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Sample records for mushroom hericium erinaceum

  1. [An amylase from fresh fruiting bodies of the monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum].

    PubMed

    Du, F; Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2013-01-01

    An amylase with a molecular mass of 55 kDa and an N-terminal sequence exhibiting similarity to enzyme from Bacteroides thetaitaomicron was isolated from fruiting bodies of the monkey head mushroom Hericium erinaceum. The purification scheme included extraction with distilled water, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and SP-sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. The amylase of H. erinaceum was adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and eluted with 0.2 M NaCl in the same buffer. The enzyme was subsequently adsorbed on SP-Sepharose in 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and eluted with 0.3 M NaCl in the same buffer. This fraction was subsequently subjected to gel filtration on Superdex 75. The first peak eluted had a molecular mass of 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The amylase of H. erinaceum exhibited a pH optimum of 4.6 and a temperature optimum of 40 degrees C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Mn2+ and Fe3+ ions, but inhibited by Hg2+ ions. PMID:23662447

  2. Herinase: a novel bi-functional fibrinolytic protease from the monkey head mushroom, Hericium erinaceum.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bong-Suk; Sapkota, Kumar; Choi, Jun-Hui; Shin, Chang-ho; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Herinase, a new bi-functional fibrinolytic metalloprotease, was purified from a medicinal and edible mushroom Hericium erinaceum. The enzyme was monomeric with a molecular mass of 51 kDa. Analysis of fibrin zymography showed an active band with a similar molecular mass. The N-terminal sequence of herinase VPSSFRTTITDAQLRG was highly distinguished from known fibrinolytic enzymes. Moreover, the enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by EDTA and EGTA, indicating that herinase is a metalloprotease. Herinase exhibited high specificity for the substrate t-PA followed by plasmin. The K(m) and V(max) values for H-D-Ile-Pro-Arg-PNA were found to be 4.7 mg and 26.7 U/ml respectively. Similarly, fibrin plate assays revealed that it was able to degrade fibrin clot directly and also able to activate plasminogen. Herinase provoked a rapid degradation of fibrin and fibrinogen α chains and slower degradation of γ chains. It had no activity on the β chains of fibrin and fibrinogen. This result suggests that herinase could possibly contain higher amount of α-fibrinogenase. The activity of herinase was stimulated by metal ions such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+), but inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(2+), and Zn(2+). Herinase exhibited maximum activity at 30 °C and pH 7.0. These results demonstrate that herinase could be a novel fibrinolytic enzyme. PMID:23564433

  3. Sterol fatty acid esters from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum and their PPAR transactivational effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Song, Seok Bean; Shim, Sang Hee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-12-26

    Six new (erinarols A-F, 1-6) and five known (7-11) ergostane-type sterol fatty acid esters were isolated from the methanol extract of the dried fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum. Their chemical structures were elucidated using chemical and physical methods as well as through comparison of NMR and mass spectral data with those reported previously. This is the first comprehensive investigation on ergostane-type sterol fatty acid esters from H. erinaceum. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their PPAR transactivational effects using a luciferase reporter system. Compounds 1 and 2 significantly activated the transcriptional activity of PPARs in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values of 8.2 and 6.4 μM, respectively. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 also activated PPARα and PPARγ transcriptional activity, with stimulation from 1.3- to 3.9-fold at 20 μM concentrations. PMID:25437304

  4. A Novel Lectin with Antiproliferative and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activities from Dried Fruiting Bodies of the Monkey Head Mushroom Hericium erinaceum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanrui; Zhang, Guoqing; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wang, Hexiang

    2010-01-01

    A lectin designated as Hericium erinaceum agglutinin (HEA) was isolated from dried fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum with a chromatographic procedure which entailed DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and FPLC Superdex 75. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 51 kDa and its N-terminal amino acid sequences was distinctly different from those of other isolated mushroom lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of HEA was inhibited at the minimum concentration of 12.5 mM by inulin. The lectin was stable at pH 1.9–12.1 and at temperatures up to 70°C, but was inhibited by Hg2+, Cu2+, and Fe3+ ions. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, and demonstrated antiproliferative activity toward hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF7) cells with an IC50 of 56.1 μM and 76.5 μM, respectively. It manifested HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 31.7 μM. The lectin exhibited potent mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes but was devoid of antifungal activity. PMID:20625408

  5. Examination of Incubation Conditions for Production of HERICIUM ERINACEUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Basidiomycetes has recently attracted considerable attention for its various physiological activities, such as antitumor, antioxidant and immunostimulating activities. Compounds isolated from fruit body of Hericium erinaceum, commonly called Yamabushitake in Japan, have interesting biological activities such as cytotoxic effectors on cancer cell (HeLa cells) and stimulators of synthesis of nerve growth factor. It is necessary for the cultivation of the fruit body of mushroom to control light, temperature, humidity. Otherwise, mycelia cultivation needs only temperature control. H. erinaceum cultivated by submerged culture have similar physiological activities to the fruit body of H. erinaceum, which suggests cultured mycelia can potentially become a promoter of synthesis of nerve growth factor. In this study, we used whey which is by-products of cheese-making process as an alternative nitrogen source in submerged cultivation of H. erinaceum mycelia, and then dry cell weight (DCW) and DCW productivity of whey medium were compared with those of chemical nutrient medium. When whey was used as a nitrogen source, DCW and DCW productivity are 1.5 times higher than those of chemical nutrient medium, 5.99 g/L and 0.60 g/L/day, respectively. It was suggested that whey could be used as an alternative nitrogen source and a growth promoting factor in H. erinaceum mycelia cultivation.

  6. Benzyl alcohol derivatives from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum attenuate LPS-stimulated inflammatory response through the regulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Yoon, Ju Young; Kim, Geum Sook; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Kang, Ki Sung; Cho, Jae Youl; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2014-10-01

    On the search for anti-inflammatory compounds from natural Korean medicinal sources, a bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the MeOH extract from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum resulted in the isolation and identification of five benzyl alcohol derivatives (1-5). In this study, their anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators were examined using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The structures of isolates were identified by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The analysis of their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells showed that erinacerin B (2) and hericenone E (4) decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Next, this study was performed to examine their mechanism of action on the regulation of NO and PGE2 production. Compounds 2 and 4 were found to block the LPS-induced phosphorylation of two major inflammatory transcription factors, NF-κB (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-Jun and c-Fos). Taken together, these results suggest that down-regulation of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production by compounds 2 and 4 is mediated through the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activation in macrophage cells. These results impact the development of potential health products for preventing and treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:25090632

  7. Bioactive metabolites from the mycelia of the basidiomycete Hericium erinaceum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang-Qiang; Tian, Jun-Mian; Wei, Jing; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Seven known compounds, three diketopiperazine alkaloids, 12β-hydroxyverruculogen TR-2 (1), fumitremorgin C (2) and methylthiogliotoxin (5), two hetero-spirocyclic γ-lactam alkaloids, pseurotin A (3) and FD-838 (4), and cerevisterol (6) and herierin IV (7), were isolated from the mycelia of the basidiomycete Hericium erinaceum and identified by spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant and antifungal activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. The results indicated that compounds 1, 3 and 6 exhibited potential antioxidant activity against DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical with their IC50 data of ca. 12 μM, compared with positive control tertiary butylhydroquinone. In addition, compound 4 significantly inhibited the growth of two plant fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Glomerella cingulata with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 μM for each, similar to that of the positive fungicide, carbendazim. Compounds 1-5 were isolated from the genus Hericium for the first time. PMID:24635196

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF ODOR SUBSTANCES IN YAMABUSHITAKE MUSHROOM (Hericium erinaceum) CULTURE MEDIA CONTAINING 'SHOCHU' LEES AND STARCH WASTES, AND BASIC STUDIES ON THEIR DISAPPEARANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masahito; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Yamada, Masayoshi; Yagi, Fumio; Murayama, Ryou; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    In this study, odor substances from mushroom culture media containing 'shochu' lees and starch wastes were identified and determined. It was apparent that in the media, acetoin, butyric acid and diacetyl were found as main odor substances, and mixed with some other ordor substances to produce unpleasant odor. The main substances disappeared with growth of mycelia. It was not likely that these ordor substances were degraded by extracellular enzymes but suggested that they were degraded by mycelia. Further it was found with the growth of mycelia that odor quality changed from rancid ordor (unpleasant ordor) to mushroom smell (pleasant odor) and the odor index was decreasing.

  9. New isoindolinones from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Li; Xu, Kang-Ping; Long, Hong-Ping; Zou, Hui; Cao, Xiao-Zheng; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Jian-Zhong; He, Shu-Jin; Zhu, Gang-Zhi; He, Xiao-Ai; Xu, Ping-Sheng; Tan, Gui-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a well-known medicinal and edible mushroom, which is considered as a potential source to obtain antitumor candidates. In this work, five new isoindolinones, named erinaceolactams A-E (1-5), along with five known compounds (6-10), were isolated from 70% ethanol extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus. The structures of new compounds were validated by HRESIMS and 1D, 2D NMR. It's worth mentioning that there are two pairs of isomers included in the new compounds. Moreover, their cytotoxicity against metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines SMMC-7221 and MHCC-97H were evaluated. The results showed that compounds 6 and 7 exhibited promising inhibitory potency against the growth of two cell lines. PMID:27094113

  10. Chemical constituents of Hericium erinaceum associated with the inhibitory activity against cellular senescence in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Yang, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Lee, Eun Suk; Ji, Seung Heon; Kang, Ki Sung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Hericium erinaceum is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely used in Korea, Japan, and China. On the search for biologically active compounds supporting the medicinal usage, the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceum was investigated for its chemical constituents. Six compounds were isolated and identified as hericenone D (1), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (2), erinacerin B (3), hericenone E (4), hericenone F (5) and isohericerin (6) by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The inhibitory effects on adriamycin-induced cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the isolates (1-6) were studied. Among the isolated compounds, ergosterol peroxide (2) reduced senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity increased in HUVECs treated with adriamycin. According to experimental data obtained, the active compound may inspire the development of a new pharmacologically useful substance to be used in the treatment and prevention of age-related diseases. PMID:25676326

  11. Hypolipidaemic Effect of Hericium erinaceum Grown in Artemisia capillaris on Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Sik; Kim, Young-Sun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jang-Eok; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2013-06-01

    In this study, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum cultivated with Artemisia capillaris (HEAC) were assessed for their ability to lower the cholesterol levels of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet. Rats were randomly subdivided into seven test groups. Each group contained eight rats fed a high-fat diet during a growth period lasting 4 wk. Supplementation with the extracts was performed once a day for 2 wk after the high-fat diet. The control group (rats fed a high-fat diet) showed a high efficiency ratio (feed efficiency ratio) value compared to the normal group. Biochemical parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglyceride (TG) levels dramatically increased in the control group compared to the normal group. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) content in the control group was also significantly lower relative to the normal group. Two positive control groups, treated with simvastatin and atorvastatin, had lowered TC, LDL-c, and TG levels, and increased HDL-c content compared to the control group. Treatment with the tested extracts, including HEAC, ethanolic extracts from Hericium erinaceum, and ethanolic extracts from Artemisia capillaris reduced TC, LDL-c, and TG levels and elevated HDL-c content in the hyperlipidemia rats. The atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor values for the HEAC-treated group were 0.95 and 1.95, respectively. Simvastatin- and atorvastatin-treated groups showed atherogenic index values of 1.56 and 1.69, respectively, and cardiac risk factor values of 2.56 and 2.69, respectively. These results show HEAC possesses an ability to cure hyperlipidemia in rats and may serve as an effective natural medicine for treating hyperlipidemia in humans. PMID:23874132

  12. Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially β-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties. PMID:23735479

  13. Influence of inorganic and organic selenium on number of living mycelial cells and their ultrastructure in culture of Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers.).

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, Joanna; Malinowska, Eliza; Krzyczkowski, W; Kuraś, M

    2013-03-01

    Mycelium of the white-rot fungus (Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr. Pers.) produces polysaccharides showing anticancer and immunostimulating activity. In our previous works, we have shown that organic selenitetriglycerides (Selol) contribute to the increase of biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides (EPS) having antioxidative properties and containing large amounts of selenium. The present work is a study of influence of inorganic and organic form of selenium on viability of H. erinaceum mycelium and on ultrastructural changes taking place during its development in submerged culture. The mycelium was grown on media containing sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), a mixture of Na2SeO3 + Selol2% and on control medium (no selenium added). It was shown that mycelium cultured for 3 days in control conditions on standard media contained almost 100% of living cells, with over 80% after 24 days. Treatment with 100 ppm of Na2SeO3 lowered the number of viable cells to 11.8% and 9.1% after 3 and 24 days, respectively. The addition of 2% Selol caused the amounts of living cells to remain at ca 90%. Apparently, Selol helped the cells to cope with the toxic activity of inorganic selenium ions. The addition of sodium selenite induced degradative changes in cell organelles. Such changes were not observed in the case of Na2SeO3 + Selol mixture, in which case cells contained numerous ribosomes and small lipid bodies. PMID:23567834

  14. Sterols from Hericium erinaceum and their inhibition of TNF-α and NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Ji Yun; Kwon, Se Uk; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Shim, Sang Hee; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-07-01

    Erinarols G-J and 10 known ergostane-type sterols were isolated from a methanol extract of the dried fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum. Their chemical structures were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS analysis, as well as through comparison with previously reported data. Anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated in terms of inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that erinarols H and J, as well as 2 of the ergostane-type sterols exhibited inhibitory activity against TNF-α secretion, with inhibition values ranging from 33.7% to 43.3% at 10 μM. Erinarols J and three ergostane-type sterols exhibited significant inhibitory effects against NO production, with inhibition values ranging from 38.4% to 71.5% at 10 μM. PMID:25794894

  15. Divergent synthesis of bioactive resorcinols isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum: total syntheses of hericenones A, B, and I, hericenols B-D, and erinacerins A and B.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shoji; Tamanoi, Hidetsugu; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Segawa, Yusuke; Masuyama, Araki

    2014-06-01

    Total syntheses of 5'- and 7'-oxidized geranyl resorcylates isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum and the submerged cultures of a Stereum species were achieved. Our synthesis features derivatization of a suitably functionalized 5'-oxidized geranyl phthalide as a common intermediate, which was obtained by Stille coupling between the phthalide core and the side chain, into a series of natural products by divergent functional group manipulations. The crucial C5'-oxygen functionality was installed at the initial stage by alkylation by an α-cyano ethoxyethyl ether. From a common synthetic intermediate, eight total syntheses including hericenones A, B, and I, hericenols B-D, and erinacerins A and B were achieved (hericenol B and erinacerin B were synthesized as racemates). The structure of hericenone B established in the isolation paper was unambiguously revised as the carbonyl regioisomer at the lactam moiety. PMID:24833262

  16. Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) mushroom extracts inhibit metastasis of cancer cells to the lung in CT-26 colon cancer-transplanted mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the anti-metastatic activity of four Hericium erinaceus edible mushroom extracts using CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells as an indicator of inhibition of cell migration to the lung. Hot water (HWE) and microwaved 50% ethanol (MWE) extracts of Hericium erinaceus strongly elicited ca...

  17. Release of feruloylated oligosaccharides from wheat bran through submerged fermentation by edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chunyan; Wu, Zhiyan; Guo, Hongzhen; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of the flour industry, is believed to be a raw material for the production of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) because of its high content of conjiont ferulic acid (FA). Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release FOs from wheat bran. All the six tested mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceum, Auricularia auricula, Cordyceps militaris, Agrocybe chaxingu, and Ganoderma lucium) were found to release FOs, and Agrocybe chaxingu had the highest yield, reaching 35.4 µM in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection showed that these species secreted extracellular enzymes during fermentation, including cellulase and xylanase. Agrocybe chaxingu secreted the significant amount of xylanase (180 mU ml(-1) ), which was responsible for the release of FOs from wheat bran, while Hericium erinaceum secreted FA esterase which could disassemble FOs. PMID:24123163

  18. Medicinal properties of Hericium erinaceus and its potential to formulate novel mushroom-based pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengjuan; Wang, Songhua; Sun, Yujun; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    Hericium erinaceus is an important mushroom with edible values and medicinal properties. Both the mycelium and the fruiting bodies contain many bioactive compounds with drug efficacy. Recent evidence demonstrates that it is helpful to various diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, immunoregulatory, and many types of cancer. Furthermore, emerging pieces of evidence have shown that different active molecules in H. erinaceus have different functions on different organs in different diseases via the different mechanisms. Drawing on current research results, this review mainly focuses on the therapeutic effects of H. erinaceus on various diseases of multiple physiological systems, including the nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system, and immune system. This paper also discusses systematically the efficient protection of H. erinaceus against the diseases from the intricate experimental proofs by using the systematic viewpoints, which provides a framework for future research directions. PMID:25070597

  19. Neurotrophic properties of the Lion's mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Puei-Lene; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Wong, Kah-Hui; David, Rosie Pamela; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Malek, Sri Nurestri A

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors are important in promoting the growth and differentiation of neurons. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is essential for the maintenance of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Hericenones and erinacines isolated from the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus can induce NGF synthesis in nerve cells. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic interaction between H. erinaceus aqueous extract and exogenous NGF on the neurite outgrowth stimulation of neuroblastoma-glioma cell NG108-15. The neuroprotective effect of the mushroom extract toward oxidative stress was also studied. Aqueous extract of H. erinaceus was shown to be non-cytotoxic to human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and NG108-15 cells. The combination of 10 ng/mL NGF with 1 μg/mL mushroom extract yielded the highest percentage increase of 60.6% neurite outgrowth. The extract contained neuroactive compounds that induced the secretion of extracellular NGF in NG108-15 cells, thereby promoting neurite outgrowth activity. However, the H. erinaceus extract failed to protect NG108-15 cells subjected to oxidative stress when applied in pre-treatment and co-treatment modes. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of H. erinaceus contained neuroactive compounds which induced NGF-synthesis and promoted neurite outgrowth in NG108-15 cells. The extract also enhanced the neurite outgrowth stimulation activity of NGF when applied in combination. The aqueous preparation of H. erinaceus had neurotrophic but not neuroprotective activities. PMID:24266378

  20. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  1. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato.

    PubMed

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-09-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction. PMID:26539048

  2. Chemistry, nutrition, and health-promoting properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion’s Mane) mushroom fruiting bodies and Mycelia and their bioactive compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The culinary–medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattere...

  3. Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts protect infected mice against Salmonella typhimurium induced liver damage and mortality by activation of innate immune cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of four extracts from the fruitbody of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Hot water extract, HWE; Microwave/50% ethanol extract, MWE; Acid extract, ACE; and Alkaline extract, AKE) against murine salmonellosis. The extracts had no...

  4. Mechanism of Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake) Mushroom-Induced Apoptosis of U937 Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemicals in some foods are a potential source of bioactive safe compounds for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we evaluated hot water (HWE), microwaved 50% ethanol (MWE), acidic (ACE), and alkaline (AKE) extracts of the fruit body (sporocarp) of edible Hericium erinaceus (Yamabus...

  5. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaodong; Tan, Qi; Liu, Ruina; Yu, Kangying; Li, Pingzuo; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory. PMID:23557368

  6. Isolation and identification of aromatic compounds in Lion's Mane Mushroom and their anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Kim, Eun-Ji; Shim, Sang Hee; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-03-01

    Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceum) is a traditional edible mushroom widely used in culinary applications and as an herbal medicine in East Asian countries. In the present study, two new aromatic compounds, hericerin A (1) and isohericenone J (5), along with five known compounds, isoericerin (2), hericerin (3), N-De phenylethyl isohericerin (4), hericenone J (6), and 4-[3',7'-dimethyl-2',6'-octadienyl]-2-formyl-3-hydroxy-5-methyoxybenzylalcohol (7), were isolated from a methanol extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceum. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from mass spectra and 1D- and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer effects of the isolated compounds were examined in HL-60 human acute promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Hericerin A (1) and hericerin (3) significantly reduced cell proliferation with IC50 values of 3.06 and 5.47 μM, respectively. These same compounds also induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, accompanied by time-dependent down-regulation of p-AKT and c-myc levels. These data suggest that compounds 1 and 3 from H. erinaceum are suitable for use in potential cancer treatments. PMID:25306354

  7. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

  8. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

  9. Effects of Comb Tooth Cap Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium ramosum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Mycelia on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity and Nerve Growth Factor Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Suruga, Kohei; Kadokura, Kazunari; Sekino, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Takafumi; Matsuo, Koichi; Irie, Keiichi; Mishima, Kenichi; Yoneyama, Makoto; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of and nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis caused by Hericium ramosum mycelia. Wild mushroom fruiting bodies were collected from nature to isolate their mycelia. Pieces of H. ramosum fruiting bodies were plated onto 90-mm Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium to isolate their mycelia. Antioxidant activity was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity in vitro; the ethanol extract from H. ramosum mycelia (63.11 µmol Trolox/g) was more potent than that of other mushroom mycelia extracts. There was a proportional relationship (R2 = 0.7929) between DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content in extracts of different mushroom mycelia. We investigated the ability of H. ramosum mycelia to inducing NGF synthesis in vivo. Oral administration of H. ramosum mycelia significantly increased concentrations of NGF in the hippocampus of intact mice. These results are the first concerning antioxidant activity and NGF synthesis of H. ramosum mycelia. These mushroom mycelia could be useful as food and/or nutritional supplements because of certain biological functions. PMID:25954959

  10. Chemical Compositions and Macrophage Activation of Polysaccharides from Leon's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Different Maturation Stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Cui, Fengjie

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of the maturation stage on the chemical compositions and macrophage activation activity of polysaccharides from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Results showed that total polysaccharides increased, whereas protein content decreased with the maturation stage development of fruiting body. Nine polysaccharide fractions, 3 from each of the maturity stages IV (small fungal spine stage), V (mid-fungal spine stage) and VI (mature), were prepared using the gradient ethanol precipitation method. The polysaccharide fraction HP4A isolated from the maturating-stage (stage IV) fruiting body had a significant difference from the fractions HP5A (stage V) and HP6A (stage VI) in the molecular weight distribution and monosaccharide compositions. Immunostimulating tests revealed that the polysaccharide fraction HP6 isolated from the mature stage (stage VI) fruiting body presented higher macrophage activation activity. Our findings provided important information for the harvest and use of H. erinaceus with higher qualities and functional benefits. PMID:26082983

  11. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products. PMID:27138726

  12. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-08-19

    The culinary and medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattered literature on the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) of polysaccharides and secondary metabolites such as erinacines, hericerins, hericenones, resorcinols, steroids, mono- and diterpenes, and volatile aroma compounds, nutritional composition, food and industrial uses, and exceptional nutritional and health-promoting aspects of H. erinaceus. The reported health-promoting properties of the mushroom fruit bodies, mycelia, and bioactive pure compounds include antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antifatigue, antihypertensive, antihyperlipodemic, antisenescence, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties and improvement of anxiety, cognitive function, and depression. The described anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans seem to be responsible for the multiple health-promoting properties. A wide range of research advances and techniques are described and evaluated. The collated information and suggestion for further research might facilitate and guide further studies to optimize the use of the whole mushrooms and about 70 characterized actual and potential bioactive secondary metabolites to help prevent or treat human chronic, cognitive, and neurological diseases. PMID:26244378

  13. Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) mushroom extracts inhibit metastasis of cancer cells to the lung in CT-26 colon cancer-tansplanted mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Phil; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-05-22

    This study investigated the antimetastatic activity of four Hericium erinaceus edible mushroom extracts using CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells as an indicator of inhibition of cell migration to the lung. Hot water (HWE) and microwaved 50% ethanol (MWE) extracts of H. erinaceus strongly elicited cancer cell death through apoptosis and inhibited metastasis of cancer cells to the lungs by 66% and 69%, respectively. HWE and MWE reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cells and their activities in culture media. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), another extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteinase, also showed decreased protein expression. In CT-26 cells, HWE and MWE down-regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylations. The reduced phosphorylations seem to cause reduction of activity of the MMPs, thereby blocking migration and invasion of cells. Dietary administration of HWE and MWE reduced the formation of tumor nodules in the lung by about 50% and 55%, respectively, and prevented increases in lung weight caused by cancer cell metastasis. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of HWE and MWE as beneficial antimetastatic agents, targeting their upstream signaling molecules for mediating the expression of the ECM-degrading proteinases. Acidic and alkaline extracts were not bioactive. Bioactivity seems to be related to composition. H. erinaceus edible mushrooms have the potential to serve as a health-promoting functional food. PMID:23668749

  14. Anti-Gastric Ulcer Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction Isolated from Mycelium Culture of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxing; Konishi, Tetsuya; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Gao, Qipin

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that is used in traditional medicine, in folk medicine, and as medicinal cuisine in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. H. erinaceus exhibits various pharmacological properties, such as anti-cancer, immunomodulation, anti-dementia, and anti-gastric ulcer effects. The extracts of the fruiting body of H. erinaceus demonstrate anti-gastritis activity. However, the active principle in the extract, as well as the mechanism to treat gastric ulcers, remains uncertain. The current study aims to identify the active component, with anti-gastric ulcer function, from the extracts of the H. erinaceus mycelium culture. In the experiment, anti-gastric ulcer activity was evaluated using an ethanol-induced ulcer model in mice and with an 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay using MC cell lines. The results suggest that the polysaccharide fraction can significantly decrease the ulcerated area compared with the control group and the effect is fairly dose dependent, irrespective of animal or cell experiments. These results indicate that the polysaccharide fraction is the active component of the H. erinaceus mycelium culture, which protects against gastric ulcers. PMID:26853960

  15. Erinacerins C-L, isoindolin-1-ones with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from cultures of the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Bao, Li; Qi, Qiuyue; Zhao, Feng; Ma, Ke; Pei, Yunfei; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-23

    The well-known edible and medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus produces various bioactive secondary metabolites. Ten new isoindolin-1-ones, named erinacerins C-L (1-10), together with (E)-5-(3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl)-4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-phenethylisoindolin-1-one (11) were isolated from the solid culture of H. erinaceus. The structures of new metabolites were established by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of 3, 4, 9, and 10 were assigned by comparing their specific rotations with those of related phthalimidines (13-20). Compounds 5 and 6, 7 and 8, and 9 and 10 are double-bond positional isomers. In a α-glucosidase inhibition assay, compounds 2-11 showed inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 5.3 to 145.1 μM. Preliminary structure-activity analysis indicated that the terpenoid side chain and the phenolic hydroxy groups contributed greatly to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 1-11. In a cytotoxicity assay, compound 11 also presented weak cytotoxicity against two cell lines, A549 and HeLa, with IC50 values of 49.0 and 40.5 μM. PMID:25565282

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes), in Mice with Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingming; Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Xin; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extracts of Hericium erinaceus in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model. Twenty C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 2% (w/v) dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water for 7 d to induce acute intestinal inflammation. Orally administrated ethanol extract of H. erinaceus (HEEE) (250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d body weight) could significantly (P < 0.05) improve body weight and colon length and decreased the intestinal bleeding of DSS-treated mice compared with DSS-treated mice not given HEEE. HEEE markedly reduced DSS-induced myeloperoxidase accumulation in colon tissues, attenuated histological change in the neutrophils and lymphocyte infiltration, and protected the mucosal epithelium. Mechanistically, HEEE ameliorated colitis not only by suppressing the production of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in colon tissues but also by adjusting the production of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase in serum to suppress the oxidative stress. These results suggest that HEEE can be applied as a protective agent in the treatment of IBDs. PMID:27481156

  17. Neuroregenerative potential of lion's mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (higher Basidiomycetes), in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury (review).

    PubMed

    Wong, Kah-Hui; Naidu, Murali; David, Rosie Pamela; Bakar, Robiah; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2012-01-01

    We present a model case study of the activity of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus fresh fruit bodies in promoting functional recovery following crush injury to the peroneal nerve in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. The aim was to explore the possible use of this mushroom in nerve repair. The activities of aqueous extract were compared to activities exhibited by mecobalamin (vitamin B12), which has been widely used in the treatment of peripheral nerve disorders. Analysis of walking track indicated that return of hind limb function and normal toe spreading occurred earlier in treated groups than in the negative control (non-treated) group. Regeneration of axons and reinnervation of motor endplates/neuromuscular junction in extensor digitorum longus muscle of rats in treated groups developed better than in the negative control group. Further, immunofluorescence studies also showed that dorsal root ganglia neurons ipsilateral to the crush injury in rats of treated groups expressed higher immunoreactivities for Akt and MAPK signaling pathways as well as c-Jun and c-Fos genes compared to the negative control group. Akt cascade plays a major role in mediating neurotrophin-promoted cell survival, while MAPK cascade is involved in mediating neurite outgrowth. Immediate early gene expression was also involved in the cascade of events leading to regeneration. Local axonal protein synthetic machinery was also enhanced in the distal segments of crushed nerves in treated groups. Therefore, daily oral administration of H. erinaceus could promote the regeneration of injured rat peroneal nerve in the early stage of recovery. PMID:23510212

  18. Mushrooms

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mushrooms KidsHealth > For Teens > Mushrooms Print A A A ... Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Mushrooms What Are Hallucinogenic Mushrooms? We think of mushrooms as a food. But ...

  19. Inhibitory effect on in vitro LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity of the liquid-liquid partitioned fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (lion's mane mushroom).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases. PMID:24959591

  20. Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (Lion's Mane Mushroom)

    PubMed Central

    Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases. PMID:24959591

  1. Lion's Mane, Hericium erinaceus and Tiger Milk, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Higher Basidiomycetes) Medicinal Mushrooms Stimulate Neurite Outgrowth in Dissociated Cells of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Retina: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Samberkar, Snehlata; Gandhi, Sivasangkary; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Raman, Jegadeesh; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disease is defined as a deterioration of the nervous system in the intellectual and cognitive capabilities. Statistics show that more than 80-90 million individuals age 65 and above in 2050 may be affected by neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Studies have shown that out of 2000 different types of edible and/or medicinal mushrooms, only a few countable mushrooms have been selected until now for neurohealth activity. Hericium erinaceus is one of the well-established medicinal mushrooms for neuronal health. It has been documented for its regenerative capability in peripheral nerve. Another mushroom used as traditional medicine is Lignosus rhinocerotis, which has been used for various illnesses. It has been documented for its neurite outgrowth potential in PC12 cells. Based on the regenerative capabilities of both the mushrooms, priority was given to select them for our study. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of H. erinaceus and L. rhinocerotis to stimulate neurite outgrowth in dissociated cells of brain, spinal cord, and retina from chick embryo when compared to brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neurite outgrowth activity was confirmed by the immu-nofluorescence method in all tissue samples. Treatment with different concentrations of extracts resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. H. erinaceus extract at 50 µg/mL triggered neurite outgrowth at 20.47%, 22.47%, and 21.70% in brain, spinal cord, and retinal cells. L. rhinocerotis sclerotium extract at 50 µg/mL induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 20.77% and 24.73% in brain and spinal cord, whereas 20.77% of neurite outgrowth was observed in retinal cells at 25 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:26853959

  2. Nutrient Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology for Simultaneous Biomass and Bioactive Compound Production by Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Fred K; Yu, Xiaobin; Wang, Qiang; Li, Hanguang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unpleasant side effects of long-term use of commercially available drugs, the discovery and development of natural therapeutic agents to prevent life-debilitating diseases is urgently needed. In the present study, the optimization of medium composition for maximum mycelial biomass and bioactive compounds production by Hericium erinaceus was studied using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. Under the optimal conditions and at a pH of 5.41 ± 0.28, the maximum mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharide production reached 25.0 ± 1.38 g/L and 1.73 ± 0.06 g/L, respectively, compared with 22.65 ± 0.10 g/L and 1.56 ± 0.23 g/L in the basal medium, after 7 days of cultivation. Furthermore, we report for the first time the production of adenosine, both intra- and extracellularly in submerged cultures of H. erinaceus. Although most of the adenosine detected existed in the culture medium, the highest intracellular and extracellular adenosine concentrations of 150.84 ± 1.87 mg/L and 142.48 ± 3.78 mg/L were achieved after 7 and 6 days of cultivation, respectively. PMID:27481155

  3. Gastroprotective Effects of Lion's Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jing-Yang; Raman, Jegadeesh; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. In acute toxicity study, a high dose of 5 g/kg did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The extract promoted ulcer protection as ascertained by a significant reduction of the ulcer area. Furthermore, it exhibited a significant protection activity against gastric mucosal injury by preventing the depletion of antioxidant enzymes. The level of MDA was also limited in rat stomach tissues when compared with the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of BAX protein in rats pretreated with the extract. The aqueous extract of H. erinaceus protected gastric mucosa in our in vivo model. It is speculated that the bioactive compounds present in the extract may play a major role in gastroprotective activity. PMID:24302966

  4. Gastroprotective Effects of Lion's Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jing-Yang; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Raman, Jegadeesh; Phan, Chia-Wei; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Golbabapour, Shahram; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus is a famous tonic in oriental medicine. The gastroprotective effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus against ethanol-induced ulcers in Sprague Dawley rats were investigated. The possible involvements of lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also investigated. Acute toxicity study was performed. The effects of aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on the ulcer areas, ulcer inhibition, gastric wall mucus, gross and histological gastric lesions, antioxidant levels, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were evaluated in ethanol-induced ulcer in vivo. In acute toxicity study, a high dose of 5 g/kg did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The extract promoted ulcer protection as ascertained by a significant reduction of the ulcer area. Furthermore, it exhibited a significant protection activity against gastric mucosal injury by preventing the depletion of antioxidant enzymes. The level of MDA was also limited in rat stomach tissues when compared with the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemistry showed upregulation of HSP70 protein and downregulation of BAX protein in rats pretreated with the extract. The aqueous extract of H. erinaceus protected gastric mucosa in our in vivo model. It is speculated that the bioactive compounds present in the extract may play a major role in gastroprotective activity. PMID:24302966

  5. Systemic Screening of Strains of the Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) and Its Protective Effects on Aβ-Triggered Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongying; Wang, Qinglong; Cui, Jian; Wang, Lili; Xiong, Lili; Wang, Wei; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Na; Wu, Yiran; Mao, Canquan

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus possesses multiple medicinal values. To date, however, there have been few studies of the systemic screening of H. erinaceus strains, and the neuroprotective effects of H. erinaceus prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies are not fully understood. In this study, 4 random primers were selected and used in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to screen and evaluate the genetic diversity of 19 commercial strains of H. erinaceus from different localities in China. A total of 66 bands were obtained, and the percentage of polymorphic loci reached 80.30%. Five dendrograms were constructed based on RAPD by Jaccard cluster and within-group linkage analysis. Primer S20 as well as all 4 primers had great potential as specific primers for RAPD-PCR molecular identification and differentiation of H. erinaceus strains. Based on the results of submerged culture and fruiting body cultivation, strains HT-N, HT-J1, HT-C, and HT-M were identified as superior among the 19 H. erinaceus strains. Further study showed that the oral preparation of homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus could attenuate the Aβ25-35-triggered damage in PC12 cells by significantly increasing cell viability and by decreasing the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In conclusion, RAPD-PCR combined with liquid and solid cultures can be used well in the screening and identification of H. erinaceus strains, and products prepared from homogenized, fresh fruiting bodies of H. erinaceus had neuroprotective effects on PC12 cells. PMID:25954906

  6. The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lion's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in a Coculture System of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and RAW264 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koichiro; Ouchi, Kenji; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue accompanying obesity is thought to be an underlying driver of metabolic diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of Hericium erinaceus on adipose tissue inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of H. erinaceus (EAHE) were examined using cocultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. EAHE significantly suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 production in cultured RAW264 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). EAHE also caused notable inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is thought to be involved in the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines by EAHE. In a coculture system with 3T3-L1 and RAW264 cells stimulated with LPS, EAHE reduced TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in the conditioned medium and lowered the gene expression levels of these cytokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, EAHE suppressed the LPS-induced reduction of adiponectin mRNA levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264 macrophages. However, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured alone, the concentration of LPS used in this study did not affect the gene expression levels of these adipokines. We attributed the anti-inflammatory effects of EAHE on 3T3-L1 adipocytes cocultured with RAW264 macrophages to the suppression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine secretion in RAW264 cells. Our findings indicate the possibility that H. erinaceus exerts anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages through the inhibition of TLR4-JNK signaling and prevents or ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation associated with obesity. PMID:26559695

  7. Hericium erinaceus extracts alter behavioral rhythm in mice.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Shoko; Kuwahara, Rika; Hiraki, Eri; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Yasuo, Shinobu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE), an edible mushroom, has been used as a herbal medicine in several Asian countries since ancient times. HE has potential as a medicine for the treatment and prevention of dementia, a disorder closely linked with circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effects of the intake of HE extracts on behavioral rhythm, photosensitivity of the circadian clock, and clock gene mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock, in mice. Although the HE ethanol extract only affected the offset time of activity, the HE water extract advanced the sleep-wake cycle without affecting the free-running period, photosensitivity, or the clock gene mRNA expression in SCN. In addition, both extracts decreased wakefulness around end of active phase. The findings of the present study suggest that HE may serve as a functional food in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PMID:27544998

  8. Screening of Lignocellulose-Degrading Superior Mushroom Strains and Determination of Their CMCase and Laccase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  9. Screening of lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains and determination of their CMCase and laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Fen, Li; Xuwei, Zhu; Nanyi, Li; Puyu, Zhang; Shuang, Zhang; Xue, Zhao; Pengju, Li; Qichao, Zhu; Haiping, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen lignocellulose-degrading superior mushroom strains ten strains of mushrooms (Lentinus edodes939, Pholiota nameko, Lentinus edodes868, Coprinus comatus, Macrolepiota procera, Auricularia auricula, Hericium erinaceus, Grifola frondosa, Pleurotus nebrodensis, and Shiraia bambusicola) were inoculated onto carboxymethylcellulose agar-Congo red plates to evaluate their ability to produce carbomethyl cellulase (CMCase). The results showed that the ratio of transparent circle to mycelium circle of Hericium erinaceus was 8.16 (P < 0.01) higher than other strains. The filter paper culture screening test showed that Hericium erinaceus and Macrolepiota procera grew well and showed extreme decomposition of the filter paper. When cultivated in guaiacol culture medium to detect their abilities to secrete laccase, Hericium erinaceus showed the highest ability with the largest reddish brown circles of 4.330 cm. CMCase activity determination indicated that Coprinus comatus and Hericium erinaceus had the ability to produce CMCase with 33.92 U/L on the 9th day and 22.58 U/L on the 10th day, respectively, while Coprinus comatus and Pleurotus nebrodensis had the ability to produce laccase with 496.67 U/L and 489.17 U/L on the 16th day and 18th day. Based on the results, Coprinus comatus might be the most promising lignocellulose-degrading strain to produce both CMCase and laccase at high levels. PMID:24693246

  10. Reishi Mushroom

    MedlinePlus

    Reishi mushroom is a fungus that some people describe as “tough” and “woody” with a bitter taste. The fruiting ... part) and mycelium (filaments connecting a group of mushrooms) are used as medicine. Reishi mushroom is used ...

  11. Pantoea hericii sp. nov., Isolated from the Fruiting Bodies of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Rong, Chengbo; Ma, Yuanwei; Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Chen, Sanfeng; Huang, Bin; Wang, Jing; Xu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Three Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Hericium erinaceus showing symptoms of soft rot disease in Beijing, China. Sequences of partial 16S rRNA gene placed these isolates in the genus Pantoea. Multilocus sequence analysis based on the partial sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB revealed P. eucalypti and P. anthophila as their closest phylogenetic relatives and indicated that these isolates constituted a possible novel species. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of these isolates as a novel species and phenotypic tests allowed for differentiation from the closest phylogenetic neighbours. The name Pantoea hericii sp. nov. [Type strain LMG 28847(T) = CGMCC 1.15224(T) = JZB 2120024(T)] is proposed. PMID:26897127

  12. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  13. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  14. Furlough Mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  15. Reishi Mushroom

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)High doses of reishi mushroom might slow blood clotting. Taking reishi mushroom along with medications that also ...

  16. Chemical constituents from Hericium erinaceus and their ability to stimulate NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth on PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-Chen; Yin, Xia; Cao, Chen-Yu; Wei, Jing; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2015-11-15

    One new meroterpenoid, named hericenone K (11), along with 10 known compounds (1-10), ergosterol peroxide (1), cerevisterol (2), 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (3), inoterpene A (4), astradoric acid C (5), betulin (6), oleanolic acid (7), ursolic acid (8), hemisceramide (9), and 3,4-dihydro-5-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4'-methyl-2'-oxo-3'-pentenyl)-9(7H)-oxo-2H-furo[3,4-h]benzopyran (10), was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic methods, as well as through comparison with previously reported data. Compounds 3-6, 8, and 9 were isolated from Hericium species for the first time. Compounds 10 and 11 was suggested to be racemic by the CD spectrum data and specific rotations, which ware resolved by chiral HPLC into respective enantiomers. Compounds 1-3, (±)-10, (-)-10 and (+)-10 in the presence of NGF (20 ng/mL) exerted a significant increase in neurite-bearing cells. PMID:26481911

  17. Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of γ-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. PMID:23265457

  18. An evaluation system for characterization of polysaccharides from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus and identification of its commercial product.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Li, Wen-Zhi; Chen, Jun; Zhong, Qian-Xia; Ju, Yao-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Bzhelyansky, Anton; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-06-25

    An evaluation system including colorimetric assay with iodine and potassium iodide, HPSEC-MALLS-RID analysis, GC-MS analysis, and saccharide mapping based on PACE analysis was proposed for the identification and discrimination of commercial product of Hericium erinaceus based on the chemical characters of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus fruiting body collected from different regions of China. The results showed that the molecular weights, the compositional monosaccharides and the glycosidic linkages of polysaccharides in H. erinaceus collected from different regions of China were similar, respectively. However, polysaccharides in the widely consumed product of H. erinaceus in China were significantly different from those of H. erinaceus fruiting body. The implications from these results were found to be beneficial to improve the quality control of polysaccharides from the H. erinaceus fruiting body, and suggest that the proposed evaluation system could be used as a routine approach for the quality control of polysaccharides in other edible and medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25839812

  19. Mitogenic activity of edible mushroom lectins.

    PubMed

    Ho, J C K; Sze, S C W; Shen, W Z; Liu, W K

    2004-03-17

    A special group of lectins were isolated from three popular Asian edible mushrooms: Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus flabellatus and Hericium erinacium, and their mitogenic activities towards mouse T cells were compared to the extensively investigated Agaricus bisporus lectin (ABL) and the Jack bean lectin, Concanavalin A (Con A). Among the four mushroom lectins tested, V. volvacea lectin (VVL) exhibited strong mitogenic activity as demonstrated by 3H-thymidine incorporation, which was at least 10-fold more effective than that of Con A, and the other mushroom lectins did not exhibit any proliferative activity. Treatment with VVL and ABL resulted in activation of the protein tyrosine kinase, p56lck, and expression of early activation markers, CD69 and CD25, but only VVL induced intracellular calcium influx while ABL triggered cell death. The calcium influx was sensitive to calcium channel antagonists such as nifedipine and verapamil. The P. flabellatus lectin (PFL) and H. erinacium lectin (HEL) did not stimulate p56lck expression and cell proliferation. Neither of these lectins interfered with Con A-mediated lymphocyte proliferation, which further indicated that both PFL and HEL were non-mitogenic. Taken all results together, VVL induced mitogenesis through T cell receptors and the subsequent calcium signaling pathway. PMID:15026140

  20. Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed. PMID:24654802

  1. Evaluation of the toxicological safety of erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceus in a 28-day oral feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Li, I-Chen; Chen, Yen-Lien; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh

    2014-08-01

    Natural products have attained great importance as they are believed to be the new alternative medicines for conventional therapy. As numerous studies have proved the tremendous medicinal values of Hericium erinaceus, it is necessary to take into account its safety as well as its risk for the recipient. However, mushroom mycelium has an identity distinct from mushrooms, as two specific classes of compounds, hericenones and erinacines, can only be extracted from both the fruit body and the cultured mycelium, respectively. Therefore, this is the first report on the evaluation of the toxicity of H.erinaceus mycelium, enriched with 5mg/g erinacine A, by a 28-day repeated oral administration study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Three doses of 1 (Low), 2 (Mid) and 3 (High) g/kg body weight/day were selected for the study while distilled water served as control. All animals survived to the end of the study. No abnormal changes were observed in clinical signs. No adverse or test article-related differences were found in urinalysis, haematology and serum biochemistry parameters, between the treatment and control groups. No gross pathological findings and histopathological differences were seen. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of erinacine A-enriched H.erinaceus is greater than 3g/kgbody weight/day. PMID:24810469

  2. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum. PMID:25954912

  3. Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIANQING; DU, CONGXIN; WANG, YIFEI; YU, ZHIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HEP) is a notable medicinal fungus grown in China and other oriental countries. Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of HEP in a mouse model. After one week of acclimation, mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a low-dose HEP-treated group, a moderate-dose HEP-treated group, and a high-dose HEP-treated group. The treated groups received HEP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received saline solution. Following treatment for 28 days, the mice performed a forced swimming test until they were exhausted, then the exhaustive swimming time was recorded along with certain biochemical parameters related to fatigue, including blood lactic acid (BLA), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), tissue glycogen, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These results suggested that HEP has significant anti-fatigue activity by decreasing BLA, SUN and MDA content, as well as increasing tissue glycogen content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Based on these results, this study provided theoretical support for the application of HEP in the field of sports nutrition. PMID:25574220

  4. Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Han, Zi-Hua; Ye, Jian-Min; Wang, Guan-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) is a traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of HEP was investigated. HPLC analysis showed that the HEP was composed of xylose (7.8%), ribose (2.7%), glucose (68.4%), arabinose (11.3%), galactose (2.5%) and mannose (5.2%). HEP was pre-administered to mice by gavage at a dose of 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Results found that HEP preadministration resulted in a significant decline in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and increase in creatinine clearance (CrCI) levels in HEP-pretreated group compared to renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level significantly increased, whereas Level of reduced glutathione (GSH) markedly decreased in renal IR animals. These results indicate that IR induced renal oxidative injury damage, as indicated by a increase in MDA level, and decrease in GSH level as well as the antioxidant enzymes activity. Such effects reflect that HEP can significantly decrease lipid peroxidation level and increase antioxidant enzymes activities in experimental animals. PMID:23000690

  5. Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30 min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51 mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC50 = 50 μg/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents. PMID:21716693

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25271860

  7. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species. PMID:27279440

  8. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  9. Application of micro-computed tomography to microstructure studies of the medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides.

    PubMed

    Pallua, Johannes D; Kuhn, Volker; Pallua, Anton F; Pfaller, Kristian; Pallua, Anton K; Recheis, Wolfgang; Pöder, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The potential of 3-D nondestructive imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was evaluated to study morphological patterns of the potential medicinal fungus Hericium coralloides (Basidiomycota). Micro-CT results were correlated with histological information gained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). It is demonstrated that the combination of these imaging methods results in a more distinct picture of the morphology of the edible and potentially medicinal Hericium coralloides basidiomata. In addition we have created 3-D reconstructions and visualizations based on micro-CT imagery from a randomly selected part of the upper region of a fresh H. coralloides basidioma: Analyses for the first time allowed an approximation of the evolutionary effectiveness of this bizarrely formed basidioma type in terms of the investment of tissue biomass and its reproductive output (production of basidiospores). PMID:25376797

  10. Erinacine S, a Rare Sesterterpene from the Mycelia of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Chen, Chin-Chu; Ni, Ching-Li; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Shiao, Young-Ji; Shen, Chien-Chang

    2016-02-26

    A new sesterterpene, erinacine S, and one cyathane diterpene xyloside, erinacine A, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the mycelia of Hericium erinaceus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and X-ray analysis. A 30-day oral course of erinacines A and S attenuated Aβ plaque burden in the brains of 5-month-old female APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, erinacines A and S significantly increased the level of insulin-degrading enzyme in cerebral cortex. PMID:26807743

  11. Protective Effects of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium and Its Isolated Erinacine A against Ischemia-Injury-Induced Neuronal Cell Death via the Inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and Nitrotyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kam-Fai; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Shih; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP. PMID:25167134

  12. Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kam-Fai; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Shih; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP. PMID:25167134

  13. Are mushrooms medicinal?

    PubMed

    Money, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia. PMID:27020147

  14. The mushroom message.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M

    1992-04-28

    A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave

  15. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

  16. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality. PMID:26516828

  17. A new cerebroside from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus and its applicability to cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Jung, Kiwon; Noh, Hyung Jun; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Hye Lim; Lee, Kang Ro; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-12-15

    A new cerebroside, cerebroside E (1) was isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus (Hericiaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including extensive 2D NMR, HR-MS, and chemical reactions. Compound 1 was evaluated for its applicability to medicinal use in several human diseases using cell-based assays. As a result, compound 1 attenuated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells and exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in HUVECs. These results collectively reflect the beneficial effects of compound 1 in cancer treatment. PMID:26547693

  18. Erinaceolactones A to C, from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Tokunaga, Taiki; Kondo, Mitsuru; Ishigami, Kota; Tokuyama, Shinji; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2015-01-23

    Three novel compounds, erinaceolactones A to C (1-3), and a known compound (4) were isolated from the culture broth of Hericium erinaceus. The planar structures of 1-3 were determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of 3 was determined by X-ray crystallography. Although compound 4 had been synthesized, it was isolated from a natural source for the first time. In the bioassay examining plant-growth regulatory activity of these compounds (1-4) and other components of the fungus (5-8), compounds 1, 2, and 4-8 suppressed the growth of lettuce. PMID:25534373

  19. Composition and antioxidant activity of water-soluble oligosaccharides from Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yiling; Ding, Xiang; Hou, Wanru

    2015-05-01

    Oligosaccharide are carbohydrate molecules, comprising repeating units joined together by glycosidic bonds. In recent years, an increasing number of oligosaccharides have been reported to exhibit various biological activities, including antitumor, immune-stimulation and antioxidation effects. In the present study, crude water‑soluble oligosaccharides were extracted from the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus with water and then successively purified by diethylaminoethyl‑cellulose 52 and Sephadex G‑100 column chromatography, yielding one major oligosaccharide fraction: Hericium erinaceus oligosaccharide (HEO‑A). The structural features of HEO‑A were investigated by a combination of monosaccharide component analysis by thin layer chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high‑performance gel permeation chromatography. The results indicated that HEO‑A was composed of D‑xylose and D‑glucose, and the average molecular size was ~1,877 Da. The antioxidant activity of HEO‑A was evaluated using three biochemical methods to determine the scavenging activity of HEO‑A on 1,1‑diphenyl‑2‑picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide and 2,2'‑azino‑bis(3‑ethylbenzthiazoline‑6‑sufonic acid) diammonium radicals. The results indicated that HEO‑A may serve as an effective healthcare food and source of natural antioxidant compounds. PMID:25529054

  20. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  1. Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. cultivated under tropical conditions: isolation of hericenones and demonstration of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells via MEK/ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; Lee, Guan-Serm; Hong, Sok-Lai; Wong, Yuin-Teng; Brkljača, Robert; Urban, Sylvia; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-12-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. is an edible and medicinal mushroom used traditionally to improve memory. In this study, we investigated the neuritogenic effects of hericenones isolated from H. erinaceus and the mechanisms of action involved. H. erinaceus was cultivated and the secondary metabolites were elucidated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The secondary metabolites were tested for neurite outgrowth activity (if any). Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were employed and the nerve growth factor (NGF) level was also determined. The signaling pathways involved in the mushroom-induced neuritogenesis were investigated using several pharmacological inhibitors. Hericenones B-E (1-4), erinacerin A (5) and isohericerin (6) were isolated from the basidiocarps of H. erinaceus. The hericenones did not promote neurite outgrowth but when induced with a low concentration of NGF (5 ng mL(-1)), the neuritogenic activity was comparable to that of the positive control (50 ng mL(-1) of NGF). Hericenone E was able to stimulate NGF secretion which was two-fold higher than that of the positive control. The neuritogenesis process was partially blocked by the tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk) inhibitor, K252a, suggesting that the neuritogenic effect was not solely due to NGF. Hericenone E also increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs) and protein kinase B (Akt). Taken together, this study suggests that hericenone E potentiated NGF-induced neuritogenesis in PC12 cells via the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways. PMID:25288148

  2. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of endo-polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus grown on tofu whey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuofa; Lv, Guoying; Pan, Huijuan; Pandey, Ashok; He, Weiqiang; Fan, Leifa

    2012-12-01

    Three fractions of the endo-polysaccharides from the mycelium of Hericium erinaceus (HEP) grown on tofu whey were obtained by the fractional precipitation with gradient concentrations of ethanol (HEP40, HEP60 and HEP80). The chemical and physical characteristics of the three crude polysaccharides were investigated by the combination of chemical and instrumental analysis methods. The studies to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the hepatoprotective effects of the three polysaccharides showed that they had different activities in different evaluation system. HEP80 showed strong activity on antioxidant in vitro and potent hepatoprotective effect in vivo and the hepatoprotective effect may be due to its potent antioxidant capacity. The HEP could be exploited as antioxidant product and a supplement in the prevention of hepatic diseases. The study also opens an avenue for the efficient utilization of tofu whey, which is usually discarded in environment, causing concerns. PMID:22982810

  4. Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake): a unique resource for developing functional foods and medicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Konishi, Tetsuya; Gao, Qipin

    2014-12-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a fungus inhabiting the mountainous areas of the northeast territories in Asia. HE has been used in traditional folk medicine and medicinal cuisine in China, Korea and Japan. Evidence has been adduced for a variety of physiological effects, including anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-gastritis, and anti-metabolic disease properties. Hence, HE is an attractive target resource for developing not only medicines, but also functional foods. Basic studies on the physiological functions of HE and on the chemical identification of its active ingredients have progressed in recent decades. In this article, we provide an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological studies on HE, especially of its antitumor and neuroprotective functions, together with a survey of recent developments in the chemical analysis of its polysaccharides, which comprise its major active components. PMID:25317734

  5. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P < 0.05) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure. PMID:25960751

  6. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijun; Xie, Yuxi; Wu, Guikai; Cheng, Aibin; Liu, Xiaogang; Zheng, Rongjuan; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly (P < 0.05) decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure. PMID:25960751

  7. Preparation, characterization, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide complex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Chen, Yao; Li, Qian; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Ming; Feng, Weiwei; Takase, Mohammed; Wu, Xueshan; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-09-22

    Two new Bi3+-Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (BiHEP) complexes were prepared using Bi3+ and two purified polysaccharides from H. erinaceus (HEPs), respectively. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, CD, SEM, AFM, XRD, and TG. The anti-Helicobacter pylori (Hp) activities in vitro by agar dilution assay of the complexes were evaluated. The molecular weights of HEPs were 197 and 20 kDa, respectively. All the analyses confirmed the formation of new BiHEP complexes with lower content of Bi3+ compared with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), the most utilized bismuth preparation clinically. Furthermore, HEPs themselves have definite inhibition effects on Hp, and BiHEP complexes have lower content of Bi exhibited strong inhibition effects on Hp (MIC=20 μg/mL), similar to that of CBS with higher content of Bi. The study provides a basis for further development of multiple treatments of Hp infection or new medicines. PMID:24906751

  8. Structure elucidation of a bioactive polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus in different maturation stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yan-Fang; Li, Zheng-Peng; Feng, Jie; Yang, Yan

    2016-06-25

    HPB-3, a heteropolysaccharide, with a mean molecular weight of 1.5×10(4)Da, was obtained from the maturating-stage IV, V and VI fruiting body of Hericium erinaceus, exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities, was able to upregulate the functional events mediated by activated macrophages, such as production of nitric oxide (NO). Monosaccharide composition analysis showed that HPB-3 comprised l-fucose, d-galactose and d-glucose in the ratio of 5.2:23.9:1. Its chemical structure was characterized by sugar and methylation analysis, along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC experiments. The results indicated that HPB-3 contained a-(1/6)-linked galactopyranosyl backbone, partially with a side chain composed of α-l-fucopyranose at the O-2 position. The predicted primary structure of the polysaccharide was established as below. PMID:27083809

  9. Efficacy of supplementation of selected medicinal mushrooms with inorganic selenium salts.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia; Rissmann, Iwona; Mikołajczak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of supplementation with inorganic forms of selenium (Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3) in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mM of three medicinal mushroom species: Agrocybe aegerita, Hericium erinaceus and Ganoderma lucidum. Tested mushroom species grew in Se additions of 0-0.6 mM (A. aegerita and H. erinaceus), while growth of G. lucidum bodies was observed for 0-0.8 mM. For the latter mushroom species, the total Se content was the highest. Content of Seorg was diverse; for control bodies it was the highest for G. lucidum (only organic forms were present), lower for A. aegerita (84% organic forms) and the lowest for H. erinaceus (56% organic forms). Accumulation of Se(IV) was generally significantly higher than Se(VI) for all tested mushroom species. There was no significant decrease of A. aegerita or G. lucidum biomass with the exception of G. lucidum bodies growing under 0.8 mM of Se species addition (15.51 ± 6.53 g). Biomass of H. erinaceus bodies was the highest under 0.2 (197.04 ± 8.73 g), control (191.80 ± 6.06 g) and 0.1 mM (185.04 ± 8.73 g) of both inorganic salts. The addition to the medium of Se salts brought about macroscopic changes in the fruiting bodies of the examined mushrooms. Concentrations exceeding 0.4 mM caused diminution of carpophores or even their total absence. In addition, colour changes of fruiting bodies were also recorded. At Se concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mM, A. aegerita fruiting bodies were distinctly lighter and those of H. erinaceus changed colour from purely white to white-pink. PMID:25310808

  10. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  12. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  13. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  14. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  15. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  16. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hebron C.; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  17. Protective Effects of Extracellular and Intracellular Polysaccharides on Hepatotoxicity by Hericium erinaceus SG-02.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fangyuan; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Min; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Nuo; Zhao, Huajie; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Meng; Jia, Le

    2016-09-01

    The protective effects of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus SG-02 on the CCl4-induced hepatic injury of mice were investigated in this work. By the analysis of GC, the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) were composed of arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 1:7:14:52, and the composition of intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) was rhamnose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose with a ratio of 3:4:7:14:137. The model of hepatic injury of mice was induced by CCl4 and three tested levels (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) of EPS and IPS were set as the experimental group. Results showed that the aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase activities in serum were reduced by the supplement of EPS and IPS, while the blood lipid levels including cholesterol, triglyceride, and albumin were improved. In liver tissue, the lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde were largely decreased, and the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly increased. The evidence demonstrated that the EPS and IPS of H. erinaceus SG-02 were protective for liver injury. The histopathological observations of mice liver slices indicated that EPS and IPS had obvious effects on liver protection. PMID:27262461

  18. Enhancement of the neuroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus mycelium co-cultivated with Allium sativum extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong Ki; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enriched with garlic extract (HGE) on rat pheochromocytoma nerve cells (PC12). The survival rates of the PC12 nerve cells and the neurite-bearing cells after the addition of HGE were estimated as 3.5 × 10(3) viable cells/ml and 2.3 × 10(3) viable cells/ml, respectively, which were 50% and 30% higher, respectively, compared with the untreated group. For the in vivo ischemia experiments, after treatment with the HGE extract, the hippocampal CA1 region was more strongly stained (>20%) than the control group, and the HGE extract also promoted higher staining levels than HFB, HM and HGEF, and even the garlic extract. This result indicates that HGE must have neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, HGE greatly decreased p21 gene expression to approximately 70% of the control and decreased p21 gene expression to even lower levels compared with HM, HGEF and the garlic extract. This work suggests that a synergistic effect of the H. erinaceus mycelium and the garlic extract (mainly allicin) exist because the amount of allicin in HGE (5.81 µg/ml) was lower than the garlic extract itself (6.89 µg/ml). PMID:25354984

  19. A polysaccharide from cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus and its anti-chronic atrophic gastritis activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Gao, Qipin

    2015-11-01

    A polysaccharide named EP-1 was found by screening cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus, which was extracted and subjected to precipitation with ethanol, hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The polysaccharide has a molecular weight of approximately 3100Da and is composed of glucose, mannose and galactose, thus being a heteroglycan. EP-1 has a backbone of α-d-Glc(1→3) and β-d-Glc(1→3). The β-d-Glc(1→3) and α-d-Gal-(1→3) were regarded as branches attached to the C-4 position. The α-d-Man was regarded as a terminal residue. The anti-CAG activity was evaluated in experimental systems using a cell model for identification. The polysaccharide significantly inhibited the growth of MC cells obtained from human gastric mucosa epithelium (GES-1) cells transformed by MNNG, which were used as a chronic atrophic gastritis cell model. It also interfered with the MC cells by inducing cell cycle arrest. Thus, EP-1 shows potential for the development of new functional foods and drugs. PMID:26314904

  20. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Li, Qian; Mao, Guanghua; Zou, Ye; Feng, Weiwei; Zheng, Daheng; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Lulu; Zhang, Tianxiu; Yang, Jun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-30

    The enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from the fruits of Hericium erinaceus was studied. In this study, response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken design based on single-factor and orthogonal experiments were applied to optimize the EAE conditions. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: a pH of 5.71, a temperature of 52.03°C and a time of 33.79 min. The optimal extraction conditions resulted in the highest H. erinaceus polysaccharides (HEP) yield, with a value 13.46 ± 0.37%, which represented an increase of 67.72% compared to hot water extraction (HWE). The polysaccharides were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, CD, AFM, and GC. The results showed that HEP was composed of mannose, glucose, xylose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 15.16:5.55:4.21:1. The functional groups of the H. erinaceus polysaccharides extracted by HWE and EAE were fundamentally identical but had apparent conformational changes. PMID:24299817

  1. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, SHENGJUAN; WANG, YULIANG; ZHANG, XIAOLONG

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention. PMID:27347087

  2. Erinacine C: A novel approach to produce the secondary metabolite by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Niklas; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Erinacine C is a cyathane scaffold-based secondary metabolite, which is naturally produced by the filamentous fungus Hericium erinaceus and has a high potential to treat nervous diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The investigated approach consists of combining an optimised precultivation of H. erinaceus with an enhanced erinacine C production by developing a suitable main cultivation medium enabling the utilisation of high biomass contents. The final erinacine C production medium is buffered by 100 mM HEPES to ensure a stable pH value of 7.5 during main cultivation at inoculation ratios of up to 5:10 (v/v). The medium components, such as 5.0 g L(-1) oatmeal, 1.5 g L(-1) calcium carbonate, and 0.5 g L(-1) Edamin(®) K are crucial for an increased erinacine C production. Besides, different carbon to nitrogen ratios of 25, 64, and 103 do not affect the erinacine C synthesis. The investigated approach enables the production of 2.73 g erinacine C per litre main cultivation broth, which is tenfold higher than published data. In addition, erinacine C biosynthesis is determined to occur mainly in the first six days of main cultivation. PMID:26615754

  3. [Suicide under the influence of "magic mushrooms"].

    PubMed

    Müller, Katja; Püschel, Klaus; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed. PMID:23878898

  4. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  6. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  7. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  8. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  9. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only... commercial crop in a facility with a controlled environment utilizing good mushroom growing practices....

  10. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only... commercial crop in a facility with a controlled environment utilizing good mushroom growing practices....

  11. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only... commercial crop in a facility with a controlled environment utilizing good mushroom growing practices....

  12. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only... commercial crop in a facility with a controlled environment utilizing good mushroom growing practices....

  13. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps...

  14. Quantum mushroom billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo

    2007-12-15

    We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E{sup -1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers ({approx}10{sup 5}) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

  15. An Atomic Hydrogen Mushroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, J.; Taylor, A. R.; Irwin, J. A.; Canadian Galactic Plane Survey Collaboration

    1998-12-01

    Neutral hydrogen ``worms'', which stream vertically from the mid-plane to high latitudes, may be conduits through which hot gas can escape into the halo. Using the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory's (DRAO) Synthesis Telescope, as part of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey, we have resolved an HI worm candidate. Although simulations have previously made general predictions, these data will constrain, for the first time, detailed numerical models of the dynamical processes generating disk-halo features. After the incorporation of the data from the 26-m DRAO's single-dish telescope, the mosaic data cube has full information on all spatial scales down to a resolution limit of 1 arcmin and a velocity resolution of 0.82 km s(-1) . Thus we delineate Rayleigh-Taylor instability-like structures and can distinguish a 5 km s(-1) line of sight velocity difference between the base and top of the worm. In general morphology, the worm is mushroom-shaped. Although it extends only a few hundred parsecs south of the midplane, the cap appears to be fragmenting. This may allow hot material from the stem's cavity, as well as UV photons, to escape to higher galactic latitudes. The preliminary estimate of the observed minimum HI mass is 1.3 x 10(5) Msolar. Our initial thin-shell model, which assumes supernovae explosions drive this outflow, gives a minimum total energy of about 100 x 10(51) ergs s(-1) .

  16. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    PubMed

    Sliva, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. PMID:15544548

  17. Characterization and cloning of laccase gene from Hericium coralloides NBRC 7716 suitable for production of epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya; Takagi, Shinya; Miki, Asami; Kurokawa, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Epitheaflagallin 3-O-gallate (ETFGg) is a minor polyphenol found in black tea extract, which has good physiological functions. It is synthesized from epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) with gallic acid via laccase oxidation. Various basidiomycetes and fungi were screened to find a suitable laccase for the production of ETFGg. A basidiomycete, Hericium coralloides NBRC 7716, produced an appropriate extracellular laccase. The purified laccase produced twice the level of ETFGg compared with commercially available laccase from Trametes sp. The enzyme, termed Lcc2, is a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 67.2 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc2 is quite different from laccase isolated from the fruiting bodies of Hericium. Lcc2 showed similar substrate specificity to known laccases and could oxidize various phenolic substrates, including pyrogallol, gallic acid, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The full-length lcc2 gene was obtained by PCR using degenerate primers, which were designed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc2 and conserved copper-binding sites of laccases, and 5'-, and 3'-RACE PCR with mRNA. The Lcc2 gene showed homology with Lentinula edodes laccase (sharing 77% amino acid identity with Lcc6). We successfully produced extracellular Lcc2 using a heterologous expression system with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, it was confirmed that the recombinant laccase generates similar levels of ETFGg as the native enzyme. PMID:26672458

  18. Screening and isolation for anti-hepatofibrotic components from medicinal mushrooms using TGF-(β1-induced live fibrosis in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Wang, Jing; Xie, Minfeng; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response to chronic liver injury that could lead to liver failure, but treatment remains ineffective. In this study, we investigated anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia from six commercially available medicinal mushrooms in submerged culture, namely Antrodia camphorata, Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. Their anti-fibrotic activities were evaluated via inhibition against accumulation of TGF-β1-induced collagen deposition in CFSC-8B cells. Hex, Chl, and MeOH extracts of A. camphorata and Hex extract of A. mellea significantly decreased collagen production. Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the identification of seven compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS from the Hex Fr.2 of A. camphorata. At the molecular level, Hex Fr.2 of A. camphorata suppressed α-SMA, Collagen I, Collagen III, and Fibronectin expression induced by TGF-β1 in CFSC-8B cells as indicated by qRT-PCR analysis. They also inhibited α-SMA and Collagen I protein expression according to western blot analyses. Mechanistically, Hex Fr.2 of A. camphorata negatively regulates TGF-β1/Smad2/3 signaling. Our studies demonstrate that A. camphorata has in vitro anti-hepatofibrotic activity and that there is great potential for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of liver fibrosis by screening more medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25404218

  19. [Diagnosis and therapy of mushroom poisoning (1)].

    PubMed

    Zilker, T

    1987-04-01

    The diagnosis of mushroom poisoning is based on three principles: the description of the mushroom, the toxicological analysis of the mushroom and, most important, the mushroom syndrome. Mushroom poisoning can be classified according to the lag time between the meal and the onset of symptoms. In this paper we will discuss mushroom poisoning with short and intermediate lag time. With short lag time and a predominance of CNS signs and symptoms the diagnosis is either fly-agaric, pantherina or psilocybin syndrome. Parasympathomimetic signs and symptoms indicate the muscarine syndrome. If--with a lag period of up to four hours--vomiting and diarrhea are predominant, we will find a poisoning with one of the many mushrooms which lead to gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis combined with hemolysis points to a paxillus syndrome. PMID:3586830

  20. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  1. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  2. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings123

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M.; Milner, John A.; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B.; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Haytowitz, David B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S.; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D.; Woteki, Catherine E.; Wu, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9–10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  3. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

  4. 210Po bioaccumulation by mushrooms from Poland.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, B; Jakusik, A

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents results on 210Po activity concentration measured in mushroom samples collected in northern Poland (Białogard and Elblag areas). Among 20 species of wild mushrooms, King Bolete (Boletus edulis), accumulated 210Po in the highest degree. Therefore this species of higher mushrooms is an excellent bioindicator for 210Po radioactivity in the land environment. Finally, the effective dose of polonium emission was calculated for a consumer of King Bolete. Wild mushroom consumption contributed up to 37 microSv to the effective dose in an individual consuming about 5 kg (fresh weight) of heavily contaminated Boletus edulis species per year. PMID:14587851

  5. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  6. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  7. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  8. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. PMID:24125745

  9. Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

  10. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999) (Mushroom Antidumping Duty Order), remains dispositive... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period...

  11. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  12. The molecular genetics of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, J R; Thurston, C F

    2000-01-01

    The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to those found in GenBank by August 1999. The gene sequences isolated from the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the shiitake Lentinula edodes, the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus spp., the paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea and the enotake Flammulina velutipes are described. The largest group are genes from A. bisporus, which includes 29 for intracellular proteins and 12 for secreted proteins. In comparison, only a total of 26 sequences can be reported for the other cultivated species. A. bisporus is also the only cultivated species for which molecular karyotyping is already supported by reliable markers for all 13 of its chromosomes. PMID:10907549

  13. Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

    2014-06-01

    Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms. PMID:23149251

  14. Recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. fruiting bodies in aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalu, Devamalini; Show, Pau Loke; Tan, Yee Shin; Muniandy, Sekaran; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2016-09-01

    The feasible use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to establish a viable protocol for the recovery of laccase from processed Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. fruiting bodies was evaluated. Cold-stored (4.00±1.00°C) H. erinaceus recorded the highest laccase activities of 2.02±0.04 U/mL among all the processed techniques. The evaluation was carried out in twenty-five ATPSs, which composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with various molecular weights and potassium phosphate salt solution to purify the protein from H. erinaceus. Optimum recovery condition was observed in the ATPS which contained 17% (w/w) PEG with a molecular weight of 8000 and 12.2% (w/w) potassium phosphate solution, at a volume ratio (VR) of 1.0. The use of ATPS resulted in one-single primary recovery stage process that produced an overall yield of 99% with a purification factor of 8.03±0.46. The molecular mass of laccases purified from the bottom phase was in the range of 55-66 kDa. The purity of the partitioned laccase was confirmed with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). PMID:26922478

  15. Mutagenesis of the novel Hericium erinaceus ribonuclease, RNase He1, reveals critical responsible residues for enzyme stability and activity.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroko; Motoyoshi, Naomi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Inokuchi, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Here, we determined the sequence of a cDNA encoding a guanylic acid-specific ribonuclease (RNase He1) from Hericium erinaceus that exhibits high sequence identity (59%) with RNase Po1, an enzyme with anti-cancer activity and which is found in Pleurotus ostreatus. RNase He1 and RNase Po1 have similar structures and heat stabilities; hence, RNase He1 may also have potential as an anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we initiated structure-function studies to further characterize the enzyme. Based on the RNase Po1 structure, RNase He1 is predicted to form 3 disulfide bonds involving Cys7-Cys98, Cys5-Cys83, and Cys47-Cys81 linkages. The Cys5Ala mutant exhibited no RNase activity, whereas the Cys81Ala mutant retained RNase activity, but had reduced heat stability. Therefore, the Cys5-Cys83 bond in RNase He1 is essential for the structure of the RNase active site region. Similarly, the Cys47-Cys81 bond helps maintain the conformational stability of the active site region, and may contribute to the greater heat stability of RNase He1. PMID:25366489

  16. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhang; Shao-Long, Yang; Ai-Hong, Wang; Zhi-Chun, Sun; Ya-Fen, Zhuo; Ye-Ting, Xu; Yu-Ling, He

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, Na(+)K(+)ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST) activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25960754

  17. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide-protein HEG-5 inhibits SGC-7901 cell growth via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xinyi; Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yunhong; Yang, Yan; Wu, Di; Sun, Wenjing; Ping, Lifeng

    2015-05-01

    HEG-5 is a novel polysaccharide-protein purified from the fermented mycelia of Hericium erinaceus CZ-2. The present study aims to investigate the effects of HEG-5 on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901. Here, we first uncover that HEG-5 significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGC-7901 cells by promoting apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis suggested that HEG-5 could decrease the expressions of Bcl2, PI3K and AKT1, while increase the expressions of Caspase-8, Caspase-3, p53, CDK4, Bax and Bad. These findings indicated that the Caspase-8/-3-dependent, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated and PI3k/Akt signaling pathways involved in the molecular events of HEG-5 induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Thus, our study provides in vitro evidence that HEG-5 may be taken as a potential candidate for treating gastric cancer. PMID:25703932

  18. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhang; Shao-long, Yang; Ai-hong, Wang; Zhi-chun, Sun; Ya-fen, Zhuo; Ye-ting, Xu; Yu-ling, He

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST) activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25960754

  19. Analysis of cyathane-type diterpenoids from Cyathus striatus and Hericium erinaceus by high-resolution MALDI MS imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Shen, Tian; Römpp, Andreas; Zorn, Holger; Spengler, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolites in both fruiting bodies and pellets from submerged cultures of basidiomycetes were analyzed by atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging at a lateral resolution of 15 μm, a mass resolution of 140,000 at m/z 200 and a mass accuracy of better than 2 ppm. The striatals A, B, C, and D, and a number of erinacine type metabolites were detected in the basidiomycetes Cyathus striatus and Hericium erinaceus, respectively. The two fungi were selected as model species, as they are well-known for efficient production of terpenoid secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, e.g., antibacterial, fungicidal, cytotoxic properties, and stimulating effects on nerve growth factor synthesis. The localization of metabolites revealed a mostly homogeneous distribution of the striatals in the pellets of C. striatus, while a concentration gradient, increasing to the center, was observed in the pellets of H. erinaceus. A mostly homogeneous distribution of metabolites was also found in the fruiting body of H. erinaceus. PMID:24287632

  20. Chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nachshol; Cohen, Jacob; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Varshney, Vinay K; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Yang, Yi-Chi; Li, Yu-Hsuan; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    This research gives the results of a proximate analysis (moisture, ash, crude protein, fat, total carbohydrates, and total energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA], ergothioneine, lovastatin, and cordycepin); fatty acid and amino acid analysis; and an analysis of macro- and microelement content of fruit bodies and mycelia of 15 higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom strains belonging to 12 species. The results obtained demonstrate that almost all investigated mushrooms were found to be good sources of proteins and carbohydrates, with content varying in the ranges of 8.6-42.5% and 42.9-83.6%, respectively. Different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The total amino acid content was highest in Ophiocordyceps sinensis (MB) (23.84 mg/g) and Cordyceps militaris (FB) (23.69 mg/g). The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that, in general, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, and linoleic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied, and the highest results were (as milligrams per kilogram) 224-7307 for calcium, 1668-38564 for potassium, 1091-11676 for phosphorus, and 5-97 for zinc. Bioactive components were lovastatin, GABA, and ergothioneine, which are commonly found in most mushrooms. C. militaris (FB), Pleurotus ostreatus (FB), and Coprinus comatus (FB) were most abundant and contained a high amount of GABA (756.30 μg/g, 1304.99 μg/g, 1092.45 μg/g, respectively) and ergothioneine (409.88 μg/g, 2443.53 μg/g, 764.35 μg/g, respectively). The highest lovastatin content was observed in Hericium erinaceus (FB) (14.38 μg/g) and Ganoderma lucidum (FB) (11.54 μg/g). In contrast to C. militaris (FB), cordycepin was not detected in O. sinensis (MB). The fruit body biomass of C. militaris cordycepin content reached 1.743 mg/g dry weight. The nutritional values of the mushroom species studied here could potentially be used in well-balanced diets and as sources

  1. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms. PMID:27447602

  2. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs. PMID:12053246

  3. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms. PMID:19956947

  4. Antiobesity properties of mushroom polysaccharides – A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported health-promoting properties of bioactive mushroom polysaccharides, this presentation will survey the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) and reported antiobesity ...

  5. Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  6. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  7. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  8. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Guggenheim, Alena G.; Wright, Kirsten M.; Zwickey, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080

  9. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, Alena G; Wright, Kirsten M; Zwickey, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor. These mushrooms were selected based on the body of research performed on mushroom immunology in an oncology model. First, this article focuses on how mushrooms modify cytokines within specific cancer models and on how those cytokines affect the disease process. Second, this article examines the direct effect of mushrooms on cancer. Finally, this article presents an analysis of how mushrooms interact with chemotherapeutic agents, including their effects on its efficacy and on the myelosuppression that results from it. For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms. Preliminary research in humans is also available and is promising for treatment. PMID:26770080

  10. Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

    Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

  11. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

  12. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

  13. The pale brittle stem mushroom, Psathyrella candolleana (higher Basidiomycetes): an indigenous medicinal mushroom new to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Habib, Mouthana N; Holliday, John C; Tura, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The pale brittle stem mushroom, Psathyrella candolleana, a species new to Iraq, is described from the sub-arid region of Aljazira (Iraq). Both classical taxonomy and DNA analyses confirm the identification of the fungus strain (RM-0861) as P. candolleana, a species that belongs to the family Psatherellaceae known to possess medicinal properties. Being a saprophyte, this fungus is cultivatable in laboratory conditions and therefore shows potential for production and use as a medicinal mushroom in human and veterinary health. PMID:25404226

  14. Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.

    1984-03-01

    A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

  15. Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

    2012-11-01

    Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is β-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by β-(1→3)-glycosidic bonds with attached β-(1→6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. β-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

  16. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  17. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an “on-farm” disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  18. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  19. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life.

    PubMed

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the "Food of the Gods." For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an "elixir of life." They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  20. Mercury accumulation of three Lactarius mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation, distribution and potential dietary intake of mercury accumulated by mushrooms of Lactarius species L. delicious, L. volemus and L. deterrimus were studied in the Pomerania region of Poland. In total, 212 fruiting bodies and 106 underlying topsoil samples were analyzed. Analysis indicated that the concentrations of Hg were at low levels both in mushrooms and forest topsoils for a majority of the locations investigated. L. volemus that grew in soils with only a slightly elevated contamination (0.11±0.07mgkg(-1) of dried soil), very efficiently accumulated Hg in fruiting bodies and concentration levels were at 3.7±1.3mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in caps and at 1.9±0.9mgkg(-1) of dry biomass in stipes. Consumption of mushrooms foraged from the Sobowidz forest, which is close to a foundry using ferrous and non-ferrous metals could result in a Hg intake that exceeds the current statutory limits. PMID:27507453

  1. Sexual selection in mushroom-forming basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P. S.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2011-01-01

    We expect that sexual selection may play an important role in the evolution of mushroom-forming basidiomycete fungi. Although these fungi do not have separate sexes, they do play female and male roles: the acceptance and the donation of a nucleus, respectively. The primary mycelium (monokaryon) of basidiomycete fungi, growing from a germinating sexual spore, is hermaphroditic, but it loses female function upon the acceptance of a second nucleus. The resulting dikaryon with two different nuclei in each cell retains a male potential as both nuclei can fertilize receptive mycelia. We tested the occurrence of sexual selection in the model species of mushroom-forming basidiomycetes, Schizophyllum commune, by pairing monokaryons with fully compatible dikaryons. In most pairings, we found a strong bias for one of the two nuclei although both were compatible with the monokaryon when paired alone. This shows that sexual selection can occur in mushroom-forming basidiomycetes. Since the winning nucleus of a dikaryon occasionally varied depending on the receiving monokaryon, we infer that sexual selection can operate through choosiness of the receiving individual (analogous to female choice). However, in other cases the same nucleus won, irrespective of the receiving monokaryon, suggesting that competition between the two nuclei of the donating mycelium (analogous to male–male competition) might also play a role. PMID:20630884

  2. Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Khatun, K; Mahtab, H; Khanam, P A; Sayeed, M A; Khan, K A

    2007-01-01

    It has been postulated that mushroom has beneficial effect of lowering blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. The literature so far searched and found that there was no published data in this regard. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of reducing blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic patients. Additionally, this study addressed whether there was any hepatic and renal toxicity of mushroom. This clinical investigation was conducted in BIRDEM hospital from July 2005 to January 2006. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited. Baseline investigations included height, weight, blood pressure (SBP, DBP), plasma glucose for fasting (FPG) and 2-h after-breakfast (2hPG), total cholesterol (T-chol), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c). Twenty- four days' study constitutes 7-days mushroom, 7-days no mushroom and then 7-days mushroom. Investigations were done at the start and each after every 7-days. Thirty subjects (M / F = 17 / 13) followed to ensure full compliance with the designed protocol for 24 days. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 46.3 (10) years. Mushroom significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, p<0.01; DBP, p<0.05). It also lowered both plasma glucose significantly (FPG & 2-hPG, p<0.001). Mushroom also lowered total cholesterol and TG significantly; whereas, there was no significant change in weight and HDL-c. When mushroom was withdrawn, there were significant increases of DBP, FPG, 2hPG, T-cholesterol and TG, whereas, no significant change was observed in weight, SBP and HDL-c. Restarting mushroom there was again significant reduction of blood glucose, TG and cholesterol. We conclude that mushroom significantly reduced blood glucose, blood pressure, TG and cholesterol of diabetic subjects without any deleterious effect on liver and kidney. The effect of mushroom may be investigated in a large sample for a longer duration to evaluate its efficacy and toxicity. PMID:17344789

  3. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  4. Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  5. Evolution, discovery, and interpretations of arthropod mushroom bodies.

    PubMed

    Strausfeld, N J; Hansen, L; Li, Y; Gomez, R S; Ito, K

    1998-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological studies and mutant analyses have led to divergent interpretations. One interpretation is that the mushroom bodies conditionally relay to higher protocerebral centers information about sensory stimuli and the context in which they occur. Another interpretation is that they play a central role in learning and memory. Anatomical studies suggest that arthropod mushroom bodies are predominately associated with olfactory pathways except in phylogenetically basal insects. The prominent olfactory input to the mushroom body calyces in more recent insect orders is an acquired character. An overview of the history of research on the mushroom bodies, as well as comparative and evolutionary considerations, provides a conceptual framework for discussing the roles of these neuropils. PMID:10454370

  6. Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansen, Lars; Li, Yongsheng; Gomez, Robert S.; Ito, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological studies and mutant analyses have led to divergent interpretations. One interpretation is that the mushroom bodies conditionally relay to higher protocerebral centers information about sensory stimuli and the context in which they occur. Another interpretation is that they play a central role in learning and memory. Anatomical studies suggest that arthropod mushroom bodies are predominately associated with olfactory pathways except in phylogenetically basal insects. The prominent olfactory input to the mushroom body calyces in more recent insect orders is an acquired character. An overview of the history of research on the mushroom bodies, as well as comparative and evolutionary considerations, provides a conceptual framework for discussing the roles of these neuropils. PMID:10454370

  7. RAPD discrimination of Agaricus bisporus mushroom cultivars.

    PubMed

    Moore, A J; Challen, M P; Warner, P J; Elliott, T J

    2001-06-01

    Cultivars of the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus are difficult to differentiate, which has made strain protection problematic for this crop species. We have used RAPDs to discriminate between 26 strains of A. bisporus, 24 of which were commercial cultivars, and to characterise the genetic relatedness of these strains. Using 20 primers, 211 RAPD markers were identified and used in hierarchical cluster, patristic distance and parsimony analyses. All strains could be differentiated using the aggregated primer data. Although no one primer could differentiate all 26 strains, several individual primers yielded unique fingerprints for a variety of strains. The greatest differences (up to 28% variation) were observed in comparisons with or between two wild collections of A. bisporus. Quondam cultivars, commercial brown and off-white varieties proved more variable than the widely grown 'hybrid' types. Of the 15 hybrid varieties analysed, only one differed substantially (20% or more variable). The patristic and parsimony analyses both demonstrated the gross similarity of the hybrids, many of which appear to be essentially derived varieties from two original hybrid cultivars. RAPD analyses can assist mushroom strain identification and could play a role in the protection of novel cultivars. PMID:11525623

  8. A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eui Cha; Kim, Ki Don; Bae, Chan Hyung; Kim, Ju Cheol; Kim, Dae Kyong; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2007-05-01

    A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of 31.0 kDa under both nonreducing and reducing conditions that was stained by silver nitrate, and a 31.4 kDa peak in a Superdex-200 HR gel-filtration column. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by sialoglycoproteins, but not in by mono- or disaccharides, asialoglycoproteins, or de-O-acetylated glycoprotein. The activity was maximal at pH 6.0-9.1 and at temperatures below 50 degrees C. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis revealed that CML comprises 27% alpha-helix, 12% beta-sheets, 29% beta-turns, and 32% random coils. Its binding specificity and secondary structure are similar to those of a fungal lectin from Arthrobotrys oligospora. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of CML differs greatly from those of other lectins. CML exhibits mitogenic activity against mouse splenocytes. PMID:17306462

  9. New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Jang, Yoon-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2007-12-15

    The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion. PMID:17980585

  10. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into

  11. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  12. Biomedical effects of mushrooms with emphasis on pure compounds.

    PubMed

    Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms show great promise for disease treatments. They have been employed in the Orient and Occident for thousands of years, although the practice has persisted in the East. They remain highly valuable. Authentic human trials and pure compounds are emphasized in this review of the most current literature. Polysaccharides from the fungi appear effective in cancer treatments and low-molecular-weight compounds also attract much interest. However, reports of toxicity must be taken seriously. Prescriptions for mushrooms and preparations need to be given by qualified medical practitioners. The reason why these preparations are not more widely used in the West is related to problems of (A) intellectual property rights, (B) mass production, and (C) obtaining pure compounds that retain activity. Mushroom compounds require testing against infectious diseases such as those caused by bacteria, because the current antibiotics are failing from resistances. Overall, the future is assured for medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25355390

  13. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  14. Mushroom lectins: specificity, structure and bioactivity relevant to human disease.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell-cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  15. Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Ramírez Asquieri, E

    2012-01-01

    The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi. PMID:22732967

  16. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

    1976-01-01

    The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized. PMID:788340

  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipes.

    PubMed

    Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Kume, Hiroko; Arimoto, Yasushi; Inakuma, Takahiro

    2002-11-01

    Five fatty acid derivatives including three novel compounds were isolated from the mushroom Clitocybe clavipe. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analyses. These compounds inhibited aldehyde dehydrogenase in vitro. PMID:12444711

  19. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  20. Commercial Sample Identification and Characterization Challenges in Medicinal Mushroom Research.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    A recent study published in this journal demonstrates the pitfalls faced by researchers who utilize commercial products as their test samples without proper characterization. Labeling of commercial mushroom products is often incorrect, which can lead to erroneous interpretations and conclusions. Nine of the 10 samples of commercially branded products used in the study and identified as ground mushrooms were actually grain spawn: mycelium propagated on grain. PMID:27481153

  1. Uptake and transfer factors of 137Cs by mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, G

    1992-01-01

    The 137Cs content of 118 species (668 samples) of higher fungi collected in the period from August 1984 to October 1989 at three different locations in Styria, Austria, was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The Cs-content of most mushrooms has been increasing since September 1986. In order to find out which factors determine the 137Cs-contamination of mushrooms and the transfer-value soil to mushroom, the concentration of total and plant-available radiocesium in soils as well as the pH-value, the content of humus, clay, silt, sand, exchangeable cations, the composition of the clay minerals, and the particle size distribution of the soils of two different locations were examined. The higher the 137Cs contamination of the soil, the thicker the layer of humus and the higher the content of humus, the lower the pH-value, and the lower the amount of essential cations, especially of K+, the higher the amount of 137Cs plant-available will be. Therefore, the contamination of the mushrooms in the coniferous forest of Koralpenblick (1000 m) is higher than in the mixed forest at the Rosenberg around Graz at approx. 500 m height. Of 26 different species of mushrooms measured at both sites, only 61% show the highest TF-values soil to mushrooms also at the Koralpenblick. In the spruce forest at Koralpenblick there are many species of mushrooms with high 137Cs-contamination which were not found at the Rosenberg. However, the properties of the species to which a mushroom belongs are more important than environmental conditions and soil properties. The transfer values of 40K stay within narrow bounds, whereas those of 137Cs differ widely. PMID:1589573

  2. [Mushroom poisoning--the dark side of mycetism].

    PubMed

    Flammer, René; Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M

    2009-05-01

    Most mushroom intoxications become evident within 12 hours with vomiting and diarrhea. They can be divided into incidents with a short latency (less than four hours) and incidents with a long latency (longer than four hours). As a rule of thumb amatoxin poisonings must be considered in case of symptoms appearing with a long latency (8-12-18 h), especially after consumption of non-controlled wild mushrooms. Shorter latencies do not exclude amatoxin poisoning. Large meals of mushrooms, which are rich in chitin, mixed meals and individual factors, may shorten latency and disguise amatoxin poisoning. Any vomiting and diarrhea after mushroom consumption is suspicious. Unless the mushrooms are not to be identified within 30 minutes by an expert, specific treatment for amatoxin poisoning must be started. Identification shall be achieved by macroscopic or microscopic means; and urine analysis for amatoxins are crucial. By commencing treatment before analysis, mortality rates may be as low as 5%. Current standards in amatoxin poisoning treatment can be obtained at the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (Phone 145), where contacts to mycologists are available as well. Emergency mycologists are listed on the website www.vapko.ch. Of the 18 different syndromes we present the most common and most important in Switzerland. In an overview all of them are listed. Early gastrointestinal syndrome with its short latency of less than 4 h and indigestion with a very variable latency are the most common. Psychotropic symptoms after consumptions of fly agaric and panther cap are rare, in case of psilocybin-containing mushrooms, symptoms are frequent, but hardly ever lead to medical treatment. In case of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, completing a patient's history by questioning nutritional habits might reveal causal relationship with ingestion of orellanin-containing mushrooms or tricholoma equestre respectively. Mushrooms in the backyard are attractive for

  3. Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

    2010-09-01

    Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  4. Semiflexible polymer brushes and the brush-mushroom crossover.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Sergei A; Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Milchev, Andrey; Binder, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    Semiflexible polymers end-grafted to a repulsive planar substrate under good solvent conditions are studied by scaling arguments, computer simulations, and self-consistent field theory. Varying the chain length N, persistence length lp, and grafting density σg, the chain linear dimensions and distribution functions of all monomers and of the free chain ends are studied. Particular attention is paid to the limit of very small σg, where the grafted chains behave as "mushrooms" no longer interacting with each other. Unlike a flexible mushroom, which has a self-similar structure from the size (a) of an effective monomer up to the mushroom height (h/a ∝ N(v), ν ≈ 3/5), a semiflexible mushroom (like a free semiflexible chain) exhibits three different scaling regimes, h/a ∝ N for contour length L = Na < lp, a Gaussian regime, h/a ∝ (Llp)(1/2)/a for lp ≪ L ≪ R* ∝ (lp(2)/a), and a regime controlled by excluded volume, h/a ∝ (lp/a)(1/5)N(ν). The semiflexible brush is predicted to scale as h/a ∝ (lpaσg)(1/3)N in the excluded volume regime, and h/a ∝ (lpa(3)σ(2))(1/4)N in the Gaussian regime. Since in the volume taken by a semiflexible mushroom excluded-volume interactions are much weaker in comparison to a flexible mushroom, there occurs an additional regime where semiflexible mushrooms overlap without significant chain stretching. Moreover, since the size of a semiflexible mushroom is much larger than the size of a flexible mushroom with the same N, the crossover from mushroom to brush behavior is predicted to take place at much smaller densities than for fully flexible chains. The numerical results, however, confirm the scaling predictions only qualitatively; for chain lengths that are relevant for experiments, often intermediate effective exponents are observed due to extended crossovers. PMID:25687784

  5. Single- and repeated-dose toxicities of aloe fermentation products in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Baik, Soon-Ok; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    In this study, aloe fermentation products were derived from mycelia from 3 mushrooms: Ganoderma lucidum (AG), Hericium erinaceum (AH), and Phellinus linteus (AP). Levels of aloin A and B increased with fermentation time. The highest levels were measured on the fifth day of fermentation. β-Glucan levels decreased with fermentation time. The safety of aloe fermentation products were examined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered the three aloe fermentation products at dose levels of 1, 2 or 5 g/kg for single-dose toxicity test and 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg for repeated-dose toxicity test. There were no significant differences in body weight gain between vehicle control and AG-, AH- or AP-treated rats. Also, significant changes in daily feed intake and water consumption were not observed. In hematological analysis, none of the parameters were affected by aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia. This suggests that there are no negative effects on homeostasis and immunity. In blood biochemistry analysis, none of the markers were affected by feeding rats with AG, AH or AP. Similarly, there were no significant effects on markers for liver, kidney, skeletal and heart muscle functions. No remarkable lesions were observed in these organs at histopathology. Since there were no adverse effects of AG, AH and AP in single- or repeated-dose toxicity tests, even at higher doses than normal, we conclude that the aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia possess long-term safety and could be candidates as multifunctional nutrients for the improvement of intestinal function and immunity. PMID:21998613

  6. Comment on "Chemical and Toxicological Investigations of a Previously Unknown Poisonous European Mushroom Tricholoma terreum".

    PubMed

    Davoli, Paolo; Floriani, Marco; Assisi, Francesca; Kob, Karl; Sitta, Nicola

    2016-04-11

    Recent findings casting doubts over the edibility of the European mushroom Tricholoma terreum are questioned on the basis of mycological and mycotoxicological considerations. Accordingly, T. terreum should remain listed among edible mushroom species. PMID:26969909

  7. Scientists Test 'Magic Mushroom' Chemical for Tough-To-Treat Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test 'Magic Mushroom' Chemical for Tough-to-Treat Depression Study of only 12 people suggests it may ... found in "magic mushrooms" shows promise in treating depression, a small, preliminary study found. "Depression continues to ...

  8. Scientists Test 'Magic Mushroom' Chemical for Tough-To-Treat Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158879.html Scientists Test 'Magic Mushroom' Chemical for Tough-to-Treat Depression Study of ... HealthDay News) -- A hallucinogenic compound found in "magic mushrooms" shows promise in treating depression, a small, preliminary ...

  9. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, 63 FR 66529 (December 2, 1998); Notice of Amendment of Final... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999); Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms... foreseeable time. See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations, 75 FR...

  10. Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

    1996-01-01

    An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in teaching and…

  11. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  12. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümüşçü, Hasan Hüseyin; Başak, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ali; Avcı, Deniz; Poyrazoğlu, Orhan Kürşat

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation with white button mushroom on immune function of C57BL mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, no information is available on the effect of dietary intake of white mushrooms, which represent ...

  14. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Preserved Mushrooms: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 77 FR 66580... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19...'' mushrooms, which are prepared or preserved by means of vinegar or acetic acid, but may contain oil or...

  15. Edible mushrooms: role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Rostagno, Mauricio A; Villares, Ana; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2010-10-01

    Edible mushrooms are a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in addition to a growing appeal for humans by their flavors and culinary features. Recently, they have become increasingly attractive as functional foods for their potential beneficial effects on human health. Hence, food industry is especially interested in cultivated and wild edible mushrooms. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Several investigations have shown the influence of mushrooms intake on some metabolic markers (total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, fasting triacylglycerol, homocysteine, blood pressure, homeostatic function and oxidative and inflammatory damage), which potentially may reduce the risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Relevant nutritional aspects of mushrooms include a high fiber supply, a low fat content with low trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of sodium as well as the occurrence of components such as eritadenine, phenolic compounds, sterols (such as ergosterol), chitosan, triterpenes, etc., which are considered as important responsible agents for some hitherto healthy properties. The aims of this review are to report putative positive effects of mushrooms consumption on cardiovascular diseases risk markers and to identify some putative bioactive compounds involved in these effects. PMID:20550954

  16. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K.; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

  17. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

  18. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) – the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  19. Aerodynamics of puffball mushroom spore dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Barberie, Alex; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Puffball mushrooms Lycoperdon are spherical fungi that release a cloud of spores in response to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate the aerodynamics of this unique impact-based spore-dispersal. We characterize live puffball ejections by high speed video, the geometry and elasticity of their shells by cantilever experiments, and the packing fraction and size of their spores by scanning electron microscope. We build a dynamically similar puffball mimic composed of a tied-off latex balloon filled with baby powder and topped with a 1-cm slit. A jet of powder is elicited by steady lateral compression of the mimic between two plates. The jet height is a bell-shaped function of force applied, with a peak of 18 cm at loads of 45 N. We rationalize the increase in jet height with force using Darcy's Law: the applied force generates an overpressure maintained by the air-tight elastic membrane. Pressure is relieved as the air travels through the spore interstitial spaces, entrains spores, and exits through the puffball orifice. This mechanism demonstrates how powder-filled elastic shells can generate high-speed jets using energy harvested from rain.

  20. [Emergent drugs (III): hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Burillo-Putze, G; López Briz, E; Climent Díaz, B; Munné Mas, P; Nogue Xarau, S; Pinillos, M A; Hoffman, R S

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses. Several deaths from its consumption have been detected. The consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms appears in cyclic form, although there has been increase in their online offer. They are consumed in search of their hallucinogenic effects, above all those belonging to the family of psilocybes, which contain tryptamines with a hallucinogenic effect similar to LSD. Peyote (Lophophora psilocybes), a cactus rich in mescaline (trimetoxifeniletilamina), produces hallucinations of the five senses, and forms part of the religious culture of the North American Indians. Daturas, which are ubiquitous, produce anticholinergic symptoms and effects on the central nervous system (delirium, hallucinations, etc.), due to their high atropine and scopolamine content. Other substances used for their hallucinogenic effects include the drink known as ayahuasca, and seeds for preparing infusions like Ololiuqui, Morning Glory (Ipomoea violacea), Hawaian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) and Iboga Rootbark (Tabernanthe iboga). PMID:24406363

  1. CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS - CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOM CONTENT AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Kała, Katarzyna; Firlej, Anna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    One of the most frequently harvested mushrooms in Polish forests is Yellow chanterelle (chanterelle) - Cantharellus cibarius Fr. from the Cantharellaceae family. Chanterelle is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom occurring in Poland. Chanterelle lives in symbiosis with pine, spruce, oak and hombeam. In cookery, chanterelle is appreciated because of the aroma, taste, firmness and crunchiness of its fruiting bodies. Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in Asia, Western Europe and Central America. Chanterelle contains a great number of carbohydrates and proteins and a low amount of fat. Actual review presents the main groups of physiologically active primary and secondary metabolites in the fruiting bodies of chanterelle such as indole and phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, free amino acids, sterols, carotenoids, enzymes, vitamins and elements with biological activity. The presence of these compounds and elements conditions the nutrient and therapeutic activity of chanterelle, e.g., immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic properties. PMID:27476275

  2. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  3. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  4. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C)

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna

    2015-01-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  6. [Selenium in selected species of mushrooms from Poland].

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    The selenium was quantified in the caps, stalks or a whole fruiting bodies of king bolete (Boletus edulis), brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and poison pax (Paxillus involutus) collected at the various regions of Poland in 1998-2001. King bolete, parasol mushroom and fly agaric were a much more abundant in selenium than brown birch scaber stalk or poison pax. Some differences were observed between the selenium content of the particular species collected at different sites as well as depending on anatomical part of the fruiting body. PMID:14755851

  7. Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.

    PubMed

    Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

    2013-08-01

    Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg⁻¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg⁻¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg⁻¹ dw). PMID:23749039

  8. Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations. PMID:23535542

  9. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms for production of valuable bioactive metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Mushrooms are abundant sources of a wide range of useful natural products. Nowadays, commercial mushroom products are from mushrooms collected from field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on cost compared with existing technology. Increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this new technology will certainly facilitate expansion. This article outlines the major valuable metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation and advances in submerged culture of mushrooms, taking Ganoderma lucidum, a popular folk and an oriental medicine used to treat many diseases, as a typical example. Our latest data on mushroom cultivation for efficient production of bioactive ganoderic acids and Ganoderma polysaccharides in bioreactors are presented. PMID:15217103

  10. Neurite outgrowth stimulatory effects of myco synthesized AuNPs from Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Jegadeesh; Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; John, Priscilla A; Zhijian, Chan; Periasamy, Vengadesh; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Background Hericium erinaceus has been reported to have a wide range of medicinal properties such as stimulation of neurite outgrowth, promotion of functional recovery of axonotmetic peroneal nerve injury, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In recent years, the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted intense interest due to the potential use in biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AuNPs from aqueous extract of H. erinaceus on neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. Methods The formation of AuNPs was characterized by UV–visible spectrum, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution, and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the neurite extension study of synthesized AuNPs was evaluated by in vitro assay. Results The AuNPs exhibited maximum absorbance between 510 and 600 nm in UV–visible spectrum. FESEM and TEM images showed the existence of nanoparticles with sizes of 20–40 nm. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. The purity and the crystalline properties were confirmed by EDX diffraction analysis, which showed strong signals with energy peaks in the range of 2–2.4 keV, indicating the existence of gold atoms. The synthesized AuNPs showed significant neurite extension on PC-12 cells. Nerve growth factor 50 ng/mL was used as a positive control. Treatment with different concentrations (nanograms) of AuNPs resulted in neuronal differentiation and neuronal elongation. AuNPs induced maximum neurite outgrowth of 13% at 600 ng/mL concentration. Conclusion In this study, the AuNPs synthesis was achieved by a simple, low-cost, and rapid bioreduction approach. AuNPs were shown to have potential neuronal differentiation and

  11. Strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Guillamon, Eva; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Garcia-Lafuente, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Fungal aroma comprises at least seven chemical groups of volatile organic compounds, which are plain hydrocarbons, heterocycles, alcohols, phenols, acids and derivatives, carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones), and sulfur containing molecules. This aromatic blend provides the excellent sensory properties to produce and several strategies have been employed to create aromatic products having the aroma and taste of mushrooms and truffles. Nowadays, there are several procedures to obtain aroma concentrates. Among them, the simulation of mushroom aroma by the combination of the main substances responsible for the flavour could be an efficient strategy. Nevertheless, natural procedures are gaining more importance since the concentrate is not a synthetic product and the processes commonly involve the use of mushroom waste. In this field, the maceration with precursor molecules, such as linoleic acid, or different types of enzymes is commonly used in food industry. This article provides a wide view of the most common strategies to produce fungal aroma taking into account the main advantages and disadvantages they present. The article presents some promising patents on strategies for the preparation and concentration of mushroom aromatic products. PMID:22594661

  12. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  13. Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

  14. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1997-09-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

  15. Preparation and Use of Polish Mushroom Proficiency Testing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina

    2008-08-14

    Mushroom reference materials have been prepared and characterized for the use in proficiency tests according to a procedure established within the frame of an IAEA Interregional Technical Cooperation Project. The materials were used for conducting the proficiency tests in Poland in 2005-2007. The results obtained by participating laboratories are presented and discussed.

  16. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  17. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less sensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore{close_quote}s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum

    PubMed Central

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches. PMID:25883287

  19. Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches. PMID:25883287

  20. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  1. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are

  2. Application of edible coating and acidic washing for extending the storage life of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Naser; Zahedi, Younes

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocolloid-based materials have been extensively used to coat fruit and vegetables to prolong shelf-life. The effects of different concentrations of acidic washing (acetic, ascorbic, citric and malic acids) followed by coating with gum arabic (GA), carboxymethyl cellulose and emulsified gum arabic (EGA) were evaluated on the weight loss (WL), firmness and color of mushroom. The WL of the uncoated mushrooms was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that of the coated ones, and the minimum WL was obtained with EGA coating. The mushrooms washed with malic and ascorbic acids showed minimum and maximum of WL, respectively. Loss in firmness of the EGA-coated mushrooms was by 21% (the minimum of loss), while loss value of the uncoated ones was by 39% (the maximum of loss). Firmness of mushrooms was not influenced by the acid type. Concentration of the acid significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the firmness of mushrooms, and at the lowest concentration of acid (1%), the mushrooms tissue was firmest. The L* value of the mushrooms coated with GA was higher than that of others. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in L* value and a significant (p < 0.05) increase in a* and b* values occurred in the mushrooms washed with acetic acid. Overall, washing with 1% citric or malic acid followed by coating with EGA resulted in minimum decrease in WL and firmness of the mushrooms. PMID:23175781

  3. Ground plan of the insect mushroom body: functional and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Brown, Sheena M.

    2014-01-01

    In most insects with olfactory glomeruli, each side of the brain possesses a mushroom body equipped with calyces supplied by olfactory projection neurons. Kenyon cells providing dendrites to the calyces supply a pedunculus and lobes divided into subdivisions supplying outputs to other brain areas. It is with reference to these components that most functional studies are interpreted. However, mushroom body structures are diverse, adapted to different ecologies and likely to serve various functions. In insects whose derived life styles preclude the detection of airborne odorants there is a loss of the antennal lobes and attenuation or loss of the calyces. Such taxa retain mushroom body lobes that as elaborate as those of mushroom bodies equipped with calyces. Antennal lobe loss and calycal regression also typifies taxa with short non-feeding adults where olfaction is redundant. Examples are cicadas and mayflies, the latter representing the most basal lineage of winged insects. Mushroom bodies of another basal taxon, the Odonata, possess a remnant calyx that may reflect the visual ecology of this group. That mushroom bodies persist in brains of secondarily anosmic insects suggests that they play roles in higher functions other than olfaction. Mushroom bodies are not ubiquitous: the most basal living insects, the wingless Archaeognatha, possess glomerular antennal lobes but lack mushroom bodies, suggesting that the ability to process airborne odorants preceded the acquisition of mushroom bodies. Archaeognathan brains are like those of higher malacostracans, which lack mushroom bodies but have elaborate olfactory centers laterally in the brain. PMID:19152379

  4. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. PMID:25124478

  5. Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

    2011-09-01

    Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage. PMID:21846323

  6. Convergence of multimodal sensory pathways to the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Ryosuke; Mabuchi, Yuta; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K

    2016-01-01

    Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals. PMID:27404960

  7. Convergence of multimodal sensory pathways to the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Ryosuke; Mabuchi, Yuta; Mizunami, Makoto; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed structural analyses of the mushroom body which plays critical roles in olfactory learning and memory revealed that it is directly connected with multiple primary sensory centers in Drosophila. Connectivity patterns between the mushroom body and primary sensory centers suggest that each mushroom body lobe processes information on different combinations of multiple sensory modalities. This finding provides a novel focus of research by Drosophila genetics for perception of the external world by integrating multisensory signals. PMID:27404960

  8. Production of edible mushrooms in forests: trends in development of a mycosilviculture.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Jean-Michel; Largeteau, Michèle L

    2011-02-01

    Developing the production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushrooms in forest has become a challenge. Only a few ECM species are currently cultivable. Controlled mycorrhization practices offer promising advance to produce currently uncultivable ECM mushrooms. The persistence of the production of edible species, either cultivated or wild, depends on both the tree and the ecological environment (fungal communities, climate, soil, tree development). Developing adapted forest management practices appears to be means to improve production of edible ECM mushrooms. This review summarises current knowledge on the development of a science-based mycosilviculture for the production of edible ECM mushrooms. PMID:21132290

  9. Stimulation of Yield in the Cultivated Mushroom by Vegetable Oils1

    PubMed Central

    Schisler, Lee C.

    1967-01-01

    Supplementation of mushroom compost at spawning and at casing with various refined and crude seed oils resulted in 1 to 1.5 lb/ft2 increases in mushroom yield. Supplementation at casing with ground seeds or protein-oil combinations caused 2 to 2.5 lb/ft2 increases in mushroom yield. Further evidence is presented for a relationship between lipid metabolism and the initiation of fruiting in the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Preliminary results suggest the possible involvement of sterols in the fruiting stimulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:16349718

  10. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  11. The structure of mushroom polysaccharides and their beneficial role in health.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojun; Nie, Shaoping

    2015-10-01

    Mushroom is a kind of fungus that has been popular for its special flavour and renowned biological values. The polysaccharide contained in mushroom is regarded as one of the primary bioactive constituents and is beneficial for health. The structural features and bioactivities of mushroom polysaccharides have been studied extensively. It is believed that the diverse biological bioactivities of polysaccharides are closely related to their structure or conformation properties. In this review, the structural characteristics, conformational features and bioactivities of several mushroom polysaccharides are summarized, and their beneficial mechanisms and the relationships between their structure and bioactivities are also discussed. PMID:26345165

  12. Soil-dependent uptake of 137Cs by mushrooms: experimental study in the Chernobyl accident areas.

    PubMed

    Kaduka, M V; Shutov, V N; Bruk, G Ya; Balonov, M I; Brown, J E; Strand, P

    2006-01-01

    The influence of agrochemical properties of forest soils and growth conditions on 137Cs aggregated transfer factors from soil to different species of forest mushrooms have been analysed. Statistically significant correlations between 137Cs soil to mushroom aggregated transfer factors and agrochemical soil properties have been revealed. The experimental data show that 137Cs aggregated transfer factors depend on the mushroom's trophic group, biological family, genus and species. They also strongly depend on forest soil properties and their values can be estimated with the use of multiple regression equations constructed from agrochemical soil parameters which most closely correlate with the 137Cs transfer parameters for particular mushroom groups. PMID:16835003

  13. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-10-03

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  14. Antiproliferative and immunostimulatory protein fraction from edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swatilekha; Bhutia, Sujit K; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Kumar, Alok; Khadgi, Niyati; Maiti, Tapas K

    2008-09-01

    Fruit bodies and mycelia of various higher Basidiomycetes were studied in search of biological effector molecules. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties of a protein fraction designated as Cibacron blue affinity eluted protein (CBAEP) isolated from five different species of edible mushrooms (Termitomyces clypeatus, Pleurotus florida, Calocybe indica, Astraeus hygrometricus, and Volvariella volvacea). This protein fraction (10-100μg/ml) mediated antiproliferative activity on several tumor cell lines through the induction of apoptosis. Also the isolated protein fraction from all five mushrooms had a stimulatory effect on splenocytes, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. Further it enhanced mouse natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and stimulated macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO). The highest immunostimulatory activity was determined in the CBAEP from T. clypeatus and the highest antiproliferative activity from C. indica. PMID:21783909

  15. [Acute liver failure after ingestion of death cap mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Anna-Maria; Kabar, Iyad; Mitchell, Todd; Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available. We report on three patients who suffered from amatoxin mushroom poisoning after ingestion of green death cap mushrooms. Based on the pathophysiology of amatoxin poisoning, we discuss a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:27359312

  16. Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area

    SciTech Connect

    Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.; Pozo-Lora, R.

    1986-05-01

    Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the present paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).

  17. Silver content of wild-grown mushrooms from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Bona, H; Danisiewicz, D

    1994-09-01

    Wild-grown and mostly edible species of higher mushrooms collected in 1989-1992 from the districts of Gdańsk, Elblag and Piła (northern part of Poland) have been investigated with regard to their silver content. In total, 527 samples including 25 mushroom species of six families (Agaricaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Coprinaceae and Russulaceae) were examined. Among the fungi examined only Agaricus campestris and A. augustus were heavy bioaccumulating species and showed the highest concentrations of 35 mg Ag/kg dry weight (1.1-150) and 2.0-6.9 mg/kg, respectively. Silver concentrations exceeding 1.0 mg/kg dry weight were noted in Boletus aestivalis, Lepista nuda, L. personata, and in some specimens of B. edulis, Leccinum scrabum, L. vulpinum, Cantharellus cibarius and Coprinus comatus. PMID:7975911

  18. Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, Mark W. F.; MONEY, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of freestanding lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model. PMID:20965062

  19. Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of free-standing lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model. PMID:20965062

  20. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores.

    PubMed

    Dressaire, Emilie; Yamada, Lisa; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2016-03-15

    Thousands of basidiomycete fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable winds for dispersal--that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only 1 cm high and lift spores 10 cm or more into the air. This work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding and explains their high water needs. PMID:26929324

  1. A comparative study on edible Agaricus mushrooms as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Stojković, Dejan; Nikolić, Miloš; Ćirić, Ana; Reis, Filipa S; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a cultivated mushroom; A. bitorquis, A. campestris and A. macrosporus are edible mushrooms growing wild in nature. A chemical characterization was carried out with samples that originated in Serbia. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing properties of their methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. A. campestris had the lowest caloric value and total sugar content and showed the highest concentration in organic and phenolic acids, as also in tocopherols (mainly γ-tocopherol). In general, the methanolic extracts showed higher antioxidant, but lower antibacterial and antifungal potential than ethanolic ones. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of the ethanolic extracts demonstrated reduction of virulence factors, AQ inhibition zones, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. The extracts of the tested Agaricus species are a promising source of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing compounds. PMID:25954776

  2. Oscillating mushrooms: adiabatic theory for a non-ergodic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfreich, V.; Rom-Kedar, V.; Turaev, D.

    2014-10-01

    Can elliptic islands contribute to sustained energy growth as parameters of a Hamiltonian system slowly vary with time? In this paper we show that a mushroom billiard with a periodically oscillating boundary accelerates the particle inside it exponentially fast. We provide an estimate for the rate of acceleration. Our numerical experiments corroborate the theory. We suggest that a similar mechanism applies to general systems with mixed phase space.

  3. Ribosomal Biosynthesis of the Cyclic Peptide Toxins of Amanita Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Luo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as α- and β-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys cross-bridge known as tryptathionine. We have shown that, in Amanita bisporigera, the amatoxins and phallotoxins are synthesized as proproteins on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The proproteins are 34–35 amino acids in length and have no predicted signal peptides. The genes for α-amanitin (AMA1) and phallacidin (PHA1) are members of a large family of related genes, characterized by highly conserved amino acid sequences flanking a hypervariable “toxin” region. The toxin regions are flanked by invariant proline (Pro) residues. An enzyme that could cleave the proprotein of phalloidin was purified from the phalloidin-producing lawn mushroom Conocybe apala. The enzyme is a serine protease in the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) subfamily. The same enzyme cuts at both Pro residues to release the linear hepta- or octapeptide. PMID:20564017

  4. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Maribeth O; Fischer, Mark W F; Money, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. PMID:26509436

  5. Internal structure of mushroom-shaped salt diapirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics and kinematics of salt diapirs with crestal bulbs shaped like a mushroom, one of the most complex types of diapirs, as interpreted by experimental modeling and from naturally occurring examples. Direct, practical applications of this research include use in the evaluation of salt domes as repositories for radioactive waste, in the exploration and production of salt, potash, and sulfur, and in the search for subtle hydrocarbon traps. The authors conducted 8 centrifuge experiments, which produced more than 100 model diapirs. These experiments were dynamically scaled to U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, but the qualitative results are also relevant to salt diapirs in other provinces and to granitoid diapirs penetrating metamorphic crust. The centrifuged domes grew under overburdens of constant thickness or under aggrading and prograding overburdens, a new experimental approach. Results indicate that external mushroom structure results from toroidal circulation of buoyant source and immediate cover having similar effective viscosities, whereas internal structure is produced by toroidal circulation confined within the diapir. The internal diapir structure elucidates the mechanics of emplacement and indicates whether an external mushroom shape can be expected and sought by further exploration.

  6. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  7. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. PMID:26509436

  8. Stimulation of Erythrocyte Cell Membrane Scrambling by Mushroom Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Frauenfeld, Leonie; Alzoubi, Kousi; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mushroom tyrosinase, a copper containing enzyme, modifies growth and survival of tumor cells. Mushroom tyrosinase may foster apoptosis, an effect in part due to interference with mitochondrial function. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in the triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and activation of sphingomyelinase with subsequent formation of ceramide. The present study explored, whether tyrosinase stimulates eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. Results: A 24 h exposure to mushroom tyrosinase (7 U/mL) was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i, a significant increase of ceramide abundance, and a significant increase of annexin-V-binding. The annexin-V-binding following tyrosinase treatment was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Tyrosinase did not significantly modify forward scatter. Conclusions: Tyrosinase triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect, at least partially, due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and ceramide formation. PMID:24647148

  9. Memory-Relevant Mushroom Body Output Synapses Are Cholinergic

    PubMed Central

    Barnstedt, Oliver; Owald, David; Felsenberg, Johannes; Brain, Ruth; Moszynski, John-Paul; Talbot, Clifford B.; Perrat, Paola N.; Waddell, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Summary Memories are stored in the fan-out fan-in neural architectures of the mammalian cerebellum and hippocampus and the insect mushroom bodies. However, whereas key plasticity occurs at glutamatergic synapses in mammals, the neurochemistry of the memory-storing mushroom body Kenyon cell output synapses is unknown. Here we demonstrate a role for acetylcholine (ACh) in Drosophila. Kenyon cells express the ACh-processing proteins ChAT and VAChT, and reducing their expression impairs learned olfactory-driven behavior. Local ACh application, or direct Kenyon cell activation, evokes activity in mushroom body output neurons (MBONs). MBON activation depends on VAChT expression in Kenyon cells and is blocked by ACh receptor antagonism. Furthermore, reducing nicotinic ACh receptor subunit expression in MBONs compromises odor-evoked activation and redirects odor-driven behavior. Lastly, peptidergic corelease enhances ACh-evoked responses in MBONs, suggesting an interaction between the fast- and slow-acting transmitters. Therefore, olfactory memories in Drosophila are likely stored as plasticity of cholinergic synapses. PMID:26948892

  10. Mushroom harvesting ants in the tropical rain forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Volker; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2008-11-01

    Ants belong to the most important groups of arthropods, inhabiting and commonly dominating most terrestrial habitats, especially tropical rainforests. Their highly collective behavior enables exploitation of various resources and is viewed as a key factor for their evolutionary success. Accordingly, a great variety of life strategies evolved in this group of arthropods, including seed harvesters, gardeners, and planters, fungus growers, nomadic hunters, life stock keepers, and slave makers. This study reports the discovery of a new lifestyle in ants. In a Southeast Asian rainforest habitat, Euprenolepis procera is specialized in harvesting a broad spectrum of naturally growing mushrooms, a nutritionally challenging and spatiotemporally unpredictable food source. While unfavorable to the vast majority of animals, E. procera has developed exceptional adaptations such as a shift to a fully nomadic lifestyle and special food processing capabilities, which allow it to rely entirely on mushrooms. As a consequence, E. procera is the most efficient and predominant consumer of epigeic mushrooms in the studied habitat and this has broad implications for the tropical rainforest ecosystem.

  11. Proteomics of edible mushrooms: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R

    2016-05-01

    Mushrooms are considered an important food for their traditionally famous nutritional and medicinal values, although much information about their potential at the molecular level is unfortunately unknown. Edible mushrooms include fungi that are either collected wild or cultivated. Many important species are difficult to cultivate but attempts have been made with varying degrees of success, with the results showing unsatisfactory economical cultivation methods. Recently, proteomic analysis has been developed as a powerful tool to study the protein content of fungi, particularly basidiomycetes. This mini-review article highlights the contribution of proteomics platforms to the study of edible mushrooms, focusing on the molecular mechanisms involved in developmental stages. This includes extracellular and cytoplasmic effector proteins that have potential or are involved in the synthesis of anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antibiotic, in blood pressure control, in the supply of vitamins and minerals, and in other responses to environmental changes. The contribution of different proteomics techniques including classical and more advanced techniques is also highlighted. PMID:26891916

  12. Proteomic analysis of antihypertensive proteins in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ching-Ching; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2012-12-19

    Mushrooms are high in protein content, which makes them potentially a good source of antihypertensive peptides. Among the mushrooms tested, protein extracts from Pleurotus cystidiosus (E1Pc and E5Pc) and Agaricus bisporus (E1Ab and E3Ab) had high levels of antihypertensive activity. The protein extracts were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) into six fractions. Fraction 3 from E5Pc (E5PcF3) and fraction 6 from E3Ab (E3AbF6) had the highest antihypertensive activities. SDS-PAGE analysis showed E5PcF3 consisted mainly of low molecular weight proteins, whereas E3AbF6 contained a variety of high to low molecular weight proteins. There were 22 protein clusters detected by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis with five common peaks found in E5PcF3 and E3AbF6, which had m/z values in the range of 3940-11413. This study suggests that the antihypertensive activity in the two mushroom species could be due to proteins with molecular masses ranging from 3 to 10 kDa. PMID:23190208

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of wild growing mushrooms and toadstools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Božac, Romano; Puppels, Gerwin J.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, there has been increase of general interest in fungi because of the possible medical applications of their polysaccharide constituents called glucans, some of which are reported to have immunomodulatory properties. Since an extraction method can change the chemical composition of a substance, especially a delicate one such as fungal thallus, it is necessary and useful to know more about the studied matter in advance in order to choose the chemical procedure properly. We demonstrated the usefulness of vibrational spectroscopy in identifying different glucan types in various parts of intact fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycetes. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of spores and fruiting bodies of more than 70 species belonging to 37 different genera of wild growing mushrooms. The list of the bands in 750-950 cm -1 interval, assigned to α- and β-glucans, is provided for all species studied. Vibrational spectra in the interval 1000-1200 cm -1 could serve as an indicator of mushroom genus, although particular species cannot be identified spectroscopically. Great similarities in spectra of spores of the same genus, but different species, e.g. Tricholoma album and Trichloma sulphureum, were observed. On the other hand, spectra of cap, stalk and spores of the same mushroom show great differences, indicating variety in the chemical composition of different parts of the same fruiting body.

  14. 75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 67 FR..., 73 FR 30051 (May 23, 2008). Subsequent to the CIT's judgment upholding Commerce's remand... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final...

  15. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations. PMID:22573010

  16. Versatile applications of the culinary-medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii (Berk.) Maas G. (Higher Basidiomycetes): a review.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Oh, Deuk-Sil; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2012-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes medicinal mushroom Mycoleptodonoides aitchisonii has become attractive as a natural health product because of its antihypertensive effects on human health. Moreover, the food industry is especially interested in the preparation of the nutritional tonic of this mushroom. Various studies on this mushroom have shown that it has antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antioxidant effects. The aim of this review is to report the present findings from studies on this mushroom and to discuss its future prospects. PMID:23510177

  17. Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity in C57BL/6 Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, majority of these studies evaluated the effect of administering extracts of exotic mushrooms thr...

  18. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

  19. In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

  20. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  1. Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in U.S. Mushrooms and Substrate in Relation to Dietary Exposure.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; McClatchy, Colleen; Paukett, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Wild mushrooms can absorb high quantities of metal(loid)s, yet the concentration, speciation, and localization of As, Pb, and Cd in cultivated mushrooms, particularly in the United States, are unresolved. We collected 40 samples of 12 types of raw mushrooms from 2 geographic locations that produce the majority of marketable U.S. mushrooms and analyzed the total As, Pb, and Cd content, the speciation and localization of As in select samples, and assessed the metal sources and substrate-to-fruit transfer at one representative farm. Cremini mushrooms contained significantly higher total As concentrations than Shiitake and localized the As differently; while As in Cremini was distributed throughout the fruiting body, it was localized to the hymenophore region in Shiitake. Cd was significantly higher in Royal Trumpet than in White Button, Cremini, and Portobello, while no difference was observed in Pb levels among the mushrooms. Concentrations of As, Pb, and Cd were less than 1 μg g(-1) d.w. in all mushroom samples, and the overall risk of As, Cd, and Pb intake from mushroom consumption is low in the U.S. However, higher percentages of tolerable intake levels are observed when calculating risk based on single serving-sizes or when substrate contains elevated levels of metal(loid)s. PMID:27484977

  2. A gilled mushroom, Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. (Basidiomycota: Agaricales), in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2016-09-01

    A densely scaled small mushroom in Baltic amber is described as Gerontomyces lepidotus gen. et sp. nov. and is characterized by a convex pileus 1.0 mm in diameter, distant to subdistant lamellae with smooth margins and a centrally inserted cylindrical, solid stipe. Its taxonomic placement is uncertain. This is the first mushroom described from Baltic amber. PMID:27567715

  3. Modelling the influence of time and temperature on the respiration rate of fresh oyster mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Sílvia; Cunha, Luís M; Fonseca, Susana C

    2015-12-01

    The respiration rate of mushrooms is an important indicator of postharvest senescence. Storage temperature plays a major role in their rate of respiration and, therefore, in their postharvest life. In this context, reliable predictions of respiration rates are critical for the development of modified atmosphere packaging that ultimately will maximise the quality of the product to be presented to consumers. This work was undertaken to study the influence of storage time and temperature on the respiration rate of oyster mushrooms. For that purpose, oyster mushrooms were stored at constant temperatures of 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 ℃ under ambient atmosphere. Respiration rate data were measured with 8-h intervals up to 240 h. A decrease of respiration rate was found after cutting of the carpophores. Therefore, time effect on respiration rate was modelled using a first-order decay model. The results also show the positive influence of temperature on mushroom respiration rate. The model explaining the effect of time on oyster mushroom's respiration rate included the temperature dependence according to the Arrhenius equation, and the inclusion of a parameter describing the decrease of the respiration rate, from the initial time until equilibrium. These yielded an overall model that fitted well to the experimental data. Moreover, results show that the overall model is useful to predict respiration rate of oyster mushrooms at different temperatures and times, using the initial respiration rate of mushrooms. Furthermore, predictive modelling can be relevant for the choice of an appropriate packaging system for fresh oyster mushrooms. PMID:25339381

  4. A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

  5. On the run: free-living mushroom corals avoiding interaction with sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, B. W.; de Voogd, N. J.

    2012-06-01

    Individuals of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia fralinae moved away when placed in contact with fragments of the toxic haplosclerid sponge Callyspongia (Euplacella) biru. This reaction was not evoked by three other sponge species. The experiment demonstrated that mobility of mushroom corals helps them to flee from organisms that secrete secondary metabolites in competition for space.

  6. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  7. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  8. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients' prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  9. The transcriptional regulator c2h2 accelerates mushroom formation in Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Vos, Aurin M; Scholtmeijer, Karin; Hendrix, Ed; Baars, Johan J P; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2016-08-01

    The Cys2His2 zinc finger protein gene c2h2 of Schizophyllum commune is involved in mushroom formation. Its inactivation results in a strain that is arrested at the stage of aggregate formation. In this study, the c2h2 orthologue of Agaricus bisporus was over-expressed in this white button mushroom forming basidiomycete using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphology, cap expansion rate, and total number and biomass of mushrooms were not affected by over-expression of c2h2. However, yield per day of the c2h2 over-expression strains peaked 1 day earlier. These data and expression analysis indicate that C2H2 impacts timing of mushroom formation at an early stage of development, making its encoding gene a target for breeding of commercial mushroom strains. PMID:27207144

  10. Vitamin D and Vitamin D from Ultraviolet-Irradiated Mushrooms (Review).

    PubMed

    Kamweru, Paul Kuria; Tindibale, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D may have an important role in many aspects of human health, from bone fractures to prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuromuscular problems, and diabetes. Vitamin D is produced in the human body by the skin after sunlight absorption, but as human lifestyles change, so does the time of exposure to sunlight, necessitating dietary supplementation of vitamin D. Mushrooms have the advantages that they are the only source of vitamin D in the produce aisle and they are one of the few nonfortified food sources. Here, we review the current literature on enhancement of the vitamin D content in mushrooms and literature evidence on the bioavailability of vitamin D in humans and animals after ingesting ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated mushrooms. We also present available literature on health safety after UV irradiation of mushrooms, and we discuss issues arising in the attempt to incorporate UV irradiation into the mushroom production line. PMID:27481154

  11. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335μgAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed. PMID:26471627

  12. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based method for rapid mushroom species identification.

    PubMed

    Vaagt, Franziska; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Markus

    2013-02-27

    Toxic mushroom species, such as the death cap ( Amanita phalloides ), are responsible for most mushroom poisonings. In the present work, novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were used for the differentiation of even closely related edible and toxic mushroom species. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked mushroom samples (raw and fried material). Contaminations at the level of 2% (w/w) could be detected in different mushroom blends. Three detection methods were used: agarose gel analysis, fluorimetric real-time detection, and visual detection by lateral flow dipsticks (LFD). The LAMP assay combined with LFD detection allows the identification of A. phalloides in about 2 h (including DNA extraction) at a very low level of technical equipment (micropestle, water bath, and mobile centrifuge), which makes this technique perfectly suited for on-site applications. PMID:23350919

  13. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

  14. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W.; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han A.B.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivation of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  15. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods. PMID:26396332

  16. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Stephan R; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg(-1) dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg(-1) dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. PMID:21621314

  17. Characterization of the key odorants in pan-fried white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) by means of molecular sensory science: comparison with the raw mushroom tissue.

    PubMed

    Grosshauser, Sonja; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-04-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from pan-fried white mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) revealed 40 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192, among which the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (seasoning-like). A total of 36 compounds are reported for the first time in processed mushrooms, and 25 odorants showing the highest FD factors were then quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations to their odor thresholds. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) showed the highest OAVs (>100) in the pan-fried mushrooms, followed by 1-octen-3-one, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one with OAVs >10. An aqueous aroma recombinate containing 13 odorants (OAV > 1) in their actual concentrations in the fried mushrooms showed a good similarity to the original aroma profile. The quantitation of the key odorants in raw mushrooms, identified with high FD factors during the AEDA, revealed that numerous odorants were quantitatively changed by the frying process, but in particular the concentrations of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal were higher by factors of ∼40 and 6, respectively, compared to the amounts in the processed mushrooms. The data suggested an enzymatic formation of both Strecker aldehydes by the cut mushroom tissue. In total, 26 odorants were newly identified in raw mushrooms. PMID:23581517

  18. Photobiology of vitamin D in mushrooms and its bioavailability in humans.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Raphael-John H; Lu, Zhiren; Bogusz, Jaimee M; Williams, Jennifer E; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms exposed to sunlight or UV radiation are an excellent source of dietary vitamin D2 because they contain high concentrations of the vitamin D precursor, provitamin D2. When mushrooms are exposed to UV radiation, provitamin D2 is converted to previtamin D2. Once formed, previtamin D2 rapidly isomerizes to vitamin D2 in a similar manner that previtamin D3 isomerizes to vitamin D3 in human skin. Continued exposure of mushrooms to UV radiation results in the production of lumisterol2 and tachysterol2. It was observed that the concentration of lumisterol2 remained constant in white button mushrooms for up to 24 h after being produced. However, in the same mushroom tachysterol2 concentrations rapidly declined and were undetectable after 24 h. Shiitake mushrooms not only produce vitamin D2 but also produce vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. A study of the bioavailability of vitamin D2 in mushrooms compared with the bioavailability of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement revealed that ingestion of 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 in mushrooms is as effective as ingesting 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement in raising and maintaining blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a marker for a person's vitamin D status. Therefore, mushrooms are a rich source of vitamin D2 that when consumed can increase and maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a healthy range. Ingestion of mushrooms may also provide the consumer with a source of vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. PMID:24494050

  19. Genetic diversity of Kenyan native oyster mushroom (Pleurotus).

    PubMed

    Otieno, Ojwang D; Onyango, Calvin; Onguso, Justus Mungare; Matasyoh, Lexa G; Wanjala, Bramwel W; Wamalwa, Mark; Harvey, Jagger J W

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Pleurotus, also commonly known as oyster mushroom, are well known for their socioeconomic and biotechnological potentials. Despite being one of the most important edible fungi, the scarce information about the genetic diversity of the species in natural populations has limited their sustainable utilization. A total of 71 isolates of Pleurotus species were collected from three natural populations: 25 isolates were obtained from Kakamega forest, 34 isolates from Arabuko Sokoke forest and 12 isolates from Mount Kenya forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to thirteen isolates of locally grown Pleurotus species obtained from laboratory samples using five primer pair combinations. AFLP markers and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the ribosomal DNA were used to estimate the genetic diversity and evaluate phylogenetic relationships, respectively, among and within populations. The five primer pair combinations generated 293 polymorphic loci across the 84 isolates. The mean genetic diversity among the populations was 0.25 with the population from Arabuko Sokoke having higher (0.27) diversity estimates compared to Mount Kenya population (0.24). Diversity between the isolates from the natural population (0.25) and commercial cultivars (0.24) did not differ significantly. However, diversity was greater within (89%; P > 0.001) populations than among populations. Homology search analysis against the GenBank database using 16 rDNA ITS sequences randomly selected from the two clades of AFLP dendrogram revealed three mushroom species: P. djamor, P. floridanus and P. sapidus; the three mushrooms form part of the diversity of Pleurotus species in Kenya. The broad diversity within the Kenyan Pleurotus species suggests the possibility of obtaining native strains suitable for commercial cultivation. PMID:25344263

  20. Peel testing behavior of mushroom-top terminated structured adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossfeld, Craig Kenneth

    Synthetic structured surfaces have been created based on the extraordinary adhesive ability exhibited by insects, spiders, and geckos. The adhesion of synthetic and natural structured adhesives is attributed to the cumulative addition of van der Waals forces acting on the structures of the surface. It has been shown that for synthetic surfaces a "mushroom top" or "flanged" terminating structure exhibits the highest adhesion. Unfortunately, due to the variety of testing and fabrication techniques and the small scale of previous studies, the detachment behavior of these structures is not well understood. This research systematically investigated the effect of peel angle, pillar diameter, flange diameter, and pillar aspect ratio on the force required for peeling. Explicit emphasis was placed on relatively large pillar structures to allow for in situ optical visualization in order to gain insights into fundamental mechanisms which dictate peeling. Traditional molding techniques were used to fabricate optical-scale mushroom terminated structures with pillar diameters of 1mm and 400microm and aspect ratios of 1, 3, and 5. Results were quantitatively compared to peel testing theory for conventional adhesives. It was convincingly demonstrated that the adhesive energy of a patterned surface changes as function of angle, and cannot be treated as a constant. The variability in the energy was linked to mechanistic differences in detachment through in situ observations and finite element analysis. Experimental results show that smaller pillars do not necessarily lead to higher adhesion during peeling, aspect ratio plays little role in peeling adhesive behavior, and pillar flange size is critical to adhesion. The conclusions from this study outline design parameters for mushroom topped dry adhesives in peeling applications.

  1. Current Technologies and Related Issues for Mushroom Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sinil; Ha, Byeong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom transformation requires a series of experimental steps, including generation of host strains with a desirable selective marker, design of vector DNA, removal of host cell wall, introduction of foreign DNA across the cell membrane, and integration into host genomic DNA or maintenance of an autonomous vector DNA inside the host cell. This review introduces limitations and obstacles related to transformation technologies along with possible solutions. Current methods for cell wall removal and cell membrane permeabilization are summarized together with details of two popular technologies, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and restriction enzyme-mediated integration. PMID:25892908

  2. Screening of Tropical Wood-Rotting Mushrooms for Copper Biosorption

    PubMed Central

    Muraleedharan, T. R.; Iyengar, L.; Venkobachar, C.

    1995-01-01

    Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) of nine nonedible macrofungi were screened for copper(II) uptake potential. The maximum uptake potentials (Q(infmax)s) derived from equilibrium studies indicated that all nine species exhibited higher Q(infmax)s at pH 4.0 than that of Filtrasorb-400, a generally used adsorbent for metal removal. Wide variation in Q(infmax) was observed among the species and ranged from 0.048 to 0.383 mmol per g of sorbent. The uptake capacity of Ganoderma lucidum, which exhibited the highest Q(infmax), was higher than those of other microbial biosorbents reported in the literature. PMID:16535136

  3. Integrated Microcalorimeters Using Ir TES And Sn Mushroom Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Bogorin, D.; Galeazzi, M.

    2006-09-07

    Cryogenic microcalorimeters have the potential to meet the requirements of future x-ray missions. The University of Miami has recently started a program to fabricate fully integrated microcalorimeter arrays. We deposit high purity iridium thin film as Transition Edge Sensors (TES). We chose iridium because it has a bulk transition temperature of 112 mK and we expect single layer TES to have good reproducibility and long term stability. Also we use integrated tin film in a mushroom geometry as the absorbers to get high filling factor, low heat capacity and easy array manufacturing process. We present here our preliminary results in both areas.

  4. Effect of the replacement of aspartic acid/glutamic acid residues with asparagine/glutamine residues in RNase He1 from Hericium erinaceus on inhibition of human leukemia cell line proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroko; Motoyoshi, Naomi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Inokuchi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    RNase He1 from Hericium erinaceus, a member of the RNase T1 family, has high identity with RNase Po1 from Pleurotus ostreatus with complete conservation of the catalytic sequence. However, the optimal pH for RNase He1 activity is lower than that of RNase Po1, and the enzyme shows little inhibition of human tumor cell proliferation. Hence, to investigate the potential antitumor activity of recombinant RNase He1 and to possibly enhance its optimum pH, we generated RNase He1 mutants by replacing 12 Asn/Gln residues with Asp/Glu residues; the amino acid sequence of RNase Po1 was taken as reference. These mutants were then expressed in Escherichia coli. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully modified the optimal pH for enzyme activity and generated a recombinant RNase He1 that inhibited the proliferation of cells in the human leukemia cell line. These properties are extremely important in the production of anticancer biologics that are based on RNase activity. PMID:25338779

  5. Brown mushroom symptom expression following infection of an Agaricus bisporus crop with MVX associated dsRNAs.

    PubMed

    Fleming-Archibald, Caoimhe; Ruggiero, Angela; Grogan, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Mushroom Virus X (MVX) is associated with a range of symptoms observed in mushroom crops. The most prominent symptom in Ireland is the occurrence of 'brown' or 'off-white' mushrooms in white strain crops. The browning symptoms are associated with the presence of four low molecular weight dsRNAs: MVX(0.6), MVX(0.8), MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0), however viral dsRNAs also occur in non-symptomatic mushrooms. Three virus-infected mushroom cultures containing MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0) were used to infect experimental crops at different rates and at different times in the crop cycle to test the effect on symptom expression. Mushroom colour was measured by chromometer, and the ΔE value calculated. RT-PCR was used to test for the presence of MVX(1.8) dsRNA in harvested mushrooms. Results indicate that following infection, browning symptom expression is variable both within and between crops. Control mushrooms from 1st and 2nd flush had ΔE values of 7-12, with most being <10. In contrast, 1st flush mushrooms from virus infected treatments had ΔE values of 6-25, with most being >10 while 2nd flush mushrooms had ΔE values similar to controls. Only mushrooms with ΔE > 15 appeared visibly brown or off colour. The transient and inconsistent nature of MVX-associated browning symptoms is discussed. PMID:26615746

  6. A Case of Mushroom Poisoning with Russula subnigricans: Development of Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiogenic Shock, and Death.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jong Tae; Han, Jin Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27366018

  7. Nutritional Analysis of Cultivated Mushrooms in Bangladesh - Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2008-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation has been started recently in Bangladesh. Awareness of the nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms is not extensive. In this study, the nutritional values of dietary mushrooms- Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica that are very popular among the cultivated mushrooms in Bangladesh have been determined. These mushrooms were rich in proteins (20~25%) and fibers (13~24% in dry samples) and contained a lower amount of lipid (4 to 5%). The carbohydrate contents ranged from 37 to 48% (on the basis of dry weight). These were also rich in mineral contents (total ash content is 8~13%). The pileus and gills were protein and lipid rich and stripe was carbohydrate and fiber-rich. The moisture content of mushrooms ranged from 86 to 87.5%. Data of this study suggest that mushrooms are rich in nutritional value. PMID:23997631

  8. A Case of Mushroom Poisoning with Russula subnigricans: Development of Rhabdomyolysis, Acute Kidney Injury, Cardiogenic Shock, and Death

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom exposures are increasing worldwide. The incidence and fatality of mushroom poisoning are reported to be increasing. Several new syndromes in mushroom poisoning have been described. Rhabdomyolytic mushroom poisoning is one of new syndromes. Russula subnigricans mushroom can cause delayed-onset rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury in the severely poisoned patient. There are few reports on the toxicity of R. subnigricans. This report represents the first record of R. subnigricans poisoning with rhabdomyolysis in Korea, describing a 51-year-old man who suffered from rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, severe hypocalcemia, respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia, cardiogenic shock, and death. Mushroom poisoning should be considered in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause. Furthermore, R. subnigricans should be considered in the mushroom poisoning with rhabdomyolysis. PMID:27366018

  9. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7 mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

  10. Metal accumulation capacity of parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) from Rasina region (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Violeta; Trifković, Jelena; Mutić, Jelena; Tešić, Živoslav

    2016-07-01

    During many years of industrial development, soil system was contaminated with large amounts of toxic metals. In order to investigate the mobility and availability of metals from soil to mushrooms, the content of 13 elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn), in caps and stipes of wild-grown edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera and soil substrates, collected from five sites in Rasina region in central Serbia, was determined. Soil samples were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference in order to fractionate acid-soluble/exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and the results subjected to multivariate data analysis. A principal component analysis distinguished mushrooms samples from different geographical areas and revealed the influence of soil composition on metal content in mushrooms. Hierarchical cluster analyses confirmed that the first three phases of extraction were the most important for metal uptake by mushrooms from soil. The bioconcentration factors and translocation factors for each metal were also calculated. These results showed that M. procera could serve as a good dietary source of essential elements, especially Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe but the consumption of mushrooms may pose a health risk for consumers during the "season of mushrooms," due to the presence of cadmium. PMID:27023804

  11. Higher order visual input to the mushroom bodies in the bee, Bombus impatiens

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2008-01-01

    To produce appropriate behaviors based on biologically relevant associations, sensory pathways conveying different modalities are integrated by higher-order central brain structures, such as insect mushroom bodies. To address this function of sensory integration, we characterized the structure and response of optic lobe neurons projecting to the calyces of the mushroom bodies in bees. Bees are well known for their visual learning and memory capabilities and their brains possess major direct visual input from the optic lobes to the mushroom bodies. To functionally characterize these visual inputs to the mushroom bodies, we recorded intracellularly from neurons in bumblebees (Apidae: Bombus impatiens) and a single neuron in a honeybee (Apidae: Apis mellifera) while presenting color and motion stimuli. All of the mushroom body input neurons were color sensitive while a subset was motion sensitive. Additionally, most of the mushroom body input neurons would respond to the first, but not to subsequent, presentations of repeated stimuli. In general, the medulla or lobula neurons projecting to the calyx signaled specific chromatic, temporal, and motion features of the visual world to the mushroom bodies, which included sensory information required for the biologically relevant associations bees form during foraging tasks. PMID:18635397

  12. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  13. Themes for mushroom exploitation in the 21st century: Sustainability, waste management, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Siu Wai; Law, Shui Chee; Ching, Mei Lun; Cheung, Ka Wan; Chen, Ming Jie

    2000-12-01

    Because many natural resources are limited, sustainability becomes an important concept in maintaining the human population, health, and environment. Mushrooms are a group of saprotrophic fungi. Mushroom cultivation is a direct utilization of their ecological role in the bioconversion of solid wastes generated from industry and agriculture into edible biomass, which could also be regarded as a functional food or as a source of drugs and pharmaceuticals. To make the mushroom cultivation an environmentally friendly industry, the basic biology of mushrooms and the cultivation technology must be researched and developed. This is very true for Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea, and Ganoderma lucidum, which are commonly consumed in Asian communities but are now gaining popularity worldwide. Besides the conventional method, strain improvement can also be exploited by protoplast fusion and transformation. Biodiversity is the key contribution to the genetic resource for breeding programs to fulfill different consumer demands. The conservation of these mushrooms becomes essential and is in immediate need not only because of the massive habitat loss as a result of human inhabitation and deforestation, but also because of the introduced competition by a cultivar with the wild germ plasm. Spent mushroom compost, a bulky solid waste generated from the mushroom industry, however, can be exploited as a soil fertilizer and as a prospective bioremediating agent. PMID:12483569

  14. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2. PMID:26775962

  15. Decolourisation of mushroom farm wastewater by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pérez, Suyén; García Oduardo, Nora; Bermúdez Savón, Rosa C; Fernández Boizán, Maikel; Augur, Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Mushroom production on coffee pulp as substrate generates an intense black residual liquid, which requires suitable treatment. In the present study, Pleurotus ostreatus growth in wastewater from mushroom farm was evaluated as a potential biological treatment process for decolourisation as well as to obtain biomass (liquid inoculum). Culture medium components affecting mycelial growth were determined, evaluating colour removal. Laccase activity was monitored during the process. P. ostreatus was able to grow in non diluted WCP. Highest biomass yield was obtained when glucose (10 g/l) was added. The addition of this carbon source was necessary for efficient decolourisation. Agitation of the culture improved biodegradation of WCP as well as fungal biomass production. Laccase and manganese-independent peroxidase activities were detected during fungal treatment of the WCP by P. ostreatus CCEBI 3024. The laccase enzyme showed good correlation with colour loss. Both wastewater colour and pollution load (as chemical oxygen demand) decreased more than 50% after 10 days of culture. Phenols were reduced by 92%. PMID:17957486

  16. Breeding of New Strains of Mushroom by Basidiospore Chemical Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jia; Kang, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Chang-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis of basidiospores of Hypsizygus marmoreus generated new mushroom strains. The basidospores were treated with methanesulfonate methylester, an alkylating agent, to yield 400 mutant monokaryotic mycelia. Twenty fast-growing mycelia were selected and mated each other by hyphal fusion. Fifty out of the 190 matings were successful (mating rate of 26.3%), judged by the formation of clamp connections. The mutant dikaryons were cultivated to investigate their morphological and cultivation characteristics. Mutant strains No. 3 and No. 5 showed 10% and 6% increase in fruiting body production, respectively. Eight mutant strains showed delayed and reduced primordia formation, resulting in the reduced production yield with prolonged cultivation period. The number of the fruiting bodies of mutant No. 31, which displayed reduced primordial formation, was only 15, compared to the parental number of 65. Another interesting phenotype was a fruiting body with a flattened stipe and pileus. Dikaryons generated by mating with the mutant spore No. 14 produced flat fruiting bodies. Further molecular biological studies will provide details of the mechanism. This work shows that the chemical mutagenesis approach is highly utilizable in the development of mushroom strains as well as in the generation of resources for molecular genetic studies. PMID:22783115

  17. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Ganoderma-mushroom extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekar, S. U.; Khollam, Y. B.; Koinkar, P. M.; Mirji, S. A.; Mane, R. S.; Naushad, M.; Jadhav, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    Present study reports the biochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from aqueous medium by using the extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma, as a reducing and stabilizing agents. The Ag-NPs are prepared at room temperature by the reduction of Ag+ to Ag in aqueous solution of AgNO3. The resultant particles are characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement techniques. The formation of Ag-NPs is confirmed by recording the UV-visible absorption spectra for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) where peak around 427 nm. The prominent changes observed in FTIR spectra supported the reduction of Ag+ to Ag. The morphological features of Ag-NPs are evaluated from HRTEM. The spherical Ag-NPs are observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The particle size distribution is found to be nearly uniform with average particle size of 2 nm. The Ag-NPs aged for 15, 30, 60 and 120 days showed no profound effect on the position of SPR peak in UV-visible studies, indicating the protecting/capping ability of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma in the synthesis of Ag-NPs.

  18. Data on arsenic and cadmium contents of some common mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    1994-01-01

    The arsenic and cadmium contents of 88 samples of mushrooms were determined. The majority of samples have a very low (practically zero) arsenic level; however, significant accumulations were found in the Agaricus species and in Macrolepiota rhacodes (which is related to the Agaricaceae family) and in three Tricholomataceae species (Flammulina velutipes, Lepista nebularis and Clitocybe, inversa). The average cadmium content of all samples was 4.91 ppm (0.28-86 ppm) on a dry weight basis. The highest concentration (34.9 ppm) was found to be characteristic of genus Agaricus. The accumulation potential of genus Russula is lower, and it appears that this content is more characteristic in three sections (Ingratea, Heterophyllae and Xerampelinae), whereas the others have a low (normal) cadmium level. These data confirm that the accumulation ability is genetically coded, thus, only certain taxonomical groups of fungi play a toxicological role. Our data offer new information about the concentration of two toxic elements of particular mushroom species as well as in other taxonomic groups. These data are of great importance in view of toxicology, food chemistry and, partly, environmental protection. PMID:9237332

  19. beta-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus.

    PubMed

    Wan, C C; Muldrey, J E; Li, S C; Li, Y T

    1976-07-25

    beta-D-Mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.25), a useful tool for the structural studies of heterosaccharide chains, has been isolated in a highly purified form from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. This mushroom is unique among reported sources of this enzyme in that it has the advantage of being almost free of alpha-mannosidase activity. The purification procedure involves ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by Sephadex G-100 filtration and chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite. The final enzyme preparation gives essentially a single band on disc gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme liberates the beta-D-mannopyranosyl unit from various natural substrates such as the core glycopeptide, Man(GlcNAc)2-Asn isolated from ovalbumin, from Taka-amylase A, and from human alpha1-acid glycoprotein. It also hydrolyzes (Man)2-GlcNAc from the urine of an alpha-mannosidosis patient, 1,4-D-mannobiose and mannotriose isolated from ivory nut mannan, 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-L-rhamnose, 6-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-galactose and 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosamine. The molecular weight of this enzyme is estimated to be about 64,000 by gel filtration. For p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-mannopyranoside, the pH optimum is between 2.4 and 3.4 and the Km is 1.6 mM. PMID:6478

  20. Effect of methimazole on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed Central

    Andrawis, A; Kahn, V

    1986-01-01

    Methimazole (1-methyl-2-mercaptoimidazole) inhibits both the mono- and the o-dihydroxyphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase when assayed spectrophotometrically. With DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate, the inhibition was found to be a mixed-type one with Ki 4.6 X 10(-6) M. We found that methimazole can interact with the oxidation products of o-dihydroxyphenols, probably with o-quinones, to form a conjugate. The conjugate formed between methimazole and o-benzoquinone was separated by chromatography on Sephadex G-10 and was characterized by an absorption maximum at 248-260 nm. Our data suggest that methimazole inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity in two ways: by conjugating with o-quinones, thereby causing an apparent inhibition in pigmented product formation as judged by the spectrophotometric assay; and by chelating copper at the active site of the enzyme, as judged by assaying the release of 3HHO from L-[3,5-3H]tyrosine. PMID:3091005

  1. A meiotic DNA polymerase from a mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed Central

    Takami, K; Matsuda, S; Sono, A; Sakaguchi, K

    1994-01-01

    A meiotic DNA polymerase [DNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), EC 2.7.7.7], which likely has a role in meiotic DNA repair, was isolated from a mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The purified fraction displays three bands in SDS/PAGE, at molecular masses of 72 kDa, 65 kDa and 36 kDa. Optimal activity is at pH 7.0-8.0 in the presence of 5 mM Mg2+ and 50 mM KCl and at 28-30 degrees C, which is the temperature for meiosis. This enzyme is resistant to N-ethylmaleimide and sensitive to 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, suggesting that it is a beta-like DNA polymerase. These characteristics are similar to those of Coprinus DNA polymerase beta [Sakaguchi and Lu (1982) Mol. Cell. Biol. 2, 752-757]. In Western-blot analysis, the antiserum against the Coprinus polymerase reacts only with the 65 kDa band, which coincides with the molecular mass of the Coprinus polymerase. Western-blot analysis also showed that the antiserum could react with crude extracts not only from the Agaricales family, to which Agaricus and Coprinus belong, but also from different mushroom families and Saccharomyces. The Agaricus polymerase activity can be found only in the meiotic-cell-rich fraction, but the enzyme is also present in the somatic cells in an inactive state. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8172591

  2. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. PMID:22765964

  3. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  4. Rime Mushrooms - Extreme Rime Ice Buildup on Mountain Summits of Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are known among mountain climbers for a meteorological phenomenon that occurs there but is unknown in many other mountain areas. The phenomenon is the buildup of rime ice in large bulbous or mushroom-shaped accretions on the windward side of projecting mountain summits, ridges and exposed near-vertical rock faces. These "ice mushrooms" have never been investigated scientifically. This talk will introduce the audience to ice mushrooms, describe where they are found, consider the meteorological factors leading to their formation, and illustrate how they are negotiated by mountain climbers using photographs and descriptions from Southern Patagonia.

  5. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely

  6. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  7. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Marta F.; González-Delgado, Purificación; Postigo, Idoia; Fernández, Javier; Soriano, Victor; Cueva, Begoña; Martínez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins. PMID:25750856

  8. Influence of storage and household processing on the agaritine content of the cultivated Agaricus mushroom.

    PubMed

    Schulzová, V; Hajslová, J; Peroutka, R; Gry, J; Andersson, H C

    2002-09-01

    Agaritine (N-(gamma-L(+)-glutamyl)-4-hydroxymethyl-phenylhydrazine) was identified and quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography and used as a marker for the occurrence of phenylhydrazine derivatives in the cultivated Agaricus bitorquis and A. garicus hortensis mushrooms. Although relatively high levels of agaritine (around 700 mg kg(-1)) could be found in freshly harvested A. bitorquis from early flushes, samples from supermarkets contained less agaritine. The content of 28 samples varied between 165 and 457 mg kg(-1), on average being 272 +/- 69 mg kg(-1). The highest amounts of agaritine were found in the skin of the cap and in the gills, the lowest being in the stem. There was no significant difference in agaritine content of the two mushroom species in our study. Pronounced reduction in agaritine content was observed during storage of mushrooms in the refrigerator or freezer, as well as during drying of the mushrooms. The degree of reduction was dependent on the length and condition of storage and was usually in the region 20-75%. No reduction in agaritine content was observed during freeze-drying. Depending on the cooking procedure, household processing of cultivated Agaricus mushrooms reduced the agaritine content to various degrees. Boiling extracted around 50% of the agaritine content into the cooking broth within 5min and degraded 20-25% of the original agaritine content of the mushrooms. Prolonged boiling, as when preparing a sauce, reduced the content in the solid mushroom further (around 10% left after 2h). Dry baking of the cultivated mushroom, a process similar to pizza baking, reduced the agaritine content by approximately 25%, whereas frying in oil or butter or deep frying resulted in a more marked reduction (35-70%). Microwave processing of the cultivated mushrooms reduced the agaritine content to one-third of the original level. Thus, the exposure to agaritine was substantially less when consuming processed Agaricus mushrooms as compared

  9. Purification and characterization of phytase with a wide pH adaptation from common edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushroom).

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijing; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-02-01

    A novel phytase with a molecular mass of 14 kDa was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the common edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushroom). The isolation procedure involved successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel, Q-Sepharose and Superdex-75. The enzyme was a monomeric protein and was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel, but was adsorbed on Q-Sepharose. The enzyme was purified 51.6-fold from the crude extract with 25.9% yield. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence GEDNEHDTQA exhibited low homology to the other reported phytases. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme was 5 and 45 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme was quite stable over the pH range of 3.0 to 9.0 with less than 30% change in its activity, suggesting that it can be used in a very wide pH range. The enzyme exhibited broad substrate selectivity towards various phosphorylated compounds, but lacked antifungal activity against tested plant pathogens. PMID:22435144

  10. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae; Kang, Hee-Wan

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4℃ for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  11. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4℃ for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  12. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu Ting; Wasser, Solomon P

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs

  13. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Ha Thi

    2015-01-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms. PMID:25892910

  14. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    PubMed

    Hoa, Ha Thi; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-03-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms. PMID:25892910

  15. Screening of beta-glucan contents in commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Sari, Miriam; Prange, Alexander; Lelley, Jan I; Hambitzer, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Mushrooms have unique sensory properties and nutritional values as well as health benefits due to their bioactive compounds, especially beta-glucans. Well-known edible and medicinal mushroom species as well as uncommon or unknown species representing interesting sources of bioactive beta-glucans have been widely studied. Commercially cultivated and wild growing mushrooms were analysed for their beta-glucan contents. Enzymatic determinations of all glucans, alpha-glucans and beta-glucans in 39 mushrooms species were performed, leading to very remarkable results. Many wild growing species present high beta-glucan contents, especially Bracket fungi. The well-known cultivated species Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Cantharellus cibarius as well as most screened wild growing species show higher glucan contents in their stipes than caps. PMID:27596390

  16. An experimental study of mushroom shaped stall cells. [on finite wings with separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Surface patterns characterized by a pair of counter-rotating swirls have been observed in connection with the conduction of surface flow visualization experiments involving test geometries with separated flows. An example of this phenomenon occurring on a finite wing with trailing edge stall has been referred to by Winkelmann and Barlow (1980) as 'mushroom shaped'. A description is presented of a collection of experimental results which show or suggest the occurrence of mushroom shaped stall cells on a variety of test geometries. Investigations conducted with finite wings, airfoil models, and flat plates are considered, and attention is given to studies involving the use of bluff models, investigations of shock induced boundary layer separation, and mushroom shaped patterns observed in a number of miscellaneous cases. It is concluded that the mushroom shaped stall cell appears commonly in separated flow regions.

  17. Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Elsayed A.; El Enshasy, Hesham; Wadaan, Mohammad A. M.; Aziz, Ramlan

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25505823

  18. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  19. [Diversity in neuroblasts number forming mushroom bodies of the highest dipterans (Insecta, Diptera, Brachycera Cyclorrhapha)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis in mushroom bodies is studied in 12 species of the highest dipterans. A substantial difference in the number of neuroblasts forming mushroom bodies is found. In the majority of species studied, Kenyon cells are formed by four single neuroblasts. Among six calliphorid species, the number of neuroblasts increases up to 10-15 (mean 12.6) in each mushroom body in Calliphora vicina only. In young pupae of Muscina stabulans and M. livida, four polyneuroblastic prolipherate centers formed instead of singular neuroblats. These centers disintegrate into numerous single neuroblasts. A hypothesis of the origin of the polyneuroblastic structure of mushroom bodies found in C. vicina and, earlier, in Musca domestica, is proposed. PMID:21442910

  20. Mushroom β-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wan-Jhen; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Sherwin; Liu, Chi-Feng; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides. PMID:26167490

  1. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).

    PubMed

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M

    2011-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushrooms were used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals. PMID:22135882

  2. Enhancement in growth and yield of mushroom using magnetic field treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Y.; Haq, Zia ul; Iqbal, M.; Perveen, T.; Amin, N.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic treatment effects on mushroom spawn growth and yield were studied. The spawn of mushroom were exposed to full-wave rectified sinusoidal magnetic field. The spawn were grown after magnetic field treatment under controlled laboratory conditions. The magnetic field treatment resulted in significant increase (P<0.05) in the growth and yield of mushroom. The number of pin heads formed, number of pin heads developed into mature mushrooms, fresh (wet) and dry masses increased up to 38.18, 34.83, 76.43, and 38.26%, respectively, while reduction in number of days for spawn complete running and number of days for appearance of pin heads was found to be -3.14 and -26.86%, respectively.

  3. Mushrooms-Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique: Exploring a "Third Food Kingdom"

    PubMed

    Jo Feeney, Mary; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms' increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers' efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms' nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

  4. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer. PMID:22794131

  5. Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J.; Dziura, T.G.; Wang, S.C. ); Du, G.; Wang, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Mushroom structure vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with a 0.6 {mu}m GaAs active layer sandwiched by two Al{sub 0.6{sup {minus}}}Ga{sub 0.4}As-Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}As multilayers as top and bottom mirrors exhibit 15 mA pulsed threshold current at 880 nm. Single longitudinal and single transverse mode operation was achieved on lasers with a 5 {mu}m diameter active region at current levels near 2 {times} I{sub th}. The light output above threshold current was linearly polarized with a polarization ratio of 25:1.

  6. Variations in IC(50) values with purity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Neeley, Elizabeth; Fritch, George; Fuller, Autumn; Wolfe, Jordan; Wright, Jessica; Flurkey, William

    2009-09-01

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC(50) values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC(50) values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC(50) value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin, biphenol, phloridzin) showed variations in IC(50) values between the enzyme samples. In contrast, hydroquinone, lysozyme, Zn(2+), and anisaldehyde showed little or no inhibition in concentration ranges reported to be effective inhibitors. Organic solvents (DMSO and ethanol) had IC(50) values that were similar for some of the tyrosinase samples. Depending of the source of tyrosinase and choice of inhibitor, variations in IC(50) values were observed. PMID:19865520

  7. Variations in IC50 Values with Purity of Mushroom Tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Neeley, Elizabeth; Fritch, George; Fuller, Autumn; Wolfe, Jordan; Wright, Jessica; Flurkey, William

    2009-01-01

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC50 values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC50 values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC50 value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin, biphenol, phloridzin) showed variations in IC50 values between the enzyme samples. In contrast, hydroquinone, lysozyme, Zn2+, and anisaldehyde showed little or no inhibition in concentration ranges reported to be effective inhibitors. Organic solvents (DMSO and ethanol) had IC50 values that were similar for some of the tyrosinase samples. Depending of the source of tyrosinase and choice of inhibitor, variations in IC50 values were observed. PMID:19865520

  8. Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Mary J.; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown. Here, using recordings from mushroom body Kenyon cells in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and clothianidin, and the organophosphate miticide coumaphos oxon, cause a depolarization-block of neuronal firing and inhibit nicotinic responses. These effects are observed at concentrations that are encountered by foraging honeybees and within the hive, and are additive with combined application. Our findings demonstrate a neuronal mechanism that may account for the cognitive impairments caused by neonicotinoids, and predict that exposure to multiple pesticides that target cholinergic signalling will cause enhanced toxicity to pollinators. PMID:23535655

  9. Irreversible competitive inhibitory kinetics of cardol triene on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Hu, Yong-Hua; Yang, Mei-Hua; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Qiu, Ling; Zhou, Xing-Wang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-12-22

    Cardol triene was first purified from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of this compound on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied. The results of the kinetic study showed that cardol triene was a potent irreversible competitive inhibitor and the inactivation was of the complexing type. Two molecules of cardol triene could bind to one molecule of tyrosinase and lead to the complete loss of its catalytic activity. The microscopic rate constants were determined for the reaction of cardol triene with the enzyme. The anti-tyrosinase kinetic research of this study provides a comprehensive understanding of inhibitory mechanisms of resorcinolic lipids and is beneficial for the future design of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:21121650

  10. Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced up to 33% by all mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ∼15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer. PMID:20921274

  11. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in

  12. Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sliva, Daniel; Loganathan, Jagadish; Jiang, Jiahua; Jedinak, Andrej; Lamb, John G.; Terry, Colin; Baldridge, Lee Ann; Adamec, Jiri; Sandusky, George E.; Dudhgaonkar, Shailesh

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. Methods/Principal Findings Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP]) and inflammation (dextran sodium sulfate [DSS]) in mice. Mice were treated with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg GLT/kg of body weight 3 times per week for 4 months. Cell proliferation, expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2 and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of GLT on XRE/AhR, PXR and rPXR was evaluated by the reporter gene assays. Expression of metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. GLT treatment significantly suppressed focal hyperplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and tumor formation in mice exposed to PhIP/DSS. The anti-proliferative effects of GLT were further confirmed by the decreased staining with Ki-67 in colon tissues. PhIP/DSS-induced colon inflammation was demonstrated by the significant shortening of the large intestine and macrophage infiltrations, whereas GLT treatment prevented the shortening of colon lengths, and reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tissue. GLT treatment also significantly down-regulated PhIP/DSS-dependent expression of cyclin D1, COX-2, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue. Conclusions Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer. PMID:23118901

  13. Molecular phylogenetics of porcini mushrooms (Boletus section Boletus).

    PubMed

    Dentinger, Bryn T M; Ammirati, Joseph F; Both, Ernst E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Halling, Roy E; Henkel, Terry W; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Nagasawa, Eiji; Soytong, Kasem; Taylor, Andy F; Watling, Roy; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; McLaughlin, David J

    2010-12-01

    Porcini (Boletus section Boletus: Boletaceae: Boletineae: Boletales) are a conspicuous group of wild, edible mushrooms characterized by fleshy fruiting bodies with a poroid hymenophore that is "stuffed" with white hyphae when young. Their reported distribution is with ectomycorrhizal plants throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Little progress has been made on the systematics of this group using modern molecular phylogenetic tools because sampling has been limited primarily to European species and the genes employed were insufficient to resolve the phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of porcini by using a global geographic sampling of most known species, new discoveries from little explored areas, and multiple genes. We used 78 sequences from the fast-evolving nuclear internal transcribed spacers and are able to recognize 18 reciprocally monophyletic species. To address whether or not porcini form a monophyletic group, we compiled a broadly sampled dataset of 41 taxa, including other members of the Boletineae, and used separate and combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and the mitochondrial ATPase subunit six gene. Contrary to previous studies, our separate and combined phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of porcini. We also report the discovery of two taxa that expand the known distribution of porcini to Australia and Thailand and have ancient phylogenetic connections to the rest of the group. A relaxed molecular clock analysis with these new taxa dates the origin of porcini to between 42 and 54 million years ago, coinciding with the initial diversification of angiosperms, during the Eocene epoch when the climate was warm and humid. These results reveal an unexpected diversity, distribution, and ancient origin of a group of commercially valuable mushrooms that may provide an economic incentive for conservation and support the hypothesis of a tropical

  14. Relationship between uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms and its catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Naito, M.

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms (Shiitake) artifically grown on an oak tree and the uptake in vitro by catalase extracts prepared from mushroom Hay Bacillus and spinach are reported. Mushrooms were exposed to 1.4 mg/Hg/cu m for 11 days. Measurement of total mercury was as previously described (Ogata et al. 1978, 1979). Levels in mushrooms ranged from 0.4 +/- 0.1 ..mu..g/g at 0.5 days to 4.6 +/- 0.2 ..mu..g/g at 10.5 days and steady-state thereafter. In in vitro studies Hy uptake by mushroom catalase extract was estimated by the perborate method. Uptake was found to parallel catalase activity and was inhibited by potassium cyanide, sodium azide, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. Similar results were obtained with Hay Bacillus and spinach catalase extracts. Results suggest that the level of mercury in the mushroom can be used as an indicator of mercury pollution in the environment. It is also suggested that catalase has an important role in uptake of mercury vapor in the plant. 2 tables (JMT)

  15. Antioxidant Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes): Evidence from Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Yurkiv, Borys; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar; Sybirna, Nataliya O

    2015-01-01

    With diabetes mellitus and increased glucose concentrations, the mitochondria electron transport chain is disrupted, superoxide anions are overproduced, and oxidative stress develops in cells. Thus, preventing oxidative stress can produce a decrease in the antioxidant system activity and an increase in apoptosis in immune cells. The application of medicinal mushrooms is a new possible approach to diabetes mellitus treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of administration of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat leukocytes. Wistar outbred white rats were used in the study. Streptozotocin was intraperitoneally injected once at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Mushroom preparations were orally administered at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 2 weeks. This revealed that in diabetes mellitus, the level of antioxidant enzyme activity is significantly decreased compared with control values, whereas the levels of lipid peroxidation is increased; this manifested in an increase in the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The medicinal mushrooms' administration is accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity to control values and is even higher in the case of A. brasiliensis administration when compared with the diabetic group. As for the indicators of lipid peroxidation under mushroom administration of A. brasiliensis and G. lucidum, we observed a significant decrease of TBARS levels compared with the diabetic group. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduction of TBARS level indicate pronounced antioxidant properties of studied mushrooms. PMID:26756186

  16. Cadmium in edible mushrooms from NW Spain: Bioconcentration factors and consumer health implications.

    PubMed

    Melgar, M Julia; Alonso, Julián; García, M Angeles

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms do not constitute a significant portion of the human diet, but the consumption of wild and cultivated mushrooms has become increasingly in recent years. Some species accumulate high levels of toxic metals, both in unpolluted and polluted areas. In this study, we examined the accumulation capacity of cadmium in edible mushrooms in relation to certain factors and their possible toxicological implications. Cadmium concentrations were determined by an ICP-MS spectrometer in 238 samples of the fruiting bodies of 28 wild and cultivated growing edible mushrooms species and the underlying soil. The hymenophore (H) and the rest of the fruiting body (RFB) were analysed separately. The highest mean cadmium concentration (mg/kg dry weight) was found in Agaricus macrosporus (52.9 in H and 28.3 in RFB). All mushroom species accumulated cadmium in relation to the underlying soils. There were statistically significant differences between the hymenophore and the rest of the fruiting body (p < 0.001). Cadmium concentrations were compared to data in the literature and to levels set by legislation. It was concluded that consumption of our studied mushrooms is not a toxicological risk as far as cadmium content is concerned, although the species A. macrosporus should not be consumed. PMID:26702984

  17. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. PMID:26041195

  18. Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hibbett, David S.; Pine, Elizabeth M.; Langer, Ewald; Langer, Gitta; Donoghue, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Homobasidiomycete fungi display many complex fruiting body morphologies, including mushrooms and puffballs, but their anatomical simplicity has confounded efforts to understand the evolution of these forms. We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of homobasidiomycetes, using sequences from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA, with an emphasis on understanding evolutionary relationships of gilled mushrooms and puffballs. Parsimony-based optimization of character states on our phylogenetic trees suggested that strikingly similar gilled mushrooms evolved at least six times, from morphologically diverse precursors. Approximately 87% of gilled mushrooms are in a single lineage, which we call the “euagarics.” Recently discovered 90 million-year-old fossil mushrooms are probably euagarics, suggesting that (i) the origin of this clade must have occurred no later than the mid-Cretaceous and (ii) the gilled mushroom morphology has been maintained in certain lineages for tens of millions of years. Puffballs and other forms with enclosed spore-bearing structures (Gasteromycetes) evolved at least four times. Derivation of Gasteromycetes from forms with exposed spore-bearing structures (Hymenomycetes) is correlated with repeated loss of forcible spore discharge (ballistospory). Diverse fruiting body forms and spore dispersal mechanisms have evolved among Gasteromycetes. Nevertheless, it appears that Hymenomycetes have never been secondarily derived from Gasteromycetes, which suggests that the loss of ballistospory has constrained evolution in these lineages. PMID:9342352

  19. Enrichment of mushrooms: an interesting strategy for the acquisition of lithium.

    PubMed

    de Assunção, Laélia Soares; da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Vieira, Patrícia Aparecida Fontes; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2012-09-15

    The capability of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom to accumulate lithium (Li) and the accessibility of this Li compared with lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)), often used as psychiatric medicine, were investigated. Mushrooms were produced on a substrate-based on coffee husk, with different added concentrations of lithium chloride (LiCl). Biological efficiency (BE), the crude protein content, the concentration of Li and other elements present in mushrooms were determined. The sequential extraction and in vitro test were used to verify the accessibility and the degree of solubility of this element. Li concentration in mushrooms was directly influenced by increasing LiCl concentration in the substrate (P<0.05). The BE was not affected by different concentrations of LiCl. Li present in enriched mushrooms showed greater accessibility than in Li(2)CO(3). Therefore, P. ostreatus mushrooms, enriched with lithium can be an alternative source of Li, as well as being a food with high nutritional value. PMID:23107736

  20. Consumption of vitamin D2 enhanced mushrooms is associated with improved bone health.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shin-Yu; Yu, Hui-Tzu; Kao, Ju-Po; Yang, Chung-Chun; Chiang, Shen-Shih; Mishchuk, Darya O; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Slupsky, Carolyn M

    2015-07-01

    Mushrooms are the best nonanimal food source of vitamin D2. Pulsed irradiation can enhance vitamin D2 in mushrooms quickly. We investigated the effect of supplementing high vitamin D2Pleurotus ferulae mushrooms in a mouse model of osteoporosis. Thirty-two female C57BL/6JNarl mice were divided into four groups including sham, ovariectomized (OVX), OVX+nonpulsed mushroom (NPM) and OVX+pulsed mushroom (PM). After 23 weeks of treatment, serum samples were analyzed for osteoblast and osteoclast indicators, as well as metabolites using NMR spectroscopy. To examine bone density, femurs were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. The NPM and PM treatment mice showed increased bone density in comparison with OVX mice. In addition, the PM mice showed higher osteoblast and lower osteoclast indicators in comparison with OVX mice. Serum metabolomics analysis indicated several metabolites that were different in PM mice, some of which could be correlated with bone health. Taken together, these results suggest that pulsed irradiated mushrooms are able to increase bone density in osteoporotic mice possibly through enhanced bone metabolism. Further studies in humans are needed to show their efficacy in preventing osteoporosis. PMID:25792284

  1. Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Daisuke

    2009-12-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface in an immiscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using the mean field and Bogoliubov theories. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers are found to grow from the interface and mushroom patterns are formed. Quantized vortex rings and vortex lines are then generated around the mushrooms. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation can be observed in a trapped system.

  2. Mycophilic or Mycophobic? Legislation and Guidelines on Wild Mushroom Commerce Reveal Different Consumption Behaviour in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peintner, Ursula; Schwarz, Stefanie; Mešić, Armin; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Saviuc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour. PMID:23704957

  3. Development and shelf-life evaluation of tomato-mushroom mixed ketchup.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishan; Barman Ray, Aradhita

    2016-05-01

    This study reports on the possibility or suitability of ketchup preparation using mushroom pulp with tomato pulp. The pulp was extracted from mature and sound tomatoes and button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus L.) and subsequently used for preparation of Tomato-Mushroom ketchup. Different combinations of mushroom pulp with tomato pulp were made for ketchup preparation. The ketchup prepared with 50 % tomato pulp and 50 % mushroom pulp obtained highest organoleptic scores and was preferred than other treatments. The organoleptic score for ketch-up prepared by 100 % mushroom pulp was lowest. There was significant increase in protein, crude fibre and ash content whereas TSS, acidity, total sugars and vitamin C decreased significantly with increase in level of mushroom pulp. TSS increased significantly from 27.32 °B to 31.03 °B during storage for 12 months. Whereas acidity value decreased from 2.22 % to 2.10 %. There was significant decrease in total sugars and increase in reducing sugars during storage at room temperature (RT). Vitamin C content also decreased significantly during storage. All these physico-chemical changes were less at refrigerated temperature (RFT) conditions. The mean value for overall sensory score decreased from 7.80 on zero days to 7.11 at RT and from 7.80 to 7.47 at RFT after 12 months of storage. A significant increase in total plate count of ketch-up was observed during storage at room as well as at refrigerated temperature conditions. However this change was more at RT than RFT. PMID:27407189

  4. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Los, Renata; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic) from Poland. Methods Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis) microbial strains was analyzed. Results As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic) and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic). Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively). A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml). Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and

  5. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  6. Mannose-specific lectin from the mushroom Hygrophorus russula.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Kozue; Hirai, Hirofumi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Dohra, Hideo; Murata, Takeomi; Usui, Taichi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Kobayashi, Yuka; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2012-05-01

    A lectin was purified from the mushroom Hygrophorus russula by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-50 column and BioAssist S cation exchange chromatography and designated H. russula lectin (HRL). The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyaclylamidegel electrophoresis, gel filtration and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of HRL indicated that it was composed of four identical 18.5 kDa subunits with no S-S linkage. Isoelectric focusing of the lectin showed bands near pI 6.40. The complete sequence of 175 amino acid residues was determined by amino acid sequencing of intact or enzyme-digested HRL. The sequence showed homology with Grifola frondosa lectin. The cDNA of HRL was cloned from RNA extracted from the mushroom. The open reading frame of the cDNA consisted of 528 bp encoding 176 amino acids. In hemagglutination inhibition assay, α1-6 mannobiose was the strongest inhibitor and isomaltose, Glcα1-6Glc, was the second strongest one, among mono- and oligosaccharides tested. Frontal affinity chromatography indicated that HRL had the highest affinity for Manα1-6(Manα1-3)Manβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, and non-reducing terminal Manα1-6 was essential for the binding of HRL to carbohydrate chains. The sugar-binding specificity of HRL was also analyzed by using BIAcore. The result from the analysis exhibited positive correlations with that of the hemagglutination inhibition assay. All the results suggested that HRL recognized the α1-6 linkage of mannose and glucose, especially the Manα1-6 bond. HRL showed a mitogenic activity against spleen lymph cells of an F344 rat. Furthermore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed strong binding of HRL to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gp120. PMID:22198564

  7. Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from spent mushroom compost.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Young; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, ABC02-12(T), was isolated from spent mushroom compost, a waste product of button mushroom cultivation. Cells of the strain were Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic flagellated rods. Optimum growth occurred at 28 °C and pH 7.0. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain ABC02-12(T) shared the highest sequence similarities with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) (96.0 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis G(T) (95.7 %), Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis IAM 12369(T) (95.4 %) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (95.3 %). According to the phylogenetic tree, strain ABC02-12(T) formed a robust cluster with Paenalcaligenes hominis CCUG 53761A(T) and Paenalcaligenes hermetiae KBL009(T). The quinone system was ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-7. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c (summed feature 3), C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c (summed feature 8), C17 : 0 cyclo, and iso-C16 : 1 I, C14 : 0 3-OH and/or an unknown fatty acid (summed feature 2). The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminolipid. Putrescine was the principal polyamine, with small amounts of 2-hydroxyputrescine and cadaverine. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain ABC02-12(T) is a representative of a novel species within the genus Paenalcaligenes, for which the name Paenalcaligenes suwonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ABC02-12(T) ( = KACC 16537(T) = NBRC 108927(T)). PMID:24271214

  8. Determination of trace elements in three mushroom samples of basidiomycetes from Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Hou, Yunhua

    2011-09-01

    We have determined the trace element composition of three mushrooms of Basidiomycetes, used in traditional Chinese medicine using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Metal concentrations in mushrooms were 203-401 mg/kg for iron, 22-51 mg/kg for manganese, 84-116 mg/kg for zinc, 24.1-41.3 mg/kg for copper, 1.6-5.6 mg/kg for lead, 3.3-4.4 mg/kg for chromium, 9.3-11.5 mg/kg for nickel, 0 mg/kg for vanadium, and 55.3-71 mg/kg for magnesium. The trace metal concentrations in mushrooms are hardly affected by the ecosystem and soil where they grew, as well as by the mushroom species and trace metal species. The results can be used to set new standards to control the quality of the three mushrooms of Basidiomycetes-Ganoderma lucidum, Coprinus comatus, and Grifola frondosa. PMID:20665124

  9. Selenium bioaccessibility and speciation in biofortified Pleurotus mushrooms grown on selenium-rich agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Poonam; Aureli, Federica; D'Amato, Marilena; Prakash, Ranjana; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Nagaraja, Tejo Prakash; Cubadda, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Cultivation of saprophytic fungi on selenium-rich substrates can be an effective means to produce selenium-fortified food. Pleurotus florida, an edible species of oyster mushrooms, was grown on wheat straw from the seleniferous belt of Punjab (India) and its potential to mobilize and accumulate selenium from the growth substrate was studied. Selenium concentration in biofortified mushrooms was 800 times higher compared with control samples grown on wheat straw from non selenium-rich areas (141 vs 0.17 μg Se g(-1) dry weight). Seventy-five percent of the selenium was extracted after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion and investigation of the selenium molecular fractions by size exclusion HPLC-ICP-MS revealed that proteins and any other high molecular weight selenium-containing molecule were hydrolyzed to peptides and low molecular weight selenocompounds. Analysis of the gastrointestinal hydrolysates by anion exchange HPLC-ICP-MS showed that the bioaccessible selenium was mainly present as selenomethionine, a good bioavailable source of selenium, which accounted for 73% of the sum of the detected species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms using selenium-rich agricultural by-products as growth substrates. The proposed approach can be used to evaluate whether selenium-contaminated plant waste materials harvested from high-selenium areas may be used to produce selenium-biofortified edible mushrooms based on the concentration, bioaccessibility and speciation of selenium in the mushrooms. PMID:23578637

  10. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Grażyna; Pogoń, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Bernaś, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg β-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw. PMID:26604366

  11. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; Mary Ramsey, M

    2006-11-05

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source term and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.

  12. Improvement of quality attributes of sponge cake using infrared dried button mushroom.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Asadi, Fereshteh; Najafi, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Infrared-hot air method, when properly applied, can be used for achieving a high-quality product. The objective of this study was to determine the rheological properties of cake batters and physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of sponge cake supplemented with four different levels (control, 5 %, 10 %, and 15 %) of button mushroom powder. The button mushroom slices were dried in an infrared-hot air dryer (250 W and 60 °C). The physical (volume, density, color) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat and ash) attributes were determined in the cakes. Increasing the level of substitution from 5 % to 15 % button mushroom powder significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein and ash. The apparent viscosity in cake batter, and volume, springiness, and cohesiveness values of baked cakes increased with increasing button mushroom powder levels whereas the density, consistency, hardness, gumminess, chewiness and crumb L, b values of samples showed a reverse trend. Sensory evaluation results indicated that cake with 10 % button mushroom powder was rated the most acceptable. PMID:27570266

  13. Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by the tribals of the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Sudheep, Naga M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the nutritional qualities of two wild mushrooms (Agaricus abruptibulbus and Termitomyces globulus) commonly consumed by the tribals of Kaiga forests of the Western Ghats of India. Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. Potassium and selenium contents were high, while sodium, calcium and phosphorus contents were low. Except for three essential amino acids (EAAs: leucine, tyrosine and lysine), the rest of the amino acids in both mushrooms were comparable to soybean and wheat. Based on the EAA standards of FAO-WHO, these mushrooms composed of high quantity of threonine, isoleucine and histidine. The EAA score of isoleucine in cooked A. abruptibulbus and threonine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine and sulphur amino acids in cooked T. globulus were substantially high. Oleic acid constitutes a major unsaturated fatty acid in these mushrooms, which was significantly increased in cooked A. abruptibulbus. Cooking also increased the ratio of TUFA/TSFA in A. abruptibulbus, while it was opposite in T. globulus. Cooking significantly increased the linoleic acid in A. abruptibulbus and eicosadienoic acid in T. globulus. PMID:24999438

  14. Characteristics of a Hydrated, Alginate-Based Delivery System for Cultivation of the Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Romaine, C. P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.

    1992-01-01

    The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms. Images PMID:16348774

  15. Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Marek; Sekuła, Andrzej; Mleczko, Piotr; Olszowy, Zofia; Kujawa, Anna; Zubek, Szymon; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice. Methods Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequences were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological identification of mushrooms was also performed for 57 samples of clinical material. Results Of 221 samples, positive sequencing results were obtained for 152 (69%). The highest percentage of positive results was obtained for samples of dried mushrooms (96%) and food remains (91%). Comparison with GenBank sequences enabled identification of all samples at least at the genus level. Most samples (90%) were identified at the level of species or a group of closely related species. Sporological and molecular identification were consistent at the level of species or genus for 30% of analyzed samples. Conclusion Molecular analysis identified a larger number of species than sporological method. It proved to be suitable for analysis of evidential material (dried hallucinogenic mushrooms) in forensic genetic laboratories as well as to complement classical methods in the analysis of clinical material. PMID:25727040

  16. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  17. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    PubMed

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  18. An antitumour lectin from the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chenguang; Sun, Hui; Tong, Xin; Qi, Yipeng

    2003-01-01

    An antitumour lectin (named AAL) consisting of two identical subunits of 15.8 kDa was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita using a procedure which involved precipitating the extract by addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 HR and finally purification on a GF-250 HPLC column. Amino acid analysis of the N-terminus and an internal fragment indicated that the sequences of the two fragments were QGVNIYNI and Q(K)PDGPWLVEK(Q)R respectively. AAL showed strong inhibition of the growth of human tumour cell lines HeLa, SW480, SGC-7901, MGC80-3, BGC-823, HL-60 and mouse sarcoma S-180. AAL also inhibited the viability of S-180 tumour cells in vivo. Analysis by Hoechst 33258 staining, MitoSensor Kit and flow cytometry showed that AAL induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. TUNEL (terminal transferase deoxytidyl uridine end labelling) analysis of slides of tumour tissues excised from BALB/c mice also demonstrated the apoptosis-induction activity of the lectin. Furthermore, AAL was shown to possess DNase activity in assays using plasmid pCDNA3 and salmon sperm DNA. Based on the results obtained in these assays, we conclude that AAL exerts its antitumour effects via apoptosis-inducing and DNase activities. PMID:12757412

  19. The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kidd, P M

    2000-02-01

    Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is poorly defined but has shown early clinical promise. Maitake D-Fraction has limited proof of clinical efficacy to date, but controlled research is underway. Two proteoglycans from Coriolus versicolor - PSK (Polysaccharide-K) and PSP (Polysaccharide-Peptide - have demonstrated the most promise. In Japanese trials since 1970, PSK significantly extended survival at five years or beyond in cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, esophagus, nasopharynx, and lung (non-small cell types), and in a HLA B40-positive breast cancer subset. PSP was subjected to Phase II and Phase III trials in China. In double-blind trials, PSP significantly extended five-year survival in esophageal cancer. PSP significantly improved quality of life, provided substantial pain relief, and enhanced immune status in 70-97 percent of patients with cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, ovary, and cervix. PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated chemotherapy symptoms, and enhanced tumor infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells. Their extremely high tolerability, proven benefits to survival and quality of life, and compatibility with chemotherapy and radiation therapy makes them well suited for cancer management regimens. PMID:10696116

  20. Testing Odor Response Stereotypy in the Drosophila Mushroom Body

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Mala; Fiete, Ila; Laurent, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The mushroom body is required for olfactory learning in flies. Its principal neurons, the Kenyon cells (KCs), form a large cell population, usually divided into three classes(α/β, α’/β’, and γ) based on anatomical criteria. Both neuronal populations from which their olfactory input derives, the projection neurons (PNs) and the presynaptic partners of the PNs, the olfactory sensory neurons, can be identified individually by their glomerular projections, the expression of specific genes, and their odor responses. We ask here whether KCs are similarly identifiable individually. We focused on a subset of ~23 genetically labeled α/β KCs, and recorded their responses to odors using whole-cell patch-clamp in vivo. Response profiles across this sample provided no evidence for repeats across animals. Further, across-animal responses were as diverse within the genetically-labeled subset as across all KCs in a larger sample. By contrast, recorded PN odor responses clustered by glomerular type. Using these PN responses as inputs to a simple KC model, we find that measured inter-fly PN response variability combined with stereotyped PN-to-KC connectivity cannot explain the absence of KC odor response stereotypy. These results suggest differences in PN-to-KC connectivity across individual flies. PMID:18817738

  1. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ayesha S.; Ali, Sharique A.

    2014-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it's taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19 U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95 kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933 mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications. PMID:25197562

  2. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium

    PubMed Central

    Nickrent, Daniel L; Der, Joshua P; Anderson, Frank E

    2005-01-01

    Background Although recent molecular phylogenetic studies have identified the photosynthetic relatives of several enigmatic holoparasitic angiosperms, uncertainty remains for the last parasitic plant order, Balanophorales, often considered to include two families, Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. The nonphotosynthetic (holoparasitic) flowering plant Cynomorium coccineum has long been known to the Muslim world as "tarthuth" and to Europeans as the "Maltese mushroom"; C. songaricum is known in Chinese medicine as "suo yang." Interest in these plants is increasing and they are being extensively collected from wild populations for use in herbal medicines. Results Here we report molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial matR sequence data that strongly support the independent origin of Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. Analyses of single gene and combined gene data sets place Cynomorium in Saxifragales, possibly near Crassulaceae (stonecrop family). Balanophoraceae appear related to Santalales (sandalwood order), a position previously suggested from morphological characters that are often assumed to be convergent. Conclusion Our work shows that Cynomorium and Balanophoraceae are not closely related as indicated in all past and present classifications. Thus, morphological features, such as inflorescences bearing numerous highly reduced flowers, are convergent and were attained independently by these two holoparasite lineages. Given the widespread harvest of wild Cynomorium species for herbal medicines, we here raise conservation concerns and suggest that further molecular phylogenetic work is needed to identify its photosynthetic relatives. These relatives, which will be easier to cultivate, should then be examined for phytochemical activity purported to be present in the more sensitive Cynomorium. PMID:15969755

  3. Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology.

    PubMed

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C

    2012-09-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970-2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

  4. Measurement of β-Glucan in Mushrooms and Mycelial Products.

    PubMed

    McCleary, Barry V; Draga, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A robust and reliable method has been developed for the measurement of β-glucan in mushroom and mycelial products. Total glucan (plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose) was measured using controlled acid hydrolysis with H2SO4 and the glucose released specifically was measured using glucose oxidase/peroxidase reagent. α-Glucan (starch/glycogen) plus free glucose and glucose from sucrose were specifically measured after hydrolysis of starch/glycogen to glucose with glucoamylase and sucrose to glucose plus fructose with invertase and the glucose specifically measured with GOPOD reagent. β-Glucan was determined by the difference. Several acid and enzyme-based methods for the hydrolysis of the β-glucan were compared, and the best option was the method using H2SO4. For most samples, similar β-glucan values were obtained with both the optimized HCl and H2SO4 PROCEDURES: However, in the case of certain samples, specifically Ganoderma lucidum and Poria cocus, the H2SO4 procedure resulted in significantly higher values. Hydrolysis with 2 N trifluoroacetic acid at 120°C was found to be much less effective than either of the other two acids evaluated. Assays based totally on enzymatic hydrolysis, in general, yielded much lower values than those obtained with the H2SO4 procedure. PMID:26957216

  5. Medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus as an alternative cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    SLIVA, DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    Alternative cancer treatment with nutritional/dietary supplements containing a wide variety of herbal products is on the rise in Western countries. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that mushrooms may prevent against different types of cancers. Phellinus linteus is a well-known Oriental medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities, including immunomodulatory or direct antitumor activities. The activity of P. linteus and its extracts is associated with the presence of polysaccharides, their peptide/protein complexes and other low molecular weight complexes. Polysaccharide fractions isolated from P. linteus were found to be related to the increased activity of immune cells such as the production of cytokines by macrophages and B-cells or the increased cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells. Moreover, P. linteus was found to modulate the expression or activity of various genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasive behavior and chemoprevention. Finally, P. linteus extracts demonstrated tumor regression in three independent case reports, suggesting that an extract from P. linteus or a dietary supplement based on the extract from P. linteus may have potential use for the alternative treatment of cancer. PMID:22993555

  6. DNA amplification polymorphisms of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Khush, R S; Becker, E; Wach, M

    1992-09-01

    Single 10-bp primers were used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus via the polymerase chain reaction. Of 20 primers tested, 19 amplified A. bisporus DNA, each producing 5 to 15 scorable markers ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kbp. RAPD markers identified seven distinct genotypes among eight heterokaryotic strains; two of the commercial strains were shown to be related to each other through single-spore descent. Homokaryons recovered from protoplast regenerants of heterokaryotic strains carried a subset of the RAPD markers found in the heterokaryon, and both of the haploid nuclei from two heterokaryons were distinguishable. RAPD markers also served to verify the creation of a hybrid heterokaryon and to analyze meiotic progeny from this new strain: most of the basidiospores displayed RAPD fingerprints identical to that of the parental heterokaryon, although a few selected slow growers were homoallelic at a number of loci that were heteroallelic in the parent, suggesting that they represented rare homokaryotic basidiospores; crossover events between a RAPD marker locus and its respective centromere appeared to be infrequent. These results demonstrate that RAPD markers provide an efficient alternative for strain fingerprinting and a versatile tool for genetic studies and manipulations of A. bisporus. PMID:1444410

  7. Uniparental Mitochondrial Transmission in the Cultivated Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tianru; Horgen, Paul A.

    1994-01-01

    A uniparental mitochondrial (mt) transmission pattern has been previously observed in laboratory matings of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus on petri dishes. In this study, four sets of specific matings were further examined by taking mycelial plugs from the confluent zone of mated homokaryons and inoculating these plugs into rye grain for laboratory fruiting and for fruiting under industrial conditions. Examination of the mt genotype of each individual fruit body for mt-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms further confirmed that the mt genome was inherited uniparentally. The vegetative radial growth and the fruiting activity of two pairs of intraspecific heterokaryons, each pair carrying the same combination of nuclear genomes but different mt genotypes, were compared. Our results suggested that the mt genotype did not appreciably affect radial growth or fruiting activity. The failure to recover both heterokaryons, each carrying either parental mt genotype in any given cross, therefore clearly indicated that in matings of A. bisporus, the mt genome from one of the parental homokaryons is either selectively excluded in the newly formed heterokaryon or selectively eliminated in the immediate heterokaryotic mitotic progeny of the newly formed heterokaryon. Images PMID:16349461

  8. Mushroom bodies enhance initial motor activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Serway, Christine N; Kaufman, Rebecca R; Strauss, Roland; de Belle, J Steven

    2009-01-01

    The central body (or central complex, CCX) and the mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain structures in most insect phyla that have been shown to influence aspects of locomotion. The CCX regulates motor coordination and enhances activity while MBs have, thus far, been shown to suppress motor activity levels measured over time intervals ranging from hours to weeks. In this report, we investigate MB involvement in motor behavior during the initial stages (15 minutes) of walking in Buridan's paradigm. We measured aspects of walking in flies that had MB lesions induced by mutations in six different genes and by chemical ablation. All tested flies were later examined histologically to assess MB neuroanatomy. Mutant strains with MB structural defects were generally less active in walking than wild-type flies. Most mutants in which MBs were also ablated with hydroxyurea (HU) showed additional activity decrements. Variation in measures of velocity and orientation to landmarks among wild-type and mutant flies was attributed to pleiotropy, rather than to MB lesions. We conclude that MBs upregulate activity during the initial stages of walking, but suppress activity thereafter. An MB influence on decision making has been shown in a wide range of complex behaviors. We suggest that MBs provide appropriate contextual information to motor output systems in the brain, indirectly fine tuning walking by modifying the quantity (i.e., activity) of behavior. PMID:19145515

  9. Coriolus versicolor: a medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin K W; Ho, Susan S S; Chow, Albert H L

    2002-09-01

    Coriolus versicolor (CV) is a medicinal mushroom widely prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of cancer and infection in China. In recent years, it has been extensively demonstrated both preclinically and clinically that aqueous extracts obtained from CV display a wide array of biological activities, including stimulatory effects on different immune cells and inhibition of cancer growth. The growing popularity of aqueous CV extracts as an adjunct medical modality to conventional cancer therapies has generated substantial commercial interest in developing these extracts into consistent and efficacious oral proprietary products. While very limited information is available on the physical, chemical, and pharmacodynamic properties of the active principles present in these extracts, there has been sufficient scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing at least some of these constituents into an evidence-based immunodulatory agent. In this article, the background, traditional usage, pharmacological activities, clinical effects, adverse reactions, active constituents, and regulatory aspects of CV are reviewed. Presented also in this review are the current uses and administration, potential drug interactions, and contraindication of aqueous extracts prepared from CV. PMID:12211223

  10. Production of o-diphenols by immobilized mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Marín-Zamora, María Elisa; Rojas-Melgarejo, Francisco; García-Cánovas, Francisco; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio

    2009-01-15

    The o-diphenols 4-tert-butyl-catechol, 4-methyl-catechol, 4-methoxy-catechol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were produced from the corresponding monophenols (4-tert-butyl-phenol, 4-methyl-phenol, 4-methoxy-phenol, p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) using immobilized mushroom tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. In all cases the yield was R(diphenol)> or =88-96%, which, according to the literature, is the highest yield so far, obtained using tyrosinase. The reaction was carried out in 0.5M borate buffer pH 9.0 which was used to minimize the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase by complexing the o-diphenols generated. Hydroxylamine and ascorbic acid were also present in the reaction medium, the former being used to reduce mettyrosinase to deoxytyrosinase, closing the catalytic cycle, and the latter to reduce the o-quinone produced to o-diphenol. Inactivation of the tyrosinase by ascorbic acid was also minimized due to the formation of an ascorbic acid-borate complex. Concentrations of the o-diphenolic compounds obtained at several reaction times were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental results are discussed. PMID:19047003

  11. Nuclear Migration and Mitochondrial Inheritance in the Mushroom Agaricus Bitorquis

    PubMed Central

    Hintz, WEA.; Anderson, J. B.; Horgen, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used as genetic markers for following mitochondrial inheritance in the mushroom Agaricus bitorquis. In many basidiomycetes, bilateral nuclear migration between paired homokaryotic mycelia gives rise to two discrete dikaryons which have identical nuclei but different cytoplasms. Although nuclear migration is rare in A. bitorquis, unidirectional nuclear migration occurred when a nuclear donating strain (8-1), was paired with a nuclear recipient strain (34-2). The dikaryon recovered over the nuclear recipient mate (Dik D) contained nuclei from both parents but only mitochondria from the recipient mate; thus nuclei of 8-1, but not mitochondria, migrated through the resident hyphae of 34-2 following hyphal anastomosis. The two mitochondrial types present in a dikaryon recovered at the junction of the two cultures (Dik A) segregated during vegetative growth. Dikaryotic cells having the 34-2 mitochondrial type grew faster than cells with the 8-1 mitochondrial type. Fruitbodies, derived from a mixed population of cells having the same nuclear components but different cytoplasms, were chimeric for mitochondrial type. The transmission of mitochondria was biased in favor of the 8-1 type in the spore progeny of the chimeric fruitbody. Protoplasts of dikaryon (Dik D), which contained both nuclear types but only the 34-2 mitochondrial type, were regenerated and homokaryons containing the 8-1 nuclear type and the 34-2 mitochondrial type were recovered. PMID:17246425

  12. DNA amplification polymorphisms of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed Central

    Khush, R S; Becker, E; Wach, M

    1992-01-01

    Single 10-bp primers were used to generate random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus via the polymerase chain reaction. Of 20 primers tested, 19 amplified A. bisporus DNA, each producing 5 to 15 scorable markers ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kbp. RAPD markers identified seven distinct genotypes among eight heterokaryotic strains; two of the commercial strains were shown to be related to each other through single-spore descent. Homokaryons recovered from protoplast regenerants of heterokaryotic strains carried a subset of the RAPD markers found in the heterokaryon, and both of the haploid nuclei from two heterokaryons were distinguishable. RAPD markers also served to verify the creation of a hybrid heterokaryon and to analyze meiotic progeny from this new strain: most of the basidiospores displayed RAPD fingerprints identical to that of the parental heterokaryon, although a few selected slow growers were homoallelic at a number of loci that were heteroallelic in the parent, suggesting that they represented rare homokaryotic basidiospores; crossover events between a RAPD marker locus and its respective centromere appeared to be infrequent. These results demonstrate that RAPD markers provide an efficient alternative for strain fingerprinting and a versatile tool for genetic studies and manipulations of A. bisporus. Images PMID:1444410

  13. 75 FR 63440 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 15679 (March 30, 2010). The current deadline for the preliminary... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's ] Republic of China, covering the period of February 1,...

  14. 76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 62108 (October 7, 2010). The current... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period...

  15. 76 FR 66686 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1,...

  16. INHIBITION OF GROWTH AND INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES BY AN ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION FROM SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake mushrooms have been reported to have cancer preventing properties, and polysaccharides isolated from shiitake mushrooms are being used in some parts of the world as an adjuvant in cancer chemtherapy. However, little research has been conducted verifying the antitumor activities of "mycoche...

  17. Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee Brain Show Cell Population-Specific Plasticity in Expression of Amine-Receptor Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and…

  18. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  19. Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic coating enriched with natamycin during storage.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjia; Feng, Lifang; Zheng, Xiaolin; Li, Jianrong

    2013-06-01

    Physicochemical responses and microbial characteristics of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) to gum arabic (GA) coating incorporating natamycin (NA) during storage were investigated. Mushroom weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, total sugar, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and microbial and sensory quality were measured. Mushroom coated with gum arabic+natamycin (GANA) maintained tissue firmness and showed reduction in microbial counts from yeasts and moulds compared with the control. In addition, GANA coating also delayed changes in the soluble solids concentration, total sugar and ascorbic acid. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of GANA coating by maintaining the overall quality of shiitake mushroom during the storage period. The efficiency was better than that of GA or NA treatment alone. Our study suggests that GANA has the potential to improve the quality of shiitake mushroom and extend its shelf-life up to 16d. PMID:23411335

  20. Olfactory learning skews mushroom body output pathways to steer behavioral choice in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Owald, David; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Learning permits animals to attach meaning and context to sensory stimuli. How this information is coded in neural networks in the brain, and appropriately retrieved and utilized to guide behavior, is poorly understood. In the fruit fly olfactory memories of particular value are represented within sparse populations of odor-activated Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body ensemble. During learning reinforcing dopaminergic neurons skew the mushroom body network by driving zonally restricted plasticity at synaptic junctions between the KCs and subsets of the overall small collection of mushroom body output neurons. Reactivation of this skewed KC-output neuron network retrieves memory of odor valence and guides appropriate approach or avoidance behavior. PMID:26496148

  1. Antitumor polysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on the structural characteristics, antitumor mechanisms and immunomodulating activities.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xin; Liang, Hebin; Luo, Lixin

    2016-04-01

    Mushrooms are popular folk medicines that have attracted considerable attention because of their efficient antitumor activities. This review covers existing research achievements on the mechanisms of isolated mushroom polysaccharides, particularly (1→3)-β-D-glucans. Our review also describes the function in modulating the immune system and potential tumor-inhibitory effects of polysaccharides. The antitumor mechanisms of mushroom polysaccharides are mediated by stimulated T cells or other immune cells. These polysaccharides are able to trigger various cellular responses, such as the expression of cytokines and nitric oxide. Most polysaccharides could bind other conjugate molecules, such as polypeptides and proteins, whose conjugation always possess strong antitumor activities. The purpose of this review is to summarize available information, and to reflect the present situation of polysaccharide research filed with a view for future direction. PMID:26974354

  2. Effects of contact cap dimension on dry adhesion of bioinspired mushroom-shaped surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Hu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Dry adhesion observed in small creatures, such as spiders, insects, and geckos, has many great advantages such as repeatability and strong adhesiveness. In order to mimic these unique performances, fibrillar surface with a mushroom shaped end has drawn lots of attentions because of its advantage in efficiently enhancing adhesion compared with other sphere or simple flat ends. Here, in order to study the effects of contact cap dimension on adhesion strength, patterned surfaces of mushroom-shaped micropillars with differing cap diameters are fabricated based on the conventional photolithography and molding. The normal adhesion strength of these dry adhesives with varying cap diameters is measured with home-built equipment. The strength increases with the rise of cap diameter, and interestingly it becomes strongest when the mushroom caps join together.

  3. Cultivation of oyster mushroom on waste paper with some added supplementary materials.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ergün; Peker, Hüseyin; Yalinkiliç, Mustafa Kemal; Temiz, Ali

    2003-08-01

    Spawn running, pin head and fruit body formation, and mushroom yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on waste paper supplemented with peat, chicken manure and husk rice (90+10; 80+20 w:w) were studied. The fastest spawn running (mycelia development) (15.8 days), pin head formation (21.4 days) and fruit body formation (25.6 days), and the highest yield (350.2 gr) were realized with the substrate composed of 20% rice husk in weight. In general, increasing the ratio of rice husk within the substrate accelerated spawn running, pin head and fruit body formation, and resulted in increased mushroom yields, while more peat and chicken manure had a negative effect on growing. PMID:12676506

  4. [Longicorn beetles (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae) differ considerably in the degree of their mushroom body development].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2011-01-01

    A duality in the general structure of the mushroom body in longicorn beetles is confirmed. This duality is associated with the fact that they are formed by two solitary neuroblasts or two neuroblast clusters on each side of the brain and are manifested as a bipartite structure of both the calyx, which is the main sensory input, and the peduncular apparatus. Within the studied longicorn beetles, modifications in the general structure of mushroom bodies have been found; these modifications are caused by two oppositely directed morphogenetic processes, namely, the concentration of structures and their compartmentalization. The concentration leads to disappearance of the bipartite structure of the peduncular apparatus, whereas compartmentalization leads to a secondary subdivision of these structures into anatomically distinct subsections. This process is most pronounced in the peduncle and lobes. The mushroom bodies are best developed and differentiated in the members of the subfamily Lamiinae. PMID:21870491

  5. Determination of Chemical Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds in the Brazilian Mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus

    PubMed Central

    Orsine, JV Costa; Novaes, MRCG; Asquieri, E Ramirez; Cañete, R

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom has been widely studied because of its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Agaricus sylvaticus and quantify their total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was performed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and total polyphenol content was assessed by colorimetric method. Observation also noted the great antioxidant potential of aqueous, alcoholic and ethereal extracts (14.6%, 75.6% and 14.6%, respectively) of the Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom, highlighting the alcoholic extract, which demonstrates the extraordinary benefits of this mushroom in the diet, since antioxidants prevent premature ageing and various types of cancer. PMID:25303248

  6. Determination of Chemical Antioxidants and Phenolic Compounds in the Brazilian Mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus.

    PubMed

    Costa Orsine, J V; Novaes, Mr Cg; Ramirez Asquieri, E; Cañete, R

    2014-03-01

    Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom has been widely studied because of its high nutritional value and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Agaricus sylvaticusand quantify their total polyphenol content. The antioxidant activity was performed by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and total polyphenol content was assessed by colorimetric method. Observation also noted the great antioxidant potential of aqueous, alcoholic and ethereal extracts (14.6%, 75.6% and 14.6%, respectively) of the Agaricus sylvaticus mushroom, highlighting the alcoholic extract, which demonstrates the extraordinary benefits of this mushroom in the diet, since antioxidants prevent premature ageing and various types of cancer. PMID:25303248

  7. Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Edible mushrooms have been used as flavorful foods and as health nutritional supplements for several centuries. A number of bioactive molecules have been identified in numerous mushroom species Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida using various experimental models in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were performed whereby dose of 250 mg/ kg and 500 mg/kg was selected for present study, Analgesic activity was determined using hot plate method, tail flick method, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced pain in rats, while carrageenan was used to induce inflammation and anti-inflammatory studies were performed. Results: HEE showed significant (P < 0.01) analgesic and anti-inflammatory response against all experimental models. Conclusion: These studies conclude that Pleurotus florida possesses analgesic and anti- inflammatory potential which might be due to presence of myochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics and polysaccharides. PMID:23543896

  8. Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus subtilis Isolated from Agaricus bisporus Mushroom Compost Against Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Can; Sheng, Jiping; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Yanyan; Lee, David Yue Wei; Yang, Yang; Xu, Mingshuang; Shen, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B154, isolated from Agaricus bisporus mushroom compost infected by red bread mold, exhibited antagonistic activities against Neurospora sitophila. Antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was also observed. The maximum antifungal activity was reached during the stationary phase. This antifungal activity was stable over a wide pH and temperature range and was not affected by proteases. Assay of antifungal activity in vitro indicated that a purified antifungal substance could strongly inhibit mycelia growth and spore germination of N. sitophila. In addition, treatment with strain B154 in A. bisporus mushroom compost infected with N. sitophila significantly increased the yield of bisporus mushrooms. Ultraviolet scan spectroscopy, tricine sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed a molecular weight consistent with 1498.7633 Da. The antifungal compound might belong to a new type of lipopeptide fengycin. PMID:26050784

  9. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

  10. The applications of polysaccharides from various mushroom wastes as prebiotics in different systems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Ting; Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J

    2013-07-01

    The bases or stipes of mushrooms are normally discarded as low-economic value animal feed and compost. There are no known reports on deriving polysaccharides from these mushroom wastes for use as prebiotics. This study showed that the relatively low concentration (0.1% to 0.5%) of polysaccharides from Lentinula edodes stipe, Pleurotus eryngii base, and Flammulina velutipes base can enhance the survival rate of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum during cold storage. The polysaccharides had synergistic effects with the peptides and amino acids from a yogurt culture to maintain probiotics above 10(7) CFU/mL during cold storage, and they also had significant protective effects on these probiotics in simulated gastric and bile juice conditions to achieve beneficial effects in the host. These results showed that mushroom wastes, which are cheaper than other sources, could be an important, new, alternative source of prebiotics. PMID:23701736

  11. Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2002-03-01

    In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p⩽0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p⩽0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

  12. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells

    PubMed Central

    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

  13. Study of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of the Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Pardhi, Priya; Jain, Alok Pal; Rai, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pleurotus ostreatus cv. Florida. Mushroom basidiocarps were extracted in water:ethanol (1:1, v/v), and the resulting extract was subjected to antimicrobial studies against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. Cytotoxic potential on viable human leukocytes was studied. In vitro results showed excellent antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the mushroom extract. Thus, functional properties of P. ostreatus cv. Florida could be used in the search for novel therapeutics. PMID:27481298

  14. A rapid PCR-RFLP method for monitoring genetic variation among commercial mushroom species*.

    PubMed

    Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2004-11-01

    We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The streamlined protocols allowed students to practice important molecular techniques within the context of self-designed investigative projects. This laboratory experience provided opportunities for students to practice strategies for examining molecular diversity among species. PMID:21706762

  15. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  16. Natural Products and Biological Activity of the Pharmacologically Active Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis crispa

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Sparassis crispa, also known as cauliflower mushroom, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. Its cultivation became popular in Japan about 10 years ago, a phenomenon that has been attributed not only to the quality of its taste, but also to its potential for therapeutic applications. Herein, I present a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of its bioactive components, such as beta-glucan, and other physiologically active substances. In particular, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the beta-glucan components are presented herein in detail. PMID:23586068

  17. Additive Expression of Consolidated Memory through Drosophila Mushroom Body Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Ching; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Shih, Hsiang-Wen; Tsai, Ya-Lun; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wu, Chia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Associative olfactory memory in Drosophila has two components called labile anesthesia-sensitive memory and consolidated anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM). Mushroom body (MB) is a brain region critical for the olfactory memory and comprised of 2000 neurons that can be classified into αβ, α′β′, and γ neurons. Previously we demonstrated that two parallel pathways mediated ARM consolidation: the serotonergic dorsal paired medial (DPM)–αβ neurons and the octopaminergic anterior paired lateral (APL)–α′β′ neurons. This finding prompted us to ask how this composite ARM is retrieved. Here, we showed that blocking the output of αβ neurons and that of α′β′ neurons each impaired ARM retrieval, and blocking both simultaneously had an additive effect. Knockdown of radish and octβ2R in αβ and α′β′ neurons, respectively, impaired ARM. A combinatorial assay of radish mutant background rsh1 and neurotransmission blockade confirmed that ARM retrieved from α′β′ neuron output is independent of radish. We identified MBON-β2β′2a and MBON-β′2mp as the MB output neurons downstream of αβ and α′β′ neurons, respectively, whose glutamatergic transmissions also additively contribute to ARM retrieval. Finally, we showed that α′β′ neurons could be functionally subdivided into α′β′m neurons required for ARM retrieval, and α′β′ap neurons required for ARM consolidation. Our work demonstrated that two parallel neural pathways mediating ARM consolidation in Drosophila MB additively contribute to ARM expression during retrieval. PMID:27195782

  18. Additive Expression of Consolidated Memory through Drosophila Mushroom Body Subsets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chu-Huai; Shih, Meng-Fu Maxwell; Chang, Ching-Ching; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Shih, Hsiang-Wen; Tsai, Ya-Lun; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wu, Chia-Lin

    2016-05-01

    Associative olfactory memory in Drosophila has two components called labile anesthesia-sensitive memory and consolidated anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM). Mushroom body (MB) is a brain region critical for the olfactory memory and comprised of 2000 neurons that can be classified into αβ, α'β', and γ neurons. Previously we demonstrated that two parallel pathways mediated ARM consolidation: the serotonergic dorsal paired medial (DPM)-αβ neurons and the octopaminergic anterior paired lateral (APL)-α'β' neurons. This finding prompted us to ask how this composite ARM is retrieved. Here, we showed that blocking the output of αβ neurons and that of α'β' neurons each impaired ARM retrieval, and blocking both simultaneously had an additive effect. Knockdown of radish and octβ2R in αβ and α'β' neurons, respectively, impaired ARM. A combinatorial assay of radish mutant background rsh1 and neurotransmission blockade confirmed that ARM retrieved from α'β' neuron output is independent of radish. We identified MBON-β2β'2a and MBON-β'2mp as the MB output neurons downstream of αβ and α'β' neurons, respectively, whose glutamatergic transmissions also additively contribute to ARM retrieval. Finally, we showed that α'β' neurons could be functionally subdivided into α'β'm neurons required for ARM retrieval, and α'β'ap neurons required for ARM consolidation. Our work demonstrated that two parallel neural pathways mediating ARM consolidation in Drosophila MB additively contribute to ARM expression during retrieval. PMID:27195782

  19. Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

    2009-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 μg/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 μg/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 μg/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 μg/plate) and B(α)P (10 μg/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(α)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(α)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. PMID:18992843

  20. Identification of bacteria isolated from diseased Neungee mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Nam; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2007-02-01

    As the first step in an investigation of the problem with quality deterioration seen in the Neungee mushroom (Sarcodon aspratus) due to bacterial overgrowth during its storage, an attempt to isolate bacterial strains was made using infected gills of Sarcodon aspratus. Five bacterial strains were isolated; one phototrophic cyanobacterial species and four heterotrophic Gram negative rods. The four heterotrophic bacterial isolates (strains P, S, R, and MK1) were subjected to identification based on biochemical characteristics using the Biolog system, cellular fatty acid analysis using the MIDI system, cytology by scanning microscopy, and 16s rDNA sequence analysis. A slow grower, the P strain (ca. 0.7 microm x 1.5 microm), which forms pink colonies on Tryptic Soy agar (TSA) and glucose minimal salt medium containing thiamine (MT medium), belongs to genus Methylobacterium, and is likely M. radiotolerans. The methanol-utilizing capacity of the P strain was confirmed by growth on methanol-supplemented medium as a sole carbon source. Both the S and R strains (ca. 0.5 microm x 0.8 microm) produced smooth and slightly rough white colonies, respectively, on TSA, MT, and potato dextrose (PD) agar are members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Although both strains showed some differences from each other in colony morphology, nitrogen fixation capacity, and denitrification, they were considered to be Burkholderia stabilis because their 16s rDNA sequences showed 99.93% similarity with those of B. stabilis LMG 14294T (NCBI AF 148554). The MK1 strain, a rod-shaped bacterium with a tapered end (ca. 0.6 microm x 1.8 microm), produces a copious mucoid substance on MT and PD agar, but not on TSA. Despite extensive identification studies, the M strain is not currently identifiable, which suggests that it is a novel bacterium. PMID:17304616

  1. Novel antioxidant peptides from fermented mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; He, Hui; Xie, Bi Jun

    2004-10-20

    Oxidative stress has been linked with the pathogenesis of many human diseases including cancer, aging, and atherosclerosis. The present study investigates the antioxidant activities of peptides isolated from the medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum. G. lucidum has been shown to possess potent antioxidant activity with little or no side effects. Polysaccharide, polysaccharide-peptide complex, and phenolic components of G. lucidum have been proposed to be responsible for this antioxidant effect. However, research has shown that the G. lucidum peptide (GLP) is the major antioxidant component of G. lucidum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of this peptide using different oxidation systems. GLP showed potent antioxidant activities in both lightproof soybean oil and lard systems, assessed by lipid peroxidant value. Compared to butylated hydroxytoluene, GLP showed a higher antioxidant activity in the soybean oil system. Soybean lipoxygenase activity was blocked by GLP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 27.1 microg/mL. GLP showed scavenging activity toward hydroxyl radicals produced in a deoxyribose system with an IC50 value of 25 microg/mL, and GLP effectively quenched superoxide radical anion produced by pyrogallol autoxidation in a dose-dependent manner. Malondialdehyde level has been used as the oxidation index in many biological systems. GLP showed substantial antioxidant activity in the rat liver tissue homogenates and mitochondrial membrane peroxidation systems. The auto-hemolysis of rat red blood cells was also blocked by GLP in a dose-dependent manner. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that GLP is the major constituent responsible for the antioxidant activity of G. lucidum. GLP could play an important role in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in biological systems through its antioxidant, metal chelating, and free radical scavenging activities. PMID:15479035

  2. A GC-MS study of the volatile organic composition of straw and oyster mushrooms during maturity and its relation to antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-Min; Wu, Wen-Wei; Li, Gong-Ke

    2008-09-01

    Mushrooms are very popular in the market for their nutritional and medicinal use. Mushroom volatiles are not only an important factor in the flavor, but also contain many antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity is a very important property for disease prevention. The volatile compositional characteristics of straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea [Bull. ex Fr.] Sing.) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus [Jacq. ex Fr.] Kummer) during maturity and the mushroom antioxidant activity related to the non-volatiles and volatiles are studied by a chromatographic method in combination with a spectrophotometric method. The volatile compounds of straw and oyster mushrooms are sampled and identified by a combination sampling method, including headspace solid phase microextraction and steam distillation, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Among all the volatile compounds identified, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone are the two main compounds with the highest amounts in the volatile compositions of straw and oyster mushrooms. During maturity time of the straw mushrooms, the unsaturated 1-octen-3-ol peak area is reduced, whereas the saturated 3-octanone peak area is increased. However, during normal maturity time of oyster mushrooms, the peak areas of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone remain at the same level. 1-Octen-3-ol has a different antioxidant activity from 3-octanone. Combining the results of antioxidant experiments of water extract and main volatile components by the use of a phosphomolybdenum spectrophotometric method, the conclusion is drawn that oyster mushrooms might possess stronger antioxidant activities than straw mushrooms. PMID:18796224

  3. Notes on a New Productive Strain of King Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii (Higher Basidiomycetes), a Prized Italian Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom.

    PubMed

    Venturella, Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Eristanna; Saiano, Filippo; Gargano, Maria Letizia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors provide data on a culinary-medicinal, host-specific variety of P. eryngii species-complex that is known in Italy as "cardoncello". A species description, the techniques of isolation of a new strain (C-142-c), and the preparation of the substratum are illustrated. Data on the productivity of substratum inoculated with C-142-c strain and the nutritional value of cultivated "cardoncello" mushrooms are also provided. PMID:25746625

  4. How was the Mushroom-shaped GW 123.4-1.5 Formed in the Galactic Disk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Chang Hyun; Kudoh, Takahiro; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2008-07-01

    The unusual mushroom-shaped H I cloud GW 123.4-1.5 is hundreds of parsecs in size but does not show any correlations to H I shells or chimney structures. To investigate the origin and velocity structure of GW 123.4-1.5, we perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the collision of a high-velocity cloud (HVC) with the Galactic disk. We also perform a parameter study of the density, radius, and incident angle of the impact cloud. The numerical experiments indicate that we can reproduce a mushroom-shaped structure which resembles GW 123.4-1.5 in shape, size, and position velocity across the cap of the mushroom, and the density ratio between the mushroom and surrounding gas. GW 123.4-1.5 is expected to be formed by the almost head-on collision of a HVC with velocity ~100 km s-1 and mass ~105 M⊙ about 5 × 107 yr ago. A mushroom-shaped structure like GW 123.4-1.5 must be infrequent on the Galactic plane, because the head-on collision which explains the mushroom structure seems rare for observed HVCs. An HVC-disk collision explains not only the origin of the mushroom-shaped structure but also the formation of a variety of structures like shells, loops, and vertical structures in our Galaxy.

  5. Molecular identification of poisonous mushrooms using nuclear ITS region and peptide toxins: a retrospective study on fatal cases in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Sikaphan, Sujitra; Leudang, Siriwan; Boonpratuang, Thitiya; Rangsiruji, Achariya; Naksuwankul, Khwanruan

    2016-02-01

    Cases of mushroom poisoning in Thailand have increased annually. During 2008 to 2014, the cases reported to the National Institute of Health included 57 deaths; at least 15 died after ingestion of amanitas, the most common lethal wild mushrooms inhabited. Hence, the aims of this study were to identify mushroom samples from nine clinically reported cases during the 7-year study period based on nuclear ITS sequence data and diagnose lethal peptide toxins using a reversed phase LC-MS method. Nucleotide similarity was identified using BLAST search of the NCBI database and the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). Clade characterization was performed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. Based on BLAST and BOLD reference databases our results yielded high nucleotide similarities of poisonous mushroom samples to A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. Detailed phylogenetic analyses showed that all mushroom samples fall into their current classification. Detection of the peptide toxins revealed the presence of amatoxins and phallotoxins in A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. In addition, toxic α-amanitin was identified in a new provisional species, Amanita sp.1, with the highest toxin quantity. Molecular identification confirmed that the mushrooms ingested by the patients were members of the lethal amanitas in the sections Amanita and Phalloideae. In Thailand, the presence of A. exitialis was reported here for the first time and all three poisonous mushroom species provided new and informative data for clinical studies. PMID:26763394

  6. Lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield by Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on substrate containing anaerobic digester solids.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvilli, Nona A

    2009-11-01

    Solid waste from anaerobic digestion of litter from the commercial production of broiler chickens has limited use as fertilizer. Its disposal is a major problem for digester operators who are seeking alternative use for anaerobic digester solids, also referred to as solid waste (SW). The use of SW as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus strain MBFBL400 was investigated. Lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, substrate utilization, and mushroom yield were evaluated in ten different substrate combinations (SCs) containing varying amounts of solid waste, wheat straw, and millet. Nutritional content of mushrooms produced on the different substrates was also determined. Substrates containing 70-80% wheat straw, 10-20% SW, and 10-20% millet were found to produce the highest mushroom yield (874.8-958.3 g/kg). Loss of organic matter in all SCs tested varied from 45.8% to 56.2%, which had positive correlation with the biological efficiency. Laccase, peroxidase, and carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activities were higher before fruiting, whereas xylanase showed higher activities after mushroom fruiting. SW increased the nutritional content in mushrooms harvested, and the combination of wheat straw and SW with millet significantly improved mushroom yield. Our findings demonstrated the possibility of utilizing anaerobic digester solids in mushroom cultivation. The application of SW as such could improve the financial gains in the overall economy of anaerobic digester plants. PMID:19618225

  7. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels and fecal neutral sterol excretion are altered in hamsters fed straw mushroom diets.

    PubMed

    Cheung, P C

    1998-09-01

    The effect of the fruiting body and mycelium of Volvariella volvacea (straw mushroom) on the concentrations of plasma lipids, liver cholesterol, fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretions was investigated in male Golden Syrian hamsters. The hamsters were fed a purified hypercholesterolemic diet (0.1% cholesterol, 10% fat) for 4 wk to elevate plasma lipid concentrations. Twelve hamsters with elevated plasma total cholesterol were randomly assigned to each treatment group: control (5% cellulose), mushroom fruiting body (5%) and mushroom mycelium (5%). After 4 wk of mushroom diet consumption, the plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and combined VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (mmol/L) were significantly lower than control in the group fed the fruiting body-diet (40, 38 and 43%, respectively) (P < 0.05). The liver cholesterol levels were significantly lower in both the mushroom fruiting body- and the mycelium-fed groups (28 and 21% in terms of concentration; 39 and 30% in terms of total content, respectively) (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Fecal neutral sterol excretion in the mushroom fruiting body- and mycelium-fed groups was significantly higher (81 and 74%, respectively) (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. Although no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the excretion of fecal bile acids were observed among groups fed the mushroom diets and the control diet, the mushroom fruiting body diet-fed hamsters apparently had less bacterial degradation of cholic acid as indicated by a significantly greater proportion (P < 0.05) of fecal cholic acid than in controls. They also had a significantly lower proportion of fecal deoxycholic acid (P < 0.05). This study suggests that the fruiting body of the straw mushroom lowers elevated plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters, whereas the mycelium does not. PMID:9732312

  8. Novel medicinal mushroom blend suppresses growth and invasiveness of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Sliva, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Mushrooms are an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and have been used for millennia to prevent or treat a variety of diseases. Currently mushrooms or their extracts are used globally in the form of dietary supplements. In the present study we have evaluated the anticancer effects of the dietary supplement, MycoPhyto® Complex (MC), a novel medicinal mushroom blend which consists of a blend of mushroom mycelia from the species Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Polyporus umbellatus, and β-1,3-glucan isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we show that MC demonstrates cytostatic effects through the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of highly invasive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. DNA-microarray analysis revealed that MC inhibits expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (ANAPC2, ANAPC2, BIRC5, Cyclin B1, Cyclin H, CDC20, CDK2, CKS1B, Cullin 1, E2F1, KPNA2, PKMYT1 and TFDP1). Moreover, MC also suppresses the metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion. The potency of MC to inhibit invasiveness of breast cancer cells is linked to the suppression of secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, the MC dietary supplement could have potential therapeutic value in the treatment of invasive human breast cancer. PMID:21042722

  9. 75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... U.S.C. 1675(c)(5)(B) (75 FR 3756, January 22, 2010). Due to the closure of the Government during the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States...

  10. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... institution (74 FR 50818, October 1, 2009) for each review was adequate and that the respondent interested... section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United...

  11. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (February 1, 2010). On March 1, 2010, in... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 15679 (March 30, 2010). On June 3, 2010, Monterey... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of...

  12. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 17836... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011). Therefore, the... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China:...

  13. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 4990 (February 1, 2012). On... Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 77 FR 19179 (March 30, 2012). On May 10, 2012, the... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission...

  14. Learning and Memory Deficits upon TAU Accumulation in "Drosophila" Mushroom Body Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mershin, Andreas; Pavlopoulos, Elias; Fitch, Olivia; Braden, Brittany C.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in the neuronal-specific microtubule-binding protein TAU are associated with several dementias and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of elevated TAU accumulation on behavioral plasticity are unknown. We report that directed expression of wild-type vertebrate and "Drosophila" TAU in adult mushroom body neurons, centers for…

  15. Folate composition of ten types of mushrooms determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White button, crimini, shiitake, maitake, enoki, oyster, chanterelle, morel, portabella, and uv-treated portabella mushrooms were sampled from U.S. retail outlets and major producers. Folate (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5MTHF], 10-formyl folate [10FF], 5-formyltetrahydrofolate [5FTHF]) was analyzed u...

  16. 75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (February 1, 2010). On... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 15679 (March 30, 2010). On May 14... International Trade Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of...

  17. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February... China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). In accordance with section 751(a)(2)(B) of the Tariff Act of 1930... Reviews, 75 FR 10214, 10215 (March 5, 2010). Accordingly, we will issue questionnaires to Hengyong...

  18. Starch concentrations in log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food, in part from the abundance of different polysaccharides that may have functional food activities. Polysaccharide content of shiitake and shiitake-derived products are being utilized as a promotional tool to hea...

  19. Multielemental analysis of 20 mushroom species growing near a heavily trafficked road in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, M; Niedzielski, P; Kalač, P; Budka, A; Siwulski, M; Gąsecka, M; Rzymski, P; Magdziak, Z; Sobieralski, K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to compare 10 mostly edible aboveground and 10 wood-growing mushroom species collected near a heavily trafficked road (approximately 28,000 vehicles per 24 h) in Poland with regard to their capacity to accumulate 26 trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, In, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Re, Sb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, and Zn) in their fruit bodies in order to illustrate mushroom diversity in element accumulation. All analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) spectrometer in synchronous dual view mode. The aboveground species had significantly higher levels of 12 elements, including Ag, As, Pb, and Se, compared to the wood-growing species. An opposite relationship was observed only for Au, Ba, and Sr. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) implied some new relationships among the analyzed species and elements. Of the analyzed mushroom species, lead content in Macrolepiota procera would seem to pose a health risk; however, at present knowledge regarding lead bioaccessibility from mushrooms is quite limited. PMID:27155831

  20. GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Assya; Alipieva, Kalina; Kostadinova, Emanuela; Antonova, Daniela; Lacheva, Maria; Gjosheva, Melania; Popov, Simeon; Bankova, Vassya

    2007-01-01

    Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two Δ7-sterols. In addition, 5α,8α-Epidioxi-24(ξ)-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3β-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species. PMID:18096035

  1. Tissue Printing to Visualize Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase in Vegetables, Fruits, and Mushrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melberg, Amanda R.; Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    A simple tissue-printing procedure to determine the tissue location of the endogenous enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms is described. In tissue printing, cell contents from the surface of a cut section of the tissue are transferred to an adsorptive surface, commonly a nitrocellulose…

  2. Imaging mass spectrometry and genome mining reveal highly antifungal virulence factor of mushroom soft rot pathogen.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Katharina; Scherlach, Kirstin; Bretschneider, Tom; Lackner, Gerald; Roth, Martin; Gross, Harald; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-12-21

    Caught in the act: imaging mass spectrometry of a button mushroom infected with the soft rot pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum in conjunction with genome mining revealed jagaricin as a highly antifungal virulence factor that is not produced under standard cultivation conditions. The structure of jagaricin was rigorously elucidated by a combination of physicochemical analyses, chemical derivatization, and bioinformatics. PMID:23161559

  3. Lanostane-Type Triterpenes from the Mushroom Astraeus pteridis with Antituberculosis Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of the Truffle-mimiking mushroom Astraeus pteridis led to the isolation and identification of three new (3-5) and two known (1, 2) lanostane triterpenes, and phenylalanine betaine (6). The structures of the isolates were elucidated based on 1D and 2D...

  4. Experience-dependent plasticity in the mushroom bodies of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria (Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Withers, Ginger S; Day, Nancy F; Talbot, Emily F; Dobson, Heidi E M; Wallace, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    All members of the solitary bee species Osmia lignaria (the orchard bee) forage upon emergence from their natal nest cell. Conversely, in the honey bee, days-to-weeks of socially regulated behavioral development precede the onset of foraging. The social honey bee's behavioral transition to foraging is accompanied by neuroanatomical changes in the mushroom bodies, a region of the insect brain implicated in learning. If these changes were general adaptations to foraging, they should also occur in the solitary orchard bee. Using unbiased stereological methods, we estimated the volume of the major compartments of the mushroom bodies, the neuropil and Kenyon cell body region, in adult orchard bees. We compared the mushroom bodies of recently emerged bees with mature bees that had extensive foraging experience. To separate effects of general maturation from field foraging, some orchard bees were confined to a cage indoors. The mushroom body neuropil of experienced field foragers was significantly greater than that of both recently emerged and mature caged orchard bees, suggesting that, like the honey bee, this increase is driven by outdoor foraging experience. Unlike the honey bee, where increases in the ratio of neuropil to Kenyon cell region occur in the worker after emerging from the hive cell, the orchard bee emerged from the natal nest cell with a ratio that did not change with maturation and was comparable to honey-bee foragers. These results suggest that a common developmental endpoint may be reached via different development paths in social and solitary species of foraging bees. PMID:17918235

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain 150FB, a Mushroom Mycoparasite Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Feldhahn, L.; Krüger, D.; Arnold, N.; Buscot, F.; Wubet, T.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. strain 150FB, isolated from the cap surface of a bolete mushroom, inhibits the growth of the mycoparasitic Sepedonium species. Functional annotation of the strain 150FB draft genome identified 22 putative secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and genes encoding secreted proteins, which may contribute to the inhibition of the mycoparasite. PMID:25838499

  6. Roles for Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons in Olfactory Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zong, Lin; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.; Ito, Kei; Davis, Ronald L.; Akalal, David-Benjamin G.; Wilson, Curtis F.

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory learning assays in Drosophila have revealed that distinct brain structures known as mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for the associative learning and memory of olfactory stimuli. However, the precise roles of the different neurons comprising the MBs are still under debate. The confusion surrounding the roles of the different neurons…

  7. 78 FR 69817 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Revocation in Part, 78 FR 19197 (March 29, 2013) (Initiation Notice). \\4\\ The Department considers Golden... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 77 FR 55808 (September 11, 2012). The record of this review does not..., 74 FR 14772 (April 1, 2009), unchanged in Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic...

  8. 75 FR 16075 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999). In accordance with section 751(a)(2)(B) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February... Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 10214, 10215 (March 5, 2010). Accordingly, we will...

  9. Integrative Management of Commercialized Wild Mushroom: A Case Study of Thelephora ganbajun in Yunnan, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Zhou, Zhimei; Yang, Huixian; Xu, Jianchu

    2011-07-01

    The management of wild mushroom is interdisciplinary in nature, whereby the biophysical considerations have to be incorporated into the context of a wide range of social, economic and political concerns. However, to date, little documentation exists illustrating an interdisciplinary approach to management of wild mushrooms. Moreover, the empirical case studies necessary for developing applicable and practical methods are even more rare. This paper adopted an interdisciplinary approach combining participatory methods to improve the habitat management of Thelephora ganbajun, an endemic and one of the most economically valuable mushroom species in Southwest China. The paper documents an empirical case of how an interdisciplinary approach facilitated the development of a scientific basis for policy and management practice, and built the local capacity to create, adopt and sustain the new rules and techniques of mushroom management. With this integrative perspective, a sustainable management strategy was developed, which was found not only technically feasible for farmers, but also acceptable to the government from an ecological and policy-related perspective. More importantly, this approach has greatly contributed to raising the income of farmers. The paper highlights how the integration of biophysical and socioeconomic factors and different knowledge systems provided a holistic perspective to problem diagnosis and resolution, which helped to cope with conventional scientific dilemmas. Finally, it concludes that the success of this interdisciplinary approach is significant in the context of policy decentralization and reform for incorporating indigenous knowledge and local participation in forest management.

  10. Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that dietary white button mushrooms (WBM) enhanced natural killer cell activity and that in vitro WBM supplementation promotes maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC). The current study investigated whether WBM consumption would enhance pathogen-specific immune response ...

  11. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Hyang Burm; Jeon, Eun-Jae; Jung, Hack Sung; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2004-01-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment. Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage produced by H2O2. PMID:15630179

  12. 76 FR 12704 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is currently conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period February 1, 2009, through January 31, 2010. We preliminarily determine that sales made by Blue Field (Sichuan) Food Industrial Co., Ltd. (Blue Field), Guangxi Jisheng Foods, Inc.......

  13. [A case of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by shiitake mushroom spores].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Sato, T; Yonei, T; Genba, K; Nogami, N; Yamadori, I

    2000-12-01

    A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a low-grade fever, dry cough and dyspnea on exertion as the chief complaints. She had been a professional shiitake mushroom grower for 50 years. Three years before visiting our hospital, she had been suspected of having hypersensitivity pneumonitis as a result of chest X-ray examination, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy performed at another clinic. No antigens were identified at that time, but prednisolone was administered. On admission to our hospital, chest radiography and chest computed tomography revealed an interstitial shadow with subpleural honey-combing in both lower lung fields. After steroid pulse therapy, dyspnea on exertion and hypoxia improved moderately. Because of recurrence of the dyspnea, however, she was admitted on four separate occasions. On the second admission, an increase in lymphocytes was found by bronchoalveolar lavage, and septal lymphocytic infiltration accompanying fibrosis was demonstrated by transbronchial lung biopsy. On the fourth admission, a detailed immunological examination and an environmental survey were performed. The environmental provocation test yielded clinical symptoms similar to those experienced at the mushroom farm. Furthermore, tests of precipitation and lymphocyte proliferation in response to shiitake mushroom extracts were positive. Finally a diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by shiitake mushrooms was confirmed. PMID:11244726

  14. 75 FR 66729 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19... China: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 16075 (March 31, 2010... Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 73 FR 76336 (December 16,...

  15. Comparative study of antioxidant activities and total phenolic content of selected edible wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Lee, Mee Yee; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the antioxidant activities (AOA) and total phenolic content (TPC) of water extracts of selected edible wild mushrooms: Pleurotus porrigens, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe conica, and Lentinus ciliatus. The AOA were evaluated against DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching (beta-CB) assays, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for TPC. BHA was used as reference. P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability (90.78 +/- 0.30%) and FRAP (6.37 +/- 0.22 mM FE/100g), while Sch. commune showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) ABTS*+ inhibition activity (94.96 +/- 0.70%) and beta-CB inhibition activity (94.18 +/- 0.17%), respectively. TPC was found in a descending order of P. poriggens > L. ciliatus = Pleurotus ostreatus (cultivated) > H. conica = Sch. commune. Positive correlation was observed between the AOA and TPC. When compared to BHA (2 mM), P. porrigens showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH* scavenging ability and reducing power, while Sch. commune showed comparable DPPH* scavenging ability and ABTS*+ inhibition activity. All the mushrooms have better ABTS*+ inhibition activity than BHA (1 mM). The beta-CB inhibition activity of BHA was significantly higher than those of edible wild mushrooms. The water extracts of edible wild mushrooms showed potent antioxidant activities compared to BHA to a certain extent. PMID:22135876

  16. Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2016-12-01

    The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms. PMID:27620731

  17. Global and local modulatory supply to the mushroom bodies of the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Sjöholm, Marcus; Hansson, Bill S; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2008-07-01

    The moth Spodoptera littoralis, is a major pest of agriculture whose olfactory system is tuned to odorants emitted by host plants and conspecifics. As in other insects, the paired mushroom bodies are thought to play pivotal roles in behaviors that are elicited by contextual and multisensory signals, amongst which those of specific odors dominate. Compared with species that have elaborate behavioral repertoires, such as the honey bee Apis mellifera or the cockroach Periplaneta americana, the mushroom bodies of S. littoralis were originally viewed as having a simple cellular organization. This has been since challenged by observations of putative transmitters and neuromodulators. As revealed by immunocytology, the spodopteran mushroom bodies, like those of other taxa, are subdivided longitudinally into discrete neuropil domains. Such divisions are further supported by the present study, which also demonstrates discrete affinities to different mushroom body neuropils by antibodies raised against two putative transmitters, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid, and against three putative neuromodulatory substances: serotonin, A-type allatostatin, and tachykinin-related peptides. The results suggest that in addition to longitudinal divisions of the lobes, circuits in the calyces and lobes are likely to be independently modulated. PMID:18406668

  18. Accumulation of radiocesium by mushrooms in the environment: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Duff, Martine C; Ramsey, Mary Lou

    2008-06-01

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or "sentinel-type" organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. Until the 1980s and 1990s, there were few published data on the radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. The present review of published data for (134,137)Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature discusses the aspects that promote (134,137)Cs uptake by mushrooms and focuses on mushrooms that demonstrate a propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. Transfer factors (TF, as dry weight concentration in fruiting body divided by concentration in substrate) ranged up to 24 (unitless), and aggregate transfer factors (T(ag), as Bq(137)Cs/kg dw in fruiting body divided by the aerial deposition as Bq/m(2)) ranged up to 8m(2)/kg dw. PMID:18191312

  19. Global and Local Modulatory Supply to the Mushroom Bodies of the Moth Spodoptera Littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Sjöholm, Marcus; Hansson, Bill S.; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The moth Spodoptera littoralis, is a major pest of agriculture whose olfactory system is tuned to odorants emitted by host plants and conspecifics. As in other insects, the paired mushroom bodies are thought to play pivotal roles in behaviors that are elicited by contextual and multisensory signals, amongst which those of specific odors dominate. Compared with species that have elaborate behavioral repertoires, such as the honey bee Apis mellifera or the cockroach Periplaneta americana, the mushroom bodies of S. littoralis were originally viewed as having a simple cellular organization. This has been since challenged by observations of putative transmitters and neuromodulators. As revealed by immunocytology, the spodopteran mushroom bodies like those of other taxa, are subdivided longitudinally into discrete neuropil domains. Such divisions are further supported by the present study, which also demonstrates discrete affinities to different mushroom body neuropils by antibodies raised against two putative transmitters, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid, and against three putative neuromodulatory substances: serotonin, A-type allatostatin, and tachykinin-related peptides. The results suggest that in addition to longitudinal divisions of the lobes, circuits in the calyces and lobes are likely to be independently modulated. PMID:18406668

  20. Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Quantification of Agaritine in Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Merdivan, Simon; Willke, Christoph; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Agaritine, an aromatic hydrazine, is found as a secondary metabolite in mushroom species. It is among others suspected to exhibit genotoxic activity. This publication describes the validation of a method for the quantification of agaritine in mushrooms (i.e., extraction and purification by solid phase extraction) and measurement by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection in positive ionization mode. The results show this method to be selective, accurate, and precise. This method could be used for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing mushrooms. PMID:27279441

  1. A mushroom-derived amino acid, ergothioneine, is a potential inhibitor of inflammation-related DNA halogenation.

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Wu, Xiaohong; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Hisaka, Shinsuke; Harada, Etsuko; Kanno, Tomomi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-generated halogenating molecules, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), in inflammatory regions are postulated to contribute to disease progression. In this study, we showed that ergothioneine (EGT), derived from an edible mushroom, inhibited MPO activity as well as the formation of 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro. The HOBr scavenging effect of EGT is higher than those of ascorbic acid and glutathione. We initially observed that the administration of Coprinus comatus, an edible mushroom containing a high amount of EGT, inhibited the UV-B-induced inflammatory responses and DNA halogenation, suggesting that EGT is a promising anti-inflammatory agent from mushrooms. PMID:26338495

  2. Antioxidative activities of 62 wild mushrooms from Nepal and the phenolic profile of some selected species.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Sonam; Tran, Hai Bang; Nishida, Marina; Kaifuchi, Satoru; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-10-01

    Mushrooms have garnered immense popularity for their nutritional as well as medicinal values. The therapeutic potential of mushrooms in Nepal, a country well known for its biodiversity and natural medicinal resources, remains largely unstudied. Therefore, this study attempts to unveil the antioxidative properties of Nepalese wild mushrooms. Sixty-two wild mushroom samples were collected from several forests in different parts of Nepal. Ethanol and water extracts of the dried samples were tested for their antioxidative activities using total phenolic content (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and reducing power (RP) assays. Ethanol extracts of samples belonging to the order Hymenochaetales showed significantly high activity in all the assays. Inonotus clemensiae had an exceptionally high TPC of 643.2 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and also exhibited the lowest EC50 values in DPPH (0.081 mg/mL), ABTS (0.409 mg/mL), and EC0.5 value in reducing power (RP; 0.031 mg/mL) assays. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the top ten samples with the highest TPC was done to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis for some unknown compounds. These findings highlight the very strong antioxidative activity of Nepalese mushrooms, and paves the way for further research to explore their economic potential. PMID:27262299

  3. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    PubMed

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at <0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Activity concentrations of (90)Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (<1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe. PMID:26590866

  4. Structural Characterization of Melanin Pigments from Commercial Preparations of the Edible Mushroom Auricularia auricula

    PubMed Central

    Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Toriola, Stacy; Nakouzi, Antonio; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth; Gerfen, Gary; Tumpowsky, Paul; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Many of the most widely consumed edible mushrooms are pigmented, and these have been associated with some beneficial health effects. Nevertheless, the majority of the reported compounds associated with these desirable properties are non-pigmented. We have previously reported that melanin pigment from the edible mushroom Auricularia auricula can protect mice against ionizing radiation, although no physicochemical characterization was reported. Consequently, in this study we have characterized commercial A. auricula mushroom preparations for melanin content and carried out structural characterization of isolated insoluble melanin materials using a panel of sophisticated spectroscopic and physical/imaging techniques. Our results show that approximately 10% of the dry mass of A. auricula is melanin and that the pigment has physicochemical properties consistent with those of eumelanins, including hosting a stable free radical population. Electron microscopy studies show that melanin is associated with the mushroom cell wall in a manner similar to that of melanin from the model fungus C. neoformans. Elemental analysis of melanin indicated C, H, and N ratios consistent with 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid/5,6-dihydroxyindole and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene eumelanin. Validation of the identity of the isolated product as melanin was achieved by EPR analysis. A. auricula melanin manifested structural differences, relative to the C. neoformans melanin, with regard to the variable proportions of alkyl chains or oxygenated carbons. Given the necessity for new oral and inexpensive radioprotective materials coupled with the commercial availability of A. auricula mushrooms, this product may represent an excellent source of edible melanin. PMID:26244793

  5. Possible mechanisms of action of mushroom-derived glucans on inflammatory bowel disease and associated cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used as a health food or supplement for the prevention and cure of a range of health-statuses or diseases, such as overt inflammation, atherosclerosis, cancer, hypertension, diabetes and others. We concentrate in this review on the effect and putative mechanism of action of glucans harvested from fungi on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis associated cancer. Many scientists including our own group have examined the immunomodulating effect of isolated polysaccharides-glucans in general and specifically in inflammation associated with cancer. In this manuscript we reviewed the sources, the chemical composition and medicinal properties of polysaccharides extracted from edible mushrooms. In addition we brought insights into their putative mechanisms of action behind each health-promoting activity of these interesting biomolecules. The preventive and therapeutic effects of the medicinal mushrooms and their components have been well documented in mouse and rat model systems and in cancer cell lines being the most striking effects reported to their anti-inflammatory and antitumor effect. Their anticancer effects were demonstrated mainly in in vitro and in vivo experimental systems but a very limited number of studies have been conducted in human populations. We can summarize that oral consumption of several mushrooms glucans is an efficient treatment to prevent colitis-associated dysplasias through modulation of mucosal inflammation and cell proliferation. Identifying new food-derived isolates and understanding their mechanisms of action are the main challenges in using mushrooms glucans for therapeutic purposes in the field of IBD and associated cancer. Only an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of action and cross-talk between the inflammatory cell, epithelial cell and fungi derived glucans on which we have a based structural knowledge will lead to well designed intervention clinical human

  6. A Thirty-Year Survey Reveals That Ecosystem Function of Fungi Predicts Phenology of Mushroom Fruiting

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Morimoto, Shigeo; Hattori, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Mushroom fruiting, the reproduction of fungi, has broad implications for forest health, terrestrial biomass turnover, and global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the difference in phenology and environmental drivers of mushroom fruiting between functional guilds, e.g., ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mutualists and saprotrophs (SAP). There is a remarkable difference between ECM and SAP fungi in their available carbon sources and lifecycles, and thus these fungal groups are likely to differ in fruiting phenology. We analyzed intra- and inter-annual phenological patterns of mushroom fruiting throughout the year using a long-term census dataset of mushroom-forming fungi in a Japanese oak forest in which a total of 11,923 mushroom counts (668 species) were recorded during monthly intervals from 1982 to 2011. ECM fungi showed a unimodal seasonal fruiting peak from mid-summer to early autumn; litter-decomposing fungi showed moderate fruiting peaks from early summer or early autumn, and the phenology of wood-decomposing fungi varied considerably among the genera. Each functional group was controlled by a different set of external factors; temperature and rainfall increased ECM fungal fruiting, but key factors substantially differed among the genera of litter- and wood-decomposing fungi in taxon-specific ways. Our results suggest that fungal fruiting phenology may be affected by the seasonality of carbohydrate availability. The highly scheduled reproduction of ECM fungi may reflect temperature-dependent increases and drought-induced decreases of photosynthetic activity in host plants rather than improved growth conditions for fungi during the summer. We argue that the way a fungus obtains carbohydrates may explain a substantial fraction of the fruiting phenology, which may make a differential contribution to the community structure of fungus-associated organisms and terrestrial biomass turnover based on fungal functional groups. PMID:23209598

  7. Possible mechanisms of action of mushroom-derived glucans on inflammatory bowel disease and associated cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Betty; Hadar, Yitzhak

    2014-02-01

    Since ancient times, medicinal mushrooms have been traditionally used as a health food or supplement for the prevention and cure of a range of health-statuses or diseases, such as overt inflammation, atherosclerosis, cancer, hypertension, diabetes and others. We concentrate in this review on the effect and putative mechanism of action of glucans harvested from fungi on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis associated cancer. Many scientists including our own group have examined the immunomodulating effect of isolated polysaccharides-glucans in general and specifically in inflammation associated with cancer. In this manuscript we reviewed the sources, the chemical composition and medicinal properties of polysaccharides extracted from edible mushrooms. In addition we brought insights into their putative mechanisms of action behind each health-promoting activity of these interesting biomolecules. The preventive and therapeutic effects of the medicinal mushrooms and their components have been well documented in mouse and rat model systems and in cancer cell lines being the most striking effects reported to their anti-inflammatory and antitumor effect. Their anticancer effects were demonstrated mainly in in vitro and in vivo experimental systems but a very limited number of studies have been conducted in human populations. We can summarize that oral consumption of several mushrooms glucans is an efficient treatment to prevent colitis-associated dysplasias through modulation of mucosal inflammation and cell proliferation. Identifying new food-derived isolates and understanding their mechanisms of action are the main challenges in using mushrooms glucans for therapeutic purposes in the field of IBD and associated cancer. Only an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of action and cross-talk between the inflammatory cell, epithelial cell and fungi derived glucans on which we have a based structural knowledge will lead to well designed intervention clinical human

  8. Toughening and its association with the postharvest quality of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) stored at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Danqing; Qin, Xiaoyi; Tian, Pingping; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Toughening-induced textural decay easily occurs in stored mushrooms. The objective of this study was to investigate the textural alteration caused by toughening in relation to other quality attributes of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii). Fresh king oyster mushrooms, packed in low-density polyethylene bags, were stored at different low temperatures for 18 days to measure textural and other quality attributes. It was found that toughening occurred twice during the entire storage time. Highly associated change profiles were observed for the lignin content and activities of three important enzymes involved in lignin synthesis. The chitin and cellulose contents exhibited low correlation with toughening. Malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage rate and total phenolics content appeared to be related to toughening, but the browning index showed a negative correlation with toughening. Our results suggested that toughening may be mainly caused by lignification and can affect the postharvest quality of the tested mushrooms. PMID:26593593

  9. The mushroom and the water lily: literary and pictorial evidence for Nymphaea as a ritual psychotogen in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Emboden, W A

    1982-03-01

    In reconstructing early uses of psychotogens in Mesoamerica, mushrooms have occupied the attention of botanists and anthropologists almost the exclusion of other plant motifs. Not all the images and literary fragments extant lend themselves to mycological interpretation. Some authors have interpreted the peltate leaves and flower buds of the psychotogen Nymphaea ampla as being green mushrooms and/or stalked sea shells. The context of presentation, information on the water lily in Maya antiquity, and recent information on the chemistry of this white water lily suggest that we must reassess the role of Nymphaea ampla. In a reevaluation of these ancient literary and iconographic sources, it would seem that both mushrooms and water lilies emerge as important ritual psychotogens. While the contextual use of mushrooms is well known, the water lily has been largely ignored. This presentation provides some perspective on both of these important New World narcotics. PMID:7035751

  10. Comparative study on the growth and yield of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom on different lignocellulosic by-products.

    PubMed

    Obodai, M; Cleland-Okine, J; Vowotor, K A

    2003-03-01

    Eight lignocellulosic by-products were evaluated as substrates for cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq. ex. fr) Kummer. The yields of mushroom on the different substrates were 183.1, 151.8, 111.5, 87.8, 49.5, 23.3, 13.0 and 0.0 g for composted sawdust of Triplochiton scleroxylon, rice straw, banana leaves, maize stover, corn husk, rice husk, fresh sawdust, and elephant grass, respectively. The biological efficiency (BE) followed the same pattern and ranged from 61.0% for composted sawdust to 0.0% for elephant grass. The yield of mushroom was positively correlated to cellulose ( r(2) =0.6), lignin ( r(2) =0.7) and fibre ( r(2) =0.7) contents of the substrates. Based on the yield and BE of the substrates tested, rice straw appeared to be the best alternate substrate for growing oyster mushrooms. PMID:12715251

  11. Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect.

    PubMed

    Drori, Ariel; Shabat, Yehudit; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Danay, Ofer; Levanon, Dan; Zolotarov, Lidya; Ilan, Yaron

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D has been known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts derived from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) edible mushroom exert an anti-inflammatory effect. These extracts contain high levels of ergosterol, which converts into ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) following exposure to ultraviolet light, followed by absorption and hydroxylation into the active form 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of overexpression of vitamin D in edible mushrooms, L. edodes mushrooms were exposed to ultraviolet-B light, freeze-dried, followed by measurement of vitamin D2 contents, in their dry weight. C57B1/6 mice were orally treated with vitamin D2-enriched or nonenriched mushroom extract prior and during concanavalin A-immune-mediated liver injury. Exposure to ultraviolet light increased vitamin D2 content in Shiitake edible mushrooms. Following feeding of vitamin D-enriched mushroom extracts to mice with immune-mediated hepatitis, a significant decrease in liver damage was noted. This was shown by a decrease in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels, a decrease in proportion of mice with severe liver injury, and by improvement in liver histology. These effects were associated with a decrease in serum interferon gamma levels. A synergistic effect was noted between the anti-inflammatory effect of the mushroom extracts and that of vitamin D. Oral administration of vitamin D-enriched L. edodes edible mushroom exerts a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect in the immune-mediated hepatitis. The data support its potential use as safe immunomodulatory adjuvant for the treatment of HCV and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:27027234

  12. Temperature-Dependent Development and Reproductive Traits of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) Reared on Different Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Qu, S X; Li, H P; Ma, L; Song, J D; Hou, L J; Lin, J S

    2015-04-01

    China is the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of mushrooms in the world. The storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank, is one of the most important arthropod pests in mushroom cultivation. This study investigated the development and reproductive traits of this mite reared on four mushroom species: Agaricus bisporus Lange, Pleurotus ostreatus Kumm, Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc., and Flammulina velutipes (Fr.) Sing., at seven constant temperatures ranging from 16 to 34 °C at 80% relative humidity. Development time for the immature stages decreased with increasing temperature, and was also significantly affected by mushroom species. The shortest immature developmental period (7.0 ± 0.2 d) was observed at 31 °C when reared on F. velutipes, while the longest development was at 16 °C (36.0 ± 0.3 d) reared on P. ostreatus. The effects of temperature and mushroom hosts on the development, female longevity, and reproduction were also significant. The lower threshold temperatures from egg-to-adult for the four mushroom species were 11.97, 12.02, 10.80, and 11.57 °C, for A. bisporus, P. ostreatus, Au. polytricha, and F. velutipes, and the thermal constants were 133.3, 136.8, 165.2, and 135.9 degree days (°C d), for the same mushroom species, respectively. Life table parameters at 25 °C were estimated as follows: net reproductive rates (R0), 59.16, 28.94, 42.62, and 62.93, and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), 0.24, 0.13, 0.17, and 0.24, respectively. These results suggest that these mushrooms are suitable hosts for T. putrescentiae, and the storage mite may be able to adapt to higher temperatures. PMID:26313193

  13. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23

  14. Disposal of agro-industrial by-products by organic cultivation of the culinary and medicinal mushroom Hypsizygus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Akavia, E; Beharav, A; Wasser, S P; Nevo, E

    2009-05-01

    Organic mushroom cultivation is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. At the core of the organic philosophy lies a ban on the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, in addition to such tenets as animal welfare, energy efficiency, and social justice. Hypsizygus marmoreus (HM) is a highly praised cultivated culinary and medicinal mushroom. The objective of this paper was to assess the suitability of different spawn media and then the potential of various cultivation substrates to support HM mushroom production compatible with organic standards. This objective was met through the setup of a low-cost cultivation infrastructure. First, seven types of spawn media were tested; then we tested 24 substrates made from organic by-products for their biological efficiency (BE) with strain HM 830, using the liquid inoculation method. The best substrate in terms of BE was corn cob with bran and olive press cake, with a BE of 85.6%. The BE of the same composition but without olive press cake was only 67.5%. The next best substrates were cotton straw combinations with a BE of 31.5-53%. The spent mushroom substrate provides a good method for the disposal of solid waste. The guidance provided in this research complies with organic mushroom cultivation standards and can be used to produce certified organic mushrooms. In addition, it allows responsible and beneficial disposal of a large amount of solid agro-industrial waste. PMID:19131235

  15. Influence of customized cooking methods on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of selected species of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.).

    PubMed

    Tan, Yee-Shin; Baskaran, Asweni; Nallathamby, Neeranjini; Chua, Kek-Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional value of cooked food has been considered to be lower compared to the fresh produce. However, many reports showed that processed fruits and vegetables including mushrooms may retain antioxidant activity. Pleurotus spp. as one of the edible mushroom are in great demand globally and become one of the most popular mushrooms grown worldwide with 25-fold increase in production from 1960-2009. The effects of three different cooking methods (boiling, microwave and pressure cooking) on the antioxidant activities of six different types of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii, P citrinopileatus, P. cystidiosus P. flabellatus, P. floridanus and P. pulmonarius) were assessed. Free radical scavenging (DPPH) and reducing power (TEAC) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activities and the total phenolic contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Pressure cooking improved the scavenging abilities of P. floridanus (>200 %), P. flabellatus (117.6 %), and P. pulmonarius (49.1 %) compared to the uncooked samples. On the other hand, the microwaved Pleurotus eryngii showed 17 % higher in the TEAC value when compared to the uncooked sample. There was, however, no correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. There could be presence of other bioactive components in the processed mushrooms that may have contributed to the antioxidant activity. These results suggested that customized cooking method can be used to enhance the nutritional value of mushrooms and promote good health. PMID:25892809

  16. Bioremediation of vegetable and agrowastes by Pleurotus ostreatus: a novel strategy to produce edible mushroom with enhanced yield and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus was grown on paddy straw as well as other vegetable and agricultural wastes i.e. pea pod shell, cauliflower leaves, radish leaves and brassica straw in various combinations with paddy straw. The mushroom did not grow on the vegetable wastes separately. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency of the edible oyster mushroom P. ostreatus grown on substrate containing paddy straw in various combinations with different vegetable wastes i.e. 20% and 30 % vegetable wastes mixed with 80% and 70% (w/w) of paddy straw was found to be better, when compared with yield and biological efficiency obtained on paddy straw (100%) alone. The protein content and six essential amino acid contents (Leu, Ile, Val, Thr, Met, Phe) showed a significant increase and total sugar and reducing sugar contents showed decrease in the mushroom fruit bodies grown at different combinations of vegetable wastes with paddy straw as compared to paddy straw alone. However, there was not any significant change in moisture content of mushroom cultivated on different groups of wastes. Hence, results of this investigation suggest that the vegetable wastes which are generally left to rot in situ in many cities and villages causing outbreak of diseases can be bioremediated by edible mushroom P. ostreatus. The added advantage is that we get edible mushroom fruit body with improved nutrition. PMID:25535705

  17. Disentangling visual and olfactory signals in mushroom-mimicking Dracula orchids using realistic three-dimensional printed flowers.

    PubMed

    Policha, Tobias; Davis, Aleah; Barnadas, Melinda; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Raguso, Robert A; Roy, Bitty A

    2016-05-01

    Flowers use olfactory and visual signals to communicate with pollinators. Disentangling the relative contributions and potential synergies between signals remains a challenge. Understanding the perceptual biases exploited by floral mimicry illuminates the evolution of these signals. Here, we disentangle the olfactory and visual components of Dracula lafleurii, which mimics mushrooms in size, shape, color and scent, and is pollinated by mushroom-associated flies. To decouple signals, we used three-dimensional printing to produce realistic artificial flower molds that were color matched and cast using scent-free surgical silicone, to which we could add scent. We used GC-MS to measure scents in co-occurring mushrooms, and related orchids, and used these scents in field experiments. By combining silicone flower parts with real floral organs, we created chimeras that identified the mushroom-like labellum as a source of volatile attraction. In addition, we showed remarkable overlap in the volatile chemistry between D. lafleurii and co-occurring mushrooms. The characters defining the genus Dracula - a mushroom-like, 'gilled' labellum and a showy, patterned calyx - enhance pollinator attraction by exploiting the visual and chemosensory perceptual biases of drosophilid flies. Our techniques for the manipulation of complex traits in a nonmodel system not conducive to gene silencing or selective breeding are useful for other systems. PMID:26877229

  18. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors. PMID:27611778

  19. Inoculation density and nutrient level determine the formation of mushroom-shaped structures in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Azadeh; Dehghany, Jaber; Schwebs, Timo; Müsken, Mathias; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa often colonises immunocompromised patients and the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. It exhibits resistance to many antibiotics by forming biofilms, which makes it hard to eliminate. P. aeruginosa biofilms form mushroom-shaped structures under certain circumstances. Bacterial motility and the environment affect the eventual mushroom morphology. This study provides an agent-based model for the bacterial dynamics and interactions influencing bacterial biofilm shape. Cell motility in the model relies on recently published experimental data. Our simulations show colony formation by immotile cells. Motile cells escape from a single colony by nutrient chemotaxis and hence no mushroom shape develops. A high number density of non-motile colonies leads to migration of motile cells onto the top of the colonies and formation of mushroom-shaped structures. This model proposes that the formation of mushroom-shaped structures can be predicted by parameters at the time of bacteria inoculation. Depending on nutrient levels and the initial number density of stalks, mushroom-shaped structures only form in a restricted regime. This opens the possibility of early manipulation of spatial pattern formation in bacterial colonies, using environmental factors. PMID:27611778

  20. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time. PMID:26846304

  1. Biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using vanillin as an activator.

    PubMed

    Tsujiyama, S; Muraoka, T; Takada, N

    2013-07-01

    The white-rot shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, was used to degrade an environmentally hazardous compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), using vanillin as an activator. Vanillin increased the mycelial growth from 74 to 118 mg/150 ml culture and accelerated laccase and Mn-peroxidase production from the maximum on days 24-28 without vanillin to days 10-14. It eliminated 92% of 100 mM DCP with 50 mg vanillin/l compared with only 15% without vanillin. GC-MS revealed that a diaryl ether dimer of DCP was formed in the culture without vanillin, whereas dimer formation was diminished with vanillin addition. This indicates that vanillin enhances the degradation of DCP and disrupts the formation of the toxic dimer. Therefore, lignin-derived phenol such as vanillin can be used as natural and eco-friendly activators to control white-rot mushrooms, thereby facilitating the effective degradation of environmentally hazardous compounds. PMID:23515893

  2. Performance of an active paper based on cinnamon essential oil in mushrooms quality.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Y; Nerín, C

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity of two active papers (based on solid and emulsion paraffin) with cinnamon essential oil was studied. Mushroom samples were introduced in macroperforated PET trays covered with the active papers, and weight loss and browning monitored for 9 days. The antioxidant capacity of the different papers was evaluated based on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and tyrosinase inhibition kinetics, and the release of aromatic volatile oils was determined by HSPME-GC-MS. Differences in performance were observed: the active papers were more efficient at avoiding weight loss and mushroom browning when compared to the non-active paraffin-based papers. The efficiency increased when the bottom and walls of the trays were covered rather than the bottom alone. Better results were observed when cinnamon was incorporated as emulsion paraffin instead of a solid. PMID:25306314

  3. Cosmetic benefits of natural ingredients: mushrooms, feverfew, tea, and wheat complex.

    PubMed

    Bowe, Whitney P

    2013-09-01

    Natural ingredients are frequently used in an effort to address cosmetic concerns such as fine lines, wrinkles, uneven tone, and texture. Many of these ingredients found in nature possess potent antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Some, such as mushroom extracts, are even capable of accelerating the skin turnover rate and repairing dermal molecular components that provide structure and elasticity to the skin. Others, such as green tea, provide photoprotection against ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. In this manuscript, the cosmetic benefits of mushrooms, feverfew, and tea are discussed in the context of their ability to improve the appearance of the skin. The healing effects that wheat complex can have on damaged hair are also addressed. PMID:24002162

  4. Novel Compact Mushroom-Type EBG Structure for Electromagnetic Coupling Reduction of Microstrip Antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lizhong; Wang, Guangming; Liang, Jiangang; Zhang, Chenxin

    2015-03-01

    A novel compact electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure consisting of two turns complementary spiral resonator (CSR) and conventional mushroom EBG (CM-EBG) structure is introduced to suppress the mutual coupling in antenna arrays for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) applications. Eigenmode calculation is used to investigate the proposed CSR-loaded mushroom-type EBG (MT-EBG), which proved to exhibit bandgap property and a miniaturization of 48.9% is realized compared with the CM-EBG. By inserting the proposed EBG structure between two E-plane coupled microstrip antennas, a mutual coupling reduction of 8.13 dB has been achieved numerically and experimentally. Moreover, the EBG-loaded antenna has better far-field radiation patterns compared with the reference antenna. Thus, this novel EBG structure with advantages of compactness and high decoupling efficiency opens an avenue to new types of antennas with super performances.

  5. [General structure of the mushroom body calyx in brachycera orthorrhapha flies (Diptera)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2009-01-01

    The mushroom body calyx in Brachycera Orthorrhapha flies is extremely diverse in the degree of development. In general, the calyx has the anterior, posterior, and dorsal lobes, as well as "sleeves" of glomerular neuropil surrounding Kenyon cell fibers. The anterior lobe of the calyx is found in all species studied. The most complex structure of the calyx is characteristic of the families Empididae and especially Bombyliidae, in which it has all the parts listed above. Brachycera Orthorrhapha flies have three fiber bundles of Kenyon cells, in contrast to four bundles in Drosophila flies. It is assumed that each mushroom body in Brachycera Orthorrhapha flies is formed by descendants of three single neuroblasts. PMID:19548617

  6. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) increase in the content of total free amino acids and the relative content of sulfur compounds of dried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms. PMID:26617008

  7. Isolation of Fungal Pathogens to an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, and Development of Specific ITS Primers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sinil; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Park, Ju-Wan; Ro, Hyeon-Su

    2013-12-01

    Fungal pathogens have caused severe damage to the commercial production of Pleurotus eryngii, the king oyster mushroom, by reducing production yield, causing deterioration of commercial value, and shortening shelf-life. Four strains of pathogenic fungi, including Trichoderma koningiopsis DC3, Phomopsis sp. MP4, Mucor circinelloides MP5, and Cladosporium bruhnei MP6, were isolated from the bottle culture of diseased P. eryngii. A species-specific primer set was designed for each fungus from the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 sequences. PCR using the ITS primer set yielded a unique DNA band for each fungus without any cross-reaction, proving the validity of our method in detection of mushroom fungal pathogens. PMID:24493949

  8. Biotechnology of morel mushrooms: successful fruiting body formation and development in a soilless system.

    PubMed

    Masaphy, Segula

    2010-10-01

    Morchella spp. ascocarps (morels) are some of the world's most sought-after mushrooms. Successful cultivation of morels is still a rare and difficult task despite over 100 years of effort. Here we provide the first report of successful Morchella rufobrunnea fruiting body initiation and development in laboratory-scale experiments. Mushroom initials appeared 2 to 4 weeks after first watering of pre-grown sclerotia incubated at 16 to 22°C and 90% humidity. Mature fruiting bodies reached 7 to 15 cm in length and were obtained after the five morphological developmental stages of this Morchella species: sclerotium formation, scelerotium germination, asexual spore formation, formation of initial knots and development of the fruiting body. PMID:20563623

  9. Uptake of certain heavy metals from contaminated soil by mushroom--Galerina vittiformis.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Dilna; Vidya Shetty, K; Raj Mohan, B

    2014-06-01

    Remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals has received considerable attention in recent years. In this study, the heavy metal uptake potential of the mushroom, Galerina vittiformis, was studied in soil artificially contaminated with Cu (II), Cd (II), Cr (VI), Pb (II) and Zn (II) at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/kg. G. vittiformis was found to be effective in removing the metals from soil within 30 days. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both mycelia and fruiting bodies with respect to these heavy metals at 50mg/kg concentrations were found to be greater than one, indicating hyper accumulating nature by the mushroom. The metal removal rates by G. vittiformis was analyzed using different kinetic rate constants and found to follow the second order kinetic rate equation except for Cd (II), which followed the first order rate kinetics. PMID:24655915

  10. Some macronutrient content in mycelia and culture broth of medicinal mushrooms cultivated on amaranth flour.

    PubMed

    Krupodorova, Tetiana A; Barshteyn, Viktor Yu; Bisko, Nina A; Ivanova, Tetiana S

    2012-01-01

    The content of proteins, lipids, and amino and fatty acids was investigated in mycelium and culture broth of medicinal mushrooms Cordyceps sinensis, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Schizophyllum commune. Seven essential amino acids were present in the proteins of all mushroom samples, with aspartic (6.34%-14.29%) and glutamic (15.12%-17.51%) acids predominating in culture mycelium and glutamic acid (16.3%-19.1%) in culture broth. Lipids in the mycelium of species C. sinensis, P. ostreatus, and Sch. Commune consisted of 10 fatty acids and 12 fatty acids in culture broth in our experiments. Major acids in culture mycelium and culture broth of fungi were linoleic (42.43%-67.41%), oleic (10.47%-32.54%), and palmitic (16.43%-20.33%). The proteins and lipids in culture broth of studied species contained a higher level of total non-essential amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids as compared to those in culture mycelium. PMID:22577978

  11. Using an Insect Mushroom Body Circuit to Encode Route Memory in Complex Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Ardin, Paul; Peng, Fei; Mangan, Michael; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos; Webb, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Ants, like many other animals, use visual memory to follow extended routes through complex environments, but it is unknown how their small brains implement this capability. The mushroom body neuropils have been identified as a crucial memory circuit in the insect brain, but their function has mostly been explored for simple olfactory association tasks. We show that a spiking neural model of this circuit originally developed to describe fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) olfactory association, can also account for the ability of desert ants (Cataglyphis velox) to rapidly learn visual routes through complex natural environments. We further demonstrate that abstracting the key computational principles of this circuit, which include one-shot learning of sparse codes, enables the theoretical storage capacity of the ant mushroom body to be estimated at hundreds of independent images. PMID:26866692

  12. Isolation of Fungal Pathogens to an Edible Mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii, and Development of Specific ITS Primers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Kim, Sinil; Lee, Hyun-Jun; Park, Ju-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Fungal pathogens have caused severe damage to the commercial production of Pleurotus eryngii, the king oyster mushroom, by reducing production yield, causing deterioration of commercial value, and shortening shelf-life. Four strains of pathogenic fungi, including Trichoderma koningiopsis DC3, Phomopsis sp. MP4, Mucor circinelloides MP5, and Cladosporium bruhnei MP6, were isolated from the bottle culture of diseased P. eryngii. A species-specific primer set was designed for each fungus from the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 sequences. PCR using the ITS primer set yielded a unique DNA band for each fungus without any cross-reaction, proving the validity of our method in detection of mushroom fungal pathogens. PMID:24493949

  13. Using an Insect Mushroom Body Circuit to Encode Route Memory in Complex Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Michael; Lagogiannis, Konstantinos; Webb, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Ants, like many other animals, use visual memory to follow extended routes through complex environments, but it is unknown how their small brains implement this capability. The mushroom body neuropils have been identified as a crucial memory circuit in the insect brain, but their function has mostly been explored for simple olfactory association tasks. We show that a spiking neural model of this circuit originally developed to describe fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) olfactory association, can also account for the ability of desert ants (Cataglyphis velox) to rapidly learn visual routes through complex natural environments. We further demonstrate that abstracting the key computational principles of this circuit, which include one-shot learning of sparse codes, enables the theoretical storage capacity of the ant mushroom body to be estimated at hundreds of independent images. PMID:26866692

  14. Effect of counterface roughness on adhesion of mushroom-shaped microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Kasem, Haytam; Varenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the substrate roughness on adhesion of mushroom-shaped microstructure was experimentally investigated. To do so, 12 substrates having different isotropic roughness were prepared from the same material by replicating topography of different surfaces. The pull-off forces generated by mushroom-shaped microstructure in contact with the tested substrates were measured and compared with the pull-off forces generated by a smooth reference. It was found that classical roughness parameters, such as average roughness (Ra) and others, cannot be used to explain topography-related variation in pull-off force. This has led us to the development of an integrated roughness parameter capable of explaining results of pull-off measurements. Using this parameter, we have also found that there is a critical roughness, above which neither smooth nor microstructured surface could generate any attachment force, which may have important implications on design of both adhesive and anti-adhesive surfaces. PMID:23925984

  15. Phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) influence mushroom tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lejczak, B; Kafarski, P; Makowiecka, E

    1987-01-01

    A series of phosphonic analogues of tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) were synthesized in order to study their interaction with mushroom tyrosinase. 1-Amino-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid and 1-amino-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylphosphonic acid turned out to be substrates for mushroom tyrosinase with Km values of 3.3 mM and 9.3 mM respectively. Shortening of the alkyl chain by one methylene group gave amino-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylphosphonic acid, one of the most powerful known inhibitors of this enzyme. This compound, racemic as well as in its optically active forms, exerts a mixed type of inhibition with an affinity for the enzyme one order of magnitude greater than that of the natural substrate. PMID:3109385

  16. A patient with mushroom allergy; a new etiological agent of Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Dağdeviren, Bahadır; Bulut, İsmet; Karabay, Can Yücel; Barış, Safa; Aydıner Karakoç, Elif

    2016-06-01

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is a rarely diagnosed condition which should always be kept in mind when an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) happens in the context of anaphylactic reactions. We report a case of a 31-year old female; 2 hours after the ingestion of the mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus); she experienced nausea, stomachache, vomiting, dyspnea and chest pain. Electrocardiogram (ECG) showed an ST segment elevation in D1, AVL, precordial leads V1-V4. The blood analysis revealed high levels of CK-MB fraction and troponin T values. The diagnosis of Kounis syndrome was made in the catheterization laboratory via the complete resolution of angina, along with electrocardiographic changes that took place after intracoronary nitrate therapy and skin prick to prick test positivism with the mushroom. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a type I variant of Kounis syndrome due to Pleurotus ostreatus allergy reported so far. PMID:27481084

  17. Chemical composition of the tiger's milk mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden, from different developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Lau, Beng Fye; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2013-05-22

    The chemical composition of the tiger's milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerotis) from different developmental stages, i.e., the fruit body, sclerotium, and mycelium, was investigated for the first time. The fruit body and sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis were rich in carbohydrates and dietary fibers but low in fat. Protein levels in L. rhinocerotis were moderate, and all essential amino acids, except tryptophan, were present. The mycelium contained high levels of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, riboflavin, and niacin and appreciable amounts of essential fatty acids. The results indicated that the sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis that was used in ethnomedicine was not superior to the fruit body and mycelium with regard to the nutritional content and bioactive constituents. Our findings provide some insights into the selection of appropriate mushroom part(s) of L. rhinocerotis and proper cultivation techniques for the development of new nutraceuticals or dietary supplements. PMID:23597270

  18. Functional nutraceutical profiling of wild edible and medicinal mushrooms consumed by ethnic tribes in India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2015-01-01

    Wild edible mushrooms occupy an important place in the traditional food habits of the ethnic tribes of India. Specimens collected from the forests and local markets of Meghalaya, India were affiliated to ten different species. The mushroom extracts were analyzed for nutrient and mineral compositions along with phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and lycopene. These extracts were also investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. Fungal extracts were found to be rich in nutrients and minerals, and exhibited potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities under assay conditions. The nutrient profiles generated for each of these ten species revealed them to be rich sources of functional nutraceuticals. PMID:25746624

  19. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  20. Effect of packaging materials on the chemical composition and microbiological quality of edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) grown on cassava peels.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oluwakemi; Obadina, Adewale; Idowu, Micheal; Adegunwa, Mojisola; Kajihausa, Olatundun; Sanni, Lateef; Asagbra, Yemisi; Ashiru, Bolanle; Tomlins, Keith

    2015-07-01

    Edible fungi such as mushrooms are highly perishable and deteriorate few days after harvest due to its high moisture content and inability to maintain their physiological status. In this study, the effect of packaging materials on the nutritional composition of mushroom cultivated from cassava peels was investigated. Mushroom samples were dried at 50°C in a cabinet dryer for 8 h. The dried mushroom samples packaged in four different packaging materials; high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), laminated aluminum foil (LAF), high density polyethylene under vacuum (HDPEV) were stored at freezing (0°C) temperatures for 12 weeks. Samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analyzed for proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, fat, fiber, ash, moisture), mineral content (calcium, potassium), vitamin C content, and microbiological qualities (total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, Coliform count, Staphylococcal count, Salmonella count) using the standard laboratory procedures. Carbohydrate, protein, fat content of dried mushrooms packaged in HDPE at freezing temperature ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.0% to 20.3%, and 3.2% to 4.3%, while mushrooms in polypropylene ranged from 45.2% to 53.5%, 18.5% to 20.3%, 2.6% to 4.3%. Carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in LAF ranged from 47.8% to 53.5%, 17.3% to 20.3%, and 3.3% to 4.3%, respectively, while carbohydrate, protein, fat of mushroom in HDPEV ranged from 51.1% to 53.5%, 19.5% to 20.3%, and 3.5% to 4.3%. Microbiological analysis showed that total aerobic count, Pseudomonal count, and Staphyloccocal count of dried mushroom ranged from 2.3 to 3.8 log cfu/g, 0.6 to 1.1 log cfu/g, and 0.4 to 0.5 log cfu/g, respectively. In conclusion, dried mushroom in HDPE packaged under vacuum at freezing temperature retained the nutritional constituents than those packaged with other packaging materials. PMID:26288720

  1. Sequencing and comparative analysis of the straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) genome.

    PubMed

    Bao, Dapeng; Gong, Ming; Zheng, Huajun; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Jianping; Wu, Lin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Gang; Zhou, Yan; Li, Chuanhua; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Guoping; Tan, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom, is a highly nutritious food source that is widely cultivated on a commercial scale in many parts of Asia using agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton wastes) as growth substrates. However, developments in V. volvacea cultivation have been limited due to a low biological efficiency (i.e. conversion of growth substrate to mushroom fruit bodies), sensitivity to low temperatures, and an unclear sexuality pattern that has restricted the breeding of improved strains. We have now sequenced the genome of V. volvacea and assembled it into 62 scaffolds with a total genome size of 35.7 megabases (Mb), containing 11,084 predicted gene models. Comparative analyses were performed with the model species in basidiomycete on mating type system, carbohydrate active enzymes, and fungal oxidative lignin enzymes. We also studied transcriptional regulation of the response to low temperature (4°C). We found that the genome of V. volvacea has many genes that code for enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The molecular genetics of the mating type system in V. volvacea was also found to be similar to the bipolar system in basidiomycetes, suggesting that it is secondary homothallism. Sensitivity to low temperatures could be due to the lack of the initiation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, trehalose and glycogen biosyntheses in this mushroom. Genome sequencing of V. volvacea has improved our understanding of the biological characteristics related to the degradation of the cultivating compost consisting of agricultural waste, the sexual reproduction mechanism, and the sensitivity to low temperatures at the molecular level which in turn will enable us to increase the industrial production of this mushroom. PMID:23526973

  2. Diversity of Polypore Bracket Mushrooms, Polyporales (Agaricomycetes), Recorded in Armenia and Their Medicinal Properties.

    PubMed

    Badalyan, Susanna M; Gharibyan, Narine G

    2016-01-01

    The list of polypore bracket mushrooms (Polyporales) recorded in Armenia is presented. The order Polyporales in Armenia is currently represented by 87 species (4 varieties) belonging to 47 genera. Information regarding the study of the medicinal properties (e.g., antifungal, antibacterial, mitogenic, regenerative, antioxidant, proteolytic) of genetically identified mycelial collections of several polypore species-mainly from the genera Daedalea, Fomes, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Laetiporus, Piptoporus, Polyporus, and Trametes-is reported, as well. PMID:27481301

  3. DNA Sequence Analyses Reveal Abundant Diversity, Endemism and Evidence for Asian Origin of the Porcini Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bang; Xu, Jianping; Wu, Gang; Zeng, Nian-Kai; Li, Yan-Chun; Tolgor, Bau; Kost, Gerhard W.; Yang, Zhu L.

    2012-01-01

    The wild gourmet mushroom Boletus edulis and its close allies are of significant ecological and economic importance. They are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but despite their ubiquity there are still many unresolved issues with regard to the taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this group of mushrooms. Most phylogenetic studies of Boletus so far have characterized samples from North America and Europe and little information is available on samples from other areas, including the ecologically and geographically diverse regions of China. Here we analyzed DNA sequence variation in three gene markers from samples of these mushrooms from across China and compared our findings with those from other representative regions. Our results revealed fifteen novel phylogenetic species (about one-third of the known species) and a newly identified lineage represented by Boletus sp. HKAS71346 from tropical Asia. The phylogenetic analyses support eastern Asia as the center of diversity for the porcini sensu stricto clade. Within this clade, B. edulis is the only known holarctic species. The majority of the other phylogenetic species are geographically restricted in their distributions. Furthermore, molecular dating and geological evidence suggest that this group of mushrooms originated during the Eocene in eastern Asia, followed by dispersal to and subsequent speciation in other parts of Asia, Europe, and the Americas from the middle Miocene through the early Pliocene. In contrast to the ancient dispersal of porcini in the strict sense in the Northern Hemisphere, the occurrence of B. reticulatus and B. edulis sensu lato in the Southern Hemisphere was probably due to recent human-mediated introductions. PMID:22629418

  4. Accumulation factors of mercury in mushrooms from Zaborski Landscape Park, Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Lipka, Krzysztof; Gucia, Magdalena; Kawano, Masahide; Strumnik, Katarzyna; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2002-11-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 117 samples of caps, 117 of stalks and 47 of whole fruiting bodies of 13 species of wild mushrooms and in 164 underlying soil substrate collected from Zaborski Landscape Park during 1997 and 1998. The study area is a background, forested site with rural landscape and no known local sources of mercury emission. Mean mercury concentrations in mushrooms varied widely (range: 50 +/- 20 to 3700 +/- 1700 ng/g, dry matter) depending on the site and mushroom species investigated. However, mercury concentrations in soil samples varied less (range: 3.0 +/- 3.0 to 43 +/- 17 ng/g dry matter). Fruiting bodies of Common Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum) and King Bolete (Boletus edulis) contained the greatest concentrations of mercury of 3700 +/- 1700 and 2600 +/- 1200 ng/g dry matter, respectively. A positive correlation existed between mercury concentrations in the caps of Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria) (p < 0.01) and mercury concentrations in corresponding soils. However, concentrations of mercury in The Sickener (Russula emetica) was negatively correlated with its soil substrate (p < 0.01). Bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations ratios of mercury in mushroom to soil) of total mercury in whole fruiting bodies or caps were greatest for Common Puffball (L. perlatum), Larch Bolete (Suillus grevillei) and King Bolete (B. edulis) and varied between 130 +/- 78 and 160 +/- 120, while for the other species BCFs were between 4.0 +/- 6.0 and 61 +/- 20 in caps, and 4.4 +/- 3.1 and 70 +/- 68 in stalks. The concentration ratios of Hg in cap to stalk were from 1.1 +/- 0.5 for Poison Pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.7 +/- 1.7 in Larch Bolete (S. grevillei). PMID:12437292

  5. Gymnopeptides A and B, Cyclic Octadecapeptides from the Mushroom Gymnopus fusipes.

    PubMed

    Ványolós, Attila; Dékány, Miklós; Kovács, Bernadett; Krámos, Balázs; Bérdi, Péter; Zupkó, István; Hohmann, Judit; Béni, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    Mycochemical study of the mushroom Gymnopus fusipes led to the discovery of two new cyclopeptides. The two compounds, named as gymnopeptides A and B, are unprecedented highly N-methylated cyclic octadecapeptides. Detailed spectroscopic studies, Marfey's analysis, and a preliminary molecular modeling study suggested that both are natural cyclic β hairpins. The isolated compounds exhibited striking antiproliferative activity on several human cancer cell lines, with nanomolar IC50 values. PMID:27194202

  6. Efficiency of treatments for controlling Trichoderma spp during spawning in cultivation of lignicolous mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Colavolpe, María Belén; Mejía, Santiago Jaramillo; Albertó, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp is the cause of the green mold disease in mushroom cultivation production. Many disinfection treatments are commonly applied to lignocellulose substrates to prevent contamination. Mushroom growers are usually worried about the contaminations that may occur after these treatments during handling or spawning. The aim of this paper is to estimate the growth of the green mold Trichoderma sp on lignocellulose substrates after different disinfection treatments to know which of them is more effective to avoid contamination during spawning phase. Three different treatments were assayed: sterilization (121 °C), immersion in hot water (60 and 80 °C), and immersion in alkalinized water. Wheat straw, wheat seeds and Eucalyptus or Populus sawdust were used separately as substrates. After the disinfection treatments, bagged substrates were sprayed with 3 mL of suspension of conidia of Trichoderma sp (105 conidia/mL) and then separately spawned with Pleurotus ostreatus or Gymnopilus pampeanus. The growth of Trichoderma sp was evaluated based on a qualitative scale. Trichoderma sp could not grow on non-sterilized substrates. Immersions in hot water treatments and immersion in alkalinized water were also unfavorable treatments for its growth. Co- cultivation with mushrooms favored Trichoderma sp growth. Mushroom cultivation disinfection treatments of lignocellulose substrates influence on the growth of Trichoderma sp when contaminations occur during spawning phase. The immersion in hot water at 60 °C for 30 min or in alkalinized water for 36 h, are treatments which better reduced the contaminations with Trichoderma sp during spawning phase for the cultivation of lignicolous species. PMID:25763030

  7. Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Straw Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) Genome

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Dapeng; Gong, Ming; Zheng, Huajun; Chen, Mingjie; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Jianping; Wu, Lin; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zhu, Gang; Zhou, Yan; Li, Chuanhua; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Guoping; Tan, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Volvariella volvacea, the edible straw mushroom, is a highly nutritious food source that is widely cultivated on a commercial scale in many parts of Asia using agricultural wastes (rice straw, cotton wastes) as growth substrates. However, developments in V. volvacea cultivation have been limited due to a low biological efficiency (i.e. conversion of growth substrate to mushroom fruit bodies), sensitivity to low temperatures, and an unclear sexuality pattern that has restricted the breeding of improved strains. We have now sequenced the genome of V. volvacea and assembled it into 62 scaffolds with a total genome size of 35.7 megabases (Mb), containing 11,084 predicted gene models. Comparative analyses were performed with the model species in basidiomycete on mating type system, carbohydrate active enzymes, and fungal oxidative lignin enzymes. We also studied transcriptional regulation of the response to low temperature (4°C). We found that the genome of V. volvacea has many genes that code for enzymes, which are involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. The molecular genetics of the mating type system in V. volvacea was also found to be similar to the bipolar system in basidiomycetes, suggesting that it is secondary homothallism. Sensitivity to low temperatures could be due to the lack of the initiation of the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, trehalose and glycogen biosyntheses in this mushroom. Genome sequencing of V. volvacea has improved our understanding of the biological characteristics related to the degradation of the cultivating compost consisting of agricultural waste, the sexual reproduction mechanism, and the sensitivity to low temperatures at the molecular level which in turn will enable us to increase the industrial production of this mushroom. PMID:23526973

  8. Outcomes of femtosecond laser-assisted mushroom-configuration keratoplasty in advanced keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Fung, S S M; Aiello, F; Maurino, V

    2016-04-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the long-term outcomes after femtosecond laser (FSL)-assisted mushroom-configuration keratoplasty in advanced keratoconus.Patients and methodsThirteen eyes with Amsler-Krumeich stage IV keratoconus underwent FSL-assisted mushroom-configuration penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) at a tertiary referral centre. Preoperative risk factors included low orneal thickness, high keratometry measurements, previous hydrops, and central stromal scarring. Main outcome measures were visual acuity and refractive outcome.ResultsThe median follow-up was 33 months (range: 4-43). Preoperatively, the mean corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 1.22±0.47 LogMAR (range: 0.5-1.9 LogMAR), mean minimum corneal thickness was 282±100.8 μm (range: 147-478 μm), and mean average keratometric (K) value was 63.4±7.63 dioptre (D; range: 57.0-75.7 D). Four patients underwent PKP and nine underwent DALK (two converted to PKP). Five patients subsequently underwent a modified arcuate mushroom interface dissection (AMID) procedure for astigmatic correction. At the final follow-up, the mean CDVA was 0.05±0.13 LogMAR (range: -0.10 to 0.20 LogMAR), mean spherical equivalent was -3.21±3.21D, mean cylindrical refractive error was 3.23±2.20 D, and mean average K was 43.1±1.53 D. Complications included early graft dehiscence, corneal vascularisation, stromal rejection, and sclerokeratitis. Sutures were completely removed at the mean 18.4 months for PKP and 9.1 months for DALK postoperatively.ConclusionFSL-assisted mushroom-configuration keratoplasty is feasible and safe in patients with stage IV keratoconus. AMID could further enhance the refractive outcome safely. PMID:26795410

  9. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of eight medicinal mushroom species from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong; Xu, Baojun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to verify antidiabetic effects of different types of mushrooms as folk medicines in treating diabetes. The antidiabetic effects were evaluated by in vitro α-glycosidase and aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory assays and antioxidant activity assay. Ganoderma lucidum extract exhibited the best dose-dependent inhibitory activity against α-glycosidase with IC50 at 4.88 mg/mL, and also exhibited aldose reductase inhibitory potential with IC50 value of 9.87 mg/mL. Tremella fuciformis demonstrated the highest AR inhibitory activity (IC50=8.39 mg/mL). Antioxidant activities of selected mushrooms were evaluated based on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The result showed that G. lucidum contained the highest TPC (39.3 mg GAE/g sample extract), TFC (15.1 mg CE/g sample extract), and the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50=3.66 mg/mL) among the mushroom samples. PMID:25746618

  10. Amelioration of Atherosclerosis by the New Medicinal Mushroom Grifola gargal Singer.

    PubMed

    Harada, Etsuko; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Toda, Masaaki; Morizono, Toshihiro; Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Urawa, Masahito; Yasuma, Taro; Yano, Yutaka; Sumiya, Toshimitsu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of edible mushrooms for improving chronic intractable diseases have been documented. However, the antiatherogenic activity of the new medicinal mushroom Grifola gargal is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether Grifola gargal can prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE lipoprotein-deficient mice by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II. Grifola gargal extract (GGE) was prepared and intraperitoneally injected. The weight of heart and vessels, dilatation/atheroma formation of thoracic and abdominal aorta, the percentage of peripheral granulocytes, and the blood concentration of MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly reduced in mice treated with GGE compared to untreated mice. By contrast, the percentage of regulatory T cells and the plasma concentration of SDF-1/CXCL12 were significantly increased in mice treated with the mushroom extract compared to untreated mice. In vitro, GGE significantly increased the secretion of SDF-1/CXCL12, VEGF, and TGF-β1 from fibroblasts compared to control. This study demonstrated for the first time that Grifola gargal therapy can enhance regulatory T cells and ameliorate atherosclerosis in mice. PMID:25799023

  11. Storage temperature and UV-irradiation influence on the ergosterol content in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Villares, Ana; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; García-Lafuente, Ana; Guillamón, Eva

    2014-03-15

    Ergosterol (5,7,22-ergostatrien-3β-ol) and ergosteryl derivatives from different genera of edible mushrooms were separated and quantified by an isocratic reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The technique allowed a rapid separation of free ergosterol and two ergosteryl derivatives occurring in mushrooms. The ergosterol content varied considerably depending on the fungus. Thus, the species Agaricus bisporus and Hygrophorus marzuolus presented high quantities of ergosterol (6.4-6.8 mg/g, dry matter) followed by Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe gambosa, Lentinus edodes, and Boletus edulis (3.3-4.0mg/g). In contrast, other species, such as Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus and Craterellus cornucopioides, contained significantly lower ergosterol amounts (0.2-0.4 mg/g). Two ergosteryl derivatives were found in mushrooms and also the content depended on the fungus. The stability of ergosterol, in terms of the formation of ergosterol peroxide, was evaluated under different storage temperatures and UV radiation. The lower the temperature (-20°C) and the radiation time (10 min), the lower ergosterol oxidation was observed. PMID:24206714

  12. Chemical composition and nutrition value of dried cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cağlarirmak, Necla

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fiber, raw fiber, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, vitamin A (retinol), B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), and niacin contents of dried cultivated mushroom species Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus were determined and evaluated for nutrient and chemical composition. Assays of dried mushroom samples were carried out after the drying process. Dried shiitake samples showed the highest dietary fiber and raw fiber content (23.23 +/- 0.018 and 9.71 +/- 0.039 microg/100 g, respectively). Mushrooms in this study were valuable sources of vitamins such as retinol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and niacin. A. bisporus contained the highest vitamin A content (43.93 +/- 1.85 microg/100 g) and shiitake had the highest contents of thiamine and pyridoxine (0.63 +/- 0.012 and 0.56 +/- 0.01 mg/100 g, respectively). Portobello had the highest riboflavin and niacin contents (0.90 +/- 0.015 and 8.37 +/- 0.17 mg/100 g, respectively). PMID:22164765

  13. Identification and Characterization of Trichoderma Species Damaging Shiitake Mushroom Bed-Logs Infested by Camptomyia Pest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Young; Kwon, Hyuk Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-05-28

    The shiitake mushroom industry has suffered from Camptomyia (gall midges) pest, which feeds on the mycelium of shiitake mushroom during its cultivation. It has been postulated that fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs is associated with infestation by the insect pest, but this is not well understood. To understand the fungal damage associated with Camptomyia pest, various Trichoderma species were isolated, identified, and characterized. In addition to two previously known Trichoderma species, T. citrinoviride and T. deliquescens, two other Trichoderma species, T. harzianum and T. atroviride, were newly identified from the pestinfested bed-log samples obtained at three mushroom farms in Cheonan, Korea. Among these four species, T. harzianum was the most evident. The results of a chromogenic media-based assay for extracellular enzymes showed that these four species have the ability to produce amylase, carboxyl-methyl cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase, thus indicating that they can degrade wood components. A dual culture assay on PDA indicated that T. harzianum, T. atroviride, and T. citrinoviride were antagonistic against the mycelial growth of a shiitake strain (Lentinula edodes). Inoculation tests on shiitake bed-logs revealed that all four species were able to damage the wood of bed-logs. Our results provide evidence that the four green mold species are the causal agents involved in fungal damage of shiitake bed-logs infested by Camptomyia pest. PMID:26930351

  14. 4-Hydroxy cinnamic acid as mushroom preservation: Anti-tyrosinase activity kinetics and application.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yong-Hua; Chen, Qing-Xi; Cui, Yi; Gao, Huan-Juan; Xu, Lian; Yu, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Ying; Yan, Chong-Ling; Wang, Qin

    2016-05-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in post-harvest browning of fruit and vegetable. To control and inhibit its activity is the most effective method for delaying the browning and extend the shelf life. In this paper, the inhibitory kinetics of 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid on mushroom tyrosinase was investigated using the kinetics method of substrate reaction. The results showed that the inhibition of tyrosinase by 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid was a slow, reversible reaction with fractional remaining activity. The microscopic rate constants were determined for the reaction on 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid with tyrosinase. Furthermore, the molecular docking was used to simulate 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid dock with tyrosinase. The results showed that 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid interacted with the enzyme active site mainly through the hydroxy competed with the substrate hydroxy group. The cytotoxicity study of 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid indicated that it had no effects on the proliferation of normal liver cells. Moreover, the results of effects of 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid on the preservation of mushroom showed that it could delay the mushroom browning. These results provide a comprehensive underlying the inhibitory mechanisms of 4-hydroxy cinnamic acid and its delaying post-harvest browning, that is beneficial for the application of this compound. PMID:26812105

  15. Mushroom cryopreservation and its effect on survival, yield and genetic stability.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Upadhyay, R C; Kamal, Shwet; Tiwari, Mugdha

    2004-01-01

    Mycelial stock cultures of Agaricus bisporus, A. Bitorquis, Pleurotus flabellatus, P. Sajor-caju, P. Ostreatus, P. Sapidus, Auricularia polytricha, Lentinula edodes, Morchella esculenta and Volvariella volvacea were maintained by frequent subculturing at an interval of two months and separately as wheat grain spawn in liquid nitrogen with 15 percent glycerol. Preservation of mushroom stock cultures as wheat grain spawn under liquid nitrogen proved to be the better method of maintenance. The percent recoveries of stored samples were unchanged from the first recovery after six months to the last recovery after 42 months in nine out of 11 stock cultures preserved under liquid nitrogen. However, a marginal decline in survival of 10 % was recorded in Auricularia polytricha and Volvariella volvacea. Yields before preservation of mushroom stock cultures and after 30 months of preservation exhibited static biological efficiency and fruitbody weight. The comparison of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) PCR amplified products did not exhibit DNA fragment variation in banding patterns at the intraspecific level during preservation of stock cultures by either method. The modified cryopreservation protocol and experimental demonstration of genetic stability of stock cultures reported here validate the use of mushroom cryopreservation techniques and supports studies on genetic stability of preserved biological materials. PMID:15031742

  16. Method Development for the Determination of Free and Esterified Sterols in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Ergosterol is the major sterol in button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and can occur as free alcohol or esterified with fatty acids (ergosteryl esters). In this study, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM) was used to determine ergosterol and ergosteryl esters as well as other sterols and steryl esters in button mushrooms. Different quality control measures were established and sample preparation procedures were compared to prevent the formation of artifacts and the degradation of ergosteryl esters. The final method was then used for the determination of ergosterol (443 ± 44 mg/100 g dry matter (d.m.)) and esterified ergosterol (12 ± 6 mg/100 g d.m.) in button mushroom samples (n = 4). While the free sterol fraction was vastly dominated by ergosterol (∼90% of five sterols in total), the steryl ester fraction was more diversified (nine sterols in total, ergosterol ∼55%) and consisted primarily of linoleic acid esters. PMID:27064103

  17. Mushroom-type structures with the wires connected through diodes: Theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forouzmand, Ali; Kaipa, Chandra S. R.; Yakovlev, Alexander B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we establish a general formalism to quantify the interaction of electromagnetic waves with mushroom-type structures (high impedance surface and bi-layer) with diodes inserted along the direction of the wires. The analysis is carried out using the nonlocal homogenization model for the mushroom structure with the generalized additional boundary conditions at the connection of the wires to diodes. We calculate numerically the magnitude and phase of the reflected/transmitted fields in the presence of an ideal and realistic PIN diodes. It is observed that the reflection/transmission characteristics of the mushroom-type structures can be controlled by tuning the working states of the integrated PIN diodes. We realize a structure with a multi-diode switch to minimize the undesired transmission for a particular incident angle. In addition, a dual-band subwavelength imaging lens is designed based on the resonant amplification of evanescent waves, wherein the operating frequency can be tuned by changing the states of the PIN diodes. The analytical results are verified with the full-wave electromagnetic solver CST Microwave Studio, showing a good agreement.

  18. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  19. Nutritional composition of boletus mushrooms from Southwest China and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Di; You, Yuxian; Zeng, Siqi; Li, Yiwen; Tang, Qianqian; Han, Guoquan; Liu, Aiping; Feng, Chaohui; Li, Cheng; Su, Yujie; Su, Zhao; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-11-15

    Thirteen samples representing five species were collected from different provinces of Southwest China, and their chemical composition, antihyperglycemic activity, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. These mushrooms had high crude protein (21.72-30.59g/100g dw) and total carbohydrate (49.18-62.58g/100g dw) contents, but low crude fat contents (1.96-7.87g/100g dw). They also accumulated notable quantities of potassium, zinc, sodium, magnesium and copper from the soil. The potassium content, in particular, was 18.75-39.21 times that found in the soil at the collection site. The natural habitat of these mushrooms, especially the mineral content of the soil, seems to have more influence on the mineral content of these mushrooms than their species. Most of the samples possessed antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Suillellus luridus showed the highest antioxidant activity and antihyperglycemic activities, suggesting that S. luridus shows potential for development as a dietary nutritional supplement. PMID:27283610

  20. Valorization of solid olive mill wastes by cultivation of a local strain of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Mansour-Benamar, Malika; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Chavant, Louis

    2013-08-01

    Olive oil industry generates huge quantities of solid olive mill wastes (SOMW), causing environmental damage. Cultivation of edible mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus is a valuable approach for SOMW valorization. A local strain mycelium (Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria) of P. ostreatus (LPO) was isolated from castor oil plants. Oyster mushroom spawn, produced on barley grains, was used to inoculate wet SOMW, steamed in a traditional steamer during 45 min. The mycelium growth rate on SOMW was first estimated in Petri dish by measuring the surface colonized by the mycelium. The fruit body yields were estimated on culture bags containing 2 kg each of SOMW inoculated at 7% (w/w). The local strain potential was compared with that of a commercial one. Both strains produced high-quality mushrooms, but with low yields. The supplementation of the SOMW with wheat straw at the rate of 10% and 2% of CaCO3 had significantly enhanced the productivity of the two strains, multiplying it by 3.2 for LPO and by 2.6 for CPO. PMID:24018198