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Sample records for mussel candidate reference

  1. A shell regeneration assay to identify biomineralization candidate genes in mytilid mussels.

    PubMed

    Hüning, Anne K; Lange, Skadi M; Ramesh, Kirti; Jacob, Dorrit E; Jackson, Daniel J; Panknin, Ulrike; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Philipp, Eva E R; Rosenstiel, Philip; Lucassen, Magnus; Melzner, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Biomineralization processes in bivalve molluscs are still poorly understood. Here we provide an analysis of specifically expressed sequences from a mantle transcriptome of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. We then developed a novel, integrative shell injury assay to test, whether biomineralization candidate genes highly expressed in marginal and pallial mantle could be induced in central mantle tissue underlying the damaged shell areas. This experimental approach makes it possible to identify gene products that control the chemical micro-environment during calcification as well as organic matrix components. This is unlike existing methodological approaches that work retroactively to characterize calcification relevant molecules and are just able to examine organic matrix components that are present in completed shells. In our assay an orthogonal array of nine 1mm holes was drilled into the left valve, and mussels were suspended in net cages for 20, 29 and 36days to regenerate. Structural observations using stereo-microscopy, SEM and Raman spectroscopy revealed organic sheet synthesis (day 20) as the first step of shell-repair followed by the deposition of calcite crystals (days 20 and 29) and aragonite tablets (day 36). The regeneration period was characterized by time-dependent shifts in gene expression in left central mantle tissue underlying the injured shell, (i) increased expression of two tyrosinase isoforms (TYR3: 29-fold and TYR6: 5-fold) at day 20 with a decline thereafter, (ii) an increase in expression of a gene encoding a nacrein-like protein (max. 100-fold) on day 29. The expression of an acidic Asp-Ser-rich protein was enhanced during the entire regeneration process. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates that genes that are specifically expressed in pallial and marginal mantle tissue can be induced (4 out of 10 genes) in central mantle following experimental injury of the overlying shell. Our findings suggest that regeneration assays can be used

  2. Efficacy of candidate chemicals for preventing attachment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Marking, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven chemicals having potential for preventing the attachment of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were identified and tested. For each chemical, 15 zebra mussels (5-8-mm shell length) in each of two replicates and six treatments were exposed for 48 h followed by a 48-h postexposure period in untreated water. Eleven of the chemicals inhibited the reattachment of zebra mussels after the 48-h exposure; eight had EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 5.4 mg /L, and three had EC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 29.0 mg/L. Based on an analysis of chemical cost, solubility in water, anticipated treatment concentrations, and potential hazards to humans or the environment, three of the most promising chemicals, all antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], tert-butylhydroquinone, and tannic acid) were tested on nontarget fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). These chemicals were not selectively toxic to zebra mussels; only the tests with bluegill and BHA and with channel catfish and tannic acid had 48-h LC50 values greater than the concentrations effective for preventing the reattachment of zebra mussels. Although the attachment of zebra mussels can be prevented with selected antioxidants, an alternative formulation should be investigated to minimize effects on nontarget organisms, such as fish.

  3. Preparation and analysis of a frozen mussel tissue reference material for the determination of trace organic constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, S.A.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Christensen, R.G.; Koster, B.J.; Kurz, J.; Schantz, M.M.; Zeisler, R. )

    1991-10-01

    A new mussel tissue Standard Reference Material (SRM) has been prepared and analyzed for trace organic and inorganic constituents. SRM 1974 (Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis)) is a frozen mussel tissue homogenate that has been certified for the concentrations of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from results obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Noncertified concentrations for 19 additional PAHs are also reported. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection were used to provide noncertified concentrations for 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and 9 chlorinated pesticides. In addition to the organic contaminants, noncertified concentrations for 36 trace elements were determined primarily by instrumental neutron activation analysis. SRM 1974 is the first frozen tissue SRM for environmental measurements of organic and inorganic constituents.

  4. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  5. Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huolin; Chen, Sumei; Wan, Hongjian; Chen, Fadi; Gu, Chunsun; Liu, Zhaolei

    2010-09-01

    The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11) emerged as the most suitable reference genes. Across different tissues, ACT11 and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha) exhibited a stable expression pattern. ACT11 and AP47 also stably expressed in roots subjected to various treatments, but in the leaves of the same plants the most stably expressed genes were ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (UBC16) and ACT11. PMID:20452325

  6. A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Giddings, Sabrina D; Reeves, Kelley L; Hess, Philipp; Quilliam, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Azaspiracids (AZAs) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can contaminate shellfish and cause human illness. The European Union (EU) regulates the level of AZAs in shellfish destined for the commercial market, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being used as the official reference method for regulatory analysis. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools for the development, validation, and quality control of LC-MS methods. This paper describes the work that went into the planning, preparation, characterization, and certification of CRM-AZA-Mus, a tissue matrix CRM, which was prepared as a wet homogenate from mussels (Mytilus edulis) naturally contaminated with AZAs. The homogeneity and stability of CRM-AZA-Mus were evaluated, and the CRM was found to be fit for purpose. Extraction and LC-MS/MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of AZA1 (1.16 mg/kg), AZA2 (0.27 mg/kg), and AZA3 (0.21 mg/kg) in the CRM. Quantitation methods based on standard addition and matrix-matched calibration were used to compensate for the matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Other toxins present in this CRM at lower levels were also measured with information values reported for okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, yessotoxin, and several spirolides. PMID:25335820

  7. Long-term stability and temporal trends of organic contaminants in four collections of mussel tissue frozen standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Pugh, Rebecca S; Pol, Stacy S Vander; Wise, Stephen A

    2015-04-01

    The stability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides in frozen mussel tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) stored at -80 °C was assessed by analyzing samples of SRM 1974, SRM 1974a, and SRM 1974b Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis) periodically over 25 y, 20 y, and 12 y, respectively. The most recent analyses were performed during the certification of the fourth release of this material, SRM 1974c. Results indicate the concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants have not changed during storage at -80 °C. In addition, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) were quantified in each of the materials during this study. The stability information is important for on-going monitoring studies collecting large quantities of samples for future analyses (i.e., formally established specimen banking programs). Since all four mussel tissue SRMs were prepared from mussels collected at the same site in Dorchester Bay, MA, USA, the results provide a temporal trend study for these contaminants over a 17 year period (1987 to 2004). PMID:25711987

  8. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as "sufficient homogeneity", was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue.

  9. Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon Materials as Candidate Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method have been investigated in order to establish a thermal diffusivity standard. In many cases, thermal-conductivity values of bulk materials are calculated from the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density. The thermal diffusivity is one of the transport properties. It depends on the material and is sensitive to the structure. So, it is important to measure the thermal diffusivity of each material. The laser-flash method is one of the most popular methods for thermal-diffusivity measurements of bulk materials above room temperature. Because the method realizes a short-time method and is a non-contact method, it is very suitable for practical use. And it is known as a highly reliable measurement since one-dimensional heat diffusion phenomena observed in these measurements are simple. On the other hand, more reliable values measured by the method are important in the view of thermal design. According to the background, there is a need of a standard for thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method to obtain reliable thermal diffusivities. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in AIST has established reference materials for the laser-flash method and is supplying them. However, they are not sufficient to cover the whole range of thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thus, some candidate materials have been investigated to establish another reference material. Carbon materials are considered since it is preferable for the laser-flash method that the material is optically nontransparent and dark colored (ideally black). In this study, the thermal diffusivity of a pyrolytic graphite that is expected to be a candidate reference material for the laser-flash method is investigated. It was found that the intrinsic thermal diffusivities can be determined along the in-plane and cross-plane directions. The high thermal diffusivity of the in-plane direction, 1.19 × 10^{-3} m2

  10. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  11. The Predictive Validity of Teacher Candidate Letters of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Richard W.; Schroeder, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Letters of reference are widely used as an essential part of the hiring process of newly licensed teachers. While the predictive validity of these letters of reference has been called into question it has never been empirically studied. The current study examined the predictive validity of the quality of letters of reference for forty-one student…

  12. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillus (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from May 12--21, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed an LC{sub 50} value of 1.12 mg Cu/L which is lower than the value of 2.02 mg Cu/L obtained in a previous test. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Copper analysis request and results; and Personnel training documentation.

  13. [Preparation and certification of mussel reference material for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls using isotope dilution-high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xianbo; Chen, Jiping; Wang, Shuqiu; Zou, Lili; Tian, Yuzeng; Ni, Yuwen; Su, Fan

    2012-09-01

    A method for the preparation and certification of the reference material of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mussel tissue is described. The mussel tissue from Dalian Bay was frozen-dried, comminuted, sieved, homogenized, packaged, and sterilized by 60Co radiation sterilization in turn. The certified values for 18 OCPs and 16 PCBs were determined by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using isotope dilution and internal standard quantitation techniques. The certified values were validated and given based on seven accredited laboratories, and these values are traceable to the SI (international system of units) through gravimetrically prepared standards of established purity and measurement intercomparisons. The certified values of PCBs and OCPs in mussel span 4 orders of magnitude with a relative uncertainty of about 10%. This material is a natural biological material with confirmed good homogeneity and stability, and it was approved as the grade "primary reference material" (GBW10069) in June 2012 in China. This reference material provided necessary quality control products for our country to implement the Stockholm Treaty on the monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The material is intended to be used for the method validation and quality control in the determination of OCPs and PCBs in biota samples. PMID:23285973

  14. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant/food test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Two different foods, phytoplankton and YCT-Selenastrum (YCT-S), were tested in side by side tests to compare food quality. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from July 6--15, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Although significant reduction in growth, compared to the phytoplankton control, was seen in all treatments, including the YCT-S Control, the consequence of this observation has not been established. Ninety-day testing of juvenile mussels exhibited large variations in growth within treatment and replicate groups. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Copper analysis request and results.

  15. Sublethal effect of silver and chromium in the green mussel Perna viridis with reference to alterations in oxygen uptake, filtration rate and membrane bound ATPase system as biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Vijayavel, K; Gopalakrishnan, S; Balasubramanian, M P

    2007-10-01

    Perna viridis is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. Preliminary bioassay tests revealed that the lethal (LC(100)), median lethal (LC(50)) and sublethal (LC(0)) concentration of silver and chromium to P. viridis were 6.5, 4.0, 2.0 mg l(-1) and 4.5, 2.5, 1.0 mg l(-1), respectively. Toxic effect of silver and chromium was evaluated in the green mussel P. viridis, with reference to oxygen consumption, filtration rate and ATPase system in laboratory experiments. These parameters were selected as the end point of sublethal stress. Oxygen consumption and filtration rates were calculated as a measure of decline in the dissolved oxygen level and algal concentration (feed) in the aquaria water, respectively. Silver and chromium affects both oxygen consumption and filtration rate significantly (P<0.01) at 96 h when compared to control. The activity of ATPases system in the gills, hepatopancreas, ovary and muscle of mussels were inhibited by silver and chromium indicating that metals exerted significant toxic effect. The inhibition of Na(+)K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and Mg(2+) ATPase in the mussels were significant (P<0.05) for silver and highly significant (P<0.01) for chromium, which indicates that chromium was more toxic to mussels when compared to silver. The assessment of oxygen consumption, filtration and ATPases system can thus be used as a valid biomarker in aquatic ecotoxicology studies. PMID:17585996

  16. NOAA/NGDC candidate models for the 12th generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alken, Patrick; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud; Manoj, Chandrasekharan

    2015-05-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) is a model of the geomagnetic main field and its secular variation, produced every 5 years from candidate models proposed by a number of international research institutions. For this 12th generation IGRF, three candidate models were solicited: a main field model for the 2010.0 epoch, a main field model for the 2015.0 epoch, and the predicted secular variation for the five-year period 2015 to 2020. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has produced three candidate models for consideration in IGRF-12. The 2010 main field candidate was produced from Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite data, while the 2015 main field and secular variation candidates were produced from Swarm and Ørsted satellite data. Careful data selection was performed to minimize the influence of magnetospheric and ionospheric fields. The secular variation predictions of our parent models, from which the candidate models were derived, have been validated against independent ground observatory data.

  17. NIST SRM 1945, whale blubber, NIST SRM 1974a, organics in mussel tissue, and NIST SRM 1941a, organics in marine sediment as certified reference materials for polychlorinated dioxins and furans in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Chambers, L; Gardinali, P; Chambers, H; Wade, T L; Jackson, T; Brooks, J M

    1996-01-01

    Few natural matrix Standard Reference Materials are available for the validation of analytical methods measuring polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in marine ecosystems. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs in NIST SRM 1945, SRM 1974a, and SRM 1941a are of interest because the analysis of marine mammal, mussel tissues and sediments have become important tools in the determination of organochlorine contamination of the environment. Because these SRMs have been demonstrated to be homogenous for other organic contaminants, they would be expected to be reliable standards for validation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans in marine mammals, mussels and sediments as well. PMID:8564434

  18. A feasibility study for producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for the polyether ionophore salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; da Costa, Rafaela Pinto; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Calado, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of producing an egg matrix candidate reference material for salinomycin. Preservation techniques investigated were freeze-drying and spray drying dehydration. Homogeneity and stability studies of the produced batches were conducted according to ISO Guides 34 and 35. The results showed that all produced batches were homogeneous and both freeze-drying and spray drying techniques were suitable for matrix dehydrating, ensuring the material stability. In order to preserve the material integrity, it must be transported within the temperature range of -20 up to 25°C. The results constitute an important step towards the development of an egg matrix reference material for salinomycin is possible. PMID:27216677

  19. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, H. M.; Hunstead, R. W.; Christensen, L.

    2011-11-15

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of the optical counterparts of 47 southern radio sources from the candidate International Celestial Reference Catalogue as part of a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame, especially in the south. We made the observations with the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope. We obtained redshifts for 30 quasars and one radio galaxy, with a further seven objects being probable BL Lac objects with featureless spectra. Of the remainder, four were clear misidentifications with Galactic stars and five had low signal-to-noise spectra and could not be classified. These results, in combination with new VLBI data of the radio sources with redshifts more than 2, add significantly to the existing data needed to refine the distribution of source proper motions over the celestial sphere.

  20. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. PMID:25704713

  1. Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tingting; Qu, Daixin; Zhao, Xu; Yu, Lixia; Gao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The search to date for accurate protein biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke has taken into consideration the stage and/or the size of infarction, but has not accounted for the site of stroke. In the present study, multiple reaction monitoring using labeled reference peptide (LRP) following laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to identify site-specific protein biomarker candidates. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models, both intact and infarcted brain tissue was collected by LCM, followed by on-film digestion and semi-quantification using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thirty-four unique peptides were detected for the verification of 12 proteins in both tissue homogenates and LCM-captured samples. Six insoluble proteins, including neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL), alpha-internexin (INA), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), were found to be site-specific. Soluble proteins, such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1), and some insoluble proteins, including neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and tubulin β-3 chain (TUBB3), were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. Therefore, we conclude that some insoluble protein biomarkers for stroke are site-specific, and would make excellent candidates for the design and analysis of relevant clinical studies in the future. PMID:26110384

  2. Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Tingting; Qu, Daixin; Zhao, Xu; Yu, Lixia; Gao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The search to date for accurate protein biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke has taken into consideration the stage and/or the size of infarction, but has not accounted for the site of stroke. In the present study, multiple reaction monitoring using labeled reference peptide (LRP) following laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to identify site-specific protein biomarker candidates. In middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat models, both intact and infarcted brain tissue was collected by LCM, followed by on-film digestion and semi-quantification using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thirty-four unique peptides were detected for the verification of 12 proteins in both tissue homogenates and LCM-captured samples. Six insoluble proteins, including neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL), alpha-internexin (INA), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) and 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), were found to be site-specific. Soluble proteins, such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1), and some insoluble proteins, including neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) and tubulin β-3 chain (TUBB3), were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. Therefore, we conclude that some insoluble protein biomarkers for stroke are site-specific, and would make excellent candidates for the design and analysis of relevant clinical studies in the future. PMID:26110384

  3. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing.

    PubMed

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G; Baylis, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  4. Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing

    PubMed Central

    Trösemeier, Jan-Hendrik; Musso, Didier; Blümel, Johannes; Thézé, Julien; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the sequence of a candidate reference strain of Zika virus (ZIKV) developed on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO). The ZIKV reference strain is intended for use in nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays for the detection and quantification of ZIKV RNA. PMID:27587826

  5. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M.; Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W.; Pursimo, T.; Jauncey, David L.; Maslennikov, K.

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  6. Mussel Glue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A mytilus edilus, a common blue ocean mussel is attaching itself to the underside of a wet glass in a laboratory. It secretes a glue like substance in the form of multiple threads which attach to surfaces such as shells, rocks, piers and ships. This natural super glue hardens within minutes and tightly affixes to its selected platform even in the roughest seas. Its superior adhesive properties suggest many practical applications. One company, Bio-Polymers, Inc., has developed a synthetic mussel glue for the commercial market.

  7. Development of a candidate certified reference material of cypermethrin in green tea.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della W M; Chan, Pui-kwan; Cheung, Samuel T C; Wong, Yee-Lok; Wong, Siu-kay; Mok, Chuen-shing; Wong, Yiu-chung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the preparation of a candidate certified reference material (CRM) of cypermethrin in green tea, GLHK-11-01a according to the requirements of ISO Guide 34 and 35. Certification of the material was performed using a newly developed isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) approach, with gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed excellent agreement of the analytical data sets generated from the two mass spectrometric detections. The characterization methods have also been satisfactorily applied in an Asia-Pacific Metrology Program (APMP) interlaboratory comparison study. Both the GC-HRIDMS and GC-IDMS/MS methods proved to be sufficiently reliable and accurate for certification purpose. The certified value of cypermethrin in dry mass fraction was 148 μg kg(-1) and the associated expanded uncertainty was 14μg kg(-1). The uncertainty budget was evaluated from sample in homogeneity, long-term and short-term stability and variability in the characterization procedure. GLHK-11-01a is primarily developed to support the local and wider testing community on need basis in quality assurance work and in seeking accreditation. PMID:22405308

  8. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and zinc sulfate as reference substances for toxicity tests with the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    PubMed

    Jorge, R A D L V C; Moreira, G S

    2005-06-01

    Effects of anthropogenic pollution have been observed at different trophic levels in the oceans, and toxicity tests constitute one way of monitoring these alterations. The present assay proposes the use of two reference substances, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate, for Perna perna larvae. This common mussel on the Brazilian coast is used as a bioindicator and is of economic interest. The chronic static embryo-larval test of short duration (48 h) was employed to determine the NOEC, LOEC, and IC50 for SDS and zinc sulfate, as well as the coefficient of variation. Salinity, pH and un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were measured to monitor water quality. The results demonstrated that the main alterations in veliger larvae are the development of only one shell, protruded mantle, malformed shell, formation of only part of a valve, clipped edges, uneven sizes and presence of a concave or convex hinge. NOEC values were lower than 0.25 mg L(-1) for zinc sulfate and 0.68 mg L(-1) for SDS. The coefficient of variation was 17.63% and 2.50% for zinc sulfate and SDS, respectively. PMID:15883100

  9. Mussel watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

  10. Preparation of candidate reference materials for the determination of phosphorus containing flame retardants in styrene-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Urpi Bertran, Raquel; Latza, Andreas; Andörfer-Lang, Katrin; Hügelschäffer, Claudia; Pöhlein, Manfred; Puchta, Ralph; Placht, Christian; Maid, Harald; Bauer, Walter; van Eldik, Rudi

    2015-04-01

    Candidate reference materials (RM) for the analysis of phosphorus-based flame retardants in styrene-based polymers were prepared using a self-made mini-extruder. Due to legal requirements of the current restriction for the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment, focus now is placed on phosphorus-based flame retardants instead of the brominated kind. Newly developed analytical methods for the first-mentioned substances also require RMs similar to industrial samples for validation and verification purposes. Hence, the prepared candidate RMs contained resorcinol-bis-(diphenyl phosphate), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), triphenyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphine oxide as phosphorus-based flame retardants. Blends of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-co-butadiene-co-styrene as well as blends of high-impact polystyrene and polyphenylene oxide were chosen as carrier polymers. Homogeneity and thermal stability of the candidate RMs were investigated. Results showed that the candidate RMs were comparable to the available industrial materials. Measurements by ICP/OES, FTIR and NMR confirmed the expected concentrations of the flame retardants and proved that analyte loss and degradation, respectively, was below the uncertainty of measurement during the extrusion process. Thus, the candidate RMs were found to be suitable for laboratory use. PMID:25410641

  11. The Mussels' Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzenburg, William

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings about mussels, an indicator species for the health of U.S. rivers and streams. Provides mussel descriptions, a history of the decline of mussel populations and cooperative efforts to repair damaged ecosystems cited as the root of the problem. (MCO)

  12. Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding. PMID:24926299

  13. A 2015 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) candidate model based on Swarm's experimental absolute magnetometer vector mode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneron, Pierre; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils; Léger, Jean-Michel; Jager, Thomas; Brocco, Laura; Sirol, Olivier; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lalanne, Xavier; Chulliat, Arnaud; Bertrand, François; Boness, Axel; Fratter, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Each of the three satellites of the European Space Agency Swarm mission carries an absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) that provides the nominal 1-Hz scalar data of the mission for both science and calibration purposes. These ASM instruments, however, also deliver autonomous 1-Hz experimental vector data. Here, we report on how ASM-only scalar and vector data from the Alpha and Bravo satellites between November 29, 2013 (a week after launch) and September 25, 2014 (for on-time delivery of the model on October 1, 2014) could be used to build a very valuable candidate model for the 2015.0 International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). A parent model was first computed, describing the geomagnetic field of internal origin up to degree and order 40 in a spherical harmonic representation and including a constant secular variation up to degree and order 8. This model was next simply forwarded to epoch 2015.0 and truncated at degree and order 13. The resulting ASM-only 2015.0 IGRF candidate model is compared to analogous models derived from the mission's nominal data and to the now-published final 2015.0 IGRF model. Differences among models mainly highlight uncertainties enhanced by the limited geographical distribution of the selected data set (essentially due to a lack of availability of data at high northern latitude satisfying nighttime conditions at the end of the time period considered). These appear to be comparable to differences classically observed among IGRF candidate models. These positive results led the ASM-only 2015.0 IGRF candidate model to contribute to the construction of the final 2015.0 IGRF model.

  14. Identification of Candidate Reference Genes in Perennial Ryegrass for Quantitative RT-PCR under Various Abiotic Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaomei; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Xinquan; Qi, Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is an important technique for analyzing differences in gene expression due to its sensitivity, accuracy and specificity. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes is necessary to ensure accurate qRT-PCR assessment of expression in genes of interest. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is important forage and turf grass species in temperate regions, but the expression stability of its reference genes under various stresses has not been well-studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were evaluated for use as controls in qRT-PCR to quantify gene expression in perennial ryegrass under drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and ABA (abscisic acid) treatments. Four approaches – Delta CT, geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder were used to determine the stability of expression in these reference genes. The results are consistent with the idea that the best reference genes depend on the stress treatment under investigation. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4 alpha (eIF4A), Transcription elongation factor 1 (TEF1) and Tat binding protein-1 (TBP-1) were the three most stably expressed genes under drought stress and were also the three best genes for studying salt stress. eIF4A, TBP-1, and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) were the most suitable reference genes to study heat stress, while eIF4A, TEF1, and E2 were the three best reference genes for studying the effects of ABA. Finally, Ubiquitin (UBQ), TEF1, and eIF4A were the three best reference genes for waterlogging treatments. Conclusions/Significance These results will be helpful in choosing the best reference genes for use in studies related to various abiotic stresses in perennial ryegrass. The stability of expression in these reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of the transcript levels for studies of gene expression in such studies. PMID:24699822

  15. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  16. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z. Q. J.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Wong-Ng, W.; Zhang, W.; Thomas, E. L.; Otani, M.; Green, M. L.; Tran, T. N.; Caylor, C.; Dilley, N. R.; Downey, A.; Edwards, B.; Elsner, N.; Ghamaty, S.; Hogan, T.; Jie, Q.; Li, Q.; Martin, J.; Nolas, G.; Obara, H.; Sharp, J.; Venkatasubramanian, R.; Willigan, R.; Yang, J.; Tritt, T.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  17. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  18. Evaluation and selection of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  19. Evaluation and Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  20. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  1. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  2. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  3. Characterization of candidate reference materials for bone lead via interlaboratory study and double isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Verostek, Mary Frances; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Four candidate ground bone reference materials (NYS RMs 05-01 through 04), were produced from lead-dosed bovine and caprine sources, and characterized by interlaboratory study. The consensus value ( X ) and expanded standard uncertainty (UX ) were determined from the robust average and standard deviation of the participants’ data for each NYS RM 05-01 through 04. The values were 1.08 ±0.04, 15.3 ±0.5, 12.4 ±0.5, and 29.9 ±1.1 μg g−1 Pb, respectively. Youden plots of z-scores showed a statistically significant correlation between the results for pairs of NYS RM 05-02 through 04, indicating common sources of between-laboratory variation affecting reproducibility. NYS RM 05-01 exhibited more random variability affecting repeatability at low concentration. Some participants using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) exhibited a negative bias compared to the all-method consensus value. Other methods used included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and ICP atomic (optical) emission spectroscopy (-OES). The NYS RMs 05-01 through 04 were subsequently re-analyzed in house using double ID-ICP-MS to assign certified reference values (C ) and expanded uncertainty (UC ) of 1.09 ± 0.03, 16.1 ± 0.3, 13.2 ± 0.3 and 31.5 ± 0.7, respectively, indicating a low bias in the interlaboratory data. SRM 1486 Bone Meal was analyzed for measurement quality assessment obtaining results in agreement with the certified values within the stated uncertainty. Analysis using a primary reference method based on ID-ICP-MS with full quantification of uncertainty calculated according to ISO guidelines provided traceability to SI units. PMID:23087531

  4. Speciation measurements by HPLC-HGAAS of dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine in three candidate lyophilized urine reference materials.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, R; Zhang, X; Mees, L; Christensen, J M; Byrialsen, K; Dyrschel, C

    1998-12-01

    Speciation measurements of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and arsenobetaine (AsB) in three candidate lyophilized urine reference materials are described. The measurements were based on cation-exchange liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry with on-line digestion of the organic. As species by alkaline persulfate solution aided by ultraviolet radiation. Arsenic concentrations as DMA were significantly different in the three samples. The mean values for the three samples were 4.1 +/- 0.3, 55.3 +/- 1.2 and 134.1 +/- 1.5 micrograms l-1, respectively. No significant differences in AsB concentrations were observed among the three samples. The mean As concentrations as AsB in the three samples were 17.4 +/- 0.4, 17.7 +/- 0.2 and 17.5 +/- 0.3 micrograms l-1, respectively. By off-line digestion of the urine samples, total As concentrations in the three materials were also obtained. The mean values were 23.4 +/- 0.3, 76.6 +/- 1.6 and 151.3 +/- 1.8 micrograms l-1, respectively. These results correlated well with the results obtained by neutron activation analysis in our laboratory (r = 0.999; p < 0.0001). PMID:10435351

  5. Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program. Activity 1: mussel distribution surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks in the Tennessee Valley is one of nine research activities developed as part of TVA's Cumberlandian Mollusk Conservation Program (CMCP). The name Cumberlandian refers to an endemic faunal assemblage that encompasses portions of 7 states bordering the southern Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau Region. This geographic region is known as one of the major centers for mussel speciation and is considered the most prolific areas of the world for this particular group of organisms. Nine Tennessee Valley streams were selected for intensive qualitative and quantitative mussel surveys under Activity I of the CMCP. The surveys were designed to gather information on the present distribution of Cumberlandian mollusks. The streams chosen for surveys were based on the documented presence of diverse mussel fauna, endangered mussels, and/or sufficient information (diverse fish fauna, good water quality, etc.) to suggest potential for occurrence of diverse mussel fauna or endangered species.

  6. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  7. Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej

    2009-03-01

    Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

  8. Zebra mussel monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  9. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  10. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  11. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  12. Restoration of oiled mussel beds in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Carls, Mark G; Harris, Patricia M; Rice, S D

    2004-06-01

    Natural loss of hydrocarbons was often low from mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds (which were typically not cleaned after the Exxon Valdez oil spill), thus this habitat remained a long-term source of oil. Consequently, experimental restoration of nine contaminated beds was attempted in 1994; mussels were removed, contaminated surface sediment was replaced (33 metric tons), and original mussels were returned. Hydrocarbon concentrations and mussel populations were monitored for 5 years thereafter. Post-restoration mussel population fluctuations were indistinguishable from regional changes. Increased short-term oil loss was apparent, but long-term (5 year) improvement was equivocal and difficult to distinguish from natural losses. By 1999, oil concentrations in mussels were typically at baseline levels in restored and oiled reference beds; concentrations in replaced sediment were elevated in one third of restored beds, indicating recontamination from underlying or surrounding sediment. Our results suggest mussel relocation is feasible but suggest oil might more effectively be removed from sediment mechanically or chemically than manually. PMID:14967519

  13. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    SciTech Connect

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  14. Procedures for conducting underwater searches for invasive mussels (Dreissena sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were first detected in the Great Lakes in 1988. They were likely transported as larvae or young adults inside the ballast tanks of large ocean-going ships originating from Europe. Since their introduction, they have spread throughout the Eastern, Midwestern, and Southern United States. In 2007, Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) were found in the Western United States in Lake Mead, Nevada; part of the Lower Colorado River Basin. State and Federal managers are concerned that the mussels (hereafter referred to as dreissenid mussels or mussels) will continue to spread to the Columbia River Basin and have a major impact on the region?s ecosystem, water delivery infrastructure, hydroelectric projects, and the economy. The transport and use of recreational watercraft throughout the Western United States could easily result in spreading mussels to the Columbia River Basin. The number of recreational watercraft using Lake Mead can range from 350 to 3,500 a day (Bryan Moore, National Park Service, oral commun., June 21, 2008). Because recreational watercrafts are readily moved around and mussels may survive for a period of time when they are out of the water, there is a high potential to spread mussels from Lake Mead to other waterways in the Western United States. Efforts are being made to prevent the spread of mussels; however, there is great concern that these efforts will not be 100 percent successful. When prevention efforts fail, early detection of mussels may provide an opportunity to implement rapid response management actions to minimize the impact. Control and eradication efforts are more likely to be successful if they are implemented when the density of mussels is low and the area of infestation is small. Once the population grows and becomes established, the mussels are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to control. Although chemicals may be used to kill the mussels, the chemicals that are currently

  15. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    On November 4-5, 2015, a Dreissenid Mussel Research Priorities Workshop funded by the Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative occurred at Portland State University. The purpose of the workshop was to update research priorities in the 2010 Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan in light of the westward expansion of mussels in the United States and Canada.

  16. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  17. Zebra mussel mitigation; overview

    SciTech Connect

    Claudi, R.

    1995-06-01

    Zebra mussels cause a number of problems to industrial raw water users as well as having serious impact on civil structures exposed to mussel infested waters. The largest volume of water (up to 90% of the total) drawn into most industrial and power generating plants, is for cooling and heat transfer. The rest of the volume is used for other plant processes, such as make-up in steam systems, and service systems used for cleaning, air conditions, fire protection and human consumption. All raw water systems are vulnerable to zebra mussel infestation to greater or lesser degree. To-date, many different chemical and non-chemical techniques for zebra mussel control have been investigated. However, the treatment of choice for most facilities is based on chemical control. This has been the common practice in Europe and so far it has been the case in North America. This is likely to change as the environmental constraints on release of chemicals into natural water bodies continue to increase. This paper deals with the different steps raw water users should take when deciding on a mitigation strategy, the mitigation measures available to-date and those that have been proposed for the control of zebra mussels in industrial systems.

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  20. Of Mussels and Men.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Some species are more equal than others. Robert T. Paine (American ecologist, 1933-2016) discovered that if you remove starfish - what he called a "keystone species" - from a tide pool, the complex ecosystem collapses. Without the predator starfish, mussels choke out other animals and plants. This phenomenon is general. Sea otters eat the sea urchins that eat the kelp that provides food and habitat for other species. On the vast Serengeti plains, wildebeest "mow" the grass, protecting habitat for many other species. Understanding the "rules" that govern the numbers and diversity of species in an ecosystem is essential to efficient and sustainable management. But those same rules apply to us. Free of predation, humans are swarming over the planet, choking out other species. We are the planetary mussels. What next? A "mussel-bound" world, or perhaps renewed microbial predation? PMID:27585022

  1. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL−1; (iii) 3 mg⋅mL−1; and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL−1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL−1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  2. Candidate qRT-PCR reference genes for barley that demonstrate better stability than traditional housekeeping genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene transcript expression analysis is a useful tool for correlating gene activity with plant phenotype. For these studies, an appropriate reference gene is necessary to quantify the expression of target genes. Classic housekeeping genes have often been used for this purpose, but may not be consis...

  3. Estimation of the minimum uncertainty of DNA concentration in a genetically modified maize sample candidate certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Prokisch, J; Zeleny, R; Trapmann, S; Le Guern, L; Schimmel, H; Kramer, G N; Pauwels, J

    2001-08-01

    Homogeneity testing and the determination of minimum sample mass are an important part of the certification of reference materials. The smallest theoretically achievable uncertainty of certified concentration values is limited by the concentration distribution of analyte in the different particle size fractions of powdered biological samples. This might be of special importance if the reference material is prepared by dry mixing, a dilution technique which is used for the production of the new and third generation of genetically modified (GMO) plant certified reference materials. For the production of dry mixed PMON 810 maize reference material a computer program was developed to calculate the theoretically smallest uncertainty for a selected sample intake. This model was used to compare three differently milled maize samples, and the effect of dilution on the uncertainty of the DNA content of GMO maize was estimated as well. In the case of a 50-mg sample mass the lowest achievable standard deviation was 2% for the sample containing 0.1% GMO and the minimum deviation was less than 0.5% for the sample containing 5% GMO. PMID:11569879

  4. Expression Stabilities of Candidate Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) under a Variety of Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Jiaodi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Mengjun

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for evaluating patterns of gene expression. Jujube whole-genome sequencing has been completed, and analysis of gene function, an important part of any follow-up study, requires the appropriate selection of reference genes. Indeed, suitable reference gene selection for RT-qPCR is critical for accurate normalization of target gene expression. In this study, the software packages geNorm and NormFinder were employed to examine the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes under a variety of conditions. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ACT1), Histone-H3 (His3), and Polyadenylate-binding protein-interacting protein (PAIP) were determined to be the most stably expressed genes during five stages of fruit development and ACT1, SiR-Fd, BTF3, and Tubulin alpha chain (TUA) across different tissues/organs. Whereas ACT1, Basic Transcription factor 3 (BTF3), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), and PAIP were the most stable under dark conditions. ACT1, PAIP, BTF3, and Elongation factor 1- gamma (EF1γ) were the most stably expressed genes under phytoplasma infection. Among these genes, SiR-Fd and PAIP are here first reported as stable reference genes. When normalized using these most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of four target genes were found to be in accordance with physiological data, indicating that the reference genes selected in our study are suitable for use in such analyses. This study provides appropriate reference genes and corresponding primers for further RT-qPCR studies in Chinese jujube and emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under variable experimental conditions. PMID:27116123

  5. Expression Stabilities of Candidate Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) under a Variety of Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bu, Jiaodi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Mengjun

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for evaluating patterns of gene expression. Jujube whole-genome sequencing has been completed, and analysis of gene function, an important part of any follow-up study, requires the appropriate selection of reference genes. Indeed, suitable reference gene selection for RT-qPCR is critical for accurate normalization of target gene expression. In this study, the software packages geNorm and NormFinder were employed to examine the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes under a variety of conditions. Actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ACT1), Histone-H3 (His3), and Polyadenylate-binding protein-interacting protein (PAIP) were determined to be the most stably expressed genes during five stages of fruit development and ACT1, SiR-Fd, BTF3, and Tubulin alpha chain (TUA) across different tissues/organs. Whereas ACT1, Basic Transcription factor 3 (BTF3), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), and PAIP were the most stable under dark conditions. ACT1, PAIP, BTF3, and Elongation factor 1- gamma (EF1γ) were the most stably expressed genes under phytoplasma infection. Among these genes, SiR-Fd and PAIP are here first reported as stable reference genes. When normalized using these most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of four target genes were found to be in accordance with physiological data, indicating that the reference genes selected in our study are suitable for use in such analyses. This study provides appropriate reference genes and corresponding primers for further RT-qPCR studies in Chinese jujube and emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under variable experimental conditions. PMID:27116123

  6. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  7. Selection and Verification of Candidate Reference Genes for Mature MicroRNA Expression by Quantitative RT-PCR in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Cong; Wang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Ailin; Wei, Chaoling

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a rapid and sensitive method for analyzing microRNA (miRNA) expression. However, accurate qRT-PCR results depend on the selection of reliable reference genes as internal positive controls. To date, few studies have identified reliable reference genes for differential expression analysis of miRNAs among tissues, and among experimental conditions in plants. In this study, three miRNAs and four non-coding small RNAs (ncRNA) were selected as reference candidates, and the stability of their expression was evaluated among different tissues and under different experimental conditions in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) using the geNorm and NormFinder programs. It was shown that miR159a was the best single reference gene in the bud to the fifth leaf, 5S rRNA was the most suitable gene in different organs, miR6149 was the most stable gene when the leaves were attacked by Ectropis oblique and U4, miR5368n and miR159a were the best genes when the leaves were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Our results provide suitable reference genes for future investigations on miRNA functions in tea plants. PMID:27240406

  8. Development of a candidate reference material for adventitious virus detection in vaccine and biologicals manufacturing by deep sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mee, Edward T.; Preston, Mark D.; Minor, Philip D.; Schepelmann, Silke; Huang, Xuening; Nguyen, Jenny; Wall, David; Hargrove, Stacey; Fu, Thomas; Xu, George; Li, Li; Cote, Colette; Delwart, Eric; Li, Linlin; Hewlett, Indira; Simonyan, Vahan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Alin, Voskanian-Kordi; Mermod, Nicolas; Hill, Christiane; Ottenwälder, Birgit; Richter, Daniel C.; Tehrani, Arman; Jacqueline, Weber-Lehmann; Cassart, Jean-Pol; Letellier, Carine; Vandeputte, Olivier; Ruelle, Jean-Louis; Deyati, Avisek; La Neve, Fabio; Modena, Chiara; Mee, Edward; Schepelmann, Silke; Preston, Mark; Minor, Philip; Eloit, Marc; Muth, Erika; Lamamy, Arnaud; Jagorel, Florence; Cheval, Justine; Anscombe, Catherine; Misra, Raju; Wooldridge, David; Gharbia, Saheer; Rose, Graham; Ng, Siemon H.S.; Charlebois, Robert L.; Gisonni-Lex, Lucy; Mallet, Laurent; Dorange, Fabien; Chiu, Charles; Naccache, Samia; Kellam, Paul; van der Hoek, Lia; Cotten, Matt; Mitchell, Christine; Baier, Brian S.; Sun, Wenping; Malicki, Heather D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unbiased deep sequencing offers the potential for improved adventitious virus screening in vaccines and biotherapeutics. Successful implementation of such assays will require appropriate control materials to confirm assay performance and sensitivity. Methods A common reference material containing 25 target viruses was produced and 16 laboratories were invited to process it using their preferred adventitious virus detection assay. Results Fifteen laboratories returned results, obtained using a wide range of wet-lab and informatics methods. Six of 25 target viruses were detected by all laboratories, with the remaining viruses detected by 4–14 laboratories. Six non-target viruses were detected by three or more laboratories. Conclusion The study demonstrated that a wide range of methods are currently used for adventitious virus detection screening in biological products by deep sequencing and that they can yield significantly different results. This underscores the need for common reference materials to ensure satisfactory assay performance and enable comparisons between laboratories. PMID:26709640

  9. Towards a Fundamental Astrometric Reference System behind the Magellanic Clouds: Spectroscopic Confirmation of New Quasar Candidates Selected in the Near-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. D.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Bekki, K.; de Grijs, R.; Emerson, J.; Gibson, B. K.; Kamath, D.; van Loon, J. Th.; Piatti, A. E.; For, B.-Q.

    2016-03-01

    Quasi-stellar objects (quasars) located behind nearby galaxies provide an excellent absolute reference system for astrometric studies, but they are difficult to identify because of fore- and background contamination. We have embarked on a programme to expand the quasar reference system behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the Magellanic Bridge and Magellanic Stream. Hundreds of quasar candidates were selected, based on their near-infrared colours and variability properties from the ESO VISTA Magellanic Clouds (VMC) Public Survey. A subset of 49 objects was followed up with optical spectroscopy with FORS2. We confirmed the quasar nature of 37 objects (34 new identifications) that span a redshift range from z ~ 0.5 to 4.1.

  10. Detroit Edison conquers zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, D.B.; Buda, D.J. )

    1993-11-01

    A potentially troublesome zebra mussel infestation at Detroit Edison's Harbor Beach Power Plant was nipped in time. Reducing the oxygen content of water inside the plant's water systems and using steam to thermally treat a colony of mussels that was established in the plant's screenhouse prevented the problem. So successful was the temperature treatment that it will be used regularly as part of the plant's annual mussel removal program.

  11. Response of glutathione in mussels (Mytilus) exposed to common environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Inouye, L.S.; Casillas, E.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels (Mytilus sp.) were exposed to PCBs, a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or extracts of contaminated sediments to determine the response of glutathione content in gill and digestive gland to chemicals contaminants. In addition, a field transplant investigation was conducted to determine if the differences observed in tissue glutathione levels of mussels from reference and contaminated sites were due to the presence of chemical contaminants rather than to population differences in basal glutathione concentrations. Exposure to PCBs or to sediment extracts from a contaminated site resulted in a decrease in glutathione content in the digestive gland, but an increase in glutathione content in gills. In contrast, no alterations in tissue glutathione were observed after exposure to PAHs. Transplant investigation results were consistent with those from the contaminated sediment extract exposure. Glutathione content in digestive glands was higher in mussels from a reference site compared to that found in mussels from the contaminated site, while the opposite trend was found in gill glutathione content of the same mussels. Eight weeks after being transplanted from the reference site to the contaminated site or alternatively from a contaminated site to a reference site, glutathione levels in the gland tissues matched those found in mussels native to the site to which they were transplanted. Although gill glutathione content was significantly different from that found at the site of origin, it did not match levels found in mussels native to the site to which they had been transplanted.

  12. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  13. Cellular biomarkers for monitoring estuarine environments: transplanted versus native mussels.

    PubMed

    Nigro, M; Falleni, A; Barga, I Del; Scarcelli, V; Lucchesi, P; Regoli, F; Frenzilli, G

    2006-05-25

    In developed countries, estuarine environments are often subjected to chemical pollution, whose biological impact is profitably evaluated by the use of multi-biomarker approaches on sentinel species. In this paper, we investigate genotoxicity and lysosomal alterations in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), from the estuary of the River Cecina (Tuscany, Italy), selected as "pilot basin" within the Water Frame Directive (2000/60 European Community). Both native and 1 month transplanted mussels were used in order to compare these two approaches in terms of sensitiveness of specific biomarker responses. Genotoxic effects were evaluated as strand breaks, by single cell gel electrophoresis (or Comet assay), and as chromosomal alterations, by the micronucleus test in gill cells. Lysosomal alterations were assessed by the neutral red retention time (in haemocytes), lipofuscin accumulation and ultrastructure (in digestive cells). Heavy metal bioaccumulation was also analysed. Mussels from the River Cecina showed a general alteration of all the biomarkers investigated, accompanied by an elevation of tissue metal levels. However, some differences in specific responses occurred between transplanted and native mussels. Early biomarkers, such as those based on DNA and lysosomal membrane integrity, were induced at similar degree in native and transplanted mussels; while alterations resulting from cumulative events, as the increase of micronuclei frequency were much more elevated in native specimens (23.1+/-7.6) than in transplanted (9.3+/-4.7) and reference ones (5.8+/-5.2). Similarly, the comparison between lipofuscin accumulation and mean lysosomal diameter in impacted and control sites, gave significant differences exclusively with transplanted mussels. These results suggest that the parallel use of caged and native mussels in environmental biomonitoring can improve the characterization of the study area. PMID:16480782

  14. Results of an in-situ mussel bioassay in the Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Houkal, D.; Rummel, B.; Shephard, B.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological evaluation in the Puget Sound, Washington, an in situ bioassay using the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was conducted to determine the effect of sediment-borne chemicals on bioaccumulation and growth of shellfish. The assay included four sample stations from a contaminated embayment (Sinclair Inlet) and one station from a reference site (Holmes Harbor). At each station, 300 mussels were deployed 1 meter above the sediment surface and maintained for a period of 3 months. The length and total weight of each mussel was measured at the beginning of the exposure period and the length, total weight, tissue weight, and shell weight of each mussel was measured at the end of the exposure period. Composite tissue samples from 100 mussels were collected at the beginning and end of the exposure period and analyzed for semivolatile organic chemicals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, inorganic chemicals, organotin, and lipids. Water quality measurements (including temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll a) were made at each station every two weeks during the assay to characterize environmental factors influencing mussel bioaccumulation and growth. Weight growth was similar among stations in Sinclair Inlet, but was significantly greater in all Sinclair Inlet stations compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. Length growth was statistically indistinguishable among stations in Sinclair Inlet. Only one Sinclair Inlet station had a significantly greater length growth compared to the Holmes Harbor reference station. The influence of water quality on mussel growth is presented. The correlation between sediment chemistry and bioaccumulation is discussed.

  15. Evaluating the use of side-scan sonar for detecting freshwater mussel beds in turbid river environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, Jarrod; Brewer, Shannon K.; Long, James M.; Campbell, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Side-scan sonar is a valuable tool for mapping habitat features in many aquatic systems suggesting it may also be useful for locating sedentary biota. The objective of this study was to determine if side-scan sonar could be used to identify freshwater mussel (unionid) beds and the required environmental conditions. We used side-scan sonar to develop a series of mussel-bed reference images by placing mussel shells within homogenous areas of fine and coarse substrates. We then used side-scan sonar to map a 32-km river reach during spring and summer. Using our mussel-bed reference images, several river locations were identified where mussel beds appeared to exist in the scanned images and we chose a subset of sites (n = 17) for field validation. The validation confirmed that ~60% of the sites had mussel beds and ~80% had some mussels or shells present. Water depth was significantly related to our ability to predict mussel-bed locations: predictive ability was greatest at depths of 1–2 m, but decreased in water >2-m deep. We determined side-scan sonar is an effective tool for preliminary assessments of mussel presence during times when they are located at or above the substrate surface and in relatively fine substrates excluding fine silt.

  16. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Brumbaugh, William G; Kemble, Nile E; May, Thomas W; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D; Roberts, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms-amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)-in sediments from 2 lead-zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2-4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations. PMID:25545632

  17. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D.; Roberts, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms—amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)—in sediments from 2 lead–zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2–4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  18. Candidate targets for Multilocus Sequence Typing of Trypanosoma cruzi: validation using parasite stocks from the Chaco Region and a set of reference strains.

    PubMed

    Lauthier, Juan J; Tomasini, Nicolás; Barnabé, Christian; Rumi, María M Monje; D'Amato, Anahí M Alberti; Ragone, Paula G; Yeo, Matthew; Lewis, Michael D; Llewellyn, Martin S; Basombrío, Miguel A; Miles, Michael A; Tibayrenc, Michel; Diosque, Patricio

    2012-03-01

    A Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) scheme was designed and applied to a set of 20 Trypanosoma cruzi stocks belonging to three main discrete typing units (T. cruzi I, V and VI) from a geographically restricted Chagas disease endemic area in Argentina, 12 reference strains comprising two from each of the six main discrete typing units of the parasite (T. cruzi I-VI), and one T. cruzi marinkellei strain. DNA fragments (≅400-bp) from 10 housekeeping genes were sequenced. A total of 4178 bp were analyzed for each stock. In all, 154 polymorphic sites were identified. Ninety-five sites were heterozygous in at least one analyzed stock. Seventeen diploid sequence types were identified from 32 studied T. cruzi stocks (including the reference strains). All stocks were correctly assigned to their corresponding discrete typing units. We propose this MLST scheme as provisional, with scope for improvement by studying new gene targets on a more diverse sample of stocks, in order to define an optimized MLST scheme for T. cruzi. This approach is an excellent candidate to become the gold standard for T. cruzi genetic typing. We suggest that MLST will have a strong impact on molecular epidemiological studies of Chagas disease and the phylogenetics of its causative agent. PMID:22210092

  19. A candidate reference measurement procedure for quantifying serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D₂ using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ekaterina M; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Maw, Khin L; Botelho, Julianne C; Vesper, Hubert W; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2015-07-01

    The inaccuracy of routine serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurements hampers the interpretation of data in patient care and public health research. We developed and validated a candidate reference measurement procedure (RMP) for highly accurate quantitation of two clinically important 25-hydroxyvitamin D metabolites in serum, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The two compounds of interest together with spiked deuterium-labeled internal standards [d 3-25(OH)D2 and d 6-25(OH)D3] were extracted from serum via liquid-liquid extraction. The featured isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method used reversed-phase chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. A pentafluorophenylpropyl-packed UHPLC column together with isocratic elution allowed for complete baseline resolution of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 from their structural C-3 isomers within 12 min. We evaluated method trueness, precision, potential interferences, matrix effects, limits of quantitation, and measurement uncertainty. Calibration materials were, or were traceable to, NIST Standard Reference Materials 2972. Within-day and total imprecision (CV) averaged 1.9 and 2.0% for 25(OH)D3, respectively, and 2.4 and 3.5% for 25(OH)D2, respectively. Mean trueness was 100.3% for 25(OH)D3 and 25(OH)D2. The limits of quantitation/limits of detection were 4.61/1.38 nmol/L for 25(OH)D3 and 1.46/0.13 nmol/L for 25(OH)D2. When we compared our RMP results to an established RMP using 40 serum samples, we found a nonsignificant mean bias of 0.2% for total 25(OH)D. This candidate RMP for 25(OH)D metabolites meets predefined method performance specifications (≤5% total CV and ≤1.7% bias) and provides sufficient sample throughput to meet the needs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vitamin D Standardization Certification Program. Graphical abstract Bias assessment using NIST standard reference materials. Legend CDC mean mass fractions (ng/g) ± U 95 (6

  20. Mussels: the forgotten fauna of regulated rivers: a case study of the Caney Fork River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layzer, James B.; Gordon, Mark E.; Anderson, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    During the past century freshwater mussel populations have declined precipitously throughout North America. Much of this loss has resulted from the construction of dams. In the Cumberland River system, 23% (22 species) of the historic mussel fauna is extinct or listed as endangered. Several additional species have either been extirpated from the Cumberland River or exist only in small, non-reproducing populations. Mussels of headwater streams have been severely affected by coal mining and poor land use practices. An intensive survey was conducted in the Caney Fork River, a major tributary to the Cumberland River, to determine the historic and extant mussel fauna. The results indicate that at least 37 species of mussels have been extirpated from the Caney Fork River, mainly as a result of the construction and operation of the Center Hill Dam. Among the species extirpated, two are now extinct, five are endangered and five are candidates for listing as threatened or endangered. Effects associated with this dam include the inundation of 102 km of riverine habitat, the discharge of hypolimnetic water (which limits mussel reproduction) and an alternating pattern of stream bed scouring and dewatering. The recognition of mussel life history requirements during preconstruction could have reduced many of these effects.

  1. Zebra mussel mortality with chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benschoten, J.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Harrington, D.; DeGirolamo, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    The rate of mortality of the zebra mussel in response to chlorine is described by a kinetic model that combines a statistical characterization of mussel mortality with a disinfection-type modeling approach. Parameter estimates were made with nine sets of data from experiments conducted in Niagara River water. From the kinetic model, an operational diagram was constructed that describes the time to 95% mortality as a function of chlorine concentration and temperature. Either the model or the diagram can be used to assist utilities in planning chlorination treatments for controlling zebra mussels.

  2. Short-term effects of small dam removal on freshwater mussel assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heise, Ryan J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.; Eads, Chris B.

    2013-01-01

    Dam removal is increasingly used to restore lotic habitat and biota, but its effects on freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) are not well known. We conducted a four-year study to assess short-term effects on mussels after removal of a small hydropower dam on the Deep River (Cape Fear River drainage), North Carolina, USA, in 2006. We conducted annual pre- and post-removal monitoring of mussel density, richness, and survival (post removal only) with transect surveys and quadrat excavation, and assessed changes in substrate composition at two impact sites (tailrace and impoundment) and two reference sites. Before-after-control-impact (BACI) analyses of variance did not detect a significant change in mussel density (total or individually for the three most abundant species), species richness, Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata) mean length, or substrate composition in the tailrace or drained impoundment following dam removal. Apparent annual survival estimates of Eastern Elliptio at the tailrace site did not differ among sampling periods and were similar to control sites. We observed minimal mussel mortality from stranding in the dewatered reservoir. These results demonstrate that adverse short-term impacts of dam removal on downstream mussel assemblages can be minimized with appropriate planning, timing, and removal techniques, but additional monitoring is warranted to determine long-term effects on mussels within the restored river reach.

  3. Molecular characteristics and expression of calmodulin cDNA from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L-G; Wang, J-H; Li, Y-J; Sheng, J-Q; Gu, Q; Hong, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a multifunctional intracellular calcium ion receptor protein that participates in a range of cellular processes, including calcium metabolism in mussels. To investigate the role of CaM in freshwater mollusk shell calcium metabolism, the full-length CaM cDNA was isolated from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis schlegelii (referred to as hsCaM) using SMART RACE technology. The full-length hsCaM was 855 bp in size, containing a 70-bp 5'-untranslated sequence, a 447-bp open reading frame, a 309-bp 3'-untranslated sequence, and a 26-nucleotide long poly(A) tail. The hsCaM mRNA expression in different mussel tissues was examined using real-time PCR. The hsCaM mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed, but far more abundant in the gill, foot, and mantle than in the posterior adductor muscle. Real-time PCR was also used to determine hsCaM mRNA expression levels in mantle tissues of H. schlegelii at different ages. No significant differences between one-, two-, and three-year-old mussels were detected, but expression increased in four-year-old mussels and then decreased in five-year-old mussels. CaM appears to be involved in calcium regulation of the mantle in four-year-old mussels, which may secrete more mother of pearl during pearl culture. PMID:22290464

  4. Assessing accumulation and sublethal effects of lead in a unionid mussel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Shea, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination of the environment remains a global problem. Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb deposited onto roadside sediments from the past use of leaded gasoline in vehicles may be mobilized into rivers and streams, thereby resulting in exposure to aquatic biota. The aims of this study were to conduct a 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern Elliptio (Elliptio complanata; family Unionidae) mussels to determine uptake kinetics and to assess several potential non-lethal biomarkers of Pb exposure. Mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a control and eight concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 251 µg/L, as a static renewal test. There were five replicates per treatment with one mussel per replicate. The hemolymph of mussels from four of the replicates was repeatedly sampled (days 7, 14, 21, and 28) for analysis of Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations. The mussels in the fifth replicate per treatment were only sampled on day 28 and served as a comparison to the repeatedly sampled mussels. The accumulation of Pb in mussel tissue was also evaluated during the study. No mussels died during the test. We found that measured concentrations of Pb in mussel hemolymph suggested regulation of the heavy metal up to 66 μg/L by day 14, whereas concentrations in tissue proved to be strongly correlated (R2 = 0.98; p < 0.0001) throughout the 28-day exposure, displaying concentration dependent uptake. The concentration of Pb in mussel hemolymph, which can be sampled and measured non-lethally, is a suitable marker of recent Pb exposure in mussels. In contrast, none of the ion concentrations measured in the hemolymph from the repeatedly sampled mussels was significantly changed with increasing concentrations of Pb, whereas the mussels from the fifth replicate sampled only on day 28 showed altered calcium concentrations. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Dengue Virus Type 1 to 4 Strains Used for the Development of CBER/FDA RNA Reference Reagents and WHO International Standard Candidates for Nucleic Acid Testing

    PubMed Central

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A.; Volkova, Evgeniya

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is the most common and clinically significant arbovirus in the world and is endemic in more than 100 countries. Here, we report the complete sequences of four DENV serotypes used in the development of the CBER/FDA RNA reference reagents and WHO International Standard candidates for nucleic acid testing. PMID:26868382

  6. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002-2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. PMID:26925739

  7. Application of adaptive cluster sampling to low-density populations of freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Villella, R.F.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels appear to be promising candidates for adaptive cluster sampling because they are benthic macroinvertebrates that cluster spatially and are frequently found at low densities. We applied adaptive cluster sampling to estimate density of freshwater mussels at 24 sites along the Cacapon River, WV, where a preliminary timed search indicated that mussels were present at low density. Adaptive cluster sampling increased yield of individual mussels and detection of uncommon species; however, it did not improve precision of density estimates. Because finding uncommon species, collecting individuals of those species, and estimating their densities are important conservation activities, additional research is warranted on application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussels. However, at this time we do not recommend routine application of adaptive cluster sampling to freshwater mussel populations. The ultimate, and currently unanswered, question is how to tell when adaptive cluster sampling should be used, i.e., when is a population sufficiently rare and clustered for adaptive cluster sampling to be efficient and practical? A cost-effective procedure needs to be developed to identify biological populations for which adaptive cluster sampling is appropriate.

  8. Spatial organisation and biomass development after relaying of mussel seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Schellekens, Tim; van Stralen, Marnix R.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether and by what factors spatial heterogeneity in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) affects mussel production in human-created mussel beds. In a field experiment, the same number of mussels was relayed on four different areas within plots of the same size, resulting in four treatments with different mussel densities. Density, individual weight and spatial structure of mussels were followed per treatment. The uniformly placed mussels on different areas redistributed into new patches, but mussels did not spread out over a larger area. Initial mussel density affected redistribution and mussel survival. At high densities mussels redistributed into a uniform matrix or in a few larger patches, that showed larger losses than at low densities, where mussels redistributed into a high number of patches. Growth rate and condition index of the mussels did not differ between treatments and no relation was found between treatment and number of foraging shore crabs, which was the major predator of mussels in this experiment. We hypothesise that the relation between initial mussel density and mussel loss after relaying is associated with redistribution, with less competition for space when mussels are positioned at the edge of a mussel patch. The very high mussel losses that we observed in the experiment within four weeks after relaying were the major factor in biomass development. Mussel bed formation concerns mussel growers and managers involved in natural mussel bed restoration. Initial mussel survival determines the success of these activities. The present study shows the effects of mussel relaying on spatial redistribution for the first time under field conditions, and underlines the importance of edge effects in understanding mussel loss in redistribution. Mussel survival after relaying will be higher when the mussels are distributed homogeneously and in relatively low density.

  9. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-06-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled "Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness" (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  10. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carls, M.G.; Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Irvine, G.V.; Cusick, J.A.; Rice, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from <60 mg/g in reference beds to 62,258 mg/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 253 mg/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 mg/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites.

  11. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathleen Patnode; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson; Lora Zimmerman; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  12. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  13. Survival, growth and condition of freshwater mussels: effects of municipal wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream. PMID:26042840

  14. Survival, Growth and Condition of Freshwater Mussels: Effects of Municipal Wastewater Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Trey; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Family Unionidae) are among the most imperiled group of organisms in the world, with nearly 65% of North American species considered endangered. Anthropogenic disturbances, including altered flow regimes, habitat alteration, and pollution, are the major driver of this group's decline. We investigated the effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent on survivorship, growth, and condition of freshwater mussels in experimental cages in a small Central Texas stream. We tested the effluent effects by measuring basic physical parameters of native three ridge mussels (Amblema plicata) and of non-native Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), before and after 72-day exposure at four sites above and below a municipal wastewater treatment plant outfall. Survivorship and growth of the non-native Asian clams and growth and condition indices of the native three ridge mussels were significantly higher at the reference site above the outfall than in downstream sites. We attribute this reduction in fitness below the outfall to elevated nutrient and heavy metal concentrations, and the potential presence of other untested-for compounds commonly found in municipal effluent. These results, along with an absence of native mussels below the discharge, indicate a significant negative impact of wastewater effluent on both native and non-native mussels in the stream. PMID:26042840

  15. Variability in biochemical components of the mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured after Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Peteiro, Laura G; Labarta, Uxío; Fernández-Reiriz, María José

    2007-05-01

    The biochemical composition (proteins, carbohydrates, glycogen, total lipids and lipid classes) of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was investigated during an experimental culture using mussel seed from areas with different degree of exposure to the Prestige oil spill. The aim of the study was to identify alterations in the biochemical composition of mussel seed from natural populations commonly used in Galicia for mussel raft culture that might be linked to previous oil exposure. We have selected three mussel seed populations from Pindo, Miranda and Redes, that were characterised in a previous study according to the oil exposure three months after the spill. These populations were transplanted to a raft culture system in the Ría de Ares-Betanzos where our experimental culture followed standard commercial techniques from March 2003 to February 2004. Mussels from Pindo (characterised as the most affected area by the oil spill) showed marked differences in lipid composition with regard to other populations in the content of triacylglycerols, (P<0.001), free fatty acids (P<0.001) and phospholipids (P<0.05) at the onset of the culture. Although these differences in lipid composition might reflect their previous exposition to hydrocarbons, this pattern did not last longer most likely due to depuration of hydrocarbons stored in the tissues or by the development of certain tolerance to PAHs. These significant differences were not detected between Miranda (designed as hardly affected area) and Redes (designed as reference area) which may reflect that Miranda mussels were not affected or only hardly affected by the spill. With the exception of the onset of the culture, biochemical composition showed similar patterns in all mussel populations. Then, the fact of being cultured in a common environment seemed to be more responsible for the long-term variability in the energetic reserve than the origin of the populations or their previous biochemical status. PMID:17360242

  16. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  17. Environmental DNA mapping of Zebra Mussel populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon; Merkes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a popular tool for detecting aquatic invasive species, but advancements have made it possible to potentially answer other questions like reproduction, movement, and abundance of the targeted organism. In this study we developed a Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) eDNA protocol. We then determined if this assay could be used to help determine Zebra Mussel biomass in a lake with a well-established population of Zebra Mussels and a lake with an emerging population of mussels. Our eDNA assay detected DNA of Zebra Mussels but not DNA from more than 20 other species of fish and mussels, many commonly found in Minnesota waters. Our assay did not predict biomass. We did find that DNA from Zebra Mussels accumulated in softer substrates in both lakes, even though the mussels were predominately on the harder substrates. Therefore, we concluded that eDNA may be useful to detect the presence of Zebra Mussels in these lakes but our assay/approach could not predict biomass.

  18. Zebra mussels. The assault continues

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, L.

    1993-09-01

    Over the past seven years, zebra mussel infestation has spread relentlessly, fouling up utility cooling intakes and other industrial operations that draw fresh water. The striped invader has flourished in all of the Great Lakes and most of the major river systems east of and including the Mississippi. It has also migrated much deeper into the South than experts anticipated and is making its way westward. Now biologists have turned up a separate, look-alike species they fear may be just as destructive. EPRI is continuing its work to improve control techniques and has published a comprehensive monitoring and control guide that outlines the best practices currently available for dealing with the mussel problem. This article reviews the results of this work.

  19. Dynamics of mussel plaque detachment.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Kenneth W; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Waite, J Herbert; Valentine, Megan T

    2015-09-14

    Mussels are well known for their ability to generate and maintain strong, long-lasting adhesive bonds under hostile conditions. Many prior studies attribute their adhesive strength to the strong chemical interactions between the holdfast and substrate. While chemical interactions are certainly important, adhesive performance is also determined by contact geometry, and understanding the coupling between chemical interactions and the plaque shape and mechanical properties is essential in deploying bioinspired strategies when engineering improved adhesives. To investigate how the shape and mechanical properties of the mussel's plaque contribute to its adhesive performance, we use a custom built load frame capable of fully characterizing the dynamics of the detachment. With this, we can pull on samples along any orientation, while at the same time measuring the resulting force and imaging the bulk deformations of the plaque as well as the holdfast-substrate interface where debonding occurs. We find that the force-induced yielding of the mussel plaque improves the bond strength by two orders of magnitude and that the holdfast shape improves bond strength by an additional order of magnitude as compared to other simple geometries. These results demonstrate that optimizing the contact geometry can play as important a role on adhesive performance as optimizing the chemical interactions as observed in other organisms and model systems. PMID:26223522

  20. Collaborative study for the establishment of a candidate equine influenza subtype 2 American-like strain A/EQ/South Africa/4/03 - horse antiserum biological reference preparation.

    PubMed

    Daly, Janet; Daas, A; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2007-12-01

    In 2004, the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) Expert Surveillance Panel on equine influenza recommended that the American lineage component (H3N8) of equine influenza vaccines (A/eq/Newmarket/1/93-like) be updated to an A/eq/South Africa/4/03-like virus. As a consequence the common European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) - OIE reference for equine influenza subtype 2 American-like antiserum had to be complemented by an antiserum raised in horses against an A/eq/South Africa/4/03 strain. An international collaborative study run by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) in the frame of its Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) under the aegis of the Ph. Eur. and the OIE was organised. The study was aimed at evaluating a candidate reference horse anti-serum using the single radial haemolysis (SRH) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. The standard was to be established for use in immunogenicity and batch potency assay of equine influenza vaccines as a Ph. Eur. BRP and for use in clinical diagnostic tests as an OIE-approved International Standard. The evaluation performed in the collaborative study enabled the suitability of the candidate to be demonstrated and an SRH value to be assigned. The candidate was adopted as a BRP by the Ph. Eur. Commission and approved by the OIE Biological Standards Commission as an International Standard Serum in June and September 2006, respectively. PMID:18413133

  1. Methanotrophic marine molluscan (Bivalvia, Mytilidae) symbiosis: mussels fueled by gas

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, J.J.; Fisher, C.R.; Brooks, J.M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Bidigare, R.; Anderson, A.E.

    1986-09-19

    An undescribed mussel (family Mytilidae), which lives in the vicinity of hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico, consumes methane (the principal component of natural gas) at a high rate. The methane consumption is limited to the gills of these animals and is apparently due to the abundant intracellular bacteria found there. This demonstrates a methane-based symbiosis between an animal and intracellular bacteria. Methane consumption is dependent on the availability of oxygen and is inhibited by acetylene. The consumption of methane by these mussels is associated with a dramatic increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. As the methane consumption of the bivalve can exceed its carbide dioxide production, the symbiosis may be able to entirely satisfy its carbon needs from methane uptake. The very light (delta/sup 13/C = -51 to -57 per mil) stable carbon isotope ratios found in this animal support methane (delta/sup 13/C = -45 per mil at this site) as the primary carbon source for both the mussels and their symbionts. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. New Concerns Emerge as Zebra Mussel Spreads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Martha L., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on the Zebra Mussel invasion of North American inland waterways. Discusses United States Army Corps of Engineers operations that may facilitate or be affected by the spread of Zebra Mussels, the threat to native clams, chemical and mechanical control methods, natural solutions, and ongoing research. (MCO)

  3. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant.

  4. Zebra mussels anchor byssal threads faster and tighter than quagga mussels in flow.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Suzanne M; McCarthy, Alice J; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2009-07-01

    While the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes and inland waterways, it is being displaced by the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis in shallow water habitats. However, zebra mussels remain dominant in areas with higher water velocity. We hypothesized that the persistence of zebra over quagga mussels in habitats with higher water velocity might result from greater rate and strength of byssal thread attachment. We examined whether zebra mussels relative to quagga mussels have: (1) higher byssal thread synthesis rate, (2) lower dislodgment in flow and (3) greater mechanical force required for detachment from substrate. Specifically, we examined byssal thread synthesis rate and dislodgment of both species in response to water velocities of 0, 50, 100 and 180 cm s(-1). Byssal thread synthesis rate was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels at all velocities. Dislodgment from the substrate increased for both species with increasing velocity but was significantly lower for zebra than for quagga mussels. We also tested the mechanical force to detach mussels after short (32 h) and long (two and three months) periods of attachment on hard substrate. Detachment force was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels only after short-term attachment. Higher byssal thread synthesis rate in zebra mussels was a likely factor that minimized their dislodgment in flow and increased short-term attachment strength. Differences in byssal thread synthesis rate between the two species might partly account for the ability of zebra mussels to maintain dominance over quagga mussels in habitats with high velocities. PMID:19525429

  5. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. PMID:25910461

  6. Uptake of methyl mercury by the floater mussel, Pyganodon grandis (Bivalvia, Unionidae), caged in a flooded wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Malley, D.F.; Stewart, A.R.; Hall, B.D. |

    1996-06-01

    A 16.7-ha wetland with a pond at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, was experimentally flooded to determine causes of elevated waterborne methyl mercury (MeHg) associated with impoundment. Unionid mussels, Pyganodon grandis (formerly Anodonata grandis grandis) were caged in the experimental pond before and after flooding to determine their ability to monitor the elevated waterborne MeHg. Mussels were also caged in a reference wetland pond and in the lake from which they were collected (source lake). Background levels of MeHg in source lake mussel body parts were in the order mantle < gill or visceral remains < foot or kidney and ranged from 108 to 618 ng/g dry weight. Caging in the source lake did not alter MeHg concentration in any body part. Mussels transplanted to the ponds for 90 d showed statistically significant increases above background MeHg in the mantle and visceral remains in the preflood experimental pond (waterborne MeHg 0.24 ng/L). The visceral remains of mussels in the reference pond contained higher levels of MeHg than did those in the preflood experimental pond. Flooding increased waterborne MeHg from 0.1 to 2.3 ng/L and resulted in an increase in MeHg and total Hg (THg) in the mantle, foot, and visceral remains of mussels in the experimental pond. Inexplicably, mussels caged in a hypoxic environment in the experimental pond lost MeHg and THg from all body parts. The authors concluded that not only can P. grandis monitor elevation in waterborne MeHg with flooding, but the MeHg levels in mussels also reflect small differences in background levels of natural MeHg in ponds.

  7. Selection of optimized candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during Magnaporthe oryzae infection and drought.

    PubMed

    Bevitori, R; Oliveira, M B; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Lanna, A C; da Silveira, R D; Petrofeza, S

    2014-01-01

    Drought and rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae are two of the most serious threats to global rice production. To explore the mechanisms underlying gene expression induced in rice by stresses, studies involving transcriptome analyses have been conducted over the past few years. Thus, it is crucial to have a reliable set of reference genes to normalize the expression levels of rice genes affected by different stresses. To identify potential reference genes for studies of the differential expression of target genes in rice under M. oryzae infection and drought conditions, the present study evaluated five housekeeping genes for the normalization of gene expression. The stability of the expression of these genes was assessed using the analytical software packages geNorm and NormFinder. For all samples analyzed, the stability rank was UBQ5 > GAPDH > eIF-4α> β-TUB > 18S rRNA. The data showed that the UBQ5, GAPDH, and eIF-4αgenes are appropriate, high-performing reference genes and will be highly useful in future expression studies of fungal infections and drought in rice. PMID:25501189

  8. The Impact of Extreme Flooding on Mussel and Microbial Nutrient Dynamics at the Water-Sediment Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bril, J.; Just, C. L.; Newton, T.; Young, N.; Parkin, G.

    2009-12-01

    Labeled by the National Academy of Engineering as one of fourteen grand challenges for engineering, the management of the nitrogen cycle has become an increasingly difficult obstacle for sustainable development. In an effort to improve nitrogen cycle management practices, we are attempting to expand on the limited scientific knowledge of how aquatic environments are affected by increasing human- and climate-induced changes. To accomplish this, we are using freshwater mussels as a sentinel species to indicate how natural processes within large river systems may be altered by human activity. Freshwater mussels have been referred to as ‘ecosystem engineers’ because they exert control over food resources and alter habitats for other organisms. Also, mussels and bacteria play a major role in nutrient cycling in large river systems by cycling nutrients taken up by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Under ‘normal’ environmental conditions, mussels appear to process nitrogen more rapidly than denitrifying bacteria. However, substantial deposition of carbon-rich sediment resulting from extreme flooding may increase bacterial nitrogen cycling rates and subsequently alter overall denitrification rates. We hypothesize that intense depositions of particulate matter from recent extreme floods in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) have altered the freshwater mussel and microbial food webs through physical and chemical means. This work will be done in a 1200-m reach of the UMRB near Buffalo, Iowa. The reach contains a healthy and diverse assemblage of freshwater mussels. A historic flood event during May-July 2008 coincided with intense spring cultivation and nutrient application activities in the heavily farmed landscape of the Upper Midwest and resulted in a significant pulse of agricultural contaminants to the UMRB. This led scientists to predict an almost unprecedented delivery of sediment and nutrients to the mussel bed, the broader Mississippi River, and ultimately

  9. Advances and opportunities in assessing contaminant sensitivity of freshwater mussel (unionidae) early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T; Dwyer, F.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (family Unionidae, also referred to as freshwater pearly mussels, unionids, or naiades) are one of North America’s most endangered faunal groups. Near unanimity exists in characterizations of the imperilment of these ecologically, economically, and culturally important bivalve mollusks. Freshwater mussels are a renewable resource supporting a shell industry in the United States valued at $40–50 million annually [1]. In addition to being a food source for aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, this diverse fauna helps stabilize sediment [2] and provides critical nutrient and energy cycling in streams and lakes by filtering phytoplankton, bacteria, and particulate organic matter from the water column [3]. Thirty-five species of freshwater mussels are extinct [4], 70 species are listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (www.fws.gov/endangered/wildlife.html), and nearly 180 species are identified as critically imperiled or vulnerable (www.natureserve.org/explorer). Declines in freshwater mussels are not unique to North America [5], but because the taxon reaches its greatest richness here, impacts are especially noteworthy.

  10. Mussel bed restoration and monitoring. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project 95090: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, M.M.; Harris, P.M.; Carls, M.G.; Brodersen, C.C.; Rice, S.D.

    1998-12-01

    Many mussel beds in the spill area, particularly those on soft sediment, were not cleaned immediately after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Surveys documented the geographic extent (primarily Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula) and intensity of oiling. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined naturally from 1992--1995 in some, but not all beds. Distribution of oil in sediments was related to tidal elevation, depth, and grain size. Oil concentration in mussels correlated with that in sediment. Mussel condition was adversely affected by oil; prevalence of digestive gland metaplasia, brown cells, and hemocytic infiltrates in gonads increased, and storage cell abundance decreased. However, some physiological responses (byssal thread production, condition index, feeding rate, or glycogen content) in mussels contaminated 3--4 years were not correlated with oil concentration. Bed restoration caused immediate reductions in oil concentration in surface sediment, but these sediments were later partially recontaminated by remaining oil. Restoration efficacy was less evident in mussels; concentration declined in one-half of the beds after restoration, but density declines were similar in untreated reference beds.

  11. Occurrence of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in the St. Lawrence River and their bioconcentration by mussels (Elliptio complanata).

    PubMed

    Sabik, H; Gagné, F; Blaise, C; Marcogliese, D J; Jeannot, R

    2003-05-01

    A study was conducted in 1999 to determine the occurrence of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in the St. Lawrence River and their bioconcentration by mussels (Elliptio complanata). Concentrations of selected contaminants were measured in surface water, municipal effluent, sediments and mussels. Analyses were performed on 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NP(1-16)EO), nonylphenol-mono and di-ethoxycarboxylic acids (NP(1)EC and NP(2)EC), and octylphenol-mono and di-ethoxycarboxylic acids (OP(1)EC and OP(2)EC). Mussels (Elliptio complanata) taken from a reference lake were placed in cages and submerged for 62 days at two sites in the St. Lawrence River, 1.5 km upstream and 5 km downstream of the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The results showed that many of the target chemicals were present in all matrices studied: in water, at ppt and ppb levels, and reaching ppm levels in sediments and mussels. Concentrations of these contaminants were higher in matrices sampled at the downstream site than in those drawn at the site upstream of the Montreal effluent outfall, especially in sediments. Likewise, the slight, but not significant, bioconcentration of certain alkylphenol polyethoxylates (AP(n)EO) in the mussels was more noticeable at the downstream site than at the upstream site. PMID:12598000

  12. Bioaccumulation of PCB congeners by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) deployed in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, B.J. . Environmental Research Lab., Science Applications International Corp.); Nelson, W.G.; Pruell, R.J. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were deployed to monitor the levels of bioavailable contaminants during a pilot dredging project in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), Massachusetts. Dissolved and particulate seawater samples also were collected periodically during these deployments. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in both mussel tissue and seawater samples were among the quantified contaminants. Large differences in the dissolved and particulate PCB concentrations in seawater and tissue residue concentrations in mussels were observed along a gradient from the upper harbor to Buzzards Bay. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated for six PCB congenors at two stations in NBH and a reference site in Buzzards Bay. Equations were generated relating the log BCF to the log octanol/water partition coefficient (K[sub ow]) for these congeners. A consistent relationship was found between dissolved PCB congener concentrations and tissue concentrations in the mussels. This study demonstrates the utility of the blue mussel as a monitoring organism for quantifying bioavailable contaminants in seawater and for relating PCB tissue residues with seawater concentrations.

  13. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.D.; Warren, M.L., Jr.; Cummings, K.S.; Harris, J.L.; Neves, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) herein provides a list of all native freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) in the United States and Canada. This report also provides state and provincial distributions; a comprehensive review of the conservation status of all taxa; and references on biology, conservation, and distribution of freshwater mussels. The list includes 297 native freshwater mussels, of which 213 taxa (71.7%) are considered endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Twenty-one taxa (7.1%) are listed as endangered but possibly extinct, 77 (20.6%) as endangered but extant, 43 (14.5%) as threatened, 72 (24.2%) as of special concern, 14 (4.7%) as undetermined, and only 70 (23.6%) as currently stable. The primary reasons for the decline of freshwater mussels are habitat destruction from dams, channel modification, siltation, and the introduction of nonindigenous mollusks. The high numbers of imperiled freshwater mussels in the United States and Canada, which harbor the most diverse fauna in the world, portend a trajectory toward an extinction crisis that, if unchecked, will severely impoverish one of our richest components of aquatic biodiversity.

  14. Heavy metals in green mussel (Perna viridis) and oysters (Crassostrea sp.) from Trinidad and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas de Astudillo, L; Chang Yen, I; Agard, J; Bekele, I; Hubbard, R

    2002-05-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were monitored in edible soft tissues of shellfish from Trinidad and Venezuela. Oysters (Crassostrea sp.) and the green mussel (Perna viridis), which is a recently transplanted species to the Caribbean from the Far East, were collected at six locations in Venezuela and five in Trinidad, the latter along the coast line of the Gulf of Paria. Simple and low-cost methods of analysis were optimized and validated using standard reference materials. Cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The present study has confirmed that oysters have a much greater capacity for accumulation of copper and zinc than does green mussel. In addition, concentrations of copper and zinc in oysters (Crassostrea sp.) at many of the sites in the Gulf of Paria exceeded local and international standards, whereas green mussel P. viridis contained generally acceptable levels for human consumption. PMID:11994781

  15. Determination of vanadium in mussels by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry without chemical modifiers.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Y; Fernández, P; González, A

    2004-05-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of total vanadium concentration in mussels via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). After the microwave digestion of the samples, a program using temperatures of 1600 degrees C and 2600 degrees C for ashing and atomization respectively, without any matrix modifiers, allowed us to obtain results that were satisfactory since they agreed closely with certified reference material values. The detection limit was 0.03 mg kg(-1) (dry weight), indicating that the method is suitable for the analysis of mussel samples. This determination was compared with matrix modifiers that have been reported previously. The method was applied to various cultivated and wild mussels from the Galician coast, yielding levels below 1 mg kg(-1) (wet weight). PMID:14745471

  16. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  17. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  18. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  19. A candidate reference method for quantification of low concentrations of plasmid DNA by exhaustive counting of single DNA molecules in a flow stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hee-Bong; Oh, Donggeun; Song, Jae Yong; Kawaharasaki, Mamoru; Hwang, Jeeseong; Yang, In Chul; Park, Sang-Ryoul

    2014-10-01

    This work demonstrates accurate measurement of the amount of substance concentration of low concentration plasmid DNA by counting individual DNA molecules using a high-sensitivity flow cytometric setup. Plasmid DNA is a widely used form of DNA, and its quantity often needs to be accurately determined. This work establishes a reference analytical method for direct quantification of low concentration plasmid DNA prepared as reference standards for polymerase chain reaction-based DNA quantification. The model plasmid DNA pBR322 (4361 bp) was stained with a fluorescent dye and was detected in a flow stream in a micro-fluidic channel with laser-induced fluorescence detection, for which the DNA flow was electro-hydrodynamically focused at the centre of the channel. 200 to 8000 DNA molecules in a ˜1 µL sample volume were counted within 2 min in an ‘exhaustive counting’ manner, which facilitated quantitation without calibration. The sample volume was measured and validated from the close agreement of the results of two independent measurement methods, gravimetric determination of water filling the capillary and graphical estimation of actual cross sectional area of the capillary tubing with the image of calibrated scanning electron microscopy. Within the given concentration range, an excellent measurement linearity (R2 = 0.999) was achieved with appropriate data processing for the correction of the events of double molecules (detection of double molecules opposed to single molecule detection assumed, which occurs due to their coincidental passing of the detection zone). The validity of the proposed method was confirmed from the close agreement with the results of quantitation of enzymatically released nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis.

  20. Resource subsidies from multi-trophic aquaculture affect isotopic niche width in wild blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldrick, C. K.; Jelinski, D. E.

    2016-05-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are boreo-temperate, filter-feeding bivalves common to intertidal areas. As filter-feeders they have been employed in open-water, multi-tropic aquaculture systems to reduce organic benthic loading though the exploitation of suspended particulate organic materials. We compared δ13C and δ15N signatures and the isotopic niches of mussels growing in, and adjacent to, an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) farm in British Columbia, Canada, and using this information evaluated the contribution of aquaculture-derived effluent to their diet. Farm-sampled mussels had the least intraspecific isotopic variation compared to mussels sampled at the reference site. The interaction between time (i.e. sampling dates) and site did not significantly affect the isotopic composition of mussels; however significant variation was detected in δ15N values as a function of sampling date and particulate organic matter. A two-source isotopic mixing model indicated that marine particulate organic matter and IMTA farm effluent were approximately equal in importance (~ 46 % and ~ 54 %, respectively) to the diet of IMTA-retrieved mussels. Uptake of IMTA farm waste by M. edulis supports their use as economic extractives while also mitigating farmed sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) nutrient loading to the aquatic environment.

  1. Controlling zebra mussel infestations at hydroelectric plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sblendorio, R.P.; Malinchock, J.C. ); Claudi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    U.S. and Canadian utilities in the great lakes area have adopted techniques to temporarily prevent infestation of the zebra mussel in their hydro facilities, but are still looking for more permanent solutions.

  2. Radium-226 accumulation in Florida freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brenner, M.; Smoak, J.M.; Leeper, D.A.; Streubert, M.; Baker, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Selected lakes in Hillsborough County, Florida have been hydrologically augmented with groundwater to offset stage declines caused by excessive pumping of the Floridan Aquifer. Augmentation water can be relatively rich in 226Ra (>5 decays per minute [dpm] L-1). We measured 226Ra activities in shells and soft tissues of adult bivalve molluscs (Elliptio cf. buckleyi) from groundwater-augmented and nonaugmented lakes to assess bioaccumulation of 226Ra by mussels. Mussels from augmented lakes displayed higher 226Ra in both shells and tissues than did mussels from nonaugmented lakes. Within a sample, 226Ra activity in Elliptio tissues was higher than the value measured in shells. Highest activities were found in a composite mussel sample (n = 6) from an augmented lake; soft tissue activity was 619 ?? 33 dpm g-1 dry weight and shell activity was 147 ?? 7 dpm g-1 g dry weight. Large mussels displayed greater activities in soft tissues and shells than did small mussels. We transplanted animals from a nonaugmented lake into a groundwater-augmented water body. 226Ra activity in dry tissue rose from 32 ?? 1 to 196 ?? 2 dpm g-1 within 2 months. When 226Ra-rich mussels (232 ?? 2 dpm g-1) from the augmented lake were transferred to the nonaugmented lake, they showed no significant 226Ra loss over the 69-d experiment. Large Elliptio mussels concentrated 226Ra in their soft tissues to levels about 1,000 to 25,000 times concentrations in lake water. Pumping of groundwater in Florida for residential, agricultural, and industrial use contributes dissolved 226Ra to some surface water bodies, where it can be bioaccumulated by bivalve molluscs. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  3. Introduced species, zebra mussels in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1995-01-01

    The discovery of zebra mussels in North America in 1988 raised concern for water users because the species became abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water in human-made structures such as pipes and screens. This work reviews the biology, distribution, and impacts of zebra mussels in the context of its discovery in the Laurentian Great Lakes and its impending spread to most surface waters of North America.

  4. Stravation tolerance of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, R.; McMahon, R.F.

    1995-06-01

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (n=30), were held without food at 5{degrees}, 15{degrees}, or 25{degrees}C and examined daily for mortality. Further samples of 210 mussels at each test temperature were periodically subsampled (n=10) throughout the starvation period. Tissues and shells of sampled specimens were dried to a constant weight. Zebra mussels held at 25{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 166 days of starvation while mussels at 15{degrees}C experienced 100% mortality after 545 days. A mortality of 60% was recorded in mussels after 524 days at 5{degrees}C. Dry shell weight (DSW) of starving zebra mussels at 25{degrees}C remained constant; at 15{degrees}C, DSW increased, likely due to deposition of new shell without increase in length. At 5{degrees}C DSW decreased possibly due to the high solubility of shell calcium carbonate at this low temperature. Dry tissue weight (DTW) decreased linearly during starvation at all test temperatures with the rate of DTW loss increasing at higher holding temperatures. Estimated percent tissue biomass reductions in a 20 mm long starved individual were 73.8% after 132 days at 25{degrees}C, 68.9% after 545 days at 15{degrees}C and 61.6% after 516 days at 5{degrees}C. When DTW loss rates were converted to O{sub 2} consumption rates (O{sub 2}), the O{sub 2} of a 20 mm long mussel was estimated to be 22.2% of prestarvation O{sub 2} at 25{degrees}C, 11.0% at 15{degrees}C and 10.2% at 5{degrees}C. Major reduction in metabolic demand in starving zebra mussels at low temperatures allows overwintering without appreciable loss of organic energy stores.

  5. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  6. Is the body condition of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) enhanced through attachment to native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Francesca; Sousa, Ronaldo; Aldridge, David C

    2016-05-15

    The invasion of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, into Western Europe and North America has driven widespread ecological change. Attachment of zebra mussels to the shell of native unionoid mussels has resulted in reductions in unionoid abundance and, in extreme cases, their localised extirpations. While the impacts of zebra mussels on infested unionoids are well documented, the possible benefits of the association to the zebra mussel have been little considered. We collected zebra mussels attached to unionoids and to inanimate structures. Zebra mussels attached to unionoids had significantly larger shells, higher standardized body mass and glycogen content than those attached to inanimate substrates, suggesting that D. polymorpha benefits from settling upon unionoids. The body condition of individual zebra mussels was negatively correlated with the number of zebra mussels attached to the unionoid, indicating intraspecific competition. Therefore, zebra mussels seem positively affected through attachment to unionoid mussels, but that these benefits decrease at higher densities of fouling. This association may offer advantages to the spread of zebra mussels within unionoid-rich systems, especially at sites with soft substrates and at the early stages of the invasion process where intraspecific competition is likely to be lower and benefits to the zebra mussels are higher. PMID:26925735

  7. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalepa, Thomas F., (Edited By); Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  8. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels

    PubMed Central

    Lathlean, Justin A.; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Zardi, Gerardo I.; Nicastro, Katy R.

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  9. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels.

    PubMed

    Lathlean, Justin A; Seuront, Laurent; McQuaid, Christopher D; Ng, Terence P T; Zardi, Gerardo I; Nicastro, Katy R

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of these two species may

  10. Potential for Local Fertilization: A Benthocosm Test of Long-Term and Short-Term Effects of Mussel Excretion on the Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Monica; Duffy, Sean; Robert, Pauline; Péquin, Bérangère; Mohit, Vani; McKindsey, Christopher W.; Archambault, Philippe; Myrand, Bruno; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Réjean; Plourde, Stéphane; Fussmann, Gregor F.

    2016-01-01

    Mussel aquaculture has expanded worldwide and it is important to assess its impact on the water column and the planktonic food web to determine the sustainability of farming practices. Mussel farming may affect the planktonic food web indirectly by excreting bioavailable nutrients in the water column (a short-term effect) or by increasing nutrient effluxes from biodeposit-enriched sediments (a long-term effect). We tested both of these indirect effects in a lagoon by using plankton-enclosing benthocosms that were placed on the bottom of a shallow lagoon either inside of a mussel farm or at reference sites with no history of aquaculture. At each site, half of the benthocosms were enriched with seawater that had held mussels (excretion treatment), the other half received non-enriched seawater as a control treatment. We monitored nutrients ([PO43-] and [NH4+]), dissolved oxygen and plankton components (bacteria, the phytoplankton and the zooplankton) over 5 days. We found a significant relationship between long-term accumulation of mussel biodeposits in sediments, water-column nutrient concentrations and plankton growth. Effects of mussel excretion were not detected, too weak to be significant given the spatial and temporal variability observed in the lagoon. Effects of mussels on the water column are thus likely to be coupled to benthic processes in such semi-enclosed water bodies. PMID:27249793

  11. Potential for Local Fertilization: A Benthocosm Test of Long-Term and Short-Term Effects of Mussel Excretion on the Plankton.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Mehdi; Granados, Monica; Duffy, Sean; Robert, Pauline; Péquin, Bérangère; Mohit, Vani; McKindsey, Christopher W; Archambault, Philippe; Myrand, Bruno; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Réjean; Plourde, Stéphane; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2016-01-01

    Mussel aquaculture has expanded worldwide and it is important to assess its impact on the water column and the planktonic food web to determine the sustainability of farming practices. Mussel farming may affect the planktonic food web indirectly by excreting bioavailable nutrients in the water column (a short-term effect) or by increasing nutrient effluxes from biodeposit-enriched sediments (a long-term effect). We tested both of these indirect effects in a lagoon by using plankton-enclosing benthocosms that were placed on the bottom of a shallow lagoon either inside of a mussel farm or at reference sites with no history of aquaculture. At each site, half of the benthocosms were enriched with seawater that had held mussels (excretion treatment), the other half received non-enriched seawater as a control treatment. We monitored nutrients ([PO43-] and [NH4+]), dissolved oxygen and plankton components (bacteria, the phytoplankton and the zooplankton) over 5 days. We found a significant relationship between long-term accumulation of mussel biodeposits in sediments, water-column nutrient concentrations and plankton growth. Effects of mussel excretion were not detected, too weak to be significant given the spatial and temporal variability observed in the lagoon. Effects of mussels on the water column are thus likely to be coupled to benthic processes in such semi-enclosed water bodies. PMID:27249793

  12. The Role of Microphytobenthic Primary Production in a Mediterranean Mussel Culture Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranguet, C.

    1997-06-01

    The production and biomass of microphytobenthos in a Mediterranean mussel farm was studied during 1991-92. Gross and net microphytobenthic production and respiration were calculated from oxygen fluxes in transparent and black bell jars at two stations; sediments under a mussel table and reference sediments, both located at 5 m depth. Net oxygen fluxes were mainly negative under the mussel tables (average -19·5 mg O2 m-2 h-1, CV=132%), and microphytobenthos production could not meet the sediment oxygen demand; in the reference sediments, microphytobenthos production was responsible for net oxygen production (average +13·0 mg O2 m-2 h-1, CV=118%). Benthic respiration rates were, on average, 47·3 mg O2 m-2 h-1(CV=82%) under the tables and 27·7 mg O2 m-2 h-1(CV=45%) in reference sediments. Aerobic respiration could remineralize less than 2% of the biodeposited carbon under the tables, implying that a large amount of organic material is accumulating under the tables, and that most of the degradation will be anaerobic. Gross microbenthic production showed sharp changes between 1991 and 1992 under the mussel tables and for reference sediments (averages 20·98 mg O2 m-2 h-1, CV=135% and 33 mg O2 m-2 h-1, CV=48%, respectively). Despite the negative oxygen balance in the sediments under the tables, microphytobenthos was more productive than phytoplankton in bottom waters. Per unit area, phytoplankton was more productive than microphytobenthos at both stations, especially in the area of the mussel tables, where phytoplanktonic production was enhanced by the excretion products of mussels. Microphytobenthos was composed mainly of diatoms in the sediments under the tables, while in reference sediments, the population was more diverse, with algae containing chlorophyllbalso present. Chlorophyllaconcentration in sediments under the tables was 207 mg m-2(CV=73%) and 95 mg m-2(CV=28%) in reference sediments; the stock of plant pigments was increased under the tables by

  13. Molecular mechanics of mussel adhesion proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel foot protein (mfp), a natural glue produced by marine mussel, is an intriguing material because of its superior ability for adhesion in various environments. For example, a very small amount of this material is sufficient to affix a mussel to a substrate in water, providing structural support under extreme forces caused by the dynamic effects of waves. Towards a more complete understanding of its strength and underwater workability, it is necessary to understand the microscropic mechanisms by which the protein structure interacts with various substrates. However, none of the mussel proteins' structure is known, preventing us from directly using atomistic modeling to probe their structural and mechanical properties. Here we use an advanced molecular sampling technique to identify the molecular structures of two mussel foot proteins (mfp-3 and mfp-5) and use those structures to study their mechanics of adhesion, which is then incorporated into a continuum model. We calculate the adhesion energy of the mussel foot protein on a silica substrate, compute the adhesion strength based on results obtained from molecular modeling, and compare with experimental data. Our results show good agreement with experimental measurements, which validates the multiscale model. We find that the molecular structure of the folded mussel foot protein (ultimately defined by its genetic sequence) favors strong adhesion to substrates, where L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (or DOPA) protein subunits work in a cooperative manner to enhance adhesion. Our experimental data suggests a peak attachment force of 0.4±0.1 N, which compares favorably with the prediction from the multiscale model of Fc=0.21-0.33 N. The principles learnt from those results could guide the fabrication of new interfacial materials (e.g. composites) to integrate organic with inorganic surfaces in an effective manner.

  14. A candidate reference method for the determination of uric acid in serum based on high performance liquid chromatography, compared with an isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer method.

    PubMed

    Kock, R; Delvoux, B; Tillmanns, U; Greiling, H

    1989-03-01

    A method based on isocratic high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at 292 nm is proposed as a candidate reference method for the determination of uric acid. Data obtained by this method are compared with those from an isotope dilution-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method (ID-GC-MS), using [1,3-15N2]uric acid as internal standard and selected mass detection at m/z = 456 and m/z = 458. The inaccuracy of the ID-GC-MS method is maximally 0.4% for NBS-SRM-909 control sera with a concentration of 483 mumol/l. The coefficient of variation between days is 0.26%-0.80% and 0.37-0.90% for 14 control sera from other suppliers. The maximum bias of the HPLC method is 0.6%, and the coefficient of variation between days is 0.31%-0.65% for NBS-SRM-909 control sera. The coefficient of variation between days for the other 14 control sera tested is 0.35%-0.66%. Comparison of the HPLC method with the reference ID-GC-MS method resulted in a coefficient of correlation of r = 0.9998 (n = 14). The concentration of uric acid in the tested control sera ranged from 160 to 624 mumol/l. PMID:2651552

  15. Insights into the innate immunity of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    modulated in response to antigenic stimuli and represents an interesting window for looking at the mussel immunome (transcriptomes mediating the mussel response to non-self or abnormal antigens). On this basis, we have defined a new microarray platform, a mussel Immunochip, as a flexible tool for the experimental validation of immune-candidate sequences, and tested its performance on Vibrio-activated mussel hemocytes. The microarray platform and related expression data can be regarded as a step forward in the study of the adaptive response of the Mytilus species to an evolving microbial world. PMID:21269501

  16. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  17. Genotoxicity and activation of cellular defenses in transplanted zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha along the Seine river.

    PubMed

    Châtel, Amélie; Faucet-Marquis, Virginie; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to confirm the relevance of studying DNA adduct formation in a field study. In that context, freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha, collected in a reference station, were transplanted in different sites with a pollution gradient. After one and two months, mussels were collected and DNA adduct formation was analyzed using the (32)P post labelling technique on both gills and digestive glands. In addition, the expression of genes involved in the detoxification system (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), HSP70, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), P glycoprotein (PgP), metallothionein (MT)) was assessed by RT-PCR. DNA adducts were observed at amount comparable to data from literature. Increase of DNA adducts after two months of transplantation could be correlated with strong modulation of gene expression implicated in detoxification processes. Indeed, PgP and HSP70 gene expressions were similarly induced in gills and digestive glands while SOD and CAT expressions were down regulated in both tissues. AHR, GST and MT genes were differently regulated depending upon the tissue studied and the level of contamination in the different sites. We demonstrated that mussels transplanted in the different stations with pollution gradient were able to biotransform PAHs, assessed by DNA adduct formation and the high decrease of detoxification genes. Specific DNA adducts pattern obtained after one and two month mussel transplantations demonstrated the relevance of DNA adduct as biomarker of environmental pollution. PMID:24951272

  18. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Carls, M G; Babcock, M M; Harris, P M; Irvine, G V; Cusick, J A; Rice, S D

    2001-03-01

    Persistence and weathering of Exxon Valdez oil in intertidal mussel (Mytilus trossulus) beds in Prince William Sound (PWS) and along the Gulf of Alaska was monitored from 1992 to 1995. Beds with significant contamination included most previously oiled areas in PWS, particularly within the Knight Island group and the Kenai Peninsula. In sediments, yearly mean concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from < 60 micrograms/g in reference beds to 62,258 micrograms/g wet wt., or approximately 0 to 523 micrograms/g dry wt. total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs). In mussels, mean TPAH concentrations ranged up to 8.1 micrograms/g dry wt. Hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly with time in some, but not all mussels and sediments, and should reach background levels within three decades of the spill in most beds. In 1995, mean hydrocarbon concentration was greater than twice background concentration in sediments from 27 of 34 sites, and in mussels from 18 of 31 sites. PMID:11468815

  19. Anthropogenic pollution stimulates oxidative stress in soft tissues of mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker1853)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcheva, Nina N.; Zakhartsev, Maxim V.; Dovzhenko, Nadezhda V.; Zhukovskaya, Avianna F.; Kavun, Victor Ya.; Chelomin, Victor P.

    2011-06-01

    The digestive gland and gills of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus extracted from three locations — (i) sampled from a clean and (ii) polluted site and (iii) transplanted from the nonpolluted to polluted site - were analysed for antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase), total oxyradical scavenging capacity and levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin). Perturbation of redox status was found in both digestive gland and gill tissues of mussels living in the polluted area. As the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 1.2-3 times higher, the total oxyradical scavenging capacity was lower by 20-35% and the levels of lipid peroxidation products were 2-7 times higher compared to mussels from the reference site. In transplanted mussels, the lipid peroxidation process in both tissues was significantly stimulated (the level of conjugated dienes was increased 1.7-2.5-fold; malondialdehyde and lipofuscin contents were increased 3.5-5-fold) and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity fell by 50-70%. In addition, the transplantation generally resulted in transient and variable responses of antioxidant enzymes for both tissues. Complex response-behaviour of the antioxidant enzymes strongly points to the necessity of employing a combined approach that takes into account activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, as well as measurement of oxidative damage (e.g., lipid peroxidation) to evaluate the physiological health of molluscs.

  20. One-year monitoring of core biomarker and digestive enzyme responses in transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Palais, F; Dedourge-Geffard, O; Beaudon, A; Pain-Devin, S; Trapp, J; Geffard, O; Noury, P; Gourlay-Francé, C; Uher, E; Mouneyrac, C; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Geffard, A

    2012-04-01

    A 12-month active biomonitoring study was performed in 2008-2009 on the Vesle river basin (Champagne-Ardenne, France) using the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha as a sentinel species; allochthonous mussels originating from a reference site (Commercy) were exposed at four sites (Bouy, Sept-Saulx, Fismes, Ardre) within the Vesle river basin. Selected core biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, glutathione-S transferase (GST) activity, metallothionein concentration), along with digestive enzyme activities (amylase, endocellulase) and energy reserve concentrations (glycogen, lipids), were monitored throughout the study in exposed mussels. At the Fismes and Ardre sites (downstream basin), metallic and organic contamination levels were low but still high enough to elicit AChE and GST activity induction in exposed mussels (chemical stress); besides, chemical pollutants had no apparent deleterious effects on mussel condition. At the Bouy and Sept-Saulx sites (upstream basin), mussels obviously suffered from adverse food conditions which seriously impaired individual physiological state and survival (nutritional stress); food scarcity had however no apparent effects on core biomarker responses. Digestive enzyme activities responded to both chemical and nutritional stresses, the increase in energy outputs (general adaptation syndrome-downstream sites) or the decrease in energy inputs (food scarcity-upstream sites) leading to mid- or long-term induction of digestive carbohydrase activities in exposed mussels (energy optimizing strategy). Complex regulation patterns of these activities require nevertheless the use of a multi-marker approach to allow data interpretation. Besides, their sensitivity to natural confounding environmental factors remains to be precised. PMID:22252290

  1. Monitoring water quality in Sydney Harbour using blue mussels during remediation of the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R; MacAskill, Devin

    2014-03-01

    Using mussels as monitoring tools we measured water quality in Sydney Harbour during a large scale, multi-year remediation project of the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs); one of Canada's most contaminated sites. Chemical contaminants were measured in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in Sydney Harbour, which were used as monitoring tools to assess the spatio-temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and lipid content during baseline and 3 years of remediation. The overall spatio-temporal distribution of chemicals in mussels was also compared to contaminants in other marine indicators (e.g., sediment, water and crab tissue). Measured metal concentrations in mussels showed some minor temporal variability (4 years), but these did not appear to be directly related to remediation activities, with the highest concentrations of As, Hg and Zn measured at reference stations. Most measured contaminants showed stable or potentially decreasing concentrations during the study, except Pb and Zn. Individual PAH compounds were mostly undetected during baseline and remediation, except for fluoranthene and pyrene. Concentrations of fluoranthene in mussels and deep water samples were moderately related. Generally, PCBs were undetected (<0.05 μg g(-1)), except during year 2 remediation at some near-field stations. Contaminants measured during this study were at much lower concentrations than previously reported in other studies of mussels in Sydney Harbour and eastern Canada. This is likely due to the ongoing natural recovery of Sydney Harbour and to a lesser extent because of the environmental mitigation protection measures implemented during remediation activities at the STPs. The lack of detection of most individual PAHs and PCBs, plus relatively low bio-accumulation of metals observed during baseline and remediation attest to the effectiveness of using mussels as monitoring tools for environmental

  2. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Joy; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1993-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates and handling time of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhhynchus mykiss) eggs. In single prey species tests, crayfish ate zebra mussels at similar rates as they ate rainbow trout eggs. When both prey were present, crayfish preferred rainbow trout eggs. Handling time of mussels was about twice that of rainbow trout eggs, and energetic content of mussels was lower. Therefore, net benefit for foraging on rainbow trout eggs was about three times that of foraging on zebra mussels.

  3. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  4. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  5. Chlorine dioxide treatment for zebra mussel control

    SciTech Connect

    Rybarik, D.; Byron, J.; Germer, M.

    1995-06-01

    Chlorine is recognized and commonly used biocide for power plant cooling water and service water treatment programs, including the control of zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide has recently become a popular method of zebra mussel control because of its economy, safety, environmental acceptability, and effectiveness when compared to other mussel control methods. This control technique was recently demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s Alma Generating Station on the east bank of the upper Mississippi River in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was assisted with EPRI Tailored Collaboration Program funds. The Dairyland Power Alam Generating Station consists of five generating units that utilize raw, untreated Mississippi River water for condenser, circulating, and service water supplies. The first units were built in 1947, with the final and largest unit being completed in 1960. Total station generating capacity is 200 MW. Because of recent increases in the zebra mussel density at the station intake, Dairyland Power selected the team of Nalco and Rio Linda to perform a chlorine dioxide treatment of the station`s new water systems to eradicate and control the mussels before their presence created operational difficulties. This paper will present the results of the treatment including treatment theory, design and construction of the treatment system, the method of chlorine dioxide generation, treatment concentration, analytical methods o monitoring chlorine dioxide generation, residuals and trihalomethane (THM) concentrations, protocol for monitoring treatment mortality, and the effects of chlorine dioxide and detoxification on other water chemistry parameters and equipment materials. The goal of this paper is to inform and assist users with establishing consistent and uniform practices for safely utilizing and monitoring chlorine dioxide in the eradication and control of zebra mussels.

  6. Zebra mussels enter the compost pile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Zebra mussels, introduced accidentally into the Great Lakes, are overpopulating at phenomenal rates, especially in Lake Erie, where they damage oyster beds, foster excessive algae growth and cling to boats. They also clog the intake pipes of city water systems and power generating plants. The expense of cleaning intake screens is considerable, since they have to be physically removed and cleaned. Then the mussels must be disposed of, costing some power plants as much as $50,000 a year to landfill, says Wayne Koser of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

  7. Active biomonitoring of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis with integrated use of micronucleus assay and physiological indices to assess harbor pollution.

    PubMed

    Gherras Touahri, Hamida; Boutiba, Zitouni; Benguedda, Wacila; Shaposhnikov, Sergey

    2016-09-15

    The mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from a noncontaminated site (Chaib Rasso) were transplanted during one, three and six months at Ghazaouet harbor (GH), areas with a strong gradient of pollution. The micronucleus test (MN) was selected to monitor the impact of contamination, along with physiological indexes (condition index CI and organo-somatic indexes RI and GSI). The results show a negative correlation of MN variation in gill cells with CI but a positive correlation with transplantation duration. However, a significant correlation was found between the indexes. Moreover, the findings indicate that MN in the hemolymph and gills of transplanted mussels for one, three and six months at GH are significantly higher than those of the reference site. However, no significant differences were noted between the three transplants at the two organs. Monitoring the physiological status of mussels, in parallel with the biomarker measurements, is useful in assessing the impact of contaminants. PMID:27321801

  8. Integrative study of a new cold-seep mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) associated with chemosynthetic symbionts in the Marmara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Bénédicte; Duperron, Sébastien; Lorion, Julien; Sara Lazar, Cassandre; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2012-09-01

    Recently, small Idas-like mussels have been discovered living on carbonate crusts associated with cold-seeps in the Marmara Sea. These mussels, here referred to as Idas-like nov. sp., differ morphologically and genetically from another species identified as Idas aff. modiolaeformis, living in the same type of ecosystem in the Nile Deep-Sea Fan (eastern Mediterranean Sea). A phylogenetic analysis confirms the distinction between the two species, which belong to highly divergent lineages. Carbon stable isotope values, as well as the detection of thiotroph-related bacteria in the gill tissue, support the presence of a symbiotic, thiotroph-derived nutrition. In contrast, Idas aff. modiolaeformis displays six different types of symbionts. Finally our size-frequency data suggest that the recruitment is continuous in the examined area. The present study extends the documented distribution of symbiont-bearing mussels to the Marmara Sea, and contributes to the characterisation of biological communities in this recently explored area.

  9. Biomarker responses to sewage pollution in freshwater mussels (Diplodon chilensis) transplanted to a Patagonian river.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Rocchetta, Iara; Luquet, Carlos M

    2014-09-19

    Field and laboratory experiments were combined to evaluate biomarker responses of Diplodon chilensis to sewage pollution. Mussels from an unpolluted area in Lacar lake (S0) were caged at a reference site (S1) and at two sites with increasing sewage pollution (S2, S3) in Pocahullo river (all in Argentina). After 1 month, gill (g) glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated in S3, gGST being positively correlated with fecal bacteria (FC) concentration. Digestive gland (dg) enzyme activities were depressed and dgTBARS were increased in all transplanted mussels. After 3 mo, most variables returned to control levels in S1 mussels except for dgCAT and dgTBARS. After seven months, GST and CAT activities of S0 and S3 mussels were evaluated in the laboratory, before and after acute exposure (8 h) to high fecal bacteria concentration ([FC] in S3x 2). gGST increased in both groups, while dgGST responded only in S3 mussels. gCAT and dgCAT activities were similarly increased by acute exposure in both groups. Our results suggest that gGST and gCAT are suitable biomarkers for high FC pollution regardless of previous exposure history. In addition, we show that dgCAT is sensitive to the acute increase in FC load, both in naive and long-term exposed individuals, while dgGST becomes responsive after long-term acclimatization. PMID:24967561

  10. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in mussels from Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, document the return to baseline conditions.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Paul D; Page, David S; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Burns, William A

    2004-12-01

    Bioavailable hydrocarbons in the Exxon Valdez oil spill zone in Prince William Sound (PWS; AK, USA) shorelines were at or near background levels in 2002, as indicated by low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected from sites throughout PWS. Total PAH (TPAH) minus parent naphthalene concentrations in mussels collected in 1998 to 2002 from sites oiled in 1989 were at or near reference-site values. Both oiled and reference sites included locations associated with past human and industrial activity (HA). Inclusion of the unoiled HA sites in the range of reference sites that define prespill conditions is consistent with federal regulations. For the period from 1998 to 2002, the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for 218 mussel samples collected from 72 sites, including four HA sites that had been heavily oiled in 1989, is 54 ng/g dry weight (range, 2-1,190 ng/g). The maximum mussel TPAH concentrations are equivalent to a weathered-oil exposure dose to intertidal foragers that is one to three orders of magnitude less than the doses shown to cause sublethal effects in surrogate species. The geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 28 locations not oiled in 1989 and unaffected by human use (NHA sites) is 28 ng/g (range, 3-355 ng/g), whereas the geometric mean of TPAH concentrations for mussel samples from 14 locations not oiled in 1989 and affected by human use (HA sites) is 106 ng/g (range, 2-12,056 ng/g). The range of data for the unoiled HA and NHA sites defines the background of bioavailable PAHs to mussels on western PWS shorelines that would have prevailed if the oil spill had not occurred. The low PAH concentrations in mussels from sites known to have subsurface oil residues demonstrates the low bioavailability of these spill remnants and, thus, are a low additional risk to foraging wildlife. The present study shows continuous exposure from four- to six-ring PAHs originating at HA

  12. Effects of lead on Na+, K+-ATPase and hemolymph ion concentrations in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, Shad; Cope, W. Gregory; Weber, Frank X.; Shea, Damian; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are an imperiled fauna exposed to a variety of environmental toxicants such as lead (Pb) and studies are urgently needed to assess their health and condition to guide conservation efforts. A 28-day laboratory toxicity test with Pb and adult Eastern elliptio mussels (Elliptio complanata) was conducted to determine uptake kinetics and to assess the toxicological effects of Pb exposure. Test mussels were collected from a relatively uncontaminated reference site and exposed to a water-only control and five concentrations of Pb (as lead nitrate) ranging from 1 to 245 mu g/L in a static renewal test with a water hardness of 42 mg/L. Endpoints included tissue Pb concentrations, hemolymph Pb and ion (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) concentrations, and Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme activity in gill tissue. Mussels accumulated Pb rapidly, with tissue concentrations increasing at an exposure-dependent rate for the first 2 weeks, but with no significant increase from 2 to 4 weeks. Mussel tissue Pb concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 898 mu g/g dry weight, were strongly related to Pb in test water at every time interval (7, 14, 21, and 28 days), and did not significantly increase after day 14. Hemolymph Pb concentration was variable, dependent on exposure concentration, and showed no appreciable change with time beyond day 7, except for mussels in the greatest exposure concentration (245 mu g/L), which showed a significant reduction in Pb by 28 days, suggesting a threshold for Pb binding or elimination in hemolymph at concentrations near 1000 mu g/g. The Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the gill tissue of mussels was significantly reduced by Pb on day 28 and was highly correlated with tissue Pb concentration (R2 = 0.92; P = 0.013). The Na+, K+-ATPase activity was correlated with reduced hemolymph Na+ concentration at the greatest Pb exposure when enzyme activity was at 30% of controls. Hemolymph Ca2+ concentration increased significantly in mussels from the greatest Pb exposure and may

  13. Mytilid mussels: global habitat engineers in coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Dittmann, Sabine; Hong, Jae-Sang; Hwang, In-Seo; Strasser, Matthias; Thiel, Martin; Valdivia, Nelson; Yoon, San-Pil; Reise, Karsten

    2009-03-01

    Dense beds of mussels of the family Mytilidae occur worldwide on soft-bottoms in cold and warm temperate coastal waters and have usually been considered hot spots of biodiversity. We examined intertidal mussel beds at four distant locations around the globe with the same sampling method, to find out whether this “hot spot” designation holds universally. We studied species assemblages within the matrices of byssally interconnected mussels engineered by Mytilus edulis in the North Sea, by mixed Perumytilus purpuratus and Mytilus chilensis at the southern Chilean coast, by Musculista senhousia in the Yellow Sea and by Xenostrobus inconstans at the coast of southern Australia. In all cases, species assemblages inside mussel beds were significantly different from those outside with many species being restricted to one habitat type. However, species richness and diversity were not generally higher in mussel beds than in ambient sediments without mussels. In the North Sea ( M. edulis) and at the Chilean coast ( P. purpuratus, M. chilensis), mussel beds have markedly higher species numbers and diversities than surrounding sediments, but this was not the case for mussel beds in Australia ( X. inconstans) and the Yellow Sea ( M. senhousia) where numbers of associated species were only slightly higher and somewhat lower than in adjacent sediments, respectively. In conclusion, although soft bottom mytilid mussels generally enhance habitat heterogeneity and species diversity at the ecosystem level, mussel beds themselves are not universal centres of biodiversity, but the effects on associated species are site specific.

  14. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  15. Zebra mussel-directed foodchain transfer of environmental contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Bruner, K.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1994-12-31

    Zebra mussel densities in some near-shore areas of Lake Erie exceed 500,000 individuals m{sup 3}. Because of their large biomass, the zebra mussels can collectively filter the entire volume of Lake Erie`s western basin in approximately 7 days. In so doing, the mussels remove a significant fraction of suspended particles, including algae and sediment. If those particles are contaminated with PCBs, the mussels could potentially redirect contaminant cycling in Lake Erie. Their data show that contaminated particles are a significant source of contaminants for the zebra mussel with sediment being more significant source than algae. When particles are the source of contamination for the zebra mussel, significant foodchain contamination may result from direct consumption of contaminated mussels or via an indirect route in which unassimilated contaminants are shunted into zebra mussel feces and the latter are consumed by benthic invertebrates. Trophic transfer of PCBs from zebra mussel feces to gammarids was measured. Importantly, biomagnification of some PCB congeners occurred during foodchain transfer from particles to mussels to feces such that the indirect route of transfer through ingestion of contaminated feces is more significant ecologically. Implications for Lake Erie foodchains will be discussed.

  16. NATIVE FRESHWATER FISH AND MUSSEL SPECIES RICHNESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons and represent total species counts for each spatial unit.

  17. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  18. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  19. Unique alloys prevent zebra mussel attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Ranschaert, B.; Maxson, D.

    1995-10-01

    This article describes cooperative research and application by a utility and an intake screen manufacturer of materials that are resistive to fouling by mussels. The article describes the intake structure, the screen manufacturer`s efforts to identify resistive materials, manufacture and installation of screens using the resistive copper alloys and the results achieved.

  20. Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guide is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices as reported in the open literature as of the end of 1992. EPRI considers the guide to be a living' document and will update it periodically in order to provide results of current research on chemical and nonchemical control technologies and utility experiences. The zebra mussel has infested all of the Great Lakes and other major rivers and waterways and is positioned to spread even more to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on industrial power plantsis as a biofouler that clogs water systems and heat exchangers. This EPRI guideline identifies the zebra mussel, discusses its distribution in the United States, presents the potential threats to power plants, and presents the methods to initiate monitoring and control programs. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It also may be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Various appendices are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the monitoring and control technologies, results of chemical evaluations at Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company plants, and data on the fate of various commercial molluscicides.

  1. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W. )

    1992-01-01

    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water.

  2. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Page, David S; Boehm, Paul D; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Burns, William A; Bence, A Edward

    2005-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone. PMID:15924992

  3. An updated molecular basis for mussel immunity.

    PubMed

    Gerdol, Marco; Venier, Paola

    2015-09-01

    Non-self recognition with the consequent tolerance or immune reaction is a crucial process to succeed as living organisms. At the same time the interactions between host species and their microbiome, including potential pathogens and parasites, significantly contribute to animal life diversity. Marine filter-feeding bivalves, mussels in particular, can survive also in heavily anthropized coastal waters despite being constantly surrounded by microorganisms. Based on the first outline of the Mytilus galloprovincialis immunome dated 2011, the continuously growing transcript data and the recent release of a draft mussel genome, we explored the available sequence data and scientific literature to reinforce our knowledge on the main gene-encoded elements of the mussel immune responses, from the pathogen recognition to its clearance. We carefully investigated molecules specialized in the sensing and targeting of potential aggressors, expected to show greater molecular diversification, and outlined, whenever relevant, the interconnected cascades of the intracellular signal transduction. Aiming to explore the diversity of extracellular, membrane-bound and intracellular pattern recognition receptors in mussel, we updated a highly complex immune system, comprising molecules which are described here in detail for the first time (e.g. NOD-like receptors) or which had only been partially characterized in bivalves (e.g. RIG-like receptors). Overall, our comparative sequence analysis supported the identification of over 70 novel full-length immunity-related transcripts in M. galloprovincialis. Nevertheless, the multiplicity of gene functions relevant to immunity, the involvement of part of them in other vital processes, and also the lack of a refined mussel genome make this work still not-exhaustive and support the development of more specific studies. PMID:25700785

  4. Extracellular and Mixotrophic Symbiosis in the Whale-Fall Mussel Adipicola pacifica: A Trend in Evolution from Extra- to Intracellular Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kawato, Masaru; Noda, Chikayo; Kinoshita, Gin; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Fujita, Yuko; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi

    2010-01-01

    Background Deep-sea mussels harboring chemoautotrophic symbionts from hydrothermal vents and seeps are assumed to have evolved from shallow-water asymbiotic relatives by way of biogenic reducing environments such as sunken wood and whale falls. Such symbiotic associations have been well characterized in mussels collected from vents, seeps and sunken wood but in only a few from whale falls. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we report symbioses in the gill tissues of two mussels, Adipicola crypta and Adipicola pacifica, collected from whale-falls on the continental shelf in the northwestern Pacific. The molecular, morphological and stable isotopic characteristics of bacterial symbionts were analyzed. A single phylotype of thioautotrophic bacteria was found in A. crypta gill tissue and two distinct phylotypes of bacteria (referred to as Symbiont A and Symbiont C) in A. pacifica. Symbiont A and the A. crypta symbiont were affiliated with thioautotrophic symbionts of bathymodiolin mussels from deep-sea reducing environments, while Symbiont C was closely related to free-living heterotrophic bacteria. The symbionts in A. crypta were intracellular within epithelial cells of the apical region of the gills and were extracellular in A. pacifica. No spatial partitioning was observed between the two phylotypes in A. pacifica in fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments. Stable isotopic analyses of carbon and sulfur indicated the chemoautotrophic nature of A. crypta and mixotrophic nature of A. pacifica. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the host mussels showed that A. crypta constituted a monophyletic clade with other intracellular symbiotic (endosymbiotic) mussels and that A. pacifica was the sister group of all endosymbiotic mussels. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly suggest that the symbiosis in A. pacifica is at an earlier stage in evolution than other endosymbiotic mussels. Whale falls and other modern biogenic reducing environments may act as refugia

  5. Establishing mussel behavior as a biomarker in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jason T; Beggel, Sebastian; Auerswald, Karl; Stoeckle, Bernhard C; Geist, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Most freshwater mussel species of the Unionoida are endangered, presenting a conservation issue as they are keystone species providing essential services for aquatic ecosystems. As filter feeders with limited mobility, mussels are highly susceptible to water pollution. Despite their exposure risk, mussels are underrepresented in standard ecotoxicological methods. This study aimed to demonstrate that mussel behavioral response to a chemical stressor is a suitable biomarker for the advancement of ecotoxicology methods that aids mussel conservation. Modern software and Hall sensor technology enabled mussel filtration behavior to be monitored real-time at very high resolution. With this technology, we present our method using Anodonta anatina and record their response to de-icing salt pollution. The experiment involved an environmentally relevant 'pulse-exposure' design simulating three subsequent inflow events. Three sublethal endpoints were investigated, Filtration Activity, Transition Frequency (number of changes from opened to closed, or vice versa) and Avoidance Behavior. The mussels presented a high variation in filtration behavior, behaving asynchronously. At environmentally relevant de-icing salt exposure scenarios, A. anatina behavior patterns were significantly affected. Treated mussels' Filtration Activity decreased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), however, increased during short de-icing salt exposure. Treated mussels' Transition Frequency increased during periods of very high and long de-icing salt exposure (p<0.001), which mirrored the Avoidance Behavior endpoint observed only by mussels under chemical stress. Characteristics of Avoidance Behavior were tighter shell closures with repeated and irregular shell movements which was significantly different to their undisturbed resting behavior (p<0.001). Additionally, we found that mussels were sensitive to a chemical stressor even when the mussel's valves were closed. Due

  6. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. PMID:26763324

  7. Effects of metal pollution on genetics of freshwater mussels in a southeastern Missouri mining district

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.Y.

    1994-12-31

    Lead mining has historically been in operation in Missouri since the 1700`s, and an extensively mineralized region known as the ``Old Lead Belt`` in the southeastern portion of the state contained some of the most substantial deposits in the district. Although mining is currently inactive in this region, intensive past mining resulted in accumulation of large tailings piles placed adjacent to aquatic resources. Erosion and accidental releases of mine tailings rich in lead, zinc, cadmium and copper have resulted in contamination in the Big River drainage, one of two principal tributaries in the Meramec River Basin. Substantial bioaccumulation of metals has previously been documented for freshwater mussels collected from the Big River, as well as for other aquatic biota. This research project investigated the effects of metal pollution on biochemical genetic variability among three populations of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis ventricosa in the Meramec River Basin. Specimens were collected from metal-contaminated reaches of the Big River, and two reference populations in Meramec and Bourbeuse Rivers. Using techniques of starch gel electrophoresis, significant differences were found in allozyme frequencies at the phosphoglucomutase locus between mussels collected from the metal-contaminated Big River versus reference populations, suggesting that certain allozyme genotypes may be more sensitive than others to metal pollutants. The genetic response to geographic variation in environmental contamination between the L. ventricosa populations examined in the Meramec River Basin suggests that differential pollution-induced selection of allozyme genotypes has occurred in the Big River.

  8. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  9. Mussel beds — amensalism or amelioration for intertidal fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Sabine

    1990-09-01

    The faunal assemblages of a mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis L.) and ambient sandflat were compared to study how a bioherm of suspension feeding organisms affects benthic communities in a tidal flat. During a survey of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea at the island of Sylt (North Sea), a total of 52 macrofaunal species and 44 meiobenthic plathelminth species were detected. They occupied different microhabitats in the mussel bed. 56% of the macrofauna species were dwelling in the sediment beneath the mussels and 42% were epibenthic or epiphytic. The latter were restricted in their occurrence to the mussel bed. Along a transect from the sandflat to the mussel bed the mean species densities of macrofauna did not differ significantly, while abundances were significantly lower in the mussel bed than in the sandflat. The composition of the assemblages shifted from a dominance of Polychaeta in the sandflat to Oligochaeta in the mussel bed. Surface filter-feeding polychaetes of the sandflat ( Tharyx marioni) were displaced by deposit feeding polychaetes under the mussel cover ( Capitella capitata, Heteromastus filiformis). The total meiobenthic density was lower and single taxa (Ostracoda, Plathelminthes, Nematoda) were significantly less abundant in the mud of the mussel bed. The plathelminth assemblage was dominated by grazing species ( Archaphanostoma agile), and differed in community structure from a sandflat aseemblage. An amensalistic relationship was found between the suspension-feeding mussels and suspension-feeding infauna, while deposit-feeders were enhanced. The presence of epibenthic microhabitats results in a variety of trophic groups co-occurring in a mussel bed. This is hypothesized as trophic group amelioration and described as an attribute of heterotrophic reefs.

  10. Accumulation of metals, polycyclic (halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons, and biocides in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine and Meuse rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, A.J.; Pieters, H.; Boer, J. de

    1998-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and various groups of organic microcontaminants were measured in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine-Meuse basin. Residues in mussel from the Rhine and Meuse were on average 2.3 and 2.9 times higher than in those from the reference location of IJsselmeer. Total body burdens of organic microcontaminants in mussel and eel varied between 0.05 to 0.07 mmol/kg fat weight in six out of seven samples. The largest contribution in mussels and eel came from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Concentrations of bromodiphenyl-ethers, chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroterphenyls, and chlorobenzyltoluenes were lower. Total polybrominated biphenyl residues appear lower than total PCB levels. The largest chlorobiocide residues were noted for 4,4{prime}-DDE, toxaphene, trichlorophenylmethane, and {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane. An extraordinary high body burden of 1.2 mmol/kg fat weight, largely consisting of acenaphthene, was observed in one sample. Ratios of concentrations in organism fat and dry organic suspended solids varied between 1 and 10 for traditionally monitored organochlorines, independent of the octanol-water partition coefficient. The values did not deviate significantly from a value of about 3.3, expected for equilibrium partitioning of persistent chemicals. Lower values were observed for PAHs and some chloro(nitro)benzenes. Most ratios of concentrations in eel and mussel fat were within the range of 1 to 10, also largely independent of K{sub ow}. Yet, values tended to be higher at K{sub ow} > 10{sup 6}. Ratios below 1 were noted for pentabromodiphenylether, pentachloro(thio)anisol, chlorobenzyltoluenes, and some chloronitrobenzenes, chlorobiphenyls, and chlorobiocides. These field data confirm recent modeling efforts on bioconcentration and biomagnification. For heavy metals, atomic mass explained 67% of the variation in zebra mussel residues.

  11. Lethal and sublethal effects of ammonia to juvenile Lampsilis mussels (Unionidae) in sediment and water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, T.J.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity of two juvenile unionid mussels (Lampsilis cardium and Lampsilis higginsii) to ammonia in 96-h water-only and sediment tests by use of mortality and growth measurements. Twenty mussels were placed in chambers buried 2.5 cm into reference sediments to approximate pore-water exposure (sediment tests) or elevated above the bottom of the experimental units (water-only tests). In the sediment tests, a pH gradient existed between the overlying water (mean 8.0), sediment-water interface (mean 7.7), and 2.5 cm depth (mean 7.4). We assumed that mussels were exposed to ammonia in pore water and report effect concentrations in pore water, but if they were exposed to the higher pH water, more of the ammonia would be in the toxic un-ionized (NH 3) form. The only differences in toxicity and growth between mussel species occurred in some of the water-only tests. In sediment tests, median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 124 to 125 ??g NH3-N/L. In water-only tests, LC50s ranged from 157 to 372 ??g NH3-N/L. In sediment tests, median effective concentrations (EC50s based on growth) ranged from 30 to 32 ??g NH3-N/L. Juvenile mussels in the water-only tests grew poorly and did not exhibit a dose-response relation. These data demonstrate that growth is a sensitive and valuable endpoint for studies on ammonia toxicity with juvenile freshwater mussels and that growth should be measured via sediment tests. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  12. Influence of intertidal recreational fisheries and 'bouchot' mussel culture on bivalve recruitment.

    PubMed

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Barbier, Pierrick; Tremblay, Réjean; Archambault, Philippe; McKindsey, Christopher W; Winkler, Gesche; Meziane, Tarik; Olivier, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    In coastal environments, fishing and aquaculture may be important sources of disturbance to ecosystem functioning, the quantification of which must be assessed to make them more sustainable. In the Chausey Archipelago, France, recreational fishing and commercial shellfish farming are the only two evident anthropogenic activities, dominated by bivalve hand-raking and 'bouchot' mussel culture, respectively. This study evaluates the impact of both activities on bivalve recruitment dynamics by comparing primary recruitment intensity (short-term effect) and recruitment efficiency (medium-term effect) by sampling bivalves in reference (undisturbed) and disturbed (i.e. subjected to hand-raking or in 'bouchot' mussel culture areas) parcels throughout and at the end of the recruitment season, respectively. Specific hypotheses evaluated were that (H1) bivalve hand-raking negatively affects bivalve recruitment and that (H2) 'bouchot' mussel culture promotes bivalve recruitment. Patterns in bivalve community structure in reference parcels (i.e. natural pattern) differed between initial and final recruitment, underlining the great importance of early post-settlement processes, particularly secondary dispersal. Primary recruitment intensity was inhibited in hand-raking parcels whereas it was promoted in 'bouchot' mussel culture parcels, but the effect on recruitment efficiency was muted for both activities due to post-settlement processes. Nevertheless, the importance of effects that occur during the first step of recruitment should not be ignored as they may affect bivalve communities and induce immediate consequences on the trophic web through a cascade effect. Finally, it is highlighted that hand-raking damages all life stages of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule, one of the major target species, suggesting that this activity should be managed with greater caution than is currently done. PMID:27039134

  13. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  14. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  15. A sampling method for conducting relocation studies with freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Rach, J.J.; Cope, W.G.; Luoma, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Low recovery of transplanted mussels often prevents accurate estimates of survival. We developed a method that provided a high recovery of transplanted mussels and allowed for a reliable assessment of mortality. A 3 x 3 m polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe grid was secured to the sediment with iron reinforcing bars. The grid was divided into nine 1-m super(2) segments and each treatment segment, was stocked with 100 marked mussels. The recovery of mussels after six months exceeded 80% in all but one treatment group.

  16. The interaction between sediment, hydraulics and mussels in a river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula

    2015-04-01

    Sarah Scholtissek Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Peter Rutschmann Technische Universität München, Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, München, Germany Bottom structures in rivers are not only depending on the current profile, turbulence in the flow and other hydraulic conditions, but also on the biota living in the river like e.g. mussels. There is also some influence of the sediment on the biota and their decision where they settle and so on. The interaction between the current, the mussels and the sediment is actually not very well known, especially in fresh waters. Therefore experiments were cunducted in a flume in the lab in Obernach to gain more information about these interactions. The mussels used for these experiments are painters mussels (Unio Pictorum). These mussels are widely spreaded in European fresh waters, but their behaviour is also comparable to mussels which are more sensitive and therefore rare like the pearl mussel (Margaritifera Margaritifera). In the experiments 15 individuals are monitored how they move and spread in the flume. Then the hydraulic conditions and the sediment around the mussels are measured with laser scanning and PIV (particle image velocimetry). with the help of these measurement techniques it is possible to do contactless measurements even of the small eddies around and caused by the mussels which exist only for a very short time but have an enormous effect on the sediment.

  17. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  18. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  19. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N; Patil, Navinkumar J; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  20. Subtle tissue and sex-dependent proteome variation in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) populations of the Galician coast (NW Spain) raised in a common environment.

    PubMed

    Atasaral-Şahin, Şebnem; Romero, Mónica R; Cueto, Rosa; González-Lavín, Nerea; Marcos, Manuel; Diz, Angel P

    2015-12-01

    The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is one of the most important marine resources for aquaculture in Europe, and Galicia (NW Spain) is the EU's leading region for production. Variation in environmental and ecological factors exists in Northern and Southern estuaries of this region, and natural selection could have modulated genetic variation among populations with adaptation to local conditions as the driving force. Results from a previous genetic study using neutral markers suggested subtle genetic differentiation between mussel populations from both estuarine areas. In this new study, mussel samples from Northern and Southern estuaries were brought into a common environment to test for proteome differences due to genetic and permanent non-genetic effects in populations from both estuarine areas, using both foot and mantle border tissues. Because the sex of the mussels was determined through histological tests, sex-specific effects were also examined. Evidence of subtle differences in the foot proteome, dependent on mussel sex, were detected between populations from both estuaries. These differences were more marked for female samples. No evidence of proteome differences was found for the factors estuaries and sex in mantle border tissue. Candidate proteins with a potential role in local adaptation were identified and point to molecular functions that might be involved in responses to different stressors. PMID:26449374

  1. Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness.

    PubMed

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-08-15

    In this work a NMR metabolomics approach was applied to analyze changes in the metabolic profile of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus galloprovincialis upon storage at 0°C and 4°C for 10 and 6 days, respectively. The most significant microbial groups involved in spoilage of mussels were also investigated. The time-related metabolic signature of mussels was analysed by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) which revealed a clear discrimination between the fresh samples and those stored at 0°C and 4°C. The results evidenced a noticeable increase in acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, branched chain amino acids, trimethylamine and a progressive decline of osmolytes like betaine, homarine and taurine during storage. Exploration of the correlations of these metabolites with microbial counts suggested their use as potential biomarkers of spoilage. The results support the use of NMR metabolomics as a valuable tool to provide information on seafood freshness. PMID:27006214

  2. Ocean acidification impacts mussel control on biomineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzer, Susan C.; Phoenix, Vernon R.; Cusack, Maggie; Kamenos, Nicholas A.

    2014-08-01

    Ocean acidification is altering the oceanic carbonate saturation state and threatening the survival of marine calcifying organisms. Production of their calcium carbonate exoskeletons is dependent not only on the environmental seawater carbonate chemistry but also the ability to produce biominerals through proteins. We present shell growth and structural responses by the economically important marine calcifier Mytilus edulis to ocean acidification scenarios (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm pCO2). After six months of incubation at 750 µatm pCO2, reduced carbonic anhydrase protein activity and shell growth occurs in M. edulis. Beyond that, at 1000 µatm pCO2, biomineralisation continued but with compensated metabolism of proteins and increased calcite growth. Mussel growth occurs at a cost to the structural integrity of the shell due to structural disorientation of calcite crystals. This loss of structural integrity could impact mussel shell strength and reduce protection from predators and changing environments.

  3. Spatial variations in biomarkers of Mytilus edulis mussels at four polluted regions spanning the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gagne, F. Burgeot, T.; Hellou, J.; St-Jean, S.; Farcy, E.; Blaise, C.

    2008-06-15

    Economic and social developments have taken place at the expense of the health of the environment, both locally and on a global scale. In an attempt to better understand the large-scale effects of pollution and other stressors like climate change on the health status of Mytilus edulis, mussels were collected during the first two weeks of June 2005 at three sites (one pristine and two affected by pollution) located in each of the regions of the Canadian West Coast, the St. Lawrence estuary, the Atlantic East Coast and the northwestern coast of France, covering a total distance of some 11 000 km. The mussels were analyzed for morphologic integrity (condition factor), gametogenic activity (gonado-somatic and gonad maturation index, vitellogenin(Vtg)-like proteins), energy status (temperature-dependent mitochondrial electron transport activity and gonad lipid stores), defense mechanisms (glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, cytochrome P4503A activity and xanthine oxidoreductase-XOR), and tissue damage (lipid peroxidation-LPO and DNA strand breaks). The results showed that data from the reference sites in each region were usually not normally distributed, with discriminant factors reaching the number of regions (i.e. four), except for the biomarkers gonadal lipids, XOR and LPO in digestive gland. The integrated responses of the biomarkers revealed that biomarkers of stress were significantly more pronounced in mussels from the Seine estuary, suggesting that the impacts of pollution are more generalized in this area. Mussels from the Seine estuary and the Atlantic East Coast (Halifax Harbor) responded more strongly for Vtg-like proteins, but was not related to gonad maturation and gonado-somatic indexes, suggesting the presence of environmental estrogens. Moreover, these mussels displayed reduced DNA repair activity and increased LPO. Factorial analyses revealed that energy status, cytochrome P4503A activity and Vtg-like proteins were the most important

  4. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in semipermeable membrane devices and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in relation to water column phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Axelman, J.; Naes, K.; Naef, C.; Broman, D.

    1999-11-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) were deployed at a site contaminated by discharges of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aluminium reduction plant, and at a reference site. The accumulation of PAHs in SPMDs versus mussels, along with the ability of the two matrices to predict contaminant concentrations in the ambient environment, were evaluated through concurrent measurements of particulate, dissolved, and colloidal PAHs in the water column. Analysis of the results showed that blue mussels were more efficient at sequestering PAHs than were SPMDs. The PAH profile (i.e,, the relative abundance of individual PAHs) in the two matrices were similar, but differed significantly from the profile in the dissolved phase. Further, back-calculation of the ambient dissolved concentrations from SPMDs indicated systematic overtrapping with increasing hydrophobicity. Calculation of in situ bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the blue mussels at the smelter site indicated that uptake via particles or from colloids dominated over direct uptake from the dissolved phase, as opposed to the reference site. The in situ BCFs differed markedly from literature values, which implies that the use of mussels to predict ambient concentrations would require that site-specific BCFs be applied.

  5. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:26610567

  6. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:26610567

  7. Zebra mussel infestation of unionid bivalves (Unionidae) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mackie, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, zebra mussels received national attention in North America when they reached densities exceeding 750,000/m2 in a water withdrawal facility along the shore of western Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Although water withdrawal problems caused by zebra mussels have been of immediate concern, ecological impacts attributed to mussels are likely to be the more important long-term issue for surface waters in North America. To date, the epizoic colonization (i.e., infestation) of unionid bivalve mollusks by zebra mussels has caused the most direct and severe ecological impact. Infestation of and resulting impacts caused by zebra mussels on unionids in the Great Lakes began in 1988. By 1990, mortality of unionids was occurring at some locations; by 1991, extant populations of unionids in western Lake Erie were nearly extirpated; by 1992, unionid populations in the southern half of Lake St. Clair were extirpated; by 1993, unionids in widely separated geographic areas of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River showed high mortality due to mussel infestation. All infested unionid species in the Great Lakes (23) have become infested and exhibited mortality within two to four years after heavy infestation began. Data indicate that mean zebra mussel densities >5,000–6,000/m2 and infestation intensities >100-200/unionid in the presence of heavy zebra mussel recruitment results in near total mortality of unionids. At present, all unionid species in rivers, streams, and akes that sympatrically occur with zebra mussels have been infested and, in many locations, negatively impacted by zebra mussels. We do not know the potential consequences of infestation on the 297 unionid species found in North America, but believe zebra mussels pose an immediate threat to the abundance and diversity of unionids.

  8. Rope can help with early detection of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, C.

    1993-06-01

    Many of the waters in the western US meet all the ecological requirements of suitable habitat for zebra mussels, which can spread to new bodies of water by attaching to boats. With that in mind, Reclamation has launched Zebra Mussel Watch, a program aimed at early detection of the mussel in western waters. As part of the watch program, Reclamation suggests attaching one end of a rope to a weight such as a brock, rick, or cinder block, and placing the weight in shallow water to detect the arrival of zebra mussels. Any kind of rope will do, but nylon is preferred because small mussels are easier to distinguish on nylon's smooth surface than on ropes with rough surfaces. Young mussels smaller than the head of a common straight pin are transparent when they first settle and probably will not be visible to the naked eye for several weeks, when they are larger and they take on the appearance of small, dark-colored clams. [Note: over time, algae, bacteria, and debris will cause the rope to darken. So the color of the rope used doesn't make much difference.] Hang a rope in 8 feet or less of well-oxygenated water where wave action will not move the bottom of the rope to any great degree. (Zebra mussels like slow currents and will not attach where the current is moving 4 to 5 feet per second or faster.) Leave the rope in the water two or three weeks to allow microorganisms to grow on it. Young mussels will settle on surfaces that are coated with algae and other microscopic organisms. Then, at two- to three-week intervals, lift the rope and examine it for young mussels. If adults are around, the young eventually will show up. Reclamation believes that by detecting the first arrival of the mussels, it can implement plans to control the spread of the mussels and alert nearby projects to the approaching menace.

  9. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  10. Zebra mussel control with backwash filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Dardeau, E.A. Jr.; Bivens, T.

    1995-12-31

    Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were found in North American waters in 1988 at Lake St. Clair, Michigan, when a ship from a European freshwater port released its ballast water. These organisms quickly spread from the Great Lakes to many midwestern, eastern, and southern streams and lakes. As macrofoulers, they quickly colonize new areas on many natural and artificial substrates. Zebra mussels clog intakes, piping, and screens. Power production facilities that withdraw large quantities of raw water to generate electricity and cool critical components are especially vulnerable. Many control strategies have been proposed and tested; however, not all of them are environmentally acceptable. The US Army Corps of Engineers, under the auspices of the Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990, has initiated a research program to control zebra mussels at public facilities. One test being conducted under this research program is a cooperative effort between the Corps` Nashville District, the Corps` Waterways Experiment Station, and several other agencies. The test involves the design and test of a backwash filtration system for a hydropower project in the Cumberland River Basin. The preliminary design, based on lessons learned from associated tests, is discussed. In addition, recommendations for future use are presented.

  11. Fluoranthene transport in mussel blood plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lazinsky, D.; Robinson, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The role of mussel (Mytilus edulis) blood plasma in fluoranthene transport was investigated using in vitro binding studies and invivo exposure studies. In vitro binding studies on fluoranthene-spiked plasma utilized dialysis, ultrafiltration and fluorescence quenching. A significant degree of fluoranthene binding was observed with all the methods; as much 99.7% of the fluoranthene was bound to plasma proteins. Conditional affinity constants (log K{sub a}), calculated using a single component complexation model, averaged 6.8 M{sup {minus}1} suggesting a moderate affinity interaction between fluoranthene and plasma proteins. Mussels were exposed in vivo to {sup 3}H-fluoranthene and blood and tissues were sampled at 0.5, 3.5, 7, 24, 72 h post exposure. The mussels removed an average of 90% of the fluoranthene from the seawater within the first 0.5 h of exposure. Body tissues rapidly accumulated fluoranthene. Approximately 50% of the absorbed dose was present in the tissues by 0.5 h and this increased to 96% by 3.5 h of exposure. Within the blood, fluoranthene was mainly partitioned in the plasma. Plasma fluoranthene decreased to 50% within 3.5 h. The fluoranthene distribution remained relatively constant throughout the remainder of the 72 h exposure. Ultrafiltration of plasma exposed in vivo indicated that fluoranthene was not free, but bound to plasma proteins. The plasma protein concentrations fluctuated during exposure, but were virtually the same at 0.5 h and 72 h post exposure.

  12. A simple optimized microwave digestion method for multielement monitoring in mussel samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Y.; González, A.; Fernández, P.; Blanco, J.

    2004-04-01

    With the aim of obtaining a set of common decomposition conditions allowing the determination of several metals in mussel tissue (Hg by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry; Cu and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry; and Cd, PbCr, Ni, As and Ag by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry), a factorial experiment was carried out using as factors the sample weight, digestion time and acid addition. It was found that the optimal conditions were 0.5 g of freeze-dried and triturated samples with 6 ml of nitric acid and subjected to microwave heating for 20 min at 180 psi. This pre-treatment, using only one step and one oxidative reagent, was suitable to determine the nine metals studied with no subsequent handling of the digest. It was possible to carry out the determination of atomic absorption using calibrations with aqueous standards and matrix modifiers for cadmium, lead, chromium, arsenic and silver. The accuracy of the procedure was checked using oyster tissue (SRM 1566b) and mussel tissue (CRM 278R) certified reference materials. The method is now used routinely to monitor these metals in wild and cultivated mussels, and found to be good.

  13. Differential metallothionein, reduced glutathione and metal levels in Perna perna mussels in two environmentally impacted tropical bays in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lavradas, Raquel T; Rocha, Rafael C C; Bordon, Isabella C A C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Godoy, José M; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A

    2016-07-01

    Mussel farming is an important economic activity in Brazil, and these organisms are consumed by the majority of the population in most coastal zones in the country. However, despite the increasing pollution of aquatic ecosystems in Brazil, little is known about the biochemical activity in mussels in response to metal exposure. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate metal and metalloid exposure effects in Perna perna mussels, by determining metal levels, the induction of metallothionein (MT) synthesis, and oxidative stress, in the form of reduced glutathione (GSH) in 3 contaminated areas from the Guanabara Bay in comparison to a reference site, Ilha Grande Bay, both in summer and winter. Metal and metalloid concentrations were also compared to Brazilian and international guidelines, to verify potential health risks to human consumers. Mussels from all sampling sites were shown to be improper for human consumption due to metal contamination, including Ilha Grande Bay, which has previously been considered a reference site. Several statistically significant correlations and seasonal differences were observed between MT, GSH and metals and metalloids in both analyzed tissues. A Discriminant Canonical Analysis indicated that the digestive gland is a better bioindicator for environmental contamination by metals and metalloids in this species and offers further proof that MT variations observed are due to metal exposure and not oxidative stress, since GSH influence for both muscle tissue and the digestive glands was non-significant in this analysis. These results show that P. perna mussels are an adequate sentinel species for metal contamination with significant effects on oxidative stress and metal exposure biomarkers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report metals, metalloids, MT and GSH levels in the muscle tissue of this species. PMID:26994306

  14. Relationships between community structure of freshwater mussels and host fishes in a central Ohio watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of freshwater mussel communities has declined over the past several decades within watersheds in the Midwestern United States. Host fishes play an important role in the life cycle of freshwater mussels because they serve as hosts for parasitic mussel larvae to ensure successful mussel ...

  15. Effects of ammonia on freshwater mussels in the St. Croix River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The St. Croix River contains a diverse and abundant group of freshwater mussels. The St. Croix is one of the few rivers in the Midwest not substantially affected by the invasion of the exotic zebra mussel, which encrusts and kills native freshwater mussels. Increased concentrations of ammonia in river sediments, however, poses a significant threat to mussels.

  16. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  17. Reducing costly zebra mussel infestations at power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, G.

    1994-10-01

    The fast-spreading-zebra mussel has significant potential to foul intakes and other water systems at North American hydro projects. Chemical controls can be effective in reducing infestations, but most have environmental and other drawbacks. Several non-chemical methods promise to help project operators reduce problems associated with the mussels.

  18. In situ assessment of genotoxicity using caged freshwater mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Black, M.C.; Westerfield, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years a decline in mussel populations has been documented in many areas, particularly in contaminated environments. Mussels are particularly vulnerable to exposure to xenobiotics in sediment and/or water because of their modes of feeding and respiration and close association with sediments. Because of this potential for exposure, their apparent sensitivity to xenobiotics, and their ease in collection and handling, mussels are an excellent species for in situ biomonitoring. Recently the authors have adapted an electrophoretic assay for detecting DNA strand breakage in freshwater mussels. Using this assay DNA damage was quantified in selected tissues in two mussel species, Quadrula quadrula and Anodonta grandis, following subchronic laboratory exposures to lead and benzo[a]pyrene. Current experiments involve exposing mussels in situ in polyethylene cages and exposure racks in several environments containing genotoxic agents, including a fly ash settling pond and a site contaminated with mercury. Mussels will be exposed for 1 week to 3 months and sampled at 2 to 4week intervals. Upon removal mussels will be dissected, and mantle, adductor muscle, and foot tissue will be analyzed for DNA strand breakage and xenobiotic residues. These data will be compared with laboratory exposures to single compounds conducted over the same exposure durations.

  19. Application of the micronucleus and comet assays to mussel Dreissena polymorpha haemocytes for genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Göran I V; Pavlica, Mirjana; Erben, Radovan; Papes, Drazena

    2003-06-19

    Assessment of DNA damage is of primary concern when determining the pollution-related stress in living organisms. To monitor genotoxicity of the freshwater environments we used micronucleus (MN) and comet assay on Dreissena polymorpha haemocytes. Caged mussels, collected from the river Drava, were transplanted to four monitoring sites of different pollution intensity in the river Sava. Exposition lasted for a month. The baseline level of MN frequencies in the haemocytes of mussels from reference site (river Drava) was 0.5 per thousand. No increase in MN frequency was found in mussels from the medium-polluted site (Zagreb) in the river Sava while other, more polluted sites showed higher MN frequencies ranging from 2.7 per thousand (Lukavec) and 3.1 per thousand (Oborovo) to 5.2 per thousand (Sisak). Results from comet assay showed concordance with MN assay in indicating intensity of DNA damage. The use of haemocytes from caged, non-indigenous mussels in MN and comet assay proved to be a sensitive tool for the freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. PMID:12763672

  20. High-throughput quantitative analysis of domoic acid directly from mussel tissue using Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization - tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Walsh, Callee M; McCarron, Pearse

    2014-12-15

    Eliminating sample extraction or liquid chromatography steps from methods for analysis of the neurotoxin Domoic Acid (DA) in shellfish could greatly increase throughput in food safety testing laboratories worldwide. To this end, we have investigated the use of Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization (LAESI) with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for DA analysis directly from mussel tissue homogenates without sample extraction, cleanup or separation. DA could be selectively detected directly from mussel tissue homogenates using MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring scan mode. The quantitative capabilities of LAESI-MS/MS for DA analysis from mussel tissue were evaluated by analysis of four mussel tissue reference materials using matrix-matched calibration. Linear response was observed from 1 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg and the method limit of detection was 1 mg/kg. Results for DA analysis in tissue within the linear range were in good agreement with two established methods, LC-UV and LC-MS/MS (recoveries from 103 to 125%). Beyond the linear range, extraction and clean-up were required to achieve good quantitation. Most notable is the extremely rapid analysis time of about 10 s per sample by LAESI-MS/MS, which corresponds to a significant increase in sample throughput compared with existing methodology for routine DA analysis. PMID:25449096

  1. In-stream validation of the effects of intermittent sediment toxicity on recruitment of juvenile unionid mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, M.M.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A triad approach was used to assess sediment toxicity in the Clinch River, Virginia to determine if sediment bound toxicants are contributing to decreased recruitment of unionid mussel populations. Eleven sites in the Clinch River and one site in a tributary, which exhibited suitable mussel habitat, were included in the analysis. Physical characteristics of the sediment revealed similar particle size distribution and percent water content at the twelve sites; however, three of the sites exhibited high volatile organic compounds. Total recoverable metals analysis of lead, zinc and copper in the interstitial water showed fluctuating metal concentrations throughout the river on different sampling dates. Sediment bioassays using C. riparius, D. magna, and H. azteca identified intermittent toxicity which may be related to non-point runoff from rain events. At ten of the twelve sites, mussel density surveys indicated decreased recruitment despite apparent suitable habitat. Invertebrate community structure analysis identified eight of the twelve sites as having significantly lower total abundance than the reference side and six of the twelve sites as s supporting significantly fewer taxa. In-situ juvenile mussel testing was used to determine the degree to which toxicity may impair juvenile recruitment in unionid populations.

  2. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  3. Evaluation of the mussel fishery in Wheeler Reservoir, Tennessee River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zack H.; Malvestuto, S. P.; Davies, W. D.; Crance, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated the freshwater mussel fishery on Wheeler Reservoir, a 27,155-hectare mainstream impoundment of the Tennessee River in Alabama. During July 1991 through June 1992, we used a roving creel survey to conduct 285 interviews over 57 weekdays and 12 weekend days. Total harvest during the 12-month survey period was estimated to be 570 metric tons, and included 15 mussel species. The most frequently harvested species were the washboard Megalonaias nervosa. Ohio pigtoe Pleurobema cordatum, and butterfly Ellipsaria lineolata. Harvest peaked in June at 290,414 mussels. Among collection techniques, total estimated effort was highest for divers (71,160 musseler-hours). The total estimated value of the 12-month mussel harvest (in terms of money paid to harvesters) from Wheeler Reservoir was US$2,119,921.

  4. California sea mussel and bay mussel: Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, W.N.; Hassler, T.J.; Moran, D.P.

    1988-09-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The California sea mussel, Mytilus californianus, and the bay mussel, M. edulis, are commonly collected for bait. Some commercial landing and aquaculture occurs at a very low level of production. Both species are distributed along the California coast; the sea mussel is more commonly found on intertidal coastal rocks and the bay mussel on pilings and other hard substrates in bays and estuaries. The eggs of both species develop into a trochophore stage in 12--24 hours after fertilization, and the planktonic larval stage lasts 3--4 weeks. Sexual maturity can occur in one year. Spawning of the sea mussel occurs sporadically throughout the year; the bay mussel spawns in central California in late fall and winter. Maximum length is 120--150 mm for the bay mussel and 200--250 mm for the sea mussel. Both species are regarded as unsafe to eat from May 1 to October 31 due to the possible presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning. 55 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Heavy metal contamination along the China coastline: A comprehensive study using Artificial Mussels and native mussels.

    PubMed

    Degger, Natalie; Chiu, Jill M Y; Po, Beverly H K; Tse, Anna C K; Zheng, Gene J; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Xu, Di; Cheng, Yu-Shan; Wang, Xin-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hua; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf S S

    2016-09-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out to assess metal contamination in five cities spanning from temperate to tropical environment along the coastal line of China with different hydrographical conditions. At each of the five cities, Artificial Mussels (AM) were deployed together with a native species of mussel at a control site and a polluted site. High levels of Cr, Cu and Hg were found in Qingdao, high level of Cd, Hg and Pb was found in Shanghai, and high level of Zn was found in Dalian. Furthermore, level of Cu contamination in all the five cities was consistently much higher than those reported in similar studies in other countries (e.g., Australia, Portugal, Scotland, Iceland, Korea, South Africa and Bangladesh). Levels of individual metal species in the AM showed a highly significant correlation with that in the native mussels (except for Zn in Mytilus edulis and Cd in Perna viridis), while no significant difference can be found between the regression relationships of metal in the AM and each of the two native mussel species. The results demonstrated that AM can provide a reliable time-integrated estimate of metal concentration in contrasting environments over large biogeographic areas and different hydrographic conditions, and overcome the shortcomings of monitoring metals in water, sediment and the use of biomonitors. PMID:27233049

  6. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte

    2012-03-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab ( Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments.

  7. Kinetic determinations of trace element bioaccumulation in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    reference sites in national monitoring programs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the total suspended solids load, which can affect mussel feeding activity, assimilation, and trace element concentration in the dissolved and particulate phases, can significantly influence metal bioaccumulation for particle-reactive elements such as Ag and Am. For all metals, concentrations in mussels are proportionately related to total metal load in the water column and their assimilation efficiency from ingested particles. Further, the model predicted that over 96% of Se in mussels is obtained from ingested food, under conditions typical of coastal waters. For Ag, Am, Cd, Co and Zn, the relative contribution from the dissolved phase decreases significantly with increasing trace element partition coefficients for suspended particles and the assimilation efficiency in mussels of ingested trace elements; values range between 33 and 67% for Ag, 5 and 17% for Am, 47 and 82% for Cd, 4 and 30% for Co, and 17 and 51% for Zn.

  8. Molecular ecology of zebra mussel invasions.

    PubMed

    May, Gemma E; Gelembiuk, Gregory W; Panov, Vadim E; Orlova, Marina I; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The invasion of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, into North American waters has resulted in profound ecological disturbances and large monetary losses. This study examined the invasion history and patterns of genetic diversity among endemic and invading populations of zebra mussels using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Patterns of haplotype frequency indicate that all invasive populations of zebra mussels from North America and Europe originated from the Ponto-Caspian Sea region. The distribution of haplotypes was consistent with invasive populations arising from the Black Sea drainage, but could not exclude the possibility of an origin from the Caspian Sea drainage. Similar haplotype frequencies among North American populations of D. polymorpha suggest colonization by a single founding population. There was no evidence of invasive populations arising from tectonic lakes in Turkey, while lakes in Greece and Macedonia contained only Dreissena stankovici. Populations in Turkey might be members of a sibling species complex of D. polymorpha. Ponto-Caspian derived populations of D. polymorpha (theta = 0.0011) and Dreissena bugensis (one haplotype) exhibited low levels of genetic diversity at the COI gene, perhaps as a result of repeated population bottlenecks. In contrast, geographically isolated tectonic lake populations exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (theta = 0.0032 to 0.0134). It is possible that the fluctuating environment of the Ponto-Caspian basin facilitated the colonizing habit of invasive populations of D. polymorpha and D. bugensis. Our findings were concordant with the general trend of destructive freshwater invaders in the Great Lakes arising from the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin. PMID:16599964

  9. 11 CFR 100.148 - Volunteer activity for candidate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developed by the candidate. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subparts D and E for exempt... costs of that candidate's campaign materials that include information on or any reference to a...

  10. 11 CFR 100.88 - Volunteer activity for candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developed by the candidate. But see 11 CFR 100.24, 104.17(a), and part 300, subparts D and E for exempt... the costs of that candidate's campaign materials that include information on or any reference to...

  11. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  12. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  13. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25??C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45??C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25??C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447-615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179-289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7-38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15-35??C) and durations (15-60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  14. Novel octabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether identified in blue mussels from the Swedish West Coast.

    PubMed

    Winnberg, Ulrika; Rydén, Andreas; Löfstrand, Karin; Asplund, Lillemor; Bignert, Anders; Marsh, Göran

    2014-03-18

    Hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are compounds present in the marine environment and OH-PBDEs are of toxicological concern and are therefore of interest to monitor in the environment. A phenolic octaBDE was tentatively identified in the phenolic fraction of previously analyzed mussel samples after methylation of the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of this compound in blue mussels and investigate whether the analyte is diOH- and/or OH-MeO-octaBDE. Two reference standards, 6,6'-dimethoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6,6'-diMeO-BDE194) and 6-ethoxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194) were prepared via O-arylation of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxyphenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-ethoxyphenol, respectively, with a novel unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salt, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxydiphenyliodonium triflate. The GC retention time and GC/MS spectrum of the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 correspond well with the analyte in the methylated phenolic fraction of a mussel extract from a previous study. Structural analysis performed in this study indicate that the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 and 6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194 correspond well with 6-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194) after methylation and ethylation, respectively, of the HPCs in the mussel extracts. The compound 6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194 was identified and quantified in new mussels, sampled in 2012 from two locations on the Swedish west coast, with geometric mean concentrations of 3700 and 410 ng/g fat, respectively. PMID:24559155

  15. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  16. Effects of Fucus vesiculosus covering intertidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Reise, K.

    1994-06-01

    The brown alga Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (Nienburg) Nienhuis covered about 70% of mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis) surface area in the lower intertidal zone of Königshafen, a sheltered sandy bay near the island of Sylt in the North Sea. Mean biomass in dense patches was 584 g ash-free dry weight m-2 in summer. On experimental mussel beds, fucoid cover enhanced mud accumulation and decreased mussel density. The position of mussels underneath algal canopy was mainly endobenthic (87% of mussels with >1/3 of shell sunk into mud). In the absence of fucoids, mussels generated epibenthic garlands (81% of mussels with <1/3 of shell buried in mud). Mussel density underneath fucoid cover was 40 to 73% of mussel density without algae. On natural beds, barnacles (Balanidae), periwinkles ( Littorina littorea) and crabs (particularly juveniles of Carcinus maenas) were significantly less abundant in the presence of fucoids, presumably because most of the mussels were covered with sediment, whereas in the absence of fucoids, epibenthic mussel clumps provided substratum as well as interstitial hiding places. The endobenthic macrofauna showed little difference between covered and uncovered mussel beds. On the other hand, grazing herbivores — the flat periwinkle Littorina mariae, the isopod Jaera albifrons and the amphipods Gammarus spp. — were more abundant at equivalent sites with fucoid cover. The patchy growth of Fucus vesiculosus on mussel beds in the intertidal Wadden Sea affects mussels and their epibionts negatively, but supports various herbivores and increases overall benthic diversity.

  17. Mussel fishery affects diet and reduces body condition of Eiders Somateria mollissima in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, Karsten; Asferg, Karen S.; Frikke, John; Sunde, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Although the Danish Wadden Sea is of international importance for several bird species, large-scale blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishing took place from 1984-1987, ceasing thereafter due to low mussel stocks. Mussel fishing removes much of the blue mussel biomass, especially larger individuals. Hence we predict that intensive mussel fishing will affect their predators, such as the Eider Somateria mollissima, which is predominantly a blue mussel feeder by, 1) reducing the amount of blue mussels in their diet relative to alternative prey items, 2) exploitation of smaller blue mussel shell classes, 3) loss of body condition, 4) changing feeding distribution to aggregate to the remaining mussel stocks, and 5) decreasing numbers. Before winter 1986/87 blue mussel biomass was estimated at 40,600 tons, decreasing to 15,400 tons in 1987/88 due to mussel fishery. We collected Eiders in both periods to monitor their diet and body mass and used aerial surveys to determine changes in numbers and distribution. Between the two periods, blue mussels declined in the Eiders diet, numbers of Eiders with empty stomachs increased and the mean length of blue mussel taken by Eiders decreased. Eider body condition declined from 1986/87 to 1987/88, mostly the result of the reduction in numbers of individuals with blue mussel remains in their gizzards and in better body condition compared to those taking alternative food items or having empty gizzards. Eiders shifted their distribution from the southern part of the Danish Wadden Sea to the northern part, where the remaining blue mussel stocks were situated. Eider numbers were lowest in 1987/88, the year of lowest blue mussel stocks. We conclude that intensive mussel fishery affected the Eider's diet, reduced their body condition and affected distribution and abundance. The results also showed that availability of blue mussels may have a key role in building up and maintaining body condition in Eiders during winter.

  18. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  19. Detection of mutagenicity in mussels and their ambient water

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, Shohei; Hayatsu, Hikoya; Ogata, Masana )

    1989-10-01

    Mussels provide an excellent system for monitoring marine pollutants: the system is often called mussel watch. Investigators have reported the susceptibility of this organism to petroleum hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The authors showed the applicability of this organism to monitor oil pollutions by detecting organosulfur compounds in field samples. In the present study, they undertook the mutagen screening of mussel bodies and ambient water, and investigated the correlation between the mussel- and water-mutagenicities. Mutagenic compounds being detected here are those adsorbable to blue cotton or blue rayon and extractable with a methanol-ammonia solution, and the Ames assay was used for the detection of mutagenicity, with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 as the ester strain and with S9-mix for metabolic activation.

  20. Mussel-inspired dendritic polymers as universal multifunctional coatings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Achazi, Katharina; Liebe, Hendrik; Schulz, Andrea; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Grunwald, Ingo; Haag, Rainer

    2014-10-20

    A rapid and universal approach for multifunctional material coatings was developed based on a mussel-inspired dendritic polymer. This new kind of polymer mimics not only the functional groups of mussel foot proteins (mfps) but also their molecular weight and molecular structure. The large number of catechol and amine groups set the basis for heteromultivalent anchoring and crosslinking. The molecular weight reaches 10 kDa, which is similar to the most adhesive mussel foot protein mfp-5. Also, the dendritic structure exposes its functional groups on the surface like the folded proteins. As a result, a very stable coating can be prepared on virtually any type of material surface within 10 min by a simple dip-coating method, which is as fast as the formation of mussel byssal threads in nature. PMID:25200129

  1. Impact tolerance in mussel thread networks by heterogeneous material distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2013-07-01

    The Mytilidae, generally known as marine mussels, are known to attach to most substrates including stone, wood, concrete and iron by using a network of byssus threads. Mussels are subjected to severe mechanical impacts caused by waves. However, how the network of byssus threads keeps the mussel attached in this challenging mechanical environment is puzzling, as the dynamical forces far exceed the measured strength of byssus threads and their attachment to the environment. Here we combine experiment and simulation, and show that the heterogeneous material distribution in byssus threads has a critical role in decreasing the effect of impact loading. We find that a combination of stiff and soft materials at an 80:20 ratio enables mussels to rapidly and effectively dissipate impact energy. Notably, this facilitates a significantly enhanced strength under dynamical loading over 900% that of the strength under static loading.

  2. Impact tolerance in mussel thread networks by heterogeneous material distribution.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2013-01-01

    The Mytilidae, generally known as marine mussels, are known to attach to most substrates including stone, wood, concrete and iron by using a network of byssus threads. Mussels are subjected to severe mechanical impacts caused by waves. However, how the network of byssus threads keeps the mussel attached in this challenging mechanical environment is puzzling, as the dynamical forces far exceed the measured strength of byssus threads and their attachment to the environment. Here we combine experiment and simulation, and show that the heterogeneous material distribution in byssus threads has a critical role in decreasing the effect of impact loading. We find that a combination of stiff and soft materials at an 80:20 ratio enables mussels to rapidly and effectively dissipate impact energy. Notably, this facilitates a significantly enhanced strength under dynamical loading over 900% that of the strength under static loading. PMID:23880603

  3. Status of fresh water mussel research in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neves, R.J.

    1983-10-01

    In addition to the previously described mussel research projects in Virginia, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has undertaken a wide-ranging Cumberlandian Mollusc Conservation Program to (a) accumulate information on the present distribution, life histories, and ecological requirements of the Cumberlandian mussel fauna and (b) conserve or increase populations of these species in the Tennessee River drainage. This TVA program has contributed greatly toward a better understanding of species status, water quality problems, and research needs for this unique faunal group. The attention currently being given to fresh water mussels in the upper Tennessee River system is unprecedented, and participating State and Federal agencies are to be commended for supporting conservation activities far beyond what is legally required. The success of a mollusk conservation effort will depend on public awareness, not of mussels in and for themselves but as indicators of riverine degradation and its effect on environmental health and recreational opportunities for man.

  4. Mussels as a model system for integrative ecomechanics.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Emily; Waite, J Herbert; Sarà, Gianluca; Sebens, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    Mussels form dense aggregations that dominate temperate rocky shores, and they are key aquaculture species worldwide. Coastal environments are dynamic across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and their changing abiotic conditions affect mussel populations in a variety of ways, including altering their investments in structures, physiological processes, growth, and reproduction. Here, we describe four categories of ecomechanical models (biochemical, mechanical, energetic, and population) that we have developed to describe specific aspects of mussel biology, ranging from byssal attachment to energetics, population growth, and fitness. This review highlights how recent advances in these mechanistic models now allow us to link them together across molecular, material, organismal, and population scales of organization. This integrated ecomechanical approach provides explicit and sometimes novel predictions about how natural and farmed mussel populations will fare in changing climatic conditions. PMID:25195867

  5. 78 FR 5481 - Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... for working beyond FY13. Priorities for minimizing the spread of these mussels will be discussed. The..., February 20, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Utah Division of Wildlife, 1594 W...

  6. Mussels as a Model System for Integrative Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, Emily; Waite, J. Herbert; Sarà, Gianluca; Sebens, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels form dense aggregations that dominate temperate rocky shores, and they are key aquaculture species worldwide. Coastal environments are dynamic across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and their changing abiotic conditions affect mussel populations in a variety of ways, including altering their investments in structures, physiological processes, growth, and reproduction. Here, we describe four categories of ecomechanical models (biochemical, mechanical, energetic, and population) that we have developed to describe specific aspects of mussel biology, ranging from byssal attachment to energetics, population growth, and fitness. This review highlights how recent advances in these mechanistic models now allow us to link them together across molecular, material, organismal, and population scales of organization. This integrated ecomechanical approach provides explicit and sometimes novel predictions about how natural and farmed mussel populations will fare in changing climatic conditions.

  7. Evaluation of single and two-stage adaptive sampling designs for estimation of density and abundance of freshwater mussels in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Rogala, J.T.; Gray, B.R.; Zigler, S.J.; Newton, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of abundance are needed to assess consequences of proposed habitat restoration and enhancement projects on freshwater mussels in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Although there is general guidance on sampling techniques for population assessment of freshwater mussels, the actual performance of sampling designs can depend critically on the population density and spatial distribution at the project site. To evaluate various sampling designs, we simulated sampling of populations, which varied in density and degree of spatial clustering. Because of logistics and costs of large river sampling and spatial clustering of freshwater mussels, we focused on adaptive and non-adaptive versions of single and two-stage sampling. The candidate designs performed similarly in terms of precision (CV) and probability of species detection for fixed sample size. Both CV and species detection were determined largely by density, spatial distribution and sample size. However, designs did differ in the rate that occupied quadrats were encountered. Occupied units had a higher probability of selection using adaptive designs than conventional designs. We used two measures of cost: sample size (i.e. number of quadrats) and distance travelled between the quadrats. Adaptive and two-stage designs tended to reduce distance between sampling units, and thus performed better when distance travelled was considered. Based on the comparisons, we provide general recommendations on the sampling designs for the freshwater mussels in the UMR, and presumably other large rivers.

  8. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  9. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  10. The effect of sodium chlorite solutions on zebra mussel mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, J.; Richer, Y.; Messer, R.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of four dilutions, 8 ppm, 40 ppm, 120 ppm and 473 ppm of the stock solution of a first product, Z-8, on zebra mussel mortality was investigated in static continuous exposure systems and compared to controls. The entire size class spectrum of the mussel population present at the sampling site was tested by leaving mussels attached to their original rock substrata. Two size class grouping of mussels, 13 mm and less and more than 13 mm in length, were exposed in the same test chambers but were analyzed separately. No mortality occurred in the controls. Concentration 8 ppm had no effect after 166 hours on both size class groupings. Concentrations 40, 120 and 473 ppm had observable killing effect within the 331 hours of experiment for both size groupings. The smaller mussels died faster than the larger ones. Another product, Z-11, was similarly tested during fall 1994 with dilutions 8, 40, 80 and 120 ppm. At 8 ppm dilution, Z-11 had induced only little mortality on both size class groupings after 739 hours. At 40, 80 and 120 ppm dilutions, Z-11 had interesting killing effect for both mussel size groupings within the 739 hours of experiment considering the somehow intermittent treatment used. The results already appear to show that sodium chlorite solutions have the potential for eventually becoming a surrogate to the use of chlorine for the control of zebra mussels. That is because they already show a good killing efficiency without being involved in the formation of undesired by-products such as the use of chlorine is. On this purpose, the product is engaged in the process of homologation by Agriculture Canada for it use as treatment against zebra mussels.

  11. Heavy metal determinations in algae, mussels and clams. Their possible employment for assessing the sea water quality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2003-05-01

    An empirical criterion for a possible classification of sea water quality is proposed. It is based on the knowledge of metal content in algae (Ulva Rigida) mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) and clams (Tapes Philippinarum), three species present in marine ecosystems. The elements considered are Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni and Cr. The anatytical technique employed is Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The analytical procedure has been verified on three standard reference materials : Sea Water BCR-CRM 403, Ulva Lactuca BCR-CRM 279 and Mussel Tissue BCR-CRM 278. For all the elements, in addition to detection limits, accuracy and precision are given : the former, expressed as retative error (e). and the latter, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr), were in all cases lower than 6%.

  12. The mussel caging approach in assessing biological effects of wastewater treatment plant discharges in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Turja, Raisa; Lehtonen, Kari K; Meierjohann, Axel; Brozinski, Jenny-Maria; Vahtera, Emil; Soirinsuo, Anna; Sokolov, Alexander; Snoeijs, Pauline; Budzinski, Hélène; Devier, Marie-Hélène; Peluhet, Laurent; Pääkkönen, Jari-Pekka; Viitasalo, Markku; Kronberg, Leif

    2015-08-15

    Biological effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents were investigated in Baltic mussels (Mytilus trossulus) caged for one month 800m and 1100m from the WWTP discharge site and at a reference site 4km away. Significant antioxidant, genotoxic and lysosomal responses were observed close to the point of the WWTP discharge. Passive samplers (POCIS) attached to the cages indicated markedly higher water concentrations of various pharmaceuticals at the two most impacted sites. Modeling the dispersal of a hypothetical passive tracer compound from the WWTP discharge site revealed differing frequencies and timing of the exposure periods at different caging sites. The study demonstrated for the first time the effectiveness of the mussel caging approach in combination with passive samplers and the application of passive tracer modeling to examine the true exposure patterns at point source sites such as WWTP pipe discharges in the Baltic Sea. PMID:26117817

  13. How does tidal flow affect pattern formation in mussel beds?

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Jonathan A; Mackenzie, Julia J

    2016-10-01

    In the Wadden Sea, mussel beds self-organise into spatial patterns consisting of bands parallel to the shore. A leading explanation for this phenomenon is that mussel aggregation reduces losses from dislodgement and predation, because of the adherence of mussels to one another. Previous mathematical modelling has shown that this can lead to spatial patterning when it is coupled to the advection from the open sea of algae-the main food source for mussels in the Wadden Sea. A complicating factor in this process is that the advection of algae will actually oscillate with the tidal flow. This has been excluded from previous modelling studies, and the present paper concerns the implications of this oscillation for pattern formation. The authors initially consider piecewise constant ("square-tooth") oscillations in advection, which enables analytical investigation of the conditions for pattern formation. They then build on this to study the more realistic case of sinusoidal oscillations. Their analysis shows that future research on the details of pattern formation in mussel beds will require an in-depth understanding of how the tides affect long-range inhibition among mussels. PMID:27343625

  14. Effect of diet quality on mussel biomarker responses to pollutants.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Carmen; Lacroix, Camille; Paul-Pont, Ika; Le Grand, Fabienne; Albentosa, Marina; Bellas, Juan; Viñas, Lucía; Campillo, Juan A; Hegaret, Helene; Soudant, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the quality of two microalgal species on select biological and biochemical responses used as indicators of pollution were assessed. Mussels were conditioned for 6 weeks with the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile and the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra, chosen for being two clearly different types of primary production quality that differ in both biometric and biochemical characteristics. After dietary conditioning, the mussels were exposed to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, fluoranthene (FLU), for 1 week followed by 1 week of depuration. Results showed higher FLU accumulation in mussels fed on C. neogracile compared to those fed on H. triquetra. Concomitantly, a greater impact of this toxicant was observed in the biomarker responses of mussels fed on C. neogracile. These mussels showed an increase in the percentage of dead hemocytes, an activation of phagocytosis and ROS production of hemocytes after exposure. Some enzymatic activities also increased upon FLU exposure (superoxide dismutase -SOD-, catalase -CAT-, and glutathione reductases -GR-) and after depuration (glutathione-s-transferase -GST-). Results suggest that FLU exposure as well as food quality influence biomarker responses, with higher values of SOD, CAT and GR in non-exposed mussels fed on C. neogracile. In addition, upon exposure to the same FLU concentration, GR response varied according to dietary conditioning, suggesting that diet could act as a confounding factor in biomarker responses to pollution. Consequently, trophic conditions should be considered in marine pollution monitoring programs for a better interpretation of biomarker responses. PMID:27300503

  15. Occurence of the Quagga Mussel Dreissena bugensis and the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorha in the Upper Mississippi River System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on a range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel in the Great Rivers of the Upper Missippi River Basin. This research will be of interest to great river ecologists and to invasive species specialists.

  16. Androgenic and estrogenic response of green mussel extracts from Singapore's coastal environment using a human cell-based bioassay.

    PubMed

    Bayen, Stéphane; Gong, Yinhan; Chin, Hong Soon; Lee, Hian Kee; Leong, Yong Eu; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2004-11-01

    In the last decade, evidence of endocrine disruption in biota exposed to environmental pollutants has raised serious concern. Human cell-based bioassays have been developed to evaluate induced androgenic and estrogenic activities of chemical compounds. However, bioassays have been sparsely applied to environmental samples. In this study we present data on sex hormone activities in the green mussel, Perna viridis, in Singapore's coastal waters. P.viridis is a common bioindicator of marine contamination, and this study is a follow-up to an earlier investigation that reported the presence of sex hormone activities in seawater samples from Singapore's coastal environment. Specimens were collected from eight locations around the Singapore coastline and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals. Tissue extracts were then screened for activities on androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) using a reporter gene bioassay based on a HeLa human cell line. Mussel extracts alone did not exhibit AR activity, but in the presence of the reference androgenic hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT), activities were up to 340% higher than those observed for DHT alone. Peak activities were observed in locations adjacent to industrial and shipping activities. Estrogenic activities of the mussel extract both alone and in the presence of reference hormone were positive. Correlations were statistically investigated between sex hormone activities, levels of pollutants in the mussel tissues, and various biological parameters (specimen size, sex ratio, lipid and moisture content). Significant correlations exist between AR activities, in the presence of DHT, and total concentration of POPs (r= 0.725, p < 0.05). PMID:15531429

  17. Evaluation of the effects of candidate molluscicides on two nontarget bivalves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Marking, L.L.; Rach, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of molluscicides have been proposed for use in control of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), but their effect on nontarget aquatic organisms has not been evaluated. Standard methods were adapted for assessing the toxicity of candidate molluscicides to two nontarget bivalves. Fingernail clams, Musculium transversum, and the fawnfoot mussel, Truncilla donaciformis, were selected to represent the two families of native bivalves. Test organisms were collected from pools 6 to 9 of the Upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, WI. Static acute toxicity tests were conducted for 48 hours followed by a 96-hour monitoring period in untreated water to more fully assess survival and mortality. Toxicity data were analyzed by probit analysis to give LC sub(50) values and 95% confidence limits. The same chemicals as those tested at Ohio State University were evaluated against zebra mussels. Results from these studies and those conducted at Ohio State University will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of chemicals in zebra mussel control and their potential hazard to nontarget organisms.

  18. Evidence for PSP in mussels in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Ammons, D; Rampersad, J; Poli, M A

    2001-06-01

    Herein we present the first evidence for the presence of Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) in Trinidadian waters. The toxin was found in a meat extract of the mussel, Perna viridis. PSP has not previously been demonstrated in the shellfish of Caribbean islands. The presence of PSP in Trinidad is therefore significant in that it presents an opportunity to better understand the dynamics of PSP and algal blooms in both a region and island environment not normally associated with PSP.P. viridis is not native to Trinidad, but rather originates from eastern Asia. It presented itself only recently in Trinidadian waters. Interestingly, shellfish consumption and algal blooms have had a long history of coexistence in Trinidad without any record of human intoxications. In this context, potential Public Health implications of finding PSP in a non-native shellfish species are briefly discussed. PMID:11137550

  19. Comparison of PCB and trace metal bioaccumulation in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.G.; Bergen, B.J.; Cobb, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    The accumulation of PCBs and trace metals was compared at 14-d intervals between two filter-feeding bivalves, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the ribbed mussel, Modiolus demissus, after deployment in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, for up to 56 d. Contaminant uptake in deployed organisms also was compared with indigenous ribbed mussels. Significant mortality occurred in blue mussels after 28 d, when water temperatures exceeded 25 C. Therefore, tissue-residue comparisons between species are presented only up to day 28, while those between deployed and indigenous ribbed mussels continue to day 56. Results indicated that total PCB tissue residues and congener distributions were not statistically different in the two mussel species on day 28. Total PCB concentrations in both deployed mussel species reached approximately 30 {mu}g g{sup {minus}1} dry weight by day 28. Additionally, total PCB concentrations and congener distributions in the deployed ribbed mussels were not statistically different from the indigenous ribbed mussels on day 28, demonstrating that steady state was attained within 28 d. With respect to metal uptake, no single accumulation pattern occurred for the eight metals quantified. After 28 d, lead, cadmium, and iron concentrations in deployed blue and ribbed mussels were statistically similar. However, nickel and zinc accumulations were significantly greater in the blue mussels, and copper, chromium, and manganese were accumulated to significantly higher concentrations in the ribbed mussels. The comparison between the ribbed mussels indicated that cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher in indigenous than in deployed mussels after 28 d.

  20. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  1. Assessing the Exposure and Relative Sensitivity of Native Freshwater Mussels to Environmental Stressors and Laboratory Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Expands the database for pesticide toxicity on native freshwater mussels. 2. Aids in determining any potential differences in toxic sensitivity of gravid female mussel attributed to age and laboratory holding times. 3. Aids in determining potential differences in juvenile ...

  2. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 microg g(-1) dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10(8) nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 microg g(-1) dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 microg g(-1) dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10(8) nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable

  3. Numerical modelling of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) bacterial contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, Tomasz; Doré, William J.; Lyons, Kieran; Nolan, Glenn D.

    2014-05-01

    Bivalve shellfish such as oysters and mussels can concentrate human pathogens when grown in areas impacted by municipal wastewater. Under EU regulation this risk to consumers is controlled by determining the sanitary quality of bivalve shellfish production areas based on the concentration of Escherichia coli present in shellfish flesh. The authors present a modelling approach to simulate an uptake of E. coli from seawater and subsequent depuration by Mytilus edulis. The model that dynamically predicts E. coli concentration in the mussel tissue is embedded within a 3-D numerical modelling system comprising hydrodynamic, biogeochemical, shellfish ecophysiological and the newly proposed microbial modules. The microbial module has two state variables, namely, the concentrations of E. coli in water and in the mussel tissue. Novel formulations to calculate the filtration rates by mussels and the resulting uptake of bacteria are proposed; these rates are updated at every computational time step. Concentrations of E. coli in seawater are also updated accordingly taking into account the amounts ingested by mussels. The model has been applied to Bantry Bay in the south-west of Ireland. The results indicate that the model is capable of reproducing the official classification of shellfish waters in the bay based on monthly sampling at several stations. The predicted filtration rates and ratios of E. coli in water and mussels also compare well with the literature. The model thus forms a tool that may be used to assist in the classification of shellfish waters at much greater spatial and temporal detail than that offered by a field monitoring programme. Moreover, it can also aid in designing an efficient monitoring programme. The model can also be utilised to determine the contribution of individual point sources of pollution on the microbial loading in mussels and, when incorporated into an operational framework, it can provide a short-term forecasting of microbial

  4. Biochemical composition of three species of unionid mussels after emersion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greseth, Shari L.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Waller, D.L.; Bartsch, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are emersed (exposed to air) during conservation activities such as surveys and relocations. Success of these activities depends upon the ability of mussels to survive emersion and to re-burrow in the substratum. We evaluated the acute sublethal effects of emersion on three species of unionid mussels [pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820); pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820)] by measuring three biochemicals (carbohydrate, lipid, protein) indicative of biochemical function and energy storage. Mussels were acclimated in water at 25A?C and exposed to five air temperatures (15, 20, 25, 35 and 45A?C) for 15, 30 and 60 min. After emersion, mussels were returned to water at 25A?C and observed for 14 days. Samples of mantle tissue were taken after the 14-day postexposure period and analysed for carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal consistent trends in carbohydrate, lipid or protein concentrations due to sex of mussels, duration of emersion, air temperature or their interaction terms that indicated biological compensation to stress. Overall mean carbohydrate concentrations were greatest (range 447a??615 mg/g dry wt) among the species, followed by protein (179a??289 mg/g dry wt) and lipids (26.7a??38.1 mg/g dry wt). These results have positive implications for conducting conservation activities, because emersion over the range of temperatures (15a??35A?C) and durations (15a??60 min) examined did not appear acutely harmful to mussels.

  5. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 x 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. Cardium was substituted for L. Higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  6. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels to in situ refugia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Hove, M.C.; Waller, D.L.; Hornbach, D.J.; Bartsch, M.R.; Cunningham, L.A.; Dunn, H.L.; Kapuscinski, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery and survival of four species of unionid mussles [pimpleback, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (I. Lea, 1831); spike, Elliptio dilatata (Rafinesque, 1820); Higgins eye, Lampsilis higginsii (I. Lea, 1857); and pocketbook, Lampsilis cardium (Rafinesque, 1820)] that were experimentally relocated to in situ refugia in the St Croix River of Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. In 1996, 150 mussels of each of the first three species (450 total) were relocated to three 5 ?? 5 m study grids (Site A), one near Lakeland, Minnesota, which served as a source-site control, and two in the experimental refuge 48 km upstream, near Franconia, Minnesota. In a second relocation in 1997, L. cardium was substituted for L. higginsii and 150 mussels of this and each of the other two species (450 total), were relocated to two study grids (Site B). The source site control was near Sunrise, Minnesota and the experimental refuge was 14 km downstream near Almelund, Minnesota. Mussel recovery, survival and substratum characteristics were evaluated annually at Site A for 2 years and for 3 years at Site B. Mean annual recovery of all three species ranged from 90 to 100% at Site A, and from 34 to 70% at site B. The mean annual survival of recaptured mussels ranged from 85 to 100% at Site A, and from 88 to 100% at Site B. The textural characteristics of the substratum differed significantly between the control and the two refuge locations at the beginning of the study, but did not differ from this initial status among subsequent years at Site A. At Site B, there was a significant shift in textural characteristics from large to smaller fractions over the four years. The relatively high survival of mussels during this study demonstrates the importance of proper handling and transport protocols when relocating mussels and the selection of suitable relocation habitat with stable substratum. When established correctly, in situ refugia may be a viable tool for

  7. Ingestion and potential risks to wildlife from Exxon Valdez oil residues in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, R.

    1995-12-31

    Mussels are important bioaccumulators of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a toxicologically important fraction of crude oils. In some dense mussel beds in Prince William Sound, oil and PAH residues derived from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (EVOS) have persisted. The potential risks to wildlife from the consumption of these mussels are related to the degree of contamination of the mussels, the dietary intake of mussels, and the toxicity of the oils. Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus), and American Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmanil) were identified as species that consumed significant quantities of mussels. The consumption of mussels was estimated from the percentage of mussels in the diet and the caloric requirements of each species. Caloric requirements were taken either from direct observations or calculated from allometric equations adjusted for nonbasal energy expenditures. Daily intakes of oils were estimated from the percentage of PAHs in oils, PAH levels in mussels from contaminated beds, and mussel consumption by these species. The highest estimated daily oil intake occurred in Black Oystercatchers at 22 mg/kg bodyweight, assuming that these birds consumed mussels at the 95th percentile of oil contamination and that 75% of the caloric requirements are obtained from mussels. These levels of estimated oil ingestion are considerably lower than levels which have been found to produce toxicological effects in extended feeding studies in surrogate species.

  8. DNA ADDUCTS IN MARINE MUSSEL MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS LIVING IN POLLUTED AND UNPOLLUTED ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a generally applicable 32P-postlabeling assay to examine for the presence of DNA adducts in mussels experimentally exposed to known carcinogens and in mussels collected from sites impacted by wastewaters. Mussels exposed to seawater artificially polluted with 2-amino...

  9. Using tolerance intervals to assess recovery of mussel beds impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joel H; Braman, Nick

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been measured in mussel tissues in early spring and summer since 1993 throughout Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Season-specific thresholds were established at reference sites to identify 'above background' total PAH levels. Thresholds were estimated using one-sided 99% tolerance limits. Thresholds were similar across reference sites but differed by an order of magnitude across seasons. Trends in total PAH since 1998 were assessed for sites impacted by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill or the Alyeska Marine Terminal. Summer samples exhibited no trends; early spring samples declined. In early spring, all sites were judged 'recovered' by 2004; in summer, one site in western Prince William Sound and two in the western GOA exceeded thresholds by 11ng/g dry weight or less. Robust estimation methods prevented bias from observations affected by unknown releases or laboratory errors. PMID:19596365

  10. The use of transplanted mussels in the California State Mussel Watch Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Ichikawa, G.S.; Goetzl, J.

    1995-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have relied solely on resident bivalves. This approach limits the versatility of monitoring programs in that residents are not often found in all the places necessary to sample and there are factors which are inherent in using residents that confound the results. The California State Mussel Watch Program has relied heavily on transplants because they eliminate much of the variation inherent in using residents and they can be transplanted almost anywhere. Examples are given that demonstrate the advantages of using transplants over residents.