1.0 mg/kg. Alfentanil in both dosages effectively attenuated the haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. PMID:9133197

  16. Cellular mechanisms of nitric oxide-induced relaxation of corporeal smooth muscle in the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Fukuta, Hiroyasu; Dickens, Emma J; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2002-01-01

    The cellular mechanism of nitric oxide (NO)-induced relaxation in corporeal smooth muscle (CSM) of the guinea-pig was investigated. Changes in the intracellular concentration of calcium ions ([Ca2+]i), membrane potential and isometric tension were measured. CSM cells exhibited spontaneous depolarizations and transient increases in [Ca2+]i (Ca2+ transients) which were accompanied by contractions. This spontaneous activity was abolished by nifedipine (10 μm). NO released by 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1, 10 μm) hyperpolarized the membrane and prevented the generation of spontaneous depolarizations. SIN-1 also abolished Ca2+ transients and associated contractions. These effects of SIN-1 were blocked by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μm), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Noradrenaline (NA, 1 μm) increased [Ca2+]i to levels similar to those produced by high potassium-containing solution (high K+ solution, [K+]o = 40 mm), however, NA-induced contractions were three times greater in amplitude than those induced by high K+ solution. In NA precontracted preparations, SIN-1 inhibited 80 % of the contraction and decreased [Ca2+]i by 20 %. In contrast, nifedipine reduced [Ca2+]i by 80 %, while the level of contraction was decreased by only 20 %. SIN-1-induced reduction in [Ca2+]i but not the tension effect, was abolished by pretreatment with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, 10 μm). In high K+ precontracted preparations, SIN-1 inhibited 80 % of the contraction and reduced [Ca2+]i by 20 %. Nifedipine, however, largely abolished increases in both [Ca2+]i and tension under these circumstances. These results suggest that decreasing the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca2+ is probably the key mechanism of NO-induced relaxation in CSM of the guinea-pig. PMID:11790820

  17. Knee muscle strength correlates with joint cartilage T2 relaxation time in young participants with risk factors for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Macías-Hernández, Salvador Israel; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Ramírez-Mora, Isabel; Cortés-González, Socorro; Morones-Alba, Juan Daniel; Olascoaga-Gómez, Andrea; Coronado-Zarco, Roberto; Soria-Bastida, María de Los Angeles; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés; Cruz-Medina, Eva

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate T2 relaxation time (T2RT), measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with quadriceps and hamstring strength in young participants with risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA). A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 20 and 40 years of age, without diagnosis of knee OA. Their T2 relaxation time was measured through MRI, and their muscle strength (MS) was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer. Seventy-one participants were recruited, with an average age of 28.3 ± 5.5 years; 39 (55 %) were females. Negative correlations were found between T2RT and quadriceps peak torque (QPT) in males in the femur r = -0.46 (p = 0.01), tibia r = -0.49 (p = 0.02), and patella r = -0.44 (p = 0.01). In women, correlations were found among the femur r = -0.43 (p = 0.01), tibia r = -0.61 (p = 0.01), and patella r = -0.32 (p = 0.05) and among hamstring peak torque (HPT), in the femur r = -0.46 (p = 0.01), hamstring total work (HTW) r = -0.42 (p = 0.03), and tibia r = -0.33 (p = 0.04). Linear regression models showed good capacity to predict T2RT through QPT in both genders. The present study shows that early changes in femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage are significantly correlated with MS, mainly QPT, and that these early changes might be explained by MS, which could play an important role in pre-clinical phases of the disease. PMID:27334115

  18. Effects of fentanyl-lidocaine-propofol and dexmedetomidine-lidocaine-propofol on tracheal intubation without use of muscle relaxants.

    PubMed

    Hanci, Volkan; Erdoğan, Gülay; Okyay, Rahşan Dilek; Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Baydilek, Yunus; Turan, Işil Ozkoçak

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fentanyl or dexmedetomidine when used in combination with propofol and lidocaine for tracheal intubation without using muscle relaxants. Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists stage I risk were randomized to receive 1 mg/kg dexmedetomidine (Group D, n = 30) or 2 mg/kg fentanyl (Group F, n = 30), both in combination with 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine and 3 mg/kg propofol. The requirement for intubation was determined based on mask ventilation capability, jaw motility, position of the vocal cords and the patient's response to intubation and inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff. Systolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation values were also recorded. Rate pressure products were calculated. Jaw relaxation, position of the vocal cords and patient's response to intubation and inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff were significantly better in Group D than in Group F (p < 0.05). The intubation conditions were significantly more satisfactory in Group D than in Group F (p = 0.01). Heart rate was significantly lower in Group D than in Group F after the administration of the study drugs and intubation (p < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in Group F than in Group D after propofol injection and at 3 and 5 minutes after intubation (p < 0.05). After intubation, the rate pressure product values were significantly lower in Group D than in Group F (p < 0.05). We conclude that endotracheal intubation was better with the dexmedetomidine-lidocaine-propofol combination than with the fentanyl-lidocaine-propofol combination. However, side effects such as bradycardia should be considered when using dexmedetomidine. PMID:20466334

  19. Characterization of β-adrenoceptor mediated smooth muscle relaxation and the detection of mRNA for β1-, β2- and β3-adrenoceptors in rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S J; Papaioannou, M; Evans, B A; Summers, R J

    1999-01-01

    Functional and molecular approaches were used to characterize the β-AR subtypes mediating relaxation of rat ileal smooth muscle.In functional studies, (−)-isoprenaline relaxation was unchanged by CGP20712A (β1-AR antagonist) or ICI118551 (β2-AR antagonist) but shifted by propranolol (pKB=6.69). (±)-Cyanopindolol, CGP12177 and ICID7114 did not cause relaxation but antagonized (−)-isoprenaline relaxation.BRL37344 (β3-AR agonist) caused biphasic relaxation. The high affinity component was shifted with low affinity by propranolol, (±)-cyanopindolol, tertatolol and alprenolol. CL316243 (β3-AR agonist) relaxation was unaffected by CGP20712A or ICI118551 but blocked by SR58894A (β3-AR antagonist; pA2=7.80). Enhanced relaxation after exposure to forskolin and pertussis toxin showed that β3-AR relaxation can be altered by manipulation of components of the adenylate cyclase signalling pathway.The β1-AR agonist RO363 relaxed the ileum (pEC50=6.18) and was blocked by CGP20712A. Relaxation by the β2-AR agonist zinterol (pEC50=5.71) was blocked by SR58894A but not by ICI118551.In rat ileum, β1-, β2- and β3-AR mRNA was detected. Comparison of tissues showed that β3-AR mRNA expression was greatest in WAT>colon=ileum>cerebral cortex>soleus; β1-AR mRNA was most abundant in cerebral cortex>WAT>ileum=colon>soleus; β2-AR mRNA was expressed in soleus>WAT>ileum=colon>cerebral cortex.These results show that β3-ARs are the predominant β-AR subtype mediating rat ileal relaxation while β1-ARs may produce a small relaxation. The β2-AR agonist zinterol produces relaxation through β3-ARs and there was no evidence for the involvement of β2-ARs in relaxation despite the detection of β2-AR mRNA. PMID:10433503

  20. Smooth muscle calcium and endothelium-derived relaxing factor in the abnormal vascular responses of acute renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Conger, J D; Robinette, J B; Schrier, R W

    1988-01-01

    Abnormal renovascular reactivity, characterized by paradoxical vasoconstriction to a reduction in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) in the autoregulatory range, increased sensitivity to renal nerve stimulation (RNS), and loss of vasodilatation to acetylcholine have all been demonstrated in ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). To determine if ischemic injury alters vascular contractility by increasing smooth muscle cell calcium or calcium influx, the renal blood flow (RBF) response to reductions in RPP within the autoregulatory range and to RNS were tested before and after a 90-min intrarenal infusion of verapamil or diltiazem in 7-d ischemic ARF rats. Both calcium entry blockers, verapamil and diltiazem, blocked the aberrant vasoconstrictor response to a reduction in RPP and RNS (both P less than 0.001). In a second series of experiments the potential role of an ischemia-induced endothelial injury and of the absence of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) production were examined to explain the lack of vasodilatation to acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, bradykinin (a second EDRF-dependent vasodilator), or prostacyclin, an EDRF-independent vasodilator, was infused intrarenally for 90 min, and RBF responses to a reduction in RPP and RNS were tested in 7-d ischemic ARF rats. Neither acetylcholine nor bradykinin caused vasodilatation or altered the slope of the relationship between RBF and RPP. By contrast, prostacyclin increased RBF (P less than 0.001), but did not change the vascular response to changes in RPP. It was concluded that the abnormal pressor sensitivity to a reduction in RPP and RNS was due to changes in renovascular smooth muscle cell calcium activity that could be blocked by calcium entry blockers. A lack of response to EDRF-dependent vasodilators, as a result of ischemic endothelial injury, may contribute to the increased pressor sensitivity of the renal vessels. PMID:3261301

  1. Flexion Relaxation Ratio Not Responsive to Acutely Induced Low Back Pain from a Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Maggie E.; Bishop, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The flexion relaxation ratio (FRR) has been suggested as a measure of muscular performance in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the FRR was responsive to acute LBP produced from a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) protocol. Methods. Fifty-one pain-free volunteers performed DOMS to induce LBP. Current pain intensity, trunk flexion range of motion (ROM), and passive straight leg raise (SLR) were measured at baseline, 24 and 48 hours after DOMS. Participants were categorized into pain groups based on reported current pain intensity. Changes in FRR, trunk flexion ROM, and SLR ROM were examined using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Results. Pain group was not found to have a significant effect on FRR (F1,29 = 0.054, P = 0.818), nor were there any two-way interactions for changes in FRR. The pain group had decreased trunk flexion ROM compared to the minimal pain group (F1,38 = 7.21, P = 0.011), but no decreases in SLR ROM (F1,38 = 3.51, P = 0.057) over time. Interpretation. There were no differences in FRR based on reported pain intensity of LBP from a DOMS protocol. The responsiveness of FRR might be limited in patients with acute onset LBP of muscular origin. PMID:27335879

  2. A comparison of self-hypnosis versus progressive muscle relaxation in patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Barber, Joseph; Romano, Joan M; Molton, Ivan R; Raichle, Katherine A; Osborne, Travis L; Engel, Joyce M; Stoelb, Brenda L; Kraft, George H; Patterson, David R

    2009-04-01

    Twenty-two patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and chronic pain we recruited into a quasi-experimental trial comparing the effects of self-hypnosis training (HYP) with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on pain intensity and pain interference; 8 received HYP and the remaining 14 participants were randomly assigned to receive either HYP or PMR. HYP-condition participants reported significantly greater pre- to postsession as well as pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain and pain interference than PMR-condition participants, and gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Most of the participants in both conditions reported that they continued to use the skills they learned in treatment and experienced pain relief when they did so. General hypnotizability was not significantly related to treatment outcome, but treatment-outcome expectancy assessed before and after the first session was. The results support the efficacy of self-hypnosis training for the management of chronic pain in persons with MS. PMID:19234967

  3. A Comparison of Self-Hypnosis Versus Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Chronic Pain1

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Mark P.; Barber, Joseph; Romano, Joan M.; Molton, Ivan R.; Raichle, Katherine A.; Osborne, Travis L.; Engel, Joyce M.; Stoelb, Brenda L.; Kraft, George H.; Patterson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and chronic pain we recruited into a quasi-experimental trial comparing the effects of self-hypnosis training (HYP) with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on pain intensity and pain interference; 8 received HYP and the remaining 14 participants were randomly assigned to receive either HYP or PMR. HYP-condition participants reported significantly greater pre- to postsession as well as pre- to posttreatment decreases in pain and pain interference than PMR-condition participants, and gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Most of the participants in both conditions reported that they continued to use the skills they learned in treatment and experienced pain relief when they did so. General hypnotizability was not significantly related to treatment outcome, but treatment-outcome expectancy assessed before and after the first session was. The results support the efficacy of self-hypnosis training for the management of chronic pain in persons with MS. PMID:19234967

  4. Utility of NBD-Cl for the spectrophotometric determination of some skeletal muscle relaxant and antihistaminic drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Hanaa M.; EL-Henawee, Magda M.; Ragab, Gamal H.; El-Hay, Soad S. Abd

    2007-08-01

    A simple, accurate, precise and sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of some skeletal muscle relaxant drugs, namely orphenadrine citrate ( I), baclofen ( II), antihistaminic drugs as acrivastine ( III) and fexofenadine hydrochloride ( IV) is described. This method is based on the formation of charge transfer complex with 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) in non-aqueous medium. The orange color products were measured at 472, 465, 475 and 469 nm for drugs I, II, III and IV, respectively. The optimization of various experimental conditions was described. Beer's Law was obeyed in the range (2.5-17.5), (5-70), (2.5-25) and (10-50) μg/ml for drugs I, II, III and IV, respectively. The molar absorptivity ( ɛ), sandell sensitivity, detection (LOD) and quantitation limits (LOQ) are calculated. The procedure was favorably applied for determination of certain pharmaceutical dosage forms containing the studied drugs. The obtained results were compared with the official and reported methods. There were no significant differences between proposed, reported and the official methods.

  5. Bispyridinium non-oximes: An evaluation of cardiac effects in isolated hearts and smooth muscle relaxing effects in jejunum.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, Katharina; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-09-01

    Bispyridinium non-oximes seem to be promising candidates for the generic treatment of nerve agent poisoning as they interact with nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The lead compound MB327 showed therapeutic effectiveness in vitro and in vivo but was toxic at higher doses. In the present study, the effect of various bispyridinium non-oximes on isolated heart and small intestine function was investigated. Bispyridinium non-oximes and oximes were tested in at least seven different concentrations in rat jejunum preparations pre-treated with carbachol. All bispyridinium non-oximes showed classical dose response curves with MB327 being the most effective (EC50=6.6μM) and MB782 being slightly less effective (EC50=10.4μM). Neither the bispyridinium non-oximes nor the oximes showed cardiotoxic effects in the isolated Langendorff heart. The tested bispyridinum compounds showed no direct cardiac effect but had variable smooth muscle relaxing effects. Further in vivo studies are required to get more insight into potential toxic mechanisms of these promising nerve agent antidotes. PMID:27184650

  6. Solving the confusion of gnaphaliin structure: gnaphaliin A and gnaphaliin B identified as active principles of Gnaphalium liebmannii with tracheal smooth muscle relaxant properties.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Fernando; Navarrete, Andrés

    2009-06-01

    Inflorescences of Gnaphalium liebmannii, commonly known as "Gordolobo", is the most important remedy in Mexican traditional medicine to treat respiratory diseases, including asthma. By a bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane extract of this plant, following the relaxant effect on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, the flavones 5,7-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyflavone (1) and 3,5-dihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone (2) were identified as the active relaxant compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 showed more potent relaxant properties than aminophylline in this model. Both 1 and 2 have been described as gnaphaliin in the past; here EIMS data, NMR experiments for both compounds, and X-ray diffraction analysis for 1 provided structural information to suggest that 1 and 2 should be named gnaphaliins A and B, respectively. PMID:19505084

  7. The smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydrogen sulphide in vitro: evidence for a physiological role to control intestinal contractility

    PubMed Central

    Teague, B; Asiedu, S; Moore, P K

    2002-01-01

    Sodium hydrogen sulphide (NaHS), a donor of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), produced dose-related relaxation of the rabbit isolated ileum (EC50, 76.4±7.9 μM) and rat vas deferens (EC50, 64.8±5.4 μM) and reduced ACh-mediated contraction of the guinea-pig isolated ileum. NaHS also reduced the response of the guinea-pig (EC50, 80.0±5.7 μM) and rat (EC50, 108.2±11.2 μM) ileum preparations to electrical stimulation of the intramural nerves. In guinea-pig ileum this effect was spontaneously reversible and mimicked by sodium nitroprusside (SNP, EC50, 2.1 μM). Combination of NaHS (20 μM) with SNP (0.5 μM) produced a greater than additive inhibition of the twitch response of the ileum to electrical stimulation. The inhibitory effect of NaHS on the field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum was unaffected by pretreatment with L-NAME (100 μM), indomethacin (10 μM), naloxone (1 μM) or glibenclamide (100 μM). Furthermore, NaHS (200 μM) did not affect the contractile response of the ileum to KCl (10 to 60 mM). Propargylglycine (PAG, 1 mM) and β-cyanoalanine (BCA, 1 mM) (inhibitors of cystathionine-γ-lyase) but not aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 1 mM) (inhibitor of cystathionine-β-synthetase) caused a slowly developing increase in the contraction of the guinea-pig ileum to field stimulation. This effect was reversed by cysteine (1 mM). These results show that NaHS relaxes gastrointestinal and urogenital smooth muscle and suggest that H2S is responsible for these effects. The possibility that endogenous H2S, formed as a consequence of activation of intramural nerves, plays a part in controlling the contractility of the guinea-pig ileum is discussed. PMID:12208769

  8. Mechanisms of relaxant activity of the nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator BAY 41-2272 in rat tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Toque, Haroldo A; Mónica, Fabíola Z T; Morganti, Rafael P; De Nucci, Gilberto; Antunes, Edson

    2010-10-25

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase is expressed in airway smooth muscle, and agents that stimulate this enzyme activity cause airway smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. The compound 5-Cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272) is a potent nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator, but little is known about its effects in airway smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the relaxations of rat tracheal smooth muscle induced by BAY 41-2272. Tracheal rings were mounted in 10-ml organ baths for isometric force recording. BAY 41-2272 concentration-dependently relaxed carbachol-precontracted tracheal rings (pEC(50)=6.68+/-0.14). Prior incubation with the NO synthesis inhibitor l-NAME (100 microM) or the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (10 microM) caused significant rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves to BAY 41-2272. Sodium nitroprusside caused concentration-dependent relaxations, which were greatly potentiated by BAY 41-2272 and completely inhibited by ODQ. In addition, BAY 41-2272 shifted to the right the tracheal contractile responses to either carbachol (0.01-1 microM) or electrical field stimulation (EFS, 1-32 Hz). BAY 41-2272 (1 microM) also caused a marked rightward shift and decreased the maximal contractile responses to extracellular CaCl2, and such effect was not modified by pretreatment with ODQ. In addition, BAY 41-2272 (up to 1 microM) significantly increased the cGMP levels, and that was abolished by ODQ. Our results indicate that BAY 41-2272 causes cGMP-dependent rat tracheal smooth muscle relaxations in a synergistic fashion with exogenous NO. BAY 41-2272 has also an additional mechanism independently of soluble guanylyl cyclase activation possibly involving Ca(2+) entry blockade. PMID:20670622

  9. Cytokine-Induced S-Nitrosylation of Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Expression of Phosphodiesterase 1A Contribute to Dysfunction of Longitudinal Smooth Muscle Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Nalli, Ancy D.; Kumar, Divya P.; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Hu, Wenhui; Mahavadi, Sunila; Grider, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of proinflammatory cytokines on the expression and activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cGMP–phosphodiesterases (PDEs) was determined in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle. In control muscle cells, cGMP levels are regulated via activation of sGC and PDE5; the activity of the latter is regulated via feedback phosphorylation by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. In muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or obtained from the colon of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid)-treated mice, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was induced and sGC was S-nitrosylated, resulting in attenuation of nitric oxide (NO)–induced sGC activity and cGMP formation. The effect of cytokines on sGC S-nitrosylation and activity was blocked by the iNOS inhibitor 1400W [N-([3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]methyl)ethanimidamide dihydrochloride]. The effect of cytokines on cGMP levels measured in the absence of IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine), however, was partly reversed by 1400W or PDE1 inhibitor vinpocetine and completely reversed by a combination of 1400W and vinpocetine. Expression of PDE1A was induced and was accompanied by an increase in PDE1A activity in muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with IL-1β or TNF-α or obtained from the colon of TNBS-treated mice; the effect of cytokines on PDE1 expression and activity was blocked by MG132 (benzyl N-[(2S)-4-methyl-1-[[(2S)-4-methyl-1-[[(2S)-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl]carbamate), an inhibitor of nuclear factor κB activity. NO-induced muscle relaxation was inhibited in longitudinal muscle cells isolated from muscle strips cultured with IL-1β or TNF-α or obtained from the colon of TNBS-treated mice, and this inhibition was completely reversed by the combination of both 1400W and vinpocetine. Inhibition of smooth muscle relaxation during inflammation reflects the

  10. Acute relaxation of mouse duodenum [correction of duodenun] by estrogens. Evidence for an estrogen receptor-independent modulation of muscle excitability.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Mario; Ramírez, Cristina M; Marin, Raquel; Marrero-Alonso, Jorge; Gómez, Tomás; Alonso, Rafael

    2004-10-01

    17-beta-Estradiol, the stereoisomer 17-alpha-estradiol and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), all caused a rapid (<3 min) dose-dependent reversible relaxation of mouse duodenal spontaneous activity, reduced basal tone and depressed the responses to CaCl(2) and KCl. The steroidal antiestrogen 7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5,-pentafluoropenty)sulphinyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(19)-triene-3,17beta-diol (ICI182,780) failed to either mimic or prevent the effect of 17-beta-estradiol. The effect of estrogens was unrelated to activation of nitric oxide (NO), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase G (PKG) or protein kinase C (PKC). Estrogen-induced relaxation was partially reversed by 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-pyridine-3-carboxilic acid methyl ester (BAY-K8644), depolarization, or by application of tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine, but not by glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, paxilline or verruculogen. The effects of BAY-K8644 and K(+) channel blockers were synergistic, and allowed relaxed tissues to recover spontaneous activity and basal tone. We hypothesize that the rapid non-genomic spasmolytic effect of estrogens on mouse duodenal muscle might be triggered by an estrogen-receptor-independent mechanism likely involving activation of tetraethylamonium- and 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(+) channels and inhibition of L-type Ca2(+) channels on the smooth muscle cells. PMID:15464075

  11. The small heat shock-related protein, HSP20, is a cAMP-dependent protein kinase substrate that is involved in airway smooth muscle relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Komalavilas, Padmini; Penn, Raymond B.; Flynn, Charles R.; Thresher, Jeffrey; Lopes, Luciana B.; Furnish, Elizabeth J.; Guo, Manhong; Pallero, Manuel A.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Brophy, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the cAMP/cAMP-dependent PKA pathway leads to relaxation of airway smooth muscle (ASM). The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the small heat shock-related protein HSP20 in mediating PKA-dependent ASM relaxation. Human ASM cells were engineered to constitutively express a green fluorescent protein-PKA inhibitory fusion protein (PKI-GFP) or GFP alone. Activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathways by isoproterenol (ISO) or forskolin led to increases in the phosphorylation of HSP20 in GFP but not PKI-GFP cells. Forskolin treatment in GFP but not PKI-GFP cells led to a loss of central actin stress fibers and decreases in the number of focal adhesion complexes. This loss of stress fibers was associated with dephosphorylation of the actin-depolymerizing protein cofilin in GFP but not PKI-GFP cells. To confirm that phosphorylated HSP20 plays a role in PKA-induced ASM relaxation, intact strips of bovine ASM were precontracted with serotonin followed by ISO. Activation of the PKA pathway led to relaxation of bovine ASM, which was associated with phosphorylation of HSP20 and dephosphorylation of cofilin. Finally, treatment with phosphopeptide mimetics of HSP20 possessing a protein transduction domain partially relaxed precontracted bovine ASM strips. In summary, ISO-induced phosphorylation of HSP20 or synthetic phosphopeptide analogs of HSP20 decreases phosphorylation of cofilin and disrupts actin in ASM, suggesting that one possible mechanism by which HSP20 mediates ASM relaxation is via regulation of actin filament dynamics. PMID:17993590

  12. How to Make the Ghosts in my Bedroom Disappear? Focused-Attention Meditation Combined with Muscle Relaxation (MR Therapy)—A Direct Treatment Intervention for Sleep Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Baland

    2016-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common state of involuntary immobility occurring at sleep onset or offset. It can include terrifying hypnogogic or hypnopompic hallucinations of menacing bedroom intruders. Unsurprisingly, the experience is associated with great fear and horror worldwide. To date, there exist no direct treatment intervention for SP. In this article, I propose for the first time a type of focused inward-attention meditation combined with muscle relaxation as a direct intervention to be applied during the attack, to ameliorate and possibly eliminate it (what could be called, meditation-relaxation or MR therapy for SP). The intervention includes four steps: (1) reappraisal of the meaning of the attack; (2) psychological and emotional distancing; (3) inward focused-attention meditation; (4) muscle relaxation. The intervention promotes attentional shift away from unpleasant external and internal stimuli (i.e., terrifying hallucinations and bodily paralysis sensations) unto an emotionally pleasant internal object (e.g., a positive memory). It may facilitate a relaxed meditative state characterized by a shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic dominance, associated with greater levels of alpha activity (which may lead to drowsiness and potentially sleep). The procedure may also reduce the initial panic and arousal that occur when realizing one is paralyzed. In addition, I present a novel Panic-Hallucination (PH) Model of Sleep Paralysis; describing how through escalating cycles of fear and panic-like autonomic arousal, a positive feedback loop is created that worsens the attack (e.g., leading to longer and more fearful episodes), drives content of hallucinations, and causes future episodes of SP. Case examples are presented to illustrate the feasibility of MR therapy for SP. PMID:26858675

  13. How to Make the Ghosts in my Bedroom Disappear? Focused-Attention Meditation Combined with Muscle Relaxation (MR Therapy)-A Direct Treatment Intervention for Sleep Paralysis.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland

    2016-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common state of involuntary immobility occurring at sleep onset or offset. It can include terrifying hypnogogic or hypnopompic hallucinations of menacing bedroom intruders. Unsurprisingly, the experience is associated with great fear and horror worldwide. To date, there exist no direct treatment intervention for SP. In this article, I propose for the first time a type of focused inward-attention meditation combined with muscle relaxation as a direct intervention to be applied during the attack, to ameliorate and possibly eliminate it (what could be called, meditation-relaxation or MR therapy for SP). The intervention includes four steps: (1) reappraisal of the meaning of the attack; (2) psychological and emotional distancing; (3) inward focused-attention meditation; (4) muscle relaxation. The intervention promotes attentional shift away from unpleasant external and internal stimuli (i.e., terrifying hallucinations and bodily paralysis sensations) unto an emotionally pleasant internal object (e.g., a positive memory). It may facilitate a relaxed meditative state characterized by a shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic dominance, associated with greater levels of alpha activity (which may lead to drowsiness and potentially sleep). The procedure may also reduce the initial panic and arousal that occur when realizing one is paralyzed. In addition, I present a novel Panic-Hallucination (PH) Model of Sleep Paralysis; describing how through escalating cycles of fear and panic-like autonomic arousal, a positive feedback loop is created that worsens the attack (e.g., leading to longer and more fearful episodes), drives content of hallucinations, and causes future episodes of SP. Case examples are presented to illustrate the feasibility of MR therapy for SP. PMID:26858675

  14. Comparison of the Short-Term Outcomes after Postisometric Muscle Relaxation or Kinesio Taping Application for Normalization of the Upper Trapezius Muscle Tone and the Pain Relief: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Slupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Kołcz-Trzęsicka, Anna; Zwierzchowski, Kamil; Halska, Urszula; Przestrzelska, Monika; Mucha, Dariusz; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the resting bioelectrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle (the UT muscle) before and after one of the two interventions: postisometric muscle relaxation (PIR) and Kinesio Taping (KT). Moreover a comparison between group results was conducted. From the initial 61 volunteers, 52 were selected after exclusion criteria and were allocated randomly to 2 groups: PIR group and KT group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and completion of the intervention. The primary outcome measure was change in bioelectrical activity of UT muscle evaluated by surface electromyography (sEMG). Secondary outcomes included subjective assessment of pain using visual analogue scale (VAS). Significant differences were found only in KT group: the average resting bioelectrical activity decreased by 0.8 μV (p = 0.0237) and the average VAS result reduced by 2.0 points (p = 0.0001). Greater decrease of VAS results was recorded in KT group compared to PIR group (p = 0.0010). Both PIR and KT intervention did not influence significantly the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle. KT application was better for pain relief in the studied sample compared with PIR intervention. PMID:26347792

  15. Comparison of the Short-Term Outcomes after Postisometric Muscle Relaxation or Kinesio Taping Application for Normalization of the Upper Trapezius Muscle Tone and the Pain Relief: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Slupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Kołcz-Trzęsicka, Anna; Zwierzchowski, Kamil; Halska, Urszula; Przestrzelska, Monika; Mucha, Dariusz; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the resting bioelectrical activity of the upper trapezius muscle (the UT muscle) before and after one of the two interventions: postisometric muscle relaxation (PIR) and Kinesio Taping (KT). Moreover a comparison between group results was conducted. From the initial 61 volunteers, 52 were selected after exclusion criteria and were allocated randomly to 2 groups: PIR group and KT group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and completion of the intervention. The primary outcome measure was change in bioelectrical activity of UT muscle evaluated by surface electromyography (sEMG). Secondary outcomes included subjective assessment of pain using visual analogue scale (VAS). Significant differences were found only in KT group: the average resting bioelectrical activity decreased by 0.8 μV (p = 0.0237) and the average VAS result reduced by 2.0 points (p = 0.0001). Greater decrease of VAS results was recorded in KT group compared to PIR group (p = 0.0010). Both PIR and KT intervention did not influence significantly the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle. KT application was better for pain relief in the studied sample compared with PIR intervention. PMID:26347792

  16. NANC relaxation of the circular smooth muscle of the oesophagus of the Agama lizard involves the L-arginine-nitric oxide synthase pathway.

    PubMed

    Knight, G E; Burnstock, G

    1999-02-01

    On carbachol (CCh; 10-30 microM) pre-contracted circular muscle strips of the Agama lizard oesophagus, electrical field stimulation evoked frequency-dependent relaxations in the presence of guanethidine (1 microM) and indomethacin (1 microM). These non-adrenergic inhibitory responses were concentration-dependently inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) within a concentration range of 30-300 microM but not D-NAME (up to 300 microM), although a component remained at 4-16 Hz even with 300 microM L-NAME. The inhibition by L-NAME (300 microM) was completely prevented when L-arginine (L-Arg; 15 mM) but not D-Arg (up to 15 mM) was applied simultaneously with L-NAME (300 microM). Increasing the L-NAME concentration to 1 mM had no additional inhibitory effect. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) concentration-dependently relaxed pre-contracted oesophageal strips, L-NAME (up to 300 microM) had no effect. Neither adenosine 5'-triphosphate (up to 0.1 mM) nor vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (up to 0.1 microM) caused the pre-contracted oesophagus to relax. This study has shown that the NANC inhibitory response of the Agama lizard oesophagus circular muscle largely involves the L-Arg-NOS pathway as seen by the effect of L-NAME, L-Arg and SNP. The identity of the L-NAME-resistant component(s) and the lack of effect of tetrodotoxin (up to 3 microM) and omega-conotoxin GVIA (up to 0.1 microM) in relation to the nature of the inhibitory response are discussed. PMID:10190041

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of benzydamine HCl, levamisole HCl and mebeverine HCl through ion-pair complex formation with methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Didamony, Akram M.

    2008-03-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been proposed for the assay of benzydamine HCl (BENZ), levamisole HCl (LEV) and mebeverine HCl (MBV) in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method based on the reaction of the selected drugs with methyl orange (MO) in buffered aqueous solution at pH 3.6. The formed yellow ion-pair complexes were extracted with dichloromethane and measured quantitatively with maximum absorption at 422 nm. The analytical parameters and their effects on the reported systems are investigated. The extracts are intensely colored and very stable at room temperature. The calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range of 2-10 μg ml -1 for BENZ, 6-24 μg ml -1 for LEV and 4-14 μg ml -1 for MBV. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 in all cases and the conditional stability constant ( Kf) of the complexes have been calculated. The proposed method was successfully extended to pharmaceutical preparations-tablets. Excipients used as additive in commercial formulations did not interfere in the analysis. The proposed method can be recommended for quality control and routine analysis where time, cost effectiveness and high specificity of analytical technique are of great importance.

  18. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods/design The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. Discussion The BEST study is the first randomized

  19. The myosin interacting-heads motif is present in the relaxed thick filament of the striated muscle of scorpion.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Sánchez, Fredi; Alamo, Lorenzo; Padrón, Raúl

    2012-12-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) studies of 2D crystals of smooth muscle myosin molecules have shown that in the inactive state the two heads of a myosin molecule interact asymmetrically forming a myosin interacting-heads motif. This suggested that inactivation of the two heads occurs by blocking of the actin-binding site of one (free head) and the ATP hydrolysis site of the other (blocked head). This motif has been found by EM of isolated negatively stained myosin molecules of unregulated (vertebrate skeletal and cardiac muscle) and regulated (invertebrate striated and vertebrate smooth muscle) myosins, and nonmuscle myosin. The same motif has also been found in 3D-reconstructions of frozen-hydrated (tarantula, Limulus, scallop) and negatively stained (scallop, vertebrate cardiac) isolated thick filaments. We are carrying out studies of isolated thick filaments from other species to assess how general this myosin interacting-heads motif is. Here, using EM, we have visualized isolated, negatively stained thick filaments from scorpion striated muscle. We modified the iterative helical real space reconstruction (IHRSR) method to include filament tilt, and band-pass filtered the aligned segments before averaging, achieving a 3.3 nm resolution 3D-reconstruction. This reconstruction revealed the presence of the myosin interacting-heads motif (adding to evidence that is widely spread), together with 12 subfilaments in the filament backbone. This demonstrates that conventional negative staining and imaging can be used to detect the presence of the myosin interacting-heads motif in helically ordered thick filaments from different species and muscle types, thus avoiding the use of less accessible cryo-EM and low electron-dose procedures. PMID:22982253

  20. Auricular Acupuncture Versus Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Anxiety Disorders or Major Depressive Disorder: A Prospective Parallel Group Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    de Lorent, Lukas; Agorastos, Agorastos; Yassouridis, Alexander; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Although acupuncture treatment is increasingly in demand among psychiatric patients, to date no studies have investigated the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture (AA) in treating anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder. Thus, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of AA versus progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), a standardized and accepted relaxation method. We examined 162 patients with a primary diagnosis of anxiety disorder or major depressive disorder, and each patient chose between treatment with AA, executed according to the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, and treatment with PMR. Each group had treatments twice a week for 4 weeks. Before and after treatment, each participant rated four items on a visual analog scale: anxiety, tension, anger/aggression, and mood. Statistical analyses were performed with the original visual analog scale scores and the Change-Intensity Index, an appropriate indicator of the difference between two values of a variable. Our results show that treatment with AA significantly decreased tension, anxiety, and anger/aggression throughout the 4 weeks, but did not elevate mood. Between AA and PMR, no statistically significant differences were found at any time. Thus, we suggest that both AA and PMR may be useful, equally-effective additional interventions in the treatment of the above-mentioned disorders. PMID:27555224

  1. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sin-Hee; Shim, Bong-Sup; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Won; Yoo, Seok-Bong; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wok; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four different parts, leaf, stem, flower, and fruits, caused concentration-dependent relaxations and C. japonica fruit (CJF) extract showed the strongest vasorelaxation and its effect was endothelium dependent. Relaxations to CJF were markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibitor of PI3-kinase, but not affected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response. CJF induced activated a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, these studies have demonstrated that CJF is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator and this effect was involved in, at least in part, PI3K-eNOS-NO pathway. Moreover, CJF attenuated TNF-α induced proliferation and PDGF-BB induced migration of VSMCs. The present findings indicate that CJF could be a valuable candidate of herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697138

  2. Vascular Protective Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Camellia japonica Fruit: Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation of Coronary Artery and Reduction of Smooth Muscle Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hee; Shim, Bong-Sup; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Hye-Won; Yoo, Seok-Bong; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Dong-Wok; Oak, Min-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Camellia japonica is a popular garden plant in Asia and widely used as cosmetic sources and traditional medicine. However, the possibility that C. japonica affects cardiovascular system remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate vascular effects of an extract of C. japonica. Vascular reactivity was assessed in organ baths using porcine coronary arteries and inhibition of proliferation and migration were assessed using human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). All four different parts, leaf, stem, flower, and fruits, caused concentration-dependent relaxations and C. japonica fruit (CJF) extract showed the strongest vasorelaxation and its effect was endothelium dependent. Relaxations to CJF were markedly reduced by inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibitor of PI3-kinase, but not affected by inhibitor of cyclooxygenase and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated response. CJF induced activated a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS in endothelial cells. Altogether, these studies have demonstrated that CJF is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator and this effect was involved in, at least in part, PI3K-eNOS-NO pathway. Moreover, CJF attenuated TNF-α induced proliferation and PDGF-BB induced migration of VSMCs. The present findings indicate that CJF could be a valuable candidate of herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PMID:26697138

  3. Studies on the Biotransformation of Veratric Acid, a Human Metabolite of Mebeverine, by Using the Incubated Hen's Egg.

    PubMed

    Kiep, L; Göhl, M; Schmidt, J; Seifert, K

    2015-09-01

    Metabolism studies with selected test substances have shown that a model on the basis of the incubated hen's egg is suitable as a supplement to animal experimentation. Because of its 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl structure veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid), a known human metabolite of mebeverine, was chosen as model substance for the present investigations and the parent compound as well as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid were identified as main metabolites. The absence of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid lets conclude that the O-demethylation takes place exclusively at the p-methoxyl function. In addition, 3,3',4,4'-tetramethoxy-l-ornithuric acid (2,5-bis-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoylamino)pentanoic acid) and its O-desmethyl derivative could be characterized as further metabolites. So far an amino acid conjugate has not been described after veratric acid administration in a vertebrate. There were no indications for the appearance of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in the veratric acid metabolism. This was confirmed by corresponding studies having the isomeric guaiacol acids as precursor. Furthermore, it could be proved that in ovo the O-methylation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid occurs regioselective at the m-hydroxyl group. The results which broaden the knowledge on the metabolic fate of veratric acid are discussed in comparison with those in mammals. The metabolites were identified by GC-MS, ESI-HRMS and LC/ESI-MS/MS. The structure of the synthesized reference substance was confirmed by MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data. PMID:25310250

  4. Antinociceptive and Smooth Muscle Relaxant Activity of Croton tiglium L Seed: An In-vitro and In-vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan; Zhang, Jingze; Hu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The seed of Croton tiglium L. (SCT) is a well known folk medicine. In China, it has used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, intestinal inflammation, rheumatism, and so on. Previous studies established its purgative and inflammation properties. In addition, the effects of essential oil of SCT on intestinal transit and gastrointestinal tract has been studied. In the present study, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of SCT through the writhing test in mice, investigated the effects of it on spontaneous smooth muscle contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum and examined the in-vitro results through the in-vivo small intestine propulsion. We further investigated the possible compounds using HPLC-MS, and six compounds were tentatively identified as phorbol esters. Furthermore, the possible fragmentation pathways of phorbol esters were proposed, and we also detected the possible compounds in the active parts. PMID:24250486

  5. The effect of improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on reducing pianists' music performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngshin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two music therapy approaches, improvisation-assisted desensitization, and music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation and imagery on ameliorating the symptoms of music performance anxiety (MPA) among student pianists. Thirty female college pianists (N = 30) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) improvised music-assisted desensitization group (n = 15), or (b) music-assisted progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and imagery group (n = 15). All participants received 6 weekly music therapy sessions according to their assigned group. Two lab performances were provided; one before and one after the 6 music therapy sessions, as the performance stimuli for MPA. All participants completed pretest and posttest measures that included four types of visual analogue scales (MPA, stress, tension, and comfort), the state portion of Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Music Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (MPAQ) developed by Lehrer, Goldman, and Strommen (1990). Participants' finger temperatures were also measured. When results of the music-assisted PMR and imagery condition were compared from pretest to posttest, statistically significant differences occurred in 6 out of the 7 measures-MPA, tension, comfort, STAI, MPAQ, and finger temperature, indicating that the music-assisted PMR and imagery treatment was very successful in reducing MPA. For the improvisation-assisted desensitization condition, the statistically significant decreases in tension and STAI, with increases in finger temperature indicated that this approach was effective in managing MPA to some extent. When the difference scores for the two approaches were compared, there was no statistically significant difference between the two approaches for any of the seven measures. Therefore, no one treatment condition appeared more effective than the other. Although statistically significant differences were not found between

  6. Relaxation-compensated CEST-MRI at 7 T for mapping of creatine content and pH--preliminary application in human muscle tissue in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rerich, Eugenia; Zaiss, Moritz; Korzowski, Andreas; Ladd, Mark E; Bachert, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The small biomolecule creatine is involved in energy metabolism. Mapping of the total creatine (mostly PCr and Cr) in vivo has been done with chemical shift imaging. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) allows an alternative detection of creatine via water MRI. Living tissue exhibits CEST effects from different small metabolites, including creatine, with four exchanging protons of its guanidinium group resonating about 2 ppm from the water peak and hence contributing to the amine proton CEST peak. The intermediate exchange rate (≈ 1000 Hz) of the guanidinium protons requires high RF saturation amplitude B1. However, strong B1 fields also label semi-solid magnetization transfer (MT) effects originating from immobile protons with broad linewidths (~kHz) in the tissue. Recently, it was shown that endogenous CEST contrasts are strongly affected by the MT background as well as by T1 relaxation of the water protons. We show that this influence can be corrected in the acquired CEST data by an inverse metric that yields the apparent exchange-dependent relaxation (AREX). AREX has some useful linearity features that enable preparation of both concentration, and--by using the AREX-ratio of two RF irradiation amplitudes B1--purely exchange-rate-weighted CEST contrasts. These two methods could be verified in phantom experiments with different concentration and pH values, but also varying water relaxation properties. Finally, results from a preliminary application to in vivo CEST imaging data of the human calf muscle before and after exercise are presented. The creatine concentration increases during exercise as expected and as confirmed by (31)P NMR spectroscopic imaging. However, the estimated concentrations obtained by our method were higher than the literature values: cCr,rest=24.5±3.74mM to cCr,ex=38.32±13.05mM. The CEST-based pH method shows a pH decrease during exercise, whereas a slight increase was observed by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26374674

  7. Oxygen-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Vascular Smooth Muscle and Their Possible Role in Hypoxic Arterial Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco-Obregon, A.; Urena, J.; Lopez-Barneo, J.

    1995-05-01

    We have investigated the modifications of cytosolic [Ca2+] and the activity of Ca2+ channels in freshly dispersed arterial myocytes to test whether lowering O_2 tension (PO_2) directly influences Ca2+ homeostasis in these cells. Unclamped cells loaded with fura-2 AM exhibit oscillations of cytosolic Ca2+ whose frequency depends on extracellular Ca2+ influx. Switching from a PO_2 of 150 to 20 mmHg leads to a reversible attenuation of the Ca2+ oscillations. In voltage-clamped cells, hypoxia reversibly reduces the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent channels, which can account for the inhibition of the Ca2+ oscillations. Low PO_2 selectively inhibits L-type Ca2+ channel activity, whereas the current mediated by T-type channels is unaltered by hypoxia. The effect of low PO_2 on the L-type channels is markedly voltage dependent, being more apparent with moderate depolarizations. These findings demonstrate the existence of O_2-sensitive, voltage-dependent, Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle that may critically contribute to the local regulation of circulation.

  8. sup 31 P and sup 1 H NMR studies of the structure of enzyme-bound substrate complexes of lobster muscle arginine kinase: Relaxation measurements with Mn(II) and Co(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Jarori, G.K.; Ray, B.D.; Rao, B.D.N. )

    1989-11-28

    The paramagnetic effects of Mn(II) and Co(II) on the spin-lattice relaxation rates of {sup 31}P nuclei of ATP and ADP and of Mn(II) on the spin-lattice relaxation rate of the {delta} protons of arginine bound to arginine kinase from lobster tail muscle have been measured. Temperature variation of {sup 31}P relaxation rates in E-MnADP and E-MnATP yields activation energies ({Delta}E) in the range 6-10 kcal/mol. Thus, the {sup 31}P relaxation rates in these complexes are exchange limited and cannot provide structural information. However, the relaxation rates in E-CoADP and E-CoATP exhibit frequency dependence and {Delta}E values in the range 1-2 kcal/mol; i.e., these rates depend upon {sup 31}P-Co(II) distances. These distances were calculated to be in the range 3.2-4.5 {angstrom}, appropriate for direct coordination between Co(II) and the phosphoryl groups. The paramagnetic effect of Mn(II) on the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate of the {delta} protons of arginine in the E-MnADP-Arg complex was also measured at three frequencies. From the frequency dependence of the relaxation rate an effective {tau}{sub C} of 0.6 ns has also been calculated, which is most likely to be the electron spin relaxation rate ({tau}{sub S1}) for Mn(II) in this complex. The distance estimated on the basis of the reciprocal sixth root of the average relaxation rate of the {delta} protons was 10.9 {plus minus} 0.3 {angstrom}.

  9. Estimation of the success rate of anesthetic management for thymectomy in patients with myasthenia gravis treated without muscle relaxants: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshihito; Moriyama, Satoru; Aoki, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Saya; Tomita, Maiko; Kojima, Taiki; Mori, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Naoko; So, Min-Hye; Yano, Motoki; Sobue, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    Although maintaining anesthesia for myasthenia gravis (MG) with minimal muscle relaxants (MR) is common, the success rate of anesthetic management for MG without MR is not clear. We therefore retrospectively examined the success rate of anesthetic management for MG without MR among 66 consecutive cases of thymectomy for MG performed at our hospital between January 2004 and April 2010, before approval of using sugammadex. A total of 60 patients (90.9 %) were treated without MR (N group). Among the 60 cases, 17 (28.3 %) patients were not extubated in the operating room due to postoperative respiratory depression or other reasons. Therefore, the success rate of anesthetic management for thymectomy in patients with MG without treating MR was 71.7 % (43/60) [95 % confident interval (CI): 65.9-77.5 %]. The reasons for using MR included coughing at intubation in one case, bucking during surgery in two cases, and MR was considered to be safer by the attending anesthesiologist in three cases. The number of cases of impossible extubation requiring ventilation on that day was three in the N group and none in the R group. Finally, the success rate of anesthetic management for MG without MR was estimated to be 71.1 % (95 % CI: 65.9-77.5 %). PMID:25796520

  10. [New findings on the synthesis of the centrally acting muscle relaxant chlormezanone and its resolution of a gram scale using a Chiralcel OD column].

    PubMed

    Oelschläger, H; Wange, J; Letsch, J; Seeling, A

    2003-02-01

    2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4-metathiazanone (2) is the intermediate product for the two step-synthesis of chlormezanone (1), a centrally acting muscle relaxant. The second step includes the oxidation of its sulfur atom. It has been found that the foregoing reaction of 4-chlorobenzaldehyde with methylamine forming the hemiaminale and the subsequent addition of beta-mercaptopropionic acid leads to a remarkable better yield (67% of th.) than the route via the hemimercaptale (42% of th.). 2 could be oxidized with sodium perborate superior to potassium permanganate. The racemic chlormezanone (1) is resolved quickly on a gram scale by preparative column chromatography on a Chiralcel OD column (tris(3,5-dimethyl-phenyl-carbamoyl)cellulose on silicagel). The resolution needed only 40 min, if flow rate, composition of the mobile phase and temperature as the most important factors are determined prior with an analytical column. Both dissociation constants could be determined for the first time with the aid of a log pKa-Titrator of the Sirius Co., which needs for the registration of the curves only 15-17 min in the pH range of 2-12. This speed outplayed the disturbing cleavage of the S-C bond of chlormezanone at strong acidic and alkaline pH values. PMID:12641322

  11. A comparative study of smart spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of a skeletal muscle relaxant and an analgesic in combined dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Hesham; Mohamed, Dalia

    2015-04-01

    Six simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the analgesic drug; paracetamol (PARA) and the skeletal muscle relaxant; dantrolene sodium (DANT). Three methods are manipulating ratio spectra namely; ratio difference (RD), ratio subtraction (RS) and mean centering (MC). The other three methods are utilizing the isoabsorptive point either at zero order namely; absorbance ratio (AR) and absorbance subtraction (AS) or at ratio spectrum namely; amplitude modulation (AM). The proposed spectrophotometric procedures do not require any preliminary separation step. The accuracy, precision and linearity ranges of the proposed methods were determined. The selectivity of the developed methods was investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures of the drugs and their combined dosage form. Standard deviation values are less than 1.5 in the assay of raw materials and capsules. The obtained results were statistically compared with each other and with those of reported spectrophotometric ones. The comparison showed that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported methods regarding both accuracy and precision.

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery as Anxiety Reducing Interventions in Breast and Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Andreas; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Bozas, Evangelos; Paikousis, Lefkios

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To test the effectiveness of guided imagery (GI) and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) as stress reducing interventions in patients with prostate and breast cancer who undergo chemotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomly assigned to either the control group or the intervention group (PMR and GI). Patients were observed for a total duration of 3 weeks and assessed with the SAS and BECK-II questionnaires for anxiety and depression, respectively, in addiotion to two biological markers (saliva cortisol and saliva amylase) (trial registration number: NCT01275872). Results. 256 patients were registered and 236 were randomly assigned. In total 104 were randomised to the control group and 104 to the intervention group. Intervention's mean anxiety score and depression score changes were significantly different compared to the control's (b = −29.4, p < 0.001; b = −29.4, p < 0.001, resp.). Intervention group's cortisol levels before the intervention (0.30 ± 0.25) gradually decreased up to week 3 (0.16 ± 0.18), whilst the control group's cortisol levels before the intervention (0.21 ± 0.22) gradually increased up to week 3 (0.44 ± 0.35). The same interaction appears for the Amylase levels (p < 0.001). Conclusions. The findings showed that patients with prostate and breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment can benefit from PMR and GI sessions to reduce their anxiety and depression. PMID:26347018

  13. Guided Imagery And Progressive Muscle Relaxation as a Cluster of Symptoms Management Intervention in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Charalambous, Andreas; Giannakopoulou, Margarita; Bozas, Evaggelos; Marcou, Yiola; Kitsios, Petros; Paikousis, Lefkios

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients receiving chemotherapy often experience many different symptoms that can be difficult to alleviate and ultimately negatively influence their quality of life. Such symptoms include pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and retching, anxiety and depression. There is a gap in the relevant literature on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural and relaxation techniques in symptom clusters. The study reflects this gap in the literature and aimed to test the effectiveness of Guided Imagery (GI) and Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) on a cluster of symptoms experienced by patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods This was a randomized control trial with 208 patients equally assigned either in the intervention or the control group. Measurements in both groups were collected at baseline and at completion of intervention (4 weeks). Patients were assessed for pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and retching, anxiety and depression. The overall management of the cluster was also assessed based on the patients’ self-reported health related quality of life-HRQoL. Chi-square tests (X2), independent T-tests and Linear Mixed Models were calculated. Results Patients in the intervention group experienced lower levels of Fatigue (p<0.0.0225), and Pain (p = 0.0003) compared to those in the control group and experienced better HRQoL (p<0.0001) [PRE-POST: Intervention: Pain 4.2(2.5) - 2.5(1.6), Fatigue 27.6(4.1) - 19.3(4.1), HRQoL 54.9(22.7) - 64.5(23), Control: Pain 3.5(1.7) - 4.8(1.5), Fatigue 28.7(4.1) - 32.5(3.8), HRQoL 51.9(22.3)– 41.2(24.1)]. Nausea, vomiting and retching occurred significantly less often in the intervention group [pre-post: 25.4(5.9)– 20.6(5.6) compared to the control group (17.8(6.5)– 22.7(5.3) (F = 58.50 p<0.0001). More patients in the control group (pre:n = 33-post:n = 47) were found to be moderately depressed compared to those in the intervention group (pre:n = 35-post:n = 15) (X2 = 5.93; p = 0.02). Conclusion This study provided evidence

  14. Relaxation: A Fourth "R" for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, A. B.

    Relaxation training helps the individual handle tension through concentrating upon efficient use of muscles. A program of progressive relaxation can be easily incorporated into elementary and secondary schools. Objectives of such a program include the following: (a) to learn to relax technically for purposes of complete rest (deep muscle…

  15. Nitric oxide pathway-mediated relaxant effect of aqueous sesame leaves extract (Sesamum radiatum Schum. & Thonn.) in the guinea-pig isolated aorta smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Konan, André B; Datté, Jacques Y; Yapo, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Background Sesamum radiatum Schum. & Thonn. (Pedaliaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant, which belongs to the family Pedaliaceae and genus Sesamum. Sesame is used in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia for many diseases treatment. Sesame plant especially the leaves, seed and oil are consumed locally as a staple food by subsistence farmers. The study analyses the relaxation induced by the aqueous extract of leaves from sesame (ESera), compared with those of acetylcholine (ACh) in the guinea-pig aortic preparations (GPAPs), in order to confirm the use in traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases. Methods The longitudinal strips of aorta of animals were rapidly removed from animals. The aorta was immediately placed in a Mac Ewen solution. Experiments were performed in preparations with intact endothelium as well as in aortae where the endothelium had been removed. The preparations were suspended between two L-shaped stainless steel hooks in a 10 ml organ bath with Mac Ewen solution. The isometric contractile force of the aorta strips of guinea-pig were recorded by using a strain gauge. All both drugs caused concentration-dependent relaxations responses. Results The aqueous extract of leaves from sesame ESera (1 × 10-7 – 0.1 μg/ml) caused a graded relaxation in GPAPs with intact endothelium, with a EC50-value of 1 × 10-4 μg/ml. The same effect was observed with ACh (7 × 10-2 nM – 7 × 10-1 μM), which caused relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. The relaxation in response to ESera and, like that to ACh in GPAPs without endothelium, was fully abolished. Destruction of the endothelium or incubation with the nitric oxyde synthase inhibitor (L-NNA) significantly enhanced the inhibition of the relaxation response to ESera. Moreover, all concentrations induced vasoconstrictions. However, L-NNA produced a significant displacement to the right (about 65-fold) of the relaxation response to ESera. Similar results were obtained with ACh. Both

  16. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jin Woo; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Sang Young; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients. PMID:26539218

  17. Relaxed Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Kyle

    2004-01-01

    Relaxed intensity refers to a professional philosophy, demeanor, and way of life. It is the key to being an effective educational leader. To be successful one must be relaxed, which means managing stress efficiently, having fun, and enjoying work. Intensity allows one to get the job done and accomplish certain tasks or goals. Educational leaders…

  18. 1,25(OH)2D3 Induces Placental Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Relaxation by Phosphorylation of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1Ser507: Potential Beneficial Effects of Vitamin D on Placental Vasculature in Humans.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiuyue; Gu, Yang; Groome, Lynn J; Al-Kofahi, Mahmoud; Alexander, J Steven; Li, Weimin; Wang, Yuping

    2016-05-01

    Placental vascular dysfunction has been linked to insufficiency/deficiency of maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy. In contrast, sufficient maternal vitamin D levels have shown beneficial effects on pregnancy outcomes. To study the role of vitamin D in pregnancy, we tested our hypothesis that vitamin D exerts beneficial effects on placental vasculature. We examined expression of CYP2R1, CYP27B1, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and CYP24A1 in placental vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 We found that VDR expression was inducible, CYP27B1 expression was dose-dependently down-regulated, and CYP24A1 expression was dose-dependently up-regulated in cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 These data suggest a feedback autoregulatory system of vitamin D existing in placental VSMCs. Using a VSMC/collagen-gel contraction assay, we evaluated the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on placental VSMC contractility. We found that, similar to losartan, 1,25(OH)2D3 could diminish angiotensin II-induced cell contractility. The mechanism of 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated VSMC relaxation was further explored by examination of Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1)/phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) pathway molecules. Our results showed that p-MYPT1(Thr853) and p-MYPT1(Thr696) were undetectable. However, p-MYPT1(Ser507), but not p-MYPT1(Ser668), was significantly up-regulated in cells treated with losartan plus angiotensin II. Similar effects were also seen in cells treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 plus angiotensin II or 1,25(OH)2D3 plus losartan plus angiotensin II. Because MYPT1 serine phosphorylation could activate myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), and MLCP activation is an important regulatory machinery of smooth muscle cell relaxation, up-regulation of MYPT1(Ser507) phosphorylation could be a mechanism of vitamin D and/or losartan mediated placental VSMC relaxation. PMID:27075619

  19. Relaxation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  20. BK Channel-Mediated Relaxation of Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle: A Novel Paradigm for Phosphodiesterase Type 4 Regulation of Bladder Function

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Wenkuan; Li, Ning; Cheng, Qiuping

    2014-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA) lead to activation of large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels, thus attenuation of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractility. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) with rolipram or Ro-20-1724 (C15H22N2O3) suppresses guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility. We used high-speed line-scanning confocal microscopy, ratiometric fluorescence Ca2+ imaging, and perforated whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on freshly isolated DSM cells, along with isometric tension recordings of DSM isolated strips. Rolipram caused an increase in the frequency of Ca2+ sparks and the spontaneous transient BK currents (TBKCs), hyperpolarized the cell membrane potential (MP), and decreased the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Blocking BK channels with paxilline reversed the hyperpolarizing effect of rolipram and depolarized the MP back to the control levels. In the presence of H-89 [N-[2-[[3-(4-bromophenyl)-2-propenyl]amino]ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride], a PKA inhibitor, rolipram did not cause MP hyperpolarization. Rolipram or Ro-20-1724 reduced DSM spontaneous and carbachol-induced phasic contraction amplitude, muscle force, duration, and frequency, and electrical field stimulation-induced contraction amplitude, muscle force, and tone. Paxilline recovered DSM contractility, which was suppressed by pretreatment with PDE4 inhibitors. Rolipram had reduced inhibitory effects on DSM contractility in DSM strips pretreated with paxilline. This study revealed a novel cellular mechanism whereby pharmacological inhibition of PDE4 leads to suppression of guinea pig DSM contractility by increasing the frequency of Ca2+ sparks and the functionally coupled TBKCs, consequently hyperpolarizing DSM cell MP. Collectively, this decreases the global intracellular Ca2+ levels and DSM contractility in a BK channel

  1. Multi-parametric MRI Characterization of Healthy Human Thigh Muscles at 3.0T - Relaxation, Magnetization Transfer, Fat/Water, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Dortch, Richard D.; Welch, E. Brian; Bryant, Nathan D.; Buck, Amanda K.W.; Towse, Theodore F.; Gochberg, Daniel F.; Does, Mark D.; Damon, Bruce M.; Park, Jane H.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle diseases commonly have clinical presentations of inflammation, fat infiltration, fibrosis, and atrophy. However, the results of existing laboratory tests and clinical presentations are not well correlated. Advanced quantitative MRI techniques may allow the assessment of myo-pathological changes in a sensitive and objective manner. To progress towards this goal, an array of quantitative MRI protocols was implemented for human thigh muscles, their reproducibility was assessed, and the statistical relationships among parameters were determined. These quantitative methods included fat/water imaging, multiple spin-echo T2 imaging (with and without fat signal suppression, FS), selective inversion recovery for T1 and quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging (with and without FS), and diffusion tensor imaging. Data were acquired at 3.0 T from nine healthy subjects. To assess the repeatability of each method, the subjects were re-imaged on an average of 35 days later. Pre-testing lifestyle restrictions were applied to standardize physiological conditions across scans. Strong between-day intra-class correlations were observed in all quantitative indices except for the macromolecular-to-free water pool size ratio (PSR) with FS, a metric derived from qMT data. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant between-day differences in the mean values for any parameter estimate. The repeatability was further assessed with Bland-Altman plots, and low repeatability coefficients were obtained for all parameters. Among-muscle differences in the quantitative MRI indices and inter-class correlations among the parameters were identified. There were inverse relationships between fractional anisotropy (FA) and the 2nd eigenvalue, the 3rd eigenvalue, and the standard deviation of first eigenvector. The FA was positively related to the PSR, while the other diffusion indices were inversely related to the PSR. These findings support the use of these T1, T2, fat

  2. Management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care: the results of an exploratory randomised controlled trial of mebeverine, methylcellulose, placebo and a self-management website

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with IBS suffer on-going symptoms. The evidence base is poor for IBS drugs but they are widely prescribed and advised in Guidelines. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) can be helpful, but availability is poor in the NHS. We developed a web-based CBT self-management programme (Regul8) in partnership with patients and trialled it and common IBS medications in an exploratory factorial RCT to test trial procedures and provide information for a larger trial. Methods Patients, 16 to 60 years, with IBS symptoms fulfilling Rome III criteria were recruited via GP practices and randomised to over-encapsulated mebeverine, methylcellulose or placebo for 6 weeks and to 1 of 3 website conditions: Regul8 with a nurse telephone session and email support, Regul8 with minimal email support, or no website. Results 135 patients recruited from 26 GP practices. Mean IBS SSS score 241.9 (sd 87.7), IBS-QOL 64 (sd 20) at baseline. 91% follow-up at 12 weeks. Mean IBS SSS decreased by 35 points from baseline to 12 weeks. There was no significant difference in IBS SSS or IBS-QOL score between medication or website groups at 12 weeks, or in medication groups at 6 weeks, or IBS-QOL in website groups at 6 weeks. However, IBS SSS at 6 weeks was lower in the No website group than the website groups (IBS SSS no website =162.8 (95% CI 137.4-188.3), website 197.0 (172.4 - 221.7), Website + telephone support 208.0 (183.1-233.0) p = 0.037). Enablement and Subjects Global Assessment of relief (SGA) were significantly improved in the Regul8 groups compared to the non-website group at 12 weeks (Enablement = 0 in 56.8% of No website group, 18.4% website, 10.5% Website + support, p = 0.001) (SGA; 32.4% responders in No website group, 45.7% website group, 63.2% website + support group, p = 0.035). Conclusions This exploratory study demonstrates feasibility and high follow-up rates and provides information for a larger trial. Primary outcomes (IBS SS and IBS

  3. Is spin lattice relaxation time independent of species?

    PubMed

    Akber, S F

    1996-08-01

    It has been suggested that the spin lattice relaxation time is independent of species. It was further stated that, from a nuclear magnetic resonance standpoint, the human muscle is similar to rat muscle and to pig muscle, etc. However, it is observed that, in normal liver and kidney of human, rat, dog, rabbit and hamster, spin lattice relaxation time varies in different species as a function of percentage of body-weight of the organ. The result shows that spin lattice relaxation time is different in different species because of the organ weight which in turn dictates the metabolism in an individual species. PMID:8869924

  4. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top Doctors in the Nation Departments & Divisions Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ... Management Assess Your Stress Coping Strategies Identifying ... & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make ...

  5. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  6. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  7. Relaxation/Covert Rehearsal for Problematic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fling, Sheila; McKenzie, Patricia

    A study was conducted to determine whether group relaxation training combined with guided fantasy as a method of covert cognitive rehearsal would be more effective than story-listening or no special treatment in enabling "problematic" children to decrease muscle tension, activity level, and behavior problems and to increase academic performance…

  8. Use of Biofeedback/Relaxation Procedures with Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.; Russell, Harold L.

    The report covers a series of investigations on the effects of biofeedback/muscle relaxation training on the academic achievement of learning disabled (LD) students. In the first study, 32 LD elementary school students made gains in all measures except arithmetic following electromyograph biofeedback/relaxation treatment. Implementation of the…

  9. Evaluation of Multiple Component Relaxation Training with Developmentally Disabled Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamari, John E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A specific progressive muscle relaxation training procedure was combined with auditory electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback, modeling, and reinforcement procedures to teach relaxation skills to 32 mentally retarded adults. The procedure was effective in reducing subjects' EMG levels and activity levels. Intellectual and adaptive behavior levels…

  10. Hyperammonemia results in reduced muscle function independent of muscle mass.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, John; Davuluri, Gangarao; Hill, Elizabeth Ann; Moyer, Michelle; Runkana, Ashok; Prayson, Richard; van Lunteren, Erik; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism of the nearly universal decreased muscle strength in cirrhosis is not known. We evaluated whether hyperammonemia in cirrhosis causes contractile dysfunction independent of reduced skeletal muscle mass. Maximum grip strength and muscle fatigue response were determined in cirrhotic patients and controls. Blood and muscle ammonia concentrations and grip strength normalized to lean body mass were measured in the portacaval anastomosis (PCA) and sham-operated pair-fed control rats (n = 5 each). Ex vivo contractile studies in the soleus muscle from a separate group of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7) were performed. Skeletal muscle force of contraction, rate of force development, and rate of relaxation were measured. Muscles were also subjected to a series of pulse trains at a range of stimulation frequencies from 20 to 110 Hz. Cirrhotic patients had lower maximum grip strength and greater muscle fatigue than control subjects. PCA rats had a 52.7 ± 13% lower normalized grip strength compared with control rats, and grip strength correlated with the blood and muscle ammonia concentrations (r(2) = 0.82). In ex vivo muscle preparations following a single pulse, the maximal force, rate of force development, and rate of relaxation were 12.1 ± 3.5 g vs. 6.2 ± 2.1 g; 398.2 ± 100.4 g/s vs. 163.8 ± 97.4 g/s; -101.2 ± 22.2 g/s vs. -33.6 ± 22.3 g/s in ammonia-treated compared with control muscle preparation, respectively (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Tetanic force, rate of force development, and rate of relaxation were depressed across a range of stimulation from 20 to 110 Hz. These data provide the first direct evidence that hyperammonemia impairs skeletal muscle strength and increased muscle fatigue and identifies a potential therapeutic target in cirrhotic patients. PMID:26635319

  11. The Effects of Biofeedback and Relaxation Training on Memory Tasks among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study examined the effects of biofeedback and relaxation training on memory tasks among 48 hyperactive boys (9-11 years old). Relaxation training in combination with biofeedback was useful in helping the boys achieve better muscle relaxation and perform better on a paired-associate memory task than did a control group. (Author/CB)

  12. Providing Relaxation Training to Cancer Chemotherapy Patients: A Comparison of Three Delivery Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michael P.; Burish, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of three strategies for delivering relaxation training to cancer chemotherapy patients who were experiencing treatment-related side effects. Professionally, as opposed to paraprofessionally, administered or audiotaped progressive muscle-relaxation training and guided relaxation imagery reduced emotional distress and…

  13. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy occurs from a lack of physical activity. In most people, muscle atrophy is caused by not using the ...

  14. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  15. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  16. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  17. Delayed grip relaxation and altered modulation of intracortical inhibition with aging.

    PubMed

    Motawar, Binal; Stinear, James W; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Seo, Na Jin

    2016-04-01

    Grip relaxation is a voluntary action that requires an increase in short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in healthy young adults, rather than a simple termination of excitatory drive. The way aging affects this voluntary inhibitory action and timing of grip relaxation is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to examine aging-related delays in grip relaxation and SICI modulation for the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle during grip relaxation. The main finding was that young adults increased SICI to relax their grips, whereas older adults did not increase SICI with a prolonged grip relaxation time (p < 0.05 for both SICI modulation and grip relaxation time). A secondary experiment showed that both young and older adults did not change H reflex excitability during grip relaxation. Our data suggest that grip relaxation is mediated by increased cortical inhibitory output in young adults, and aging-related impairment in increasing cortical inhibitory output may hamper timely cessation of muscle activity. Our data also suggest a lesser role of the spinal circuits in grip muscle relaxation. This knowledge may contribute to understanding of aging-related movement deterioration and development of interventions for improving modulation of SICI to improve muscle relaxation and movement coordination. PMID:26686531

  18. Audio-visual relaxation training for anxiety, sleep, and relaxation among Chinese adults with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sing-Ling

    2004-12-01

    The long-term effect of an audio-visual relaxation training (RT) treatment involving deep breathing, exercise, muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and meditation was compared with routine nursing care for reducing anxiety, improving sleep, and promoting relaxation in Chinese adults with cardiac disease. This research was a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest study. A convenience sample of 100 cardiology patients (41 treatment, 59 control) admitted to one large medical center hospital in the Republic of China (ROC) was studied for 1 year. The hypothesized relationships were supported. RT significantly (p <.05) improved anxiety, sleep, and relaxation in the treatment group as compared to the control group. It appears audio-visual RT might be a beneficial adjunctive therapy for adult cardiac patients. However, considerable further work using stronger research designs is needed to determine the most appropriate instructional methods and the factors that contribute to long-term consistent practice of RT with Chinese populations. PMID:15514963

  19. Mechanism of rotational relaxation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polanyi, J. C.; Woodall, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    A model is presented which describes the characteristic pattern of relaxation of a nonthermal rotational distribution of hydrogen halide, peaked initially at high rotational quantum number J, to a thermal distribution without generating a peak at intermediate J. A method for correcting infrared chemiluminiscence data for modest rotational relaxation is also suggested.

  20. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  1. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  2. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  3. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...

  4. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  5. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs of a muscle disorder, tests such as an electromyogram , ...

  6. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: consequences of chromatin relaxation

    PubMed Central

    van der Maarel, Silvère M.; Miller, Daniel G.; Tawil, Rabi; Filippova, Galina N.; Tapscott, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review In recent years we have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the disease mechanism underlying facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of the disease mechanism and to discuss the observations supporting the possibility of a developmental defect in this disorder. Recent findings In the majority of cases FSHD is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array (FSHD1). This results in local chromatin relaxation and stable expression of the DUX4 retrogene in skeletal muscle, but only when a polymorphic DUX4 polyadenylation signal is present. In some cases (FSHD2), D4Z4 chromatin relaxation and stable DUX4 expression occurs in the absence of D4Z4 array contraction. DUX4 is a germline transcription factor and its expression in skeletal muscle leads to activation of early stem cell and germline programs and transcriptional activation of retroelements. Summary Recent studies have provided a plausible disease mechanism for FSHD where FSHD results from inappropriate expression of the germline transcription factor DUX4. The genes regulated by DUX4 suggest several mechanisms of muscle damage, and provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets that should be investigated in future studies. PMID:22892954

  7. Relaxation Training and Covert Positive Reinforcement with Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacc, Nicholas A.; Greenleaf, Susan M.

    1980-01-01

    Variations of systematic desensitization that include deep muscle relaxation (DMR) seem useful in remediating some behavior problems of children. Studied the effects of DMR and DMR with Covert Positive Reinforcement (CPR) in reducing maladaptive behavior of children, ages 6 to 12. (Author)

  8. Reducing Anxiety in Gifted Children by Inducing Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roome, John R.; Romney, David M.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty gifted children (grades six to eight) were allocated to either progressive muscle relaxation or biofeedback treatment groups or to a no-treament, control group. Biofeedback Ss evinced a significant decrease in anxiety and both groups moved towards more internal locus of control compared with controls. There was no change in trait anxiety.…

  9. Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation Training in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaichkowsky, Linda B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined feasibility of training young elementary school children in stress responses and coping techniques. Findings indicated children can learn to control heart rate, respiration rate, and skin temperature responses by participating in a program that includes instruction on proper breathing; modified, progressive muscle relaxation; visual…

  10. Effects of Relaxation Training on Pulmonary Mechanics in Children with Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, A. Barney; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Heart rate and to some extent muscle tension results tended to confirm the attainment of relaxed states. However, the lung function results failed to substantiate the previous, preliminary findings of a clinically meaningful change in pulmonary function following relaxation. (Author/DLS)

  11. Dielectric relaxation time spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Paulson, K S; Jouravleva, S; McLeod, C N

    2000-11-01

    A new mathematical method is developed to recover the permittivity relaxation spectrum of living tissue from measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance. Aiming to derive information about electrical properties of living tissue without the prior selection of any impedance model, the procedure calculates the relaxation time distribution. It provides new characteristic independent parameters: time constants, their distribution, and the amplitudes of the associated dispersion. As the beta-dispersion is the most important in the area of electrical impedance spectroscopy of tissue, the paper gives an estimate of the essential frequency range to cover the whole relaxation spectrum in that area. Results are presented from both simulation and known lumped--constant element circuit. PMID:11077745

  12. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dilation of blood vessels in response to a large number of agents has been shown to be dependent on an intact vascular endothelium. The present studies examine some aspects of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of the rabbit and rat. Using the rabbit ear artery and the subtype-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine, muscarinic receptors of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells were shown to be of the low affinity M/sub 2/ subtype. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to determine affinity for the smooth muscle receptors while antagonism of methacholine induced vasodilation yielded the endothelial cell receptor affinity. The effect of increasing age (1-27 months) on endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings, perfused tail artery and perfused mesenteric bed of the Fisher 344 rat. The influence of endothelium on contractile responses was examined using the perfused caudal artery.

  13. Synchronous monitoring of muscle dynamics and muscle force for maximum isometric tetanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakir Hossain, M.; Grill, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is a classic example of a biological soft matter . At both macro and microscopic levels, skeletal muscle is exquisitely oriented for force generation and movement. In addition to the dynamics of contracting and relaxing muscle which can be monitored with ultrasound, variations in the muscle force are also expected to be monitored. To observe such force and sideways expansion variations synchronously for the skeletal muscle a novel detection scheme has been developed. As already introduced for the detection of sideways expansion variations of the muscle, ultrasonic transducers are mounted sideways on opposing positions of the monitored muscle. To detect variations of the muscle force, angle of pull of the monitored muscle has been restricted by the mechanical pull of the sonic force sensor. Under this condition, any variation in the time-of-flight (TOF) of the transmitted ultrasonic signals can be introduced by the variation of the path length between the transducers. The observed variations of the TOF are compared to the signals obtained by ultrasound monitoring for the muscle dynamics. The general behavior of the muscle dynamics and muscle force shows almost an identical concept. Since muscle force also relates the psychological boosting-up effects, the influence of boosting-up on muscle force and muscle dynamics can also be quantified form this study. Length-tension or force-length and force-velocity relationship can also be derived quantitatively with such monitoring.

  14. RELAX: detecting relaxed selection in a phylogenetic framework.

    PubMed

    Wertheim, Joel O; Murrell, Ben; Smith, Martin D; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Scheffler, Konrad

    2015-03-01

    Relaxation of selective strength, manifested as a reduction in the efficiency or intensity of natural selection, can drive evolutionary innovation and presage lineage extinction or loss of function. Mechanisms through which selection can be relaxed range from the removal of an existing selective constraint to a reduction in effective population size. Standard methods for estimating the strength and extent of purifying or positive selection from molecular sequence data are not suitable for detecting relaxed selection, because they lack power and can mistake an increase in the intensity of positive selection for relaxation of both purifying and positive selection. Here, we present a general hypothesis testing framework (RELAX) for detecting relaxed selection in a codon-based phylogenetic framework. Given two subsets of branches in a phylogeny, RELAX can determine whether selective strength was relaxed or intensified in one of these subsets relative to the other. We establish the validity of our test via simulations and show that it can distinguish between increased positive selection and a relaxation of selective strength. We also demonstrate the power of RELAX in a variety of biological scenarios where relaxation of selection has been hypothesized or demonstrated previously. We find that obligate and facultative γ-proteobacteria endosymbionts of insects are under relaxed selection compared with their free-living relatives and obligate endosymbionts are under relaxed selection compared with facultative endosymbionts. Selective strength is also relaxed in asexual Daphnia pulex lineages, compared with sexual lineages. Endogenous, nonfunctional, bornavirus-like elements are found to be under relaxed selection compared with exogenous Borna viruses. Finally, selection on the short-wavelength sensitive, SWS1, opsin genes in echolocating and nonecholocating bats is relaxed only in lineages in which this gene underwent pseudogenization; however, selection on the functional

  15. Relaxation techniques for stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Know. February 2013. Available at: nccih.nih.gov/health/stress/relaxation.htm . Accessed September 21, 2015. National Center ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Stress Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  16. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the muscles (such as trichinosis or toxoplasmosis ) Muscle disorders such as muscular dystrophy or congenital ... nodosa Polymyalgia rheumatica Polymyositis - adult Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Toxoplasmosis Trichinosis Update Date 9/8/2014 Updated by: ...

  17. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause weakness, pain or even paralysis. Causes of muscle disorders include Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some ... muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  18. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  19. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  20. Dielectric Relaxation of Hexadeutero Dimethylsulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betting, H.; Stockhausen, M.

    1999-11-01

    The dielectric relaxation parameters of the title substance (DMSO-d6) in its pure liquid state are determined from meas-urements up to 72 GHz at 20°C in comparison to protonated DMSO. While the relaxation strengths do not differ, the relax-ation time of DMSO-d 6 is significantly longer (21.3 ps) than that of DMSO (19.5 ps).

  1. Defining muscle elastance as a parameter.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Joseph L; Noordergraaf, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Functional descriptions of striated muscle are often based on the measured variables force and initial velocity of shortening, embodied as Hill's contractile element. The fundamental difficulty of describing the mechanical properties of muscle with a force-velocity relation that is set a priori, and the practical problem of the act of measurement changing muscle's force-velocity relation or elastance curve, are described. As an alternative, a new model of muscle contraction is presented, which characterizes muscle's contractile state with parameters, rather than variables. Muscle is treated as a force generator that is time, length, and velocity dependent. Muscle dynamics develop from a single equation based on the formation and relaxation of crossbridge bonds. This analytical function permits the calculation of muscle elastance via E(m)=[abstract: see text]. This new muscle model is defined independently from load properties, and muscle elastance is dynamic and reflects changing numbers of crossbridge bonds. This parameter is more representative of the mechanical properties of muscle than are variables such as muscle force and shortening velocity. PMID:18003207

  2. Relaxation in Physical Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coville, Claudia A.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical framework for incorporating relaxation instruction in the physical education curriculum is presented based on the assumption that relaxation is a muscular-skeletal skill benefitting general motor skill acquisition. Theoretical principles, a definition of relaxation, and an analysis of stages of skill development are also used in the…

  3. Relaxation phenomena in disordered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this article we discuss how the assumptions of self-similarity imposed on the distribution of independently relaxing modes, as well as on their amplitude and characteristic times, manifest in the global relaxation phenomena. We also review recent applications of such approach to the description of relaxation phenomena in microemulsions and molecular glasses.

  4. A Comparison of Relaxation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    Some researchers argue that all relaxation techniques produce a single relaxation response while others support a specific-effects hypothesis which suggests that progressive relaxation affects the musculoskeletal system and that guided imagery affects cognitive changes. Autogenics is considered a technique which is both somatic and cognitive. This…

  5. The influence of external compression on muscle blood flow during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Styf, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Intramuscular pressures and muscle blood flow were measured in the anterior tibial muscle during dynamic concentric exercise in 14 subjects. Pressures were recorded by the microcapillary infusion method and muscle blood flow by the 133-Xenon clearance technique. Muscle blood flow during constant exercise decreased from 34.5 (SD = 10.3) to 10.6 (SD = 4.9) ml/100 g/min (P less than 0.001) when muscle relaxation pressure was increased from 13.5 (SD = 2.7) to 39.9 (SD = 9.0) mm Hg by external compression. Muscle relaxation pressure during exercise is the intramuscular pressure between contractions. External compression of the lower limb during exercise impedes muscle blood flow by increasing muscle relaxation pressure. The experimental model seems suitable to study the influence of external compression by knee braces on intramuscular pressure during exercise.

  6. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  7. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training. PMID:25233622

  8. Evaluation of muscle injury using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A. D.; Jaweed, M.; Evans, H.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate spin echo T2 relaxation time changes in thigh muscles after intense eccentric exercise in healthy men. Spin echo and calculated T2 relaxation time images of the thighs were obtained on several occasions after exercise of one limb; the contralateral limb served as control. Muscle damage was verified by elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). Thirty percent of the time no exercise effect was discernible on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. In all positive MR images (70%) the semitendinosus muscle was positive, while the biceps femoris, short head, and gracilis muscles were also positive in 50% and 25% of the total cases, respectively. The peak T2 relaxation time and serum CK were correlated (r = 0.94, p<0.01); temporal changes in muscle T2 relaxation time and serum CK were similar, although T2 relaxation time remained positive after serum CK returned to background levels. We conclude that magnetic resonance imaging can serve as a useful tool in the evaluation of eccentric exercise muscle damage by providing a quantitative indicator of damage and its resolution as well as the specific areas and muscles.

  9. An analysis on muscle tone of lower limb muscles on flexible flat foot

    PubMed Central

    Um, Gi-Mai; Wang, Joong-San; Park, Si-Eun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine differences in the muscle tone and stiffness of leg muscles according to types of flexible flat foot. [Subjects and Methods] For 30 subjects 10 in a normal foot group (NFG), 10 in group with both flexible flat feet (BFFG), and 10 in a group with flexible flat feet on one side (OFFG), myotonometry was used to measure the muscle tone and stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (TA), the rectus femoris muscle (RF), the medial gastrocnemius (MG), and the long head of the biceps femoris muscle (BF) of both lower extremities. [Results] In the measurement results, only the stiffness of TA and MG of the NFG and the BFFG showed significant differences. The muscle tone and stiffness were highest in the BFFG, followed by the OFFG and NFG, although the difference was insignificant. In the case of the OFFG, there was no significant difference in muscle tone and stiffness compared to that in the NGF and the BFFG. Furthermore, in the NFG, the non-dominant leg showed greater muscle tone and stiffness than the dominant leg, although the difference was insignificant. [Conclusion] During the relax condition, the flexible flat foot generally showed a greater muscle tone and stiffness of both lower extremities compared to the normal foot. The stiffness was particularly higher in the TA and MG muscles. Therefore, the muscle tone and stiffness of the lower extremity muscles must be considered in the treatment of flat foot. PMID:26644650

  10. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D; Baughman, Ray H; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems. PMID:27220918