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Sample records for mustard leavenworthia alabamica

  1. Recent selection for self-compatibility in a population of Leavenworthia alabamica.

    PubMed

    Herman, Adam C; Schoen, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of self-compatibility (SC) is the first step in the evolutionary transition in plants from outcrossing enforced by self-incompatibility (SI) to self-fertilization. In the Brassicaceae, SI is controlled by alleles of two tightly linked genes at the S-locus. Despite permitting inbreeding, mutations at the S-locus leading to SC may be selected if they provide reproductive assurance and/or gain a transmission advantage in a population when SC plants self- and outcross. Positive selection can leave a genomic signature in the regions physically linked to the focus of selection when selection has occurred recently. From an SC population of Leavenworthia alabamica with a known nonfunctional mutation at the S-locus, we collected sequence data from a ∼690 Kb region surrounding the S-locus, as well as from regions not linked to the S-locus. To test for recent positive selection acting at the S-locus, we examined polymorphism and the site-frequency spectra. Using forward simulations, we demonstrate that recent selection of the strength expected for SC at a locus formerly under balancing selection can generate patterns similar to those seen in our empirical data. PMID:27139712

  2. Genetic diversity and structure in two species of Leavenworthia with self-incompatible and self-compatible populations.

    PubMed

    Koelling, V A; Hamrick, J L; Mauricio, R

    2011-02-01

    Self-fertilization is a common mating system in plants and is known to reduce genetic diversity, increase genetic structure and potentially put populations at greater risk of extinction. In this study, we measured the genetic diversity and structure of two cedar glade endemic species, Leavenworthia alabamica and L. crassa. These species have self-incompatible (SI) and self-compatible (SC) populations and are therefore ideal for understanding how the mating system affects genetic diversity and structure. We found that L. alabamica and L. crassa had high species-level genetic diversity (H(e)=0.229 and 0.183, respectively) and high genetic structure among their populations (F(ST)=0.45 and 0.36, respectively), but that mean genetic diversity was significantly lower in SC compared with SI populations (SC vs SI, H(e) for L. alabamica was 0.065 vs 0.206 and for L. crassa was 0.084 vs 0.189). We also found significant genetic structure using maximum-likelihood clustering methods. These data indicate that the loss of SI leads to the loss of genetic diversity within populations. In addition, we examined genetic distance relationships between SI and SC populations to analyze possible population history and origins of self-compatibility. We find there may have been multiple origins of self-compatibility in L. alabamica and L. crassa. However, further work is required to test this hypothesis. Finally, given their high genetic structure and that individual populations harbor unique alleles, conservation strategies seeking to maximize species-level genetic diversity for these or similar species should protect multiple populations. PMID:20485327

  3. Sulfur Mustard

    MedlinePlus

    ... the environment. Sulfur mustard was introduced in World War I as a chemical warfare agent. Historically it ... fatal. When sulfur mustard was used during World War I, it killed fewer than 5% of the ...

  4. Reproductive character displacement shapes a spatially structured petal color polymorphism in Leavenworthia stylosa.

    PubMed

    Norton, Nicholas A; Fernando, M Thilina R; Herlihy, Christopher R; Busch, Jeremiah W

    2015-05-01

    Character displacement is a potentially important process driving trait evolution and species diversification. Floral traits may experience character displacement in response to pollinator-mediated competition (ecological character displacement) or the risk of forming hybrids with reduced fitness (reproductive character displacement). We test these and alternative hypotheses to explain a yellow-white petal color polymorphism in Leavenworthia stylosa, where yellow morphs are spatially associated with a white-petaled congener (Leavenworthia exigua) that produces hybrids with complete pollen sterility. A reciprocal transplant experiment found limited evidence of local adaptation of yellow color morphs via increased survival and seed set. Pollinator observations revealed that Leavenworthia attract various pollinators that generally favor white petals and exhibit color constancy. Pollen limitation experiments showed that yellow petals do not alleviate competition for pollination. Interspecific pollinator movements were infrequent and low hybridization rates (∼0.40-0.85%) were found in each morph, with natural rates likely being lower. Regardless, hybridization rates were significantly higher in white morphs of L. stylosa, yielding a small selection coefficient of s = 0.0042 against this phenotype in sympatry with L. exigua. These results provide support for RCD as a mechanism contributing to the pattern of petal color polymorphism in L. stylosa. PMID:25873258

  5. Nitrogen Mustards

    MedlinePlus

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... mustard from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...

  6. Liquid sulfur mustard exposure.

    PubMed

    Newmark, Jonathan; Langer, Janice M; Capacio, Benedict; Barr, John; McIntosh, Roger G

    2007-02-01

    A 35-year-old active duty service member sustained a 6.5% body surface area burn as a result of exposure to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, which is the most severe mustard exposure of a U.S. military member since World War II that is known to us. New techniques were used to demonstrate the detectable persistence of mustard metabolites in the patient's blood for at least 41 days after exposure, validating these techniques for the first time for a human mustard patient; they were also used for the first time with human mustard blister fluid. The techniques extend eightfold the period of time that mustard exposure can be definitively diagnosed, compared with previous techniques. Although this patient's lesions were never life-threatening, he required 2 weeks of intensive burn care. He has been left with ongoing posttraumatic stress disorder and has had an incomplete dermatological recovery. In a major terrorist attack involving many patients exposed to sulfur mustard, care resources would be depleted quickly. PMID:17357776

  7. Various concentrations of erucic acid in mustard oil and mustard.

    PubMed

    Wendlinger, Christine; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2014-06-15

    Erucic acid is a typical constituent of mustard or rape. Foodstuff with a high content of erucic acid is considered undesirable for human consumption because it has been linked to myocardial lipidosis and heart lesions in laboratory rats. As a result, several countries have restricted its presence in oils and fats. In this study, the erucic acid content in several mustard oils and prepared mustard samples from Germany and Australia was determined. Seven of nine mustard oil samples exceeded the permitted maximum levels established for erucic acid (range: 0.3-50.8%, limit: 5%). The erucic acid content in mustard samples (n=15) varied from 14% to 33% in the lipids. Two servings (i.e. 20 g) of the mustards with the highest erucic acid content already surpassed the tolerable daily intake established by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. However, a careful selection of mustard cultivars could lower the nutritional intake of erucic acid. PMID:24491745

  8. Mustard meal weed control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  9. Mustards and Vesicants

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Robert A; Bast, Cheryl B

    2009-01-01

    Vesicants (sulfur mustards, lewisite, and nitrogen mustards) are chemicals that cause blistering of the skin. Developed as chemical warfare agents, their biological activity is complex and not fully understood. These vesicants in liquid or vapor form are capable of causing injury to most any tissue. Contact with the skin results in erythema and blistering. Exposure to vapors produces ocular and respiratory effects which occur at exposures below those causing dermal effects. Systemic and long-lasting effects may occur, especially following acute exposures that result in severe injury. Multi-organ involvement and fluid loss shock resulting in death may follow severe exposures. As alkylating agents, all of the mustards are known or potential carcinogens. The carcinogenic potential of lewisite in humans is equivocal. Toxicity data in animals are available for the vesicants although data on sulfur mustard and lewisite are more extensive than for the nitrogen mustards. Data from tests with human volunteers and occupational exposure information are also available. These data collectively have provided a basis for the development of exposure standards, guidelines, and criteria for use in emergency planning and emergency response, and remediation efforts. The mode of action of the vesicants is complex, not fully understood, and represents an ongoing area of investigation especially with respect to treatment of vesicant-induced injury. Prevention of exposure and decontamination are critical initial steps in eliminating or minimizing injury. With the exception of arsenic chelating antidotes (e.g., British anti-lewisite; BAL) for lewisite, no antidotes exist for the vesicant agents. Medical management currently focuses on palliative treatment of signs and symptoms.

  10. Toxicological profile for mustard gas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Statement was prepared to give information about mustard gas (sulfur mustard) and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,177 sites on its National Priorities List (NPL). Mustard gas has been found at 4 of these sites. As EPA evaluates more sites, the number of sites at which mustard gas is found may change. The information is important because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to mustard gas. Mustard gas may cause harmful health effects.

  11. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard

    PubMed Central

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J.; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg−1. Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4ʹ-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as an important intermediate. Hot mustard made only from brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) or black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra) contained no BPF. BPF is structurally very similar to bisphenol A and has a similar weak estrogenic activity. The consumption of a portion of 20 g of mustard can lead to an intake of 100–200 µg of BPF. According to a preliminary risk assessment, the risk of BPF in mustard for the health of consumers is considered to be low, but available toxicological data are insufficient for a conclusive evaluation. It is a new and surprising finding that BPF is a natural food ingredient and that this is the main uptake route. This insight sheds new light on the risk linked to the family of bisphenols. PMID:26555822

  12. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard.

    PubMed

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg(-1). Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4'-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as an important intermediate. Hot mustard made only from brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) or black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra) contained no BPF. BPF is structurally very similar to bisphenol A and has a similar weak estrogenic activity. The consumption of a portion of 20 g of mustard can lead to an intake of 100-200 µg of BPF. According to a preliminary risk assessment, the risk of BPF in mustard for the health of consumers is considered to be low, but available toxicological data are insufficient for a conclusive evaluation. It is a new and surprising finding that BPF is a natural food ingredient and that this is the main uptake route. This insight sheds new light on the risk linked to the family of bisphenols. PMID:26555822

  13. Neutralization and biodegradation of sulfur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.P.; Beaudry, W.T.; Szafraniec, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    One technology recommended for consideration for the disposal of the U.S. Chemical Stockpile is chemical neutralization followed by biodegradation. In the case of sulfur mustard ({open_quotes}mustard gas{close_quotes}, 2,2{prime}-dichlorodiethyl sulfide), alkaline hydrolysis yields a detoxified and biodegradable product. The hydrolysis reaction was studied with respect to the effects of temperature and sulfur mustard concentration on the rate and products of the reaction. A 28-fold overall rate enhancement was observed at 70{degrees}C vs. 30{degrees}C corresponding to an enthalpy of activation value of 17.9 Kcal/mole. Material balance studies conducted by {sup 1}H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis showed that the products of the reaction consisted of thiodiglycol was relatively greater at lower sulfur mustard concentrations and higher temperatures. As temperatures were decreased or sulfur mustard concentrations was increased, the proportion of ether-type compounds increased accordingly. Conditions of 1% (vol//vol) sulfur mustard, 5% stoichiometric excess of NaOH and 90{degrees}C were selected for generation of the hydrolyzed bioreactor influent material. The bioreactor was seeded with activated sludge and was initially operated as 5 liter sequencing batch reactor with a hydraulic residence time of approximately days. Early results show total organic carbon removal of greater than 90%.

  14. Mustard gas or sulfur mustard: an old chemical agent as a new terrorist threat.

    PubMed

    Wattana, Monica; Bey, Tareg

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a member of the vesicant class of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering to the skin and mucous membranes. There is no specific antidote, and treatment consists of systematically alleviating symptoms. Historically, sulfur mustard was used extensively in inter-governmental conflicts within the trenches of Belgium and France during World War I and during the Iran-Iraq conflict. Longitudinal studies of exposed victims show that sulfur mustard causes long-term effects leading to high morbidity. Given that only a small amount of sulfur mustard is necessary to potentially cause an enormous number of casualties, disaster-planning protocol necessitates the education and training of first-line healthcare responders in the recognition, decontamination, triage, and treatment of sulfur mustard-exposed victims in a large-scale scenario. PMID:19557954

  15. Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2007-01-01

    The Meyer-Clarke synthetic method was used in the German process for large scale production of mustard gas during World War I, which clearly shows the historical connection of synthesis of mustard gas.

  16. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed. PMID:22742653

  17. MUSTARD GAS EXPOSURE AND CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-khalili, Alireza; Haines, David D; Modirian, Ehsan; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Khateri, Shahriar; Joshi, Rashmi; Zendehdel, Kazem; Ghanei, Mostafa; Giardina, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is an alkylating compound used as a chemical weapon in World War I and by Iraqi forces against Iranians and indigenous Iraqi Kurds during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s. Although SM is a proven carcinogen there are conflicting views regarding the carcinogenicity of a single exposure. The present study characterizes lung cancers formed in mustard gas victims from the Iran-Iraq War. Methods and Materials Demographic information and tumor specimens were collected from 20 Iranian male lung cancer patients with single high-dose SM exposures during the Iran-Iraq war. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for p53 protein. In addition, DNA was extracted from the tissues, PCR amplified and sequenced to identify mutations in the p53 and KRAS genes associated with SM exposure. Results A relatively early age of lung cancer onset (ranging from 28 to 73 with a mean of 48) in mustard gas victims, particularly those in the non-smoking population (mean age of 40.7), may be an indication of a unique etiology for these cancers. Seven of the 20 patients developed lung cancer before the age of 40. Five of 16 cancers from which DNA sequence data was obtainable provided information on eight p53 mutations (within exons 5–8). These mutations were predominately G to A transitions; a mutation consistent with the DNA lesion caused by SM. Two of the lung cancers had multiple p53 point mutations, similar to results obtained from factory workers chronically exposed to mustard agent. No mutations were detected in the KRAS gene. Discussion The distinguishing characteristics of lung carcinogenesis in these mustard gas victims suggest that a single exposure may increase the risk of lung cancer development in some individuals. PMID:19559099

  18. Mustard (Sinapis alba) Seed Meal Suppresses Weeds in Container Grown Ornamentals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meal is a byproduct of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown and oil production. Developing new uses for mustard seed meal could increase the profitability of growing mustard. Seed meal of mustard, var. ‘IdaGold’ was applied to the soil surface to evaluate its effect on several common weeds...

  19. Mustard meal as an organic herbicide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings: unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Field research was conducted in s...

  20. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur mustard injuries. Current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management that prevent or minimize deficits and provide for speedy wound healing. Several laboratories are actively searching for improved therapies for cutaneous vesicant injury, with the aim of returning damaged skin to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest time. Improved treatment will result in a better cosmetic and functional outcome for the patient, and will enable the casualty to return to normal activities sooner. This editorial gives brief overviews of sulfur mustard use, its toxicity, concepts for medical countermeasures, current treatments, and strategies for the development of improved therapies. PMID:16921406

  1. Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A

    2013-02-01

    Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration. PMID:22752796

  2. Inflammatory mechanisms of pulmonary injury induced by mustards.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R; Venosa, Alessandro; Vayas, Kinal N; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2016-02-26

    Exposure of humans and animals to vesicants, including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), causes severe and debilitating damage to the respiratory tract. Both acute and long term pathological consequences are observed in the lung following a single exposure to these vesicants. Evidence from our laboratories and others suggest that macrophages and the inflammatory mediators they release play an important role in mustard-induced lung injury. In this paper, the pathogenic effects of SM and NM on the lung are reviewed, along with the potential role of inflammatory macrophages and mediators they release in mustard-induced pulmonary toxicity. PMID:26478570

  3. Putting Some Mustard into Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    On September 27, 2012, the University of Toronto launched the Fraser Mustard Institute for Human Development – an appropriate recognition of an extraordinary individual. Fraser was a keen student of the science of human development and, most particularly, of early child development (ECD). He was also a powerful and tireless advocate for translating science into action. His institute must do both. Action is needed also because 25% of Canadians lack the competencies to function effectively in a modern economy. Other countries do much better. Facing a low-growth future, we cannot afford to waste this untapped potential. Although Prime Minister Harper's personal ideology has no place for ECD, the Mustard Institute can help keep the flame alive. PMID:23968611

  4. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  5. Harmful Effects of Mustard Bio-fumigants on Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green manures, particularly mustards tilled into the soil preceding potato crops act as bio-fumigants that are toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, providing an alternative to synthetic soil fumigants. It is not known if mustard green manures also kill beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) tha...

  6. Effects of Exposure to Sulfur Mustard on Speech Aerodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydari, Fatemeh; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent with highly cytotoxic properties even at low exposure. It was used widely against both military and civilian population by Iraqi forces in the Iraq-Iran war (1983-1988). Although various aspects of mustard gas effects on patients with chemical injury have been relatively well characterized, its effects on…

  7. Neutralization and biodegradation of sulfur mustard. Final report, October 1995-June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.P.; Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.; Earley, J.T.; Irvine, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard was hydrolyzed to products that were biologically mineralized in sequencing batch reactors seeded with activated sludge. Greater than 90% carbon removal was achieved using laboratory scale bioreactors processing hydrolyzed munitions grade sulfur mustard obtained directly from the U.S. Chemical Stockpile. The bioreactor effluent was nontoxic and contained no detectable sulfur mustard or priority pollutants. The sulfur mustard hydrolysis biodegradation process has potential application to the congressionally mandated disposal of sulfur mustard stockpiles.

  8. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  9. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application.

    PubMed

    Zawar, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant. PMID:16394442

  10. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Thomas W. Nelson, Peggy; Bjarnason, Stephen; Vair, Cory; Shei Yimin; Tenn, Catherine; Lecavalier, Pierre; Burczyk, Andrew

    2010-09-15

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC{sub 50} values of {approx} 100-150 {mu}M when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  11. Putative roles of inflammation in the dermatopathology or sulfur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.M.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sulfur mustard (2,2`-dichlorodiethyl sulfide), a radiomimetic agent with mutagenic (Cappizzi et al., 1973; Fox and Scott, 1983), cytotoxic (Wheeler, 1962; Papirmeister and Davison, 1965), and vesicant (Anslow and Houck, 1946; Renshaw, 1946) properties, is also a chemical-warfare blistering agent with no known antidote. Sulfur mustard predominantly effects exposed epithelial tissues of the skin, the eye, and the respiratory tract, although higher doses can produce systemic toxicity (reviewed by Papirmeister et al., 1991). The severity of sulfur mustard toxicity is dose dependent, causing irritation, edema, necrosis and ulceration; characteristic symptoms are unique to the site of exposure, e.g., vesication, conjunctivitis, bronchopneumonia (reviewed by Papirmeister et al., 1991). The basic histopathology of mustard-induced cutaneous lesions has been reviewed by Papirmeister et al. (1985, 1991) and includes degeneration of epidermal cells, especially in the basal layer, followed by the formation of vesicles (and, in man, bullae) that have been variously characterized as intraepidermal or subcorneal but that appear in most cases to result from cleavage at the dermal-epidermal junction. However, despite general agreement concerning the morphologic changes caused by mustard and despite more than 50 years of research, the pathogenesis of mustard injury is still incompletely understood.

  12. Release of allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed meal powder.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruyan; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2014-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a wide-spectrum antimicrobial compound found in mustard seeds, produced when their tissues are disrupted. The formation of AITC in mustard seed is mediated by the myrosinase enzyme which catalyzes the release of volatile AITC from a glucosinolate-sinigrin. Since water is a substrate in the reaction, humidity from the air can be used to activate the release of AITC from mustard seed. In this study, defatted and partially defatted mustard seed meals were ground into powders with particle size ranging from 5 to 300 μm. The mustard seed meal powder (MSMP) samples were enclosed within hermetically sealed glass jars wherein the headspace air was adjusted to 85% or 100% relative humidity at 5, 20, or 35 °C. Data from gas chromatography analysis showed that AITC release rate and amount increased with increasing relative humidity and temperature. Moreover, the release rate can be manipulated by particle size and lipid content of the MSMP samples. The amount of AITC released ranged from 2 to 17 mg/g MSMP within 24 h under the experimental conditions tested. In view of the antimicrobial properties of AITC, the mustard meal powder may be used as a natural antimicrobial material for extending the shelf life of food products. PMID:24313968

  13. Development and validation of a real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Wolny, Martina; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents a real-time PCR method allowing the simultaneous detection of traces of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) in food. The primers and the probe target the B. nigra partial RT gene for reverse transcriptase from gypsy-like retroelement 13G42-26. The real-time PCR method does not show any cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species with the exception of white mustard. Low cross-reactivities with cinnamon, cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric can be ignored because in common mustard containing foodstuffs these biological species are present in very low amounts. By analysing serially diluted DNA extracts from black and brown mustard, the DNA of both mustard species could be detected down to 0.1 pg. With 10 ng DNA per PCR tube the real-time PCR method allows the detection of 5 ppm black and brown mustard in brewed sausages. PMID:23265498

  14. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein. PMID:25859422

  15. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of mustard in foods.

    PubMed

    Lee, P-W; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2008-05-01

    Undeclared mustard residues in food products could trigger allergic reactions in mustard-allergic consumers. Our objective was to develop and validate a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of mustard residues in foods. A mixture of yellow, brown, and oriental mustard seeds was used to immunize 3 rabbits and 1 sheep. Two mustard ELISAs were developed by utilizing the reciprocal combination of rabbit and sheep polyclonal antimustard sera as the capture and detector reagents. Binding was visualized by addition of rabbit antisheep or goat antirabbit IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase and subsequent addition of substrate. The optimized ELISAs have limits of quantification (LOQ) of 1 and 3 ppm (mug of ground, whole mustard seeds/mL) for the sheep capture and rabbit capture formats, respectively. Only rapeseed cross-reacted in the rabbit and sheep capture mustard ELISAs at a level equivalent to 12300 and 16900 ppm of mustard. The mean percent recovery for cooked frankfurters spiked with 0 to 1000 ppm mustard flour was 95.3%+/- 10.7%. A limited retail survey of 29 foods revealed that, of 15 samples having mustard declared on the ingredient list, 2 baked bean products contained no detectable mustard, possibly owing to a decrease in extractability and detectability of mustard proteins after subjecting to thermal processing. For the remaining 14 samples without mustard declared on the label, 3 samples contained detectable mustard, presumably due to the labeling of mustard as "spice" or inadvertent cross-contamination. This sandwich-type ELISA can serve as a powerful tool for food manufacturers and regulatory agencies to detect and quantify mustard residues in processed foods. PMID:18460147

  16. [Mustard gas bombs found astray in the Faxaflói bay. Mustard gas: usage and poisonings].

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Jakop; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2009-05-01

    The finding in 1972 of two World War II mustard gas artillery shells in crushed shell sediment dredged in the Faxaflói Bay and transported as raw material for cement production at Akranes (Western Iceland) is reported. One of the shells was wedged in a stone crusher in the raw material processing line and was ruptured. As a result dark fluid with a garlic like smell seeped out from the metal canister. The attending employees believed the metal object to be inert and tried to cut it out with a blow torch. This resulted in the explosion of the shell charge and in the exposure of four employees to mustard gas. All suffered burns on their hands and two of them in the eyes also. The second shell was detonated in the open at a distance from the factory. Emphasis is given to the fact that instant, or at least as soon as possible, cleansing and washing is the most efficient measure to be taken against the debilitating effects of mustard gas. It is also pointed out that the active principle in mustard gas (dichlorodiethyl sulphide) can easily be synthesized and none of the precursor substances are subjected to any restrictions of use. The authors conclude that mustard gas bombs may still be found in the arsenals of some military powers in spite of an international convention that prohibits the production, stockpiling and the use of chemical weapons. Terrorist groups have also seemingly tried to aquire mustard gas bombs and other chemical weapons. Therefore cases of mustard gas poisoning might still occur. PMID:19430031

  17. Pacific Northwest Condiment Yellow Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) Grower Guide: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.; Davis, J. B.; Esser, A.

    2005-07-01

    This report is a grower guide for yellow mustard. Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), synonymous with white mustard, is a spring annual crop and well adapted to hot, dry growing conditions. It has shown potential as an alternative crop in rotations with small grain cereals and has fewer limitations compared to other traditional alternative crops.

  18. Mustard seed meal for management of root-knot nematode and weeds in tomato production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mustard seed meals of indian mustard [InM (Brassica juncea)] and yellow mustard [YeM (Sinapis alba)], alone and combined, were tested for effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and for suppression of southern root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] and weed populations. In the gree...

  19. Cytometric analysis of DNA changes induced by sulfur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.; Sanders, K.M.; Ruddle, S.E.; Gross, C.L.

    1993-05-13

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent which causes severe, potentially debilitating blisters following cutaneous exposure. Its mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown and no antidote exists to prevent its pathology. The biochemical basis of sulfur mustard's vesicating activity has been hypothesized to be a cascade of events beginning with alkylation of DNA. Using human cells in culture, we have assessed the effects of sulfur mustard on cell cycle activity using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Two distinct patterns emerged, a Gl/S interface block at concentrations equivalent to vesicating doses (>50-micronM) and a G2 block at 10-fold lower concentrations. In addition, noticeable increases in amount of dye uptake were observed at 4 and 24 hours after sulfur mustard exposure. These increases are believed to be related to DNA repair activities and can be prevented by treatment of the cells with niacinamide, which inhibits DNA repair. Other drugs which provide alternate alkylating sites or inhibit cell cycle progression were shown to lower the cytotoxicity of sulfur mustard and to protect against its direct DNA damaging effects.

  20. Lipid Biosynthesis in Developing Mustard Seed

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Kumar D.

    1983-01-01

    Cotyledons of developing mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed have been found to synthesize lipids containing the common plant fatty acids and very long-chain monounsaturated (icosenoic, erucic, and tetracosenic) and saturated (icosanoic, docosanoic, and tetracosanoic) fatty acids from various radioactive precursors. The in vivo pattern of labeling of acyl lipids, either from fatty acids synthesized `endogenously' from radioactive acetate or malonate, or from radioactive fatty acids added `exogenously', indicates the involvement of the following pathways in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols. Palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid, synthesized in the acyl carrier protein-track, are channeled to the Coenzyme A (CoA)-track and converted to triacylglycerols via the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway. Pools of stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA are elongated to very long-chain saturated and monounsaturated acyl-CoA, respectively. Most of the very long-chain saturated acyl-CoAs acylate preformed diacylglycerols. Very long-chain monounsaturated acyl-CoAs are converted to triacylglycerols, partly via phosphatidic acids and diacylglycerols, and partly by acylation of preformed diacylglycerols. PMID:16663345

  1. Evolutionary transgenomics: prospects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Raul; Baum, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Many advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of species differences have arisen from transformation experiments, which allow us to study the effect of genes from one species (the donor) when placed in the genetic background of another species (the recipient). Such interspecies transformation experiments are usually focused on candidate genes – genes that, based on work in model systems, are suspected to be responsible for certain phenotypic differences between the donor and recipient species. We suggest that the high efficiency of transformation in a few plant species, most notably Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with the small size of typical plant genes and their cis-regulatory regions allow implementation of a screening strategy that does not depend upon a priori candidate gene identification. This approach, transgenomics, entails moving many large genomic inserts of a donor species into the wild type background of a recipient species and then screening for dominant phenotypic effects. As a proof of concept, we recently conducted a transgenomic screen that analyzed more than 1100 random, large genomic inserts of the Alabama gladecress Leavenworthia alabamica for dominant phenotypic effects in the A. thaliana background. This screen identified one insert that shortens fruit and decreases A. thaliana fertility. In this paper we discuss the principles of transgenomic screens and suggest methods to help minimize the frequencies of false positive and false negative results. We argue that, because transgenomics avoids committing in advance to candidate genes it has the potential to help us identify truly novel genes or cryptic functions of known genes. Given the valuable knowledge that is likely to be gained, we believe the time is ripe for the plant evolutionary community to invest in transgenomic screens, at least in the mustard family Brassicaceae where many species are amenable to efficient transformation. PMID:26579137

  2. Sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen mustards: stability and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Qiang; Begum, Rowshan Ara; Day, Victor W; Bowman-James, Kristin

    2012-11-28

    Mustard gas, bis(β-chloroethyl) sulfide (HD), is highly toxic and harmful to humans and the environment. It comprises one class of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) that was used in both World Wars I and II. The three basic analogues or surrogates are: the monochloro derivative, known as the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES); an oxygen analogue, bis(β-chloroethyl) ether (BCEE); and several nitrogen analogues based on the 2,2'-dichlorodiethylamine framework (e.g., HN1, HN2, and HN3). The origin of their toxicity is considered to be from the formation of three-membered heterocyclic ions, a reaction that is especially accelerated in aqueous solution. The reaction of these cyclic ion intermediates with a number of important biological species such as DNA, RNA and proteins causes cell toxicity and is responsible for the deleterious effects of the mustards. While a number of studies have been performed over the last century to determine the chemistry of these compounds, early studies suffered from a lack of more sophisticated NMR and X-ray techniques. It is now well-established that the sulfur and nitrogen mustards are highly reactive in water, while the oxygen analog is much more stable. In this study, we review and summarize results from previous studies, and add results of our own studies of the reactivity of these mustards toward various nonaqueous solvents and nucleophiles. In this manner a more comprehensive evaluation of the stability and reactivity of these related mustard compounds is achieved. PMID:23070251

  3. Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride-induced acute respiratory failure and myelosuppression: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOJUAN; ZHANG, ZHIDAN; CHEN, SONG; ZHAO, DONGMEI; ZHANG, FANGXIAO; HU, ZIWEI; XIAO, FENG; MA, XIAOCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards are chemical agents that are similar to sulfur mustards, with similar toxicities. The present study describes a case of nitrogen mustard-induced acute respiratory failure and myelosuppression in a 33-year-old man. The patient, who was accidentally exposed to nitrogen mustard hydrochloride in a pharmaceutical factory, exhibited severe inhalation injury and respiratory symptoms. Laboratory tests revealed reduced white blood cell counts and lowered platelet levels during the first 6 days after the skin exposure to nitrogen mustard. Following treatment with mechanical ventilation, immunity-enhancing agents and nutritional supplements for 1 month, the patient successfully recovered and was released from hospital. PMID:26622480

  4. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers. PMID:25863610

  5. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  6. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yuri; Makino, Teruhiko; Mizawa, Megumi; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  7. Characterization of mustard seeds and paste by DART ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prchalová, Jana; Kovařík, František; Ševčík, Rudolf; Čížková, Helena; Rajchl, Aleš

    2014-09-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a novel technique with great potential for rapid screening analysis. The DART ionization method coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) has been used for characterization of mustard seeds and table mustard. The possibility to use DART to analyse glucosinolates was confirmed on determination of sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate). The DART-TOF-MS method was optimized and validated. A set of samples of mustard seeds and mustard products was analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography and DART-TOF-MS were used to determine glucosinolates in mustard seeds and compared. The correlation equation between these methods was DART = 0.797*HPLC + 6.987, R(2)  = 0.972. The DART technique seems to be a suitable method for evaluation of the quality of mustard seeds and mustard products. PMID:25230177

  8. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Dacre, J C; Goldman, M

    1996-06-01

    There have been reports of chemical attacks in which sulfur mustard might have been used (a) on Iranian soldiers and civilians during the Gulf War in 1984 and 1985 and (b) in an Iraqi chemical attack on the Iranian-occupied village of Halbja in 1988, resulting in many civilian casualties. Heavy use of chemical warfare in Afghanistan by the Soviet military is a recent innovation in military tactics that has been highly successful and may ensure further use of chemical agents in future military conflicts and terrorist attacks as a profitable adjunct to conventional military arms. Mustard is a poisonous chemical agent that exerts a local action on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive systems in humans and laboratory animals, causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, and cardiac distress. Under extreme circumstances, dependent upon the dose and length of exposure to the agent, necrosis of the skin and mucous membranes of the respiratory system, bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, intestinal lesions, hemoconcentration, leucopenia, convulsions with systemic distress, and death occur. Severe mustard poisoning in humans is associated with systemic injury, which is manifested as headache, epigastric distresses, anorexia, diarrhea, and cachexia and is usually observed at mustard doses of 1000 mg/min/m3 with damage to hematopoietic tissues and progressive leucopenia. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison that causes disruption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities that are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity, and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas

  9. Covalent DNA-Protein Cross-Linking by Phosphoramide Mustard and Nornitrogen Mustard in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Groehler, Arnold; Villalta, Peter W; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2016-02-15

    N,N-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphorodiamidic acid (phosphoramide mustard, PM) and N,N-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-amine (nornitrogen mustard, NOR) are the two biologically active metabolites of cyclophosphamide, a DNA alkylating drug commonly used to treat lymphomas, breast cancer, certain brain cancers, and autoimmune diseases. PM and NOR are reactive bis-electrophiles capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form covalent DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to characterize PM- and NOR-mediated DNA-protein cross-linking in human cells. Following treatment of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) with cytotoxic concentrations of PM, over 130 proteins were found to be covalently trapped to DNA, including those involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA splicing/processing, chromatin organization, and protein transport. HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of proteolytic digests of DPC-containing DNA from NOR-treated cells revealed a concentration-dependent formation of N-[2-[cysteinyl]ethyl]-N-[2-(guan-7-yl)ethyl]amine (Cys-NOR-N7G) conjugates, confirming that it cross-links cysteine thiols of proteins to the N7 position of guanines in DNA. Cys-NOR-N7G adduct numbers were higher in NER-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (XPA) as compared with repair proficient cells. Furthermore, both XPA and FANCD2 deficient cells were sensitized to PM treatment as compared to that of wild type cells, suggesting that Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair pathways are involved in the removal of cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage. PMID:26692166

  10. 7 CFR 457.168 - Mustard crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... have limited or additional levels of coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mustard crop insurance provisions. 457.168 Section 457.168 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP...

  11. Pulmonary complications of mustard gas exposure: a study on cadavers.

    PubMed

    Taghaddosinejad, Fakhreddin; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnoush, Behnam

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%), pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%), malignant cellular infiltration (4%), and aspergilloma (1%). According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended. PMID:21713733

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-3 Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Kinds of seed: Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage...) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like...

  13. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-3 Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Kinds of seed: Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage...) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like...

  14. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-3 Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Kinds of seed: Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage...) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like...

  15. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-3 Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Kinds of seed: Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage...) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like...

  16. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-3 Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Kinds of seed: Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage...) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (2) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become thin, leaf-like...

  17. functional analysis of nonlinearity in garlic mustard demographic parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande) invades and degrades woodland habitats in North America. Coupled-plant herbivore population models will be helpful in the design and implementation of effective biological control strategies for this species. Such models will be most u...

  18. 14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 87. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT LEFT AND INCINERATOR/PRECIPITATOR (BUILDING 724) AT CENTER, FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and weed response to mustard seed meal (MSM) were tested in greenhouse and field trials in 2007-2009. MSM was applied to the soil surface at rates of 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 MT/ha. In greenhouse trials, onions were severely injured and stands reduced with all rates of MSM applied prior to onion emer...

  1. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  2. 23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM ROOF OF TON CONTAINER RECONDITIONING BUILDING, SHOWING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING AT FOREGROUND AND BUILDING 741, 742 AND 743 AT CENTER BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. Mustard Seed Meal suppresses Weeds in Potato and Peppermint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is a co-product remaining after pressing mustard seed to remove the oil. Seed meals containing high glucosinolates have been reported to have herbicidal activity. Weed suppression with seed meal of Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold was evaluated in field trials on potatoes and peppermint in ...

  4. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  5. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  6. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  7. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. PMID:24025044

  8. Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Panahi, Yunes; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2011-05-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims. PMID:21329486

  9. Hemicholinium mustard derivatives: preliminary assessment of cholinergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tagari, P C; Maysinger, D; Cuello, A C

    1986-07-01

    We have attempted to design novel neurotoxins based on the use of hemicholinium derivatives. Three compounds were tested for their neurochemical effects on cholinergic, gabaergic and catecholaminergic markers in the hippocampus, striatum and cortex following intracerebroventricular administration. The effects were compared with those of the non-specific alkylating agent (nitrogen mustard) and the previously reported ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF 64A). The results indicate that only one of these derivatives (HcM-9) exhibits comparable neurotoxic effects on cholinergic markers with a similar pattern of specificity to that of AF 64A. In addition, HcM-9 showed less overall toxicity, this being reflected in a higher survival rate. The present results indicate that hemicholinium derivatives could be good substrates for further molecular modifications, thus a step towards the design of a more specific cholinergic neurotoxin. PMID:3748277

  10. Mustard vesicant-induced lung injury: Advances in therapy.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Barry; Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R; Venosa, Alessandro; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2016-08-15

    Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has led to the identification of potentially efficacious strategies to reduce injury by targeting inflammatory cells and mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteases and proinflammatory/cytotoxic cytokines. Therapeutics under investigation include corticosteroids, N-acetyl cysteine, which has both mucolytic and antioxidant properties, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, liposomes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and/or tocopherols, protease inhibitors, and cytokine antagonists such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and pentoxifylline. Antifibrotic and fibrinolytic treatments may also prove beneficial in ameliorating airway obstruction and lung remodeling. More speculative approaches include inhibitors of transient receptor potential channels, which regulate pulmonary epithelial cell membrane permeability, non-coding RNAs and mesenchymal stem cells. As mustards represent high priority chemical threat agents, identification of effective therapeutics for mitigating toxicity is highly significant. PMID:27212445

  11. Sulphur mustard injuries of the skin. Pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Rice, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Sulphur mustard is a vesicant (blistering agent), which produces chemical burns with widespread blistering. It was used extensively as a chemical warfare agent in the First World War, and has allegedly been employed in a number of conflicts since then, most recently by Iraq against Iran (1984-1987). The potential further use of mustard in military conflicts and by terrorists remains a significant threat that if realised in practice would result in a large number of casualties with severely incapacitating, partial thickness burns. Such injuries clearly present a huge potential wound care problem. The development and healing of mustard-induced cutaneous injuries has not only been observed in human casualties, but has been studied recently at the microscopic and ultrastructural levels in several animal models. Vesication generally begins on the second day after exposure, and may progress for up to 2 weeks. Wound healing is considerably slower than for a comparable thermal burn, and patients often require extended hospital treatment. The current management strategy is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Recently, two techniques for removing damaged tissue and improving wound healing have been investigated. Mechanical dermabrasion and laser debridement ('lasablation') both produced an increased rate of wound healing in animal models, and may be of benefit in a clinical context. PMID:15071821

  12. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  13. Sulfur mustard-induced increase in intracellular calcium: A mechanism of mustard toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.; Majerus, B.J.; Munavalli, G.S.; Petrali, J.P.

    1993-05-13

    The effect of sulfur mustard SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide on intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+)i was studied in vitro using the clonal mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid NG108-15 and primary normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cell culture models. SM depletes cellular glutathione (GSH) and thus may inhibit GSH-dependent Ca2+-ATPase (Ca2+ pump), leading to a high (Ca2+) and consequent cellular toxicity. Following 0.3 mM SM exposure, GSH levels decreased 20-34% between 1-6 hr in NG108-15 cells. SM increased (Ca2+)i, measured using the Ca2+-specific fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM, in both NG108-15 cells (1030% between 2-6 hr) and NHEK (23-30% between 0.5-3 hr) . Depletion of cellular GSH by buthionine sulfoximine (1 mM), a specific GSH biosynthesis inhibitor, also increased Ca2+, (88% at 1 hr) in NHEK, suggesting that GSH depletion may lead to increased (Ca2+)i. Calcium, localized cytochemically with antimony, accumulated in increased amounts around mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula, in the cytosol, and in particular in the euchromatin regions of the nucleus beginning at 6 hr after 0.3 mM SM exposure of NG108-15 cells. Cell membrane integrity examined with the fluorescent membrane probe calcein AM was unaffected through 6 hr following 1 mM SM exposure; and cell viability (NG108-15 cells) measured by trypan blue exclusion was >80% of control through 9 hr following 0.3 mM SM exposure.

  14. Effect of mustard seed meal on early weed emergence in peppermint and potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed meal is the by-product remaining after pressing/crushing mustard seed to remove the majority of the oil. Trials to evaluate weed suppression were conducted at several locations on peppermint and potatoes using seed meal obtained from Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold. White mustard seed meal appl...

  15. Suppression of bacterial blight on mustard greens with host plant resistance and Acibenzolar-S-Methyl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial blight, caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, attacks the leaves of most brassica vegetables, including mustard greens (Brassica juncea). ‘Carolina Broadleaf,’ a new mustard cultivar, is resistant to bacterial blight. Acibenzolar-S-methyl (trade name Actigard) has been used to m...

  16. Detoxication of sulfur half-mustards by nucleophilic scavengers: robust activity of thiopurines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyun; Powell, K Leslie; Thames, Howard D; MacLeod, Michael C

    2010-03-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide) has been used in chemical warfare since World War I and is well known as an acutely toxic vesicant. It has been implicated as a carcinogen after chronic low-level exposure and is known to form interstrand cross-links in DNA. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards are currently of interest as potential chemical threat agents for terrorists because of ease of synthesis. Sulfur mustard and monofunctional analogues (half-mustards, 2-[chloroethyl] alkyl sulfides) react as electrophiles, damaging cellular macromolecules, and thus are potentially subject to scavenging by nucleophilic agents. We have determined rate constants for the reaction of four purine derivatives that contain nucleophilic thiol moieties with several sulfur-half-mustards. Three of these compounds, 2,6-dithiopurine, 2,6-dithiouric acid, and 9-methyl-6-mercaptopurine, exhibit facile reaction with the electrophilic mustard compounds. At near neutral pH, these thiopurines are much better nucleophilic scavengers of mustard electrophiles than other low molecular weight thiols such as N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione. Progress curves calculated by numerical integration techniques indicate that equimolar concentrations of thiopurine provide significant reductions in the overall exposure to the episulfonium ions, which are the major reactive, electrophiles produced when sulfur mustards are dissolved in aqueous solution. PMID:20050632

  17. Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy and 15 other Brassica vegatables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip...

  18. UPPER-BOUND QUANTITATIVE CANCER RISK ESTIMATES FOR POPULATION ADJACENT TO SULFUR MUSTARD INCINERATION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document characterizes the potential cancer hazard to populations residing near sulfur mustard incineration facilities while the incineration is taking place. he carcinogenicity of sulfur mustard is reviewed briefly to show what evidence has lead to the previously-accepted c...

  19. Protection of chymotrypsin from inactivation by a N-mustard analog.

    PubMed

    Brecher, A S; Koenig, M J

    1995-02-01

    Chymotrypsin activity is rapidly inactivated by the N-mustard anti-tumor drug, chlorambucil. Since mustards react with thiols, amines, carboxyls, imidazoles, and sulfide sites on proteins, N-acetylcysteine, 2 proprietary protein hydrolyzates, beta-mercaptoethanol, ethanolamine, and sodium lactate were tested for their capacity to protect chymotrypsin from inactivation by the mustard. In each instance, protection was afforded to chymotrypsin. In as much as N-acetylcysteine protected chymotrypsin from inactivation by chlorambucil, it is suggested that this thiol compound may serve as a detoxication agent and may not require prior transformation into glutathione by cells in order to reduce mustard levels within the cells, as suggested by Smith and Gross (Proceedings of the NATO Panel VIII meeting, Grenoble, France, 1991.) It is further suggested that amino acids present as biosynthetic and degradative components of cells may detoxify mustards. PMID:7701511

  20. Veterans at risk: The health effects of mustard gas and lewisite

    SciTech Connect

    Pechura, C.M.; Rall, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    So vivid were the memories of the first use of mustard gas (sulfur mustard) by the Germans in World War I that the United States government began to prepare for chemical warfare even before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941. This work was also spurred by the fury of war in Europe and reports of Japanese use of sulfur mustard against the Chinese. The US preparations included the establishment of war-related research programs organized by President Roosevelt under the White House Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). Two groups under the OSRD became involved in secret testing programs concerned with mustard agents (Sulfur and nitrogen mustard) and Lewisite: The Committee on Medical Research; This group studied protective ointments and other treatments through the National Research Council's Committee on Treatment of Gas Casualties, and The National Defense Research Committee; This group studied protective clothing and gas masks through military units such as the Chemical Warfare Service.

  1. Evaluating mustard as a potential companion crop for collards to control the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae): outdoor and olfactometer experiments.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three varieties of mustard (giant red mustard, tender green mustard and ragged leaf mustard) were evaluated as possible repellent companion crops for collards against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii in outdoor potted experiments and through laboratory studies using a Y-tube olfactomete...

  2. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. PMID:25156799

  3. Capsaicinoids, Chloropicrin and Sulfur Mustard: Possibilities for Exposure Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Pesonen, Maija; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Halme, Mia; Vanninen, Paula; Seulanto, Heikki; Hemmilä, Matti; Pasanen, Markku; Kuitunen, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    Incapacitating and irritating agents produce temporary disability persisting for hours to days after the exposure. One can be exposed to these agents occupationally in industrial or other working environments. Also general public can be exposed in special circumstances, like industrial accidents or riots. Incapacitating and irritating agents discussed in this review are chloropicrin and capsaicinoids. In addition, we include sulfur mustard, which is an old chemical warfare agent and known to cause severe long-lasting injuries or even death. Chloropicrin that was used as a warfare agent in the World War I is currently used mainly as a pesticide. Capsaicinoids, components of hot pepper plants, are used by police and other law enforcement personnel as riot control agents. Toxicity of these chemicals is associated particularly with the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Their acute effects are relatively well known but the knowledge of putative long-term effects is almost non-existent. Also, mechanisms of effects at cellular level are not fully understood. There is a need for further research to get better idea of health risks, particularly of long-term and low-level exposures to these chemicals. For this, exposure biomarkers are essential. Validated exposure biomarkers for capsaicinoids, chloropicrin, and sulfur mustard do not exist so far. Metabolites and macromolecular adducts have been suggested biomarkers for sulfur mustard and these can already be measured qualitatively, but quantitative biomarkers await further development and validation. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing mechanistic and toxicokinetic information, to shed light on the possibilities for developing biomarkers for exposure biomonitoring of these compounds. It is also of interest to find ideas for early effect biomarkers considering the need for studies on subchronic and chronic toxicity. PMID:21833179

  4. Capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard: possibilities for exposure biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maija; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Halme, Mia; Vanninen, Paula; Seulanto, Heikki; Hemmilä, Matti; Pasanen, Markku; Kuitunen, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    Incapacitating and irritating agents produce temporary disability persisting for hours to days after the exposure. One can be exposed to these agents occupationally in industrial or other working environments. Also general public can be exposed in special circumstances, like industrial accidents or riots. Incapacitating and irritating agents discussed in this review are chloropicrin and capsaicinoids. In addition, we include sulfur mustard, which is an old chemical warfare agent and known to cause severe long-lasting injuries or even death. Chloropicrin that was used as a warfare agent in the World War I is currently used mainly as a pesticide. Capsaicinoids, components of hot pepper plants, are used by police and other law enforcement personnel as riot control agents. Toxicity of these chemicals is associated particularly with the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin. Their acute effects are relatively well known but the knowledge of putative long-term effects is almost non-existent. Also, mechanisms of effects at cellular level are not fully understood. There is a need for further research to get better idea of health risks, particularly of long-term and low-level exposures to these chemicals. For this, exposure biomarkers are essential. Validated exposure biomarkers for capsaicinoids, chloropicrin, and sulfur mustard do not exist so far. Metabolites and macromolecular adducts have been suggested biomarkers for sulfur mustard and these can already be measured qualitatively, but quantitative biomarkers await further development and validation. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing mechanistic and toxicokinetic information, to shed light on the possibilities for developing biomarkers for exposure biomonitoring of these compounds. It is also of interest to find ideas for early effect biomarkers considering the need for studies on subchronic and chronic toxicity. PMID:21833179

  5. Covalent adduction of nitrogen mustards to model protein nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Vanessa R; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2013-08-19

    Protein adducts have the potential to serve as unique biomarkers of exposure to compounds of interest. Many xenobiotics (or their metabolites) are electrophilic and therefore reactive with nucleophilic amino acid residues on proteins. Nitrogen mustards are reactive xenobiotics with potential use as chemical warfare agents (CWA) or agents of terrorist attack, in addition to being employed as chemotherapeutic agents. The present study utilized cysteine-, lysine-, and histidine-containing model peptides to characterize in vitro adduction of the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine (HN-2) and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine (HN-3) to these nucleophilic amino acid residues by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study assessed the structure of adducts formed, the time course of adduct formation, concentration-response relationships, and temporal stability of adducts. Adduction was hypothesized to occur on all three model peptides via initial formation of a reactive aziridinium intermediate for both mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine, followed by covalent adduction to nucleophilic residues. While adduction was found to occur most readily with cysteine, it was also observed at lysine and histidine, demonstrating that adduction by mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine is possible at multiple nucleophilic sites. Following solid phase extraction cleanup, adducts formed with mechloroethamine were stable for up to three weeks. Adducts formed with tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine were less stable; however, hydrolyzed secondary adducts were observed throughout the three week period. This study demonstrates that the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine form stable adducts with reactive protein nucleophiles other than cysteine. PMID:23859065

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells are highly resistant to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annette; Scherer, Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    The effect of sulfur mustard (SM) to the direct injured tissues of the skin, eyes and airways is well investigated. Little is known about the effect of SM to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, this is an interesting aspect. Comparing the clinical picture of SM it is known today that MSC play an important role e.g. in chronic impaired wound healing. Therefore we wanted to get an understanding about how SM affects MSC and if these findings might become useful to get a better understanding of the effect of sulfur mustard gas with respect to skin wounds. We used mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from femoral heads from healthy donors and treated them with a wide range of SM to ascertain the dose-response-curve. With the determined inhibitory concentrations IC1 (1μM), IC5 (10μM), IC10 (20μM) and IC25 (40μM) we did further investigations. We analyzed the migratory ability and the differentiation capacity under influence of SM. Already very low concentrations of SM demonstrated a strong effect to the migratory activity whereas the differentiation capacity seemed not to be affected. Putting these findings together it seems to be likely that a link between MSC and the impaired wound healing after SM exposure might exist. Same as in patients with chronic impaired wound healing MSC had shown a reduced migratory activity. The fact that MSC are able to tolerate very high concentrations of SM and still do not lose their differentiation capacity may reveal new ways of treating wounds caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:23933411

  7. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis. PMID:25977054

  8. Suppression of Hyperactive Immune Responses Protects against Nitrogen Mustard Injury

    PubMed Central

    Au, Liemin; Meisch, Jeffrey P; Das, Lopa M; Binko, Amy M; Boxer, Rebecca S; Wen, Amy M; Steinmetz, Nicole F; Lu, Kurt Q

    2015-01-01

    DNA alkylating agents like nitrogen mustard (NM) are easily absorbed through the skin and exposure to such agents manifest not only in direct cellular death but also in triggering inflammation. We show that toxicity resulting from topical mustard exposure is mediated in part by initiating exaggerated host innate immune responses. Using an experimental model of skin exposure to NM we observe activation of inflammatory dermal macrophages that exacerbate local tissue damage in an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent manner. Subsequently these activated dermal macrophages reappear in the bone marrow to aid in disruption of hematopoiesis and contribute ultimately to mortality in an experimental mouse model of topical NM exposure. Intervention with a single dose of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) is capable of suppressing macrophage-mediated iNOS production resulting in mitigation of local skin destruction, enhanced tissue repair, protection from marrow depletion, and rescue from severe precipitous wasting. These protective effects are recapitulated experimentally using pharmacological inhibitors of iNOS or by compounds that locally deplete skin macrophages. Taken together, these data highlight a critical unappreciated role of the host innate immune system in exacerbating injury following exposure to NM and support the translation of 25(OH)D in the therapeutic use against these chemical agents. PMID:26288355

  9. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides.

    PubMed

    Štengla, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2011-09-15

    Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr(4+) dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr(4+) to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr(4+) doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites. PMID:21775058

  10. Multiphoton imaging the disruptive nature of sulfur mustard lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werrlein, Robert J.; Braue, Catherine R.; Dillman, James F.

    2005-03-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide] is a vesicating agent first used as a weapon of war in WWI. It causes debilitating blisters at the epidermal-dermal junction and involves molecules that are also disrupted by junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and other blistering skin diseases. Despite its recurring use in global conflicts, there is still no completely effective treatment. We have shown by imaging human keratinocytes in cell culture and in intact epidermal tissues that the basal cells of skin contain well-organized molecules (keratins K5/K14, α6β4 integrin, laminin 5 and α3β1 integrin) that are early targets of sulfur mustard. Disruption and collapse of these molecules is coincident with nuclear displacement, loss of functional asymmetry, and loss of polarized mobility. The progression of this pathology precedes basal cell detachment by 8-24 h, a time equivalent to the "clinical latent phase" that defines the extant period between agent exposure and vesication. Our images indicate that disruption of adhesion-complex molecules also impairs cytoskeletal proteins and the integration of structures required for signal transduction and tissue repair. We have recently developed an optical system to test this hypothesis, i.e., to determine whether and how the early disruption of target molecules alters signal transduction. This environmentally controlled on-line system provides a nexus for real-time correlation of imaged lesions with DNA microarray analysis, and for using multiphoton microscopy to facilitate development of more effective treatment strategies.

  11. Isophosphoramide mustard, a metabolite of ifosfamide with activity against murine tumours comparable to cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed Central

    Struck, R. F.; Dykes, D. J.; Corbett, T. H.; Suling, W. J.; Trader, M. W.

    1983-01-01

    Isophosphoramide mustard was synthesized and was found to demonstrate activity essentially comparable to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide against L1210 and P388 leukaemia. Lewis lung carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma 16/C, ovarian sarcoma M5076, and colon tumour 6A, in mice and Yoshida ascitic sarcoma in rats. At doses less than, or equivalent to, the LD10, isophosphoramide mustard retained high activity against cyclophosphamide-resistant L1210 and P388 leukaemias, but was less active against intracerebrally-implanted P388 leukaemia while cyclophosphamide produced a 4 log10 tumour cell reduction. It was also less active (one log10 lower cell kill) than cyclophosphamide against the B16 melonoma. Metabolism studies on ifosfamide in mice identified isophosphoramide mustard in blood. In addition, unchanged drug, carboxyifosfamide, 4-ketoifosfamide, dechloroethyl cyclophosphamide, dechloroethylifosfamide, and alcoifosfamide were identified. The latter 4 metabolites were also identified in urine from an ifosfamide-treated dog. In a simulated in vitro pharmacokinetic experiment against L1210 leukaemia in which drugs were incubated at various concentrations for various times, both 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide and isophosphoramide mustard exhibited significant cytoxicity at concentration times time values of 100-1000 micrograms X min ml-1, while acrolein was significantly cytotoxic at 10 micrograms X min ml-1. Treatment of mice with drug followed by L1210 cells demonstrated a shorter duration of effective levels of cytotoxic activity for isophosphoramide mustard and phosphoramide mustard in comparison with cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Isophosphoramide mustard and 2-chloroethylamine, a potential hydrolysis product of isophosphoramide mustard and carboxyifosfamide, were less mutagenic in the standard Ames test than the 2 corresponding metabolites of cyclophosphamide [phosphoramide mustard and bis(2-chloroethyl)amine]. PMID:6821629

  12. Mustard catch crop enhances denitrification in shallow groundwater beneath a spring barley field.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, M M R; Minet, E P; Johnston, P; Premrov, A; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Richards, K G

    2014-05-01

    Over-winter green cover crops have been reported to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in groundwater, which can be used as an energy source for denitrifiers. This study investigates the impact of a mustard catch crop on in situ denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an aquifer overlain by arable land. Denitrification rates and N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) mole fractions were measured in situ with a push-pull method in shallow groundwater under a spring barley system in experimental plots with and without a mustard cover crop. The results suggest that a mustard cover crop could substantially enhance reduction of groundwater nitrate NO3--N via denitrification without significantly increasing N2O emissions. Mean total denitrification (TDN) rates below mustard cover crop and no cover crop were 7.61 and 0.002 μg kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. Estimated N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) ratios, being 0.001 and 1.0 below mustard cover crop and no cover crop respectively, indicate that denitrification below mustard cover crop reduces N2O to N2, unlike the plot with no cover crop. The observed enhanced denitrification under the mustard cover crop may result from the higher groundwater DOC under mustard cover crop (1.53 mg L(-1)) than no cover crop (0.90 mg L(-1)) being added by the root exudates and root masses of mustard. This study gives insights into the missing piece in agricultural nitrogen (N) balance and groundwater derived N2O emissions under arable land and thus helps minimise the uncertainty in agricultural N and N2O-N balances. PMID:24374183

  13. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  14. The footprint of TGF-β in airway remodeling of the mustard lung.

    PubMed

    Shahriary, Alireza; Seyedzadeh, Mir Hadi; Ahmadi, Ali; Salimian, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard lung is a major pulmonary complication in individuals exposed to sulfur mustard (SM) gas during the Iran-Iraq war. It shares common pathological and clinical features with some chronic inflammatory lung disorders, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airway remodeling, which is one of the main causes of lung dysfunction and the dominant phenomenon of chronic pulmonary diseases, is seen in the mustard lung. Among all mediators involved in the remodeling process, the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a pivotal role in lung fibrosis and consequently in the airway remodeling. Regarding the high levels of this mediator detected in mustard lung patients, in the present study, we have discussed the possible roles of TGF-β in airway remodeling (including epithelial layer damage, subepithelial fibrosis and angiogenesis). Finally, based on TGF-β targeting, we have reviewed new airway remodeling therapeutic approaches. PMID:26606948

  15. Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1.

    PubMed

    Jordt, Sven-Eric; Bautista, Diana M; Chuang, Huai-Hu; McKemy, David D; Zygmunt, Peter M; Högestätt, Edward D; Meng, Ian D; Julius, David

    2004-01-15

    Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors. PMID:14712238

  16. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  17. Mustard gas exposure in Iran–Iraq war – A scientometric study

    PubMed Central

    Nokhodian, Zary; ZareFarashbandi, Firoozeh; Shoaei, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Iranian victims of sulfur mustard attack are now more than 20 years post-exposure and form a valuable cohort for studying the chronic effects of an exposure to sulfur mustard. Articles on sulfur mustard exposure in Iran–Iraq war were reviewed using three known international databases such as Scopus, Medline, and ISI. The objectives of the study were measurement of the author-wise distribution, year-wise distribution, subject area wise, and assessment of highly cited articles. Materials and Methods: We searched three known international databases, Scopus, Medline, and the international statistical institute (ISI), for articles related to mustard gas exposure in Iran–Iraq war, published between 1988 and 2012. The results were analyzed using scientometric methods. Results: During the 24 years under examination, about 90 papers were published in the field of mustard gas in Iran–Iraq war. Original article was the most used document type forming 51.4% of all the publications. The number of articles devoted to mustard gas and Iran–Iraq war research increased more than 10-fold, from 1 in 1988 to 11 in 2011. Most of the published articles (45.7%) included clinical and paraclinical investigations of sulfur mustard in Iranian victims. The most highly productive author was Ghanei who occupied the first rank in the number of publications with 20 papers. The affiliation of most of the researchers was Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University (research center of chemical injuries and dermatology department) in Iran. Conclusion: This article has highlighted the quantitative share of Iran in articles on sulfur mustard and lays the groundwork for further research on various aspects of related problems. PMID:26430683

  18. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna sausages by an antimicrobial film containing mustard extract or sinigrin.

    PubMed

    Lara-Lledó, Marta; Olaimat, Amin; Holley, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    The ability of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes to convert glucosinolates into antimicrobial isothiocyanates was investigated. Mustard glucosinolates in pure (sinigrin) or extract forms (sinigrin, oriental; sinalbin, yellow mustard) were used in broth media and in a polyvinyl polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PPG) packaging film with bologna to examine their value as antimicrobial precursors for the control of L. monocytogenes viability and extension of bologna shelf-life at 4 °C. During broth tests with deodorized (myrosinase-inactivated) mustard extracts (10 d at 20 °C) or with purified sinigrin (21 d at 20 °C) L. monocytogenes was only inhibited when exogenous myrosinase was added. None the less, the organism was able to hydrolyze almost half the pure sinigrin by 21 d in tests without added enzyme. Reductions in sinigrin levels were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and in the absence of L. monocytogenes or added myrosinase the glucosinolate was stable. When pure sinigrin, oriental or yellow mustard extracts were incorporated in PPG films containing 3, 5 and 6% (w/w) of the corresponding glucosinolate and used to package bologna inoculated with 4 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, the pathogen became undetectable in bologna packed with the oriental mustard extract at 52 d storage and remained undetectable at 70 d. The yellow mustard extract was less inhibitory and the pure sinigrin was not antimicrobial. L. monocytogenes numbers reached >7 log CFU/g in the film and untreated controls at 17 d storage. At 35 d storage, samples packed with control film contained sufficient numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (>7 log CFU/g) to be considered spoiled, whereas treatments containing mustard or sinigrin remained <7 log CFU/g LAB for ≤ 70 d. L. monocytogenes played a key role in exerting control over its own viability in bologna by hydrolysis of the glucosinolate in the oriental mustard film, but other antimicrobials in treatments may have contributed. PMID

  19. Sulfur mustard-induced poikiloderma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Seyed Naser; Kaffashi, Mohammad; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Akhavan-Moghaddam, Jamal; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Emadi, Seyed Emad; Taghavi, Nez'hat-o-Sadat

    2011-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical warfare agent that was widely used during the First World War and the Iran-Iraq conflict. This vesicant agent causes several acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye, and respiratory system. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who was injured with SM in Iraq chemical attack in 1988. After exposure, he developed severe skin blisters on his upper trunk, dorsum of hands, and genitalia. Based on several clinical observations, such as atrophy, pigmentation, and vascular changes on genitalia with relevant findings in histopathological studies, persistent pigmentation, and damaged skin appendix in hand lesions, a diagnosis of "SM-induced poikiloderma" was postulated. The absence of any complication on the palmar aspect of hands is another remarkable finding in presented case, which suggests a plausible role of the palms as a vector for transporting SM to other sites of the skin. PMID:21142708

  20. Preventive measures against the mustard gas: a review

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Karbakhsh, Mojgan

    2013-01-01

    The main aim in this study was to collect the experiences of Iranian researchers about sulfur mustard (SM) and provide a guideline for the prevention of abuse for this dangerous agent. We searched valid national and international databases using related key words in the two languages. We found 193 articles which had been published in medical journals. Among them, 25 articles had some implications about prevention measures. In this study, we have mentioned 8 preventive points before the attacks, 10 points during and 2 points afterwards, we also found 12 points for the prevention of people who were exposed with SM and suffering from respiratory, ocular, dermatologic and psychological complications. In conclusion, most of the published studies on chemical war victims in Iran are focused on diagnosis and treatment of late SM-induced complications. Hence, a research should be conducted separately in relation to the prevention. PMID:23741170

  1. Molecular and cellular mechanism of lung injuries due to exposure to sulfur mustard: a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Harandi, Ali Amini

    2011-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a potent chemical weapon agent, was used by Iraqi forces against Iranian in the Iraq-Iran war (1981-1989). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a late toxic pulmonary consequence after SM exposure. The COPD observed in these patients is unique (described as Mustard Lung) and to some extent different from COPD resulted from other well-known causes. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD including oxidative stress, disruption of the balance between apoptosis and replenishment, proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance and inflammation. However, it is not obvious which of these pathways are relevant to the pathogenesis of mustard lung. In this paper, we reviewed studies addressing the pathogenicity of mustard lung, and reduced some recent ambiguities in this field. There is ample evidence in favor of crucial role of both oxidative stress and apoptosis as two known mechanisms that are more involved in pathogenesis of mustard lung comparing to COPD. However, according to available evidences there are no such considerable data supporting neither proteolytic activity nor inflammation mechanism as the main underlying pathogenesis in Mustard Lung. PMID:21639706

  2. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  3. Sulfur mustard induces the formation of keratin aggregates in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Dillman, James F; McGary, Kriston L; Schlager, John J

    2003-12-01

    The vesicant sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent that has the capacity to cross-link biological molecules. We are interested in identifying specific proteins that are altered upon sulfur mustard exposure. Keratins are particularly important for the structural integrity of skin, and several genetically inherited blistering diseases have been linked to mutations in keratin 5 and keratin 14. We examined whether sulfur mustard exposure alters keratin biochemistry in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. Western blotting with specific monoclonal antibodies revealed the formation of stable high-molecular-weight "aggregates" containing keratin 14 and/or keratin 5. These aggregates begin to form within 15 min after sulfur mustard exposure. These aggregates display a complex gel electrophoresis pattern between approximately 100 and approximately 200 kDa. Purification and analysis of these aggregates by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of keratin 14 and keratin 5 and indicate that at least some of the aggregates are composed of keratin 14-keratin 14, keratin 14-keratin 5, or keratin 5-keratin 5 dimers. These studies demonstrate that sulfur mustard induces keratin aggregation in keratinocytes and support further investigation into the role of keratin aggregation in sulfur mustard-induced vesication. PMID:14644625

  4. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in White Mustard (A Biochemical Anomaly).

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, R. N.; Kiddle, G.; Wallsgrove, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the first steps in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to their aldoximes. The biochemistry of this process is controversial, and several very different enzyme systems have been described. The major glucosinolate in white mustard (Sinapis alba) is sinalbin, which is derived from tyrosine via its aldoxime, and this conversion is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) monooxygenase. Phenylethyl- and alkenylglucosinolates are also present in white mustard leaves, as are the enzymes catalyzing the relevant aldoxime formation from homophenylalanine and methionine homologs, respectively. These enzymes are similar to those found in Brassica sp. and are distinct from the tyrosine-dependent enzyme in that they contain no heme and are unaffected by Cyt P450 inhibitors. They are instead inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and by Cu2+. In both white mustard and oilseed rape (Brassica napus) methyl jasmonate specifically stimulates indolylglucosinolate biosynthesis and yet has no effect on sinalbin accumulation in either cotyledons or leaves of white mustard. White mustard appears to be unique among crucifers in having a Cyt P450 aldoxime-forming enzyme for biosynthesis of one glucosinolate, although it also contains all of the non-Cyt P450 enzyme systems found in other members of the family. Sinalbin biosynthesis in white mustard is therefore an inappropriate model system for the synthesis of other glucosinolates in crucifers, including canola and oilseed rape. PMID:12223771

  5. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in White Mustard (A Biochemical Anomaly).

    PubMed

    Bennett, R. N.; Kiddle, G.; Wallsgrove, R. M.

    1997-08-01

    One of the first steps in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to their aldoximes. The biochemistry of this process is controversial, and several very different enzyme systems have been described. The major glucosinolate in white mustard (Sinapis alba) is sinalbin, which is derived from tyrosine via its aldoxime, and this conversion is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) monooxygenase. Phenylethyl- and alkenylglucosinolates are also present in white mustard leaves, as are the enzymes catalyzing the relevant aldoxime formation from homophenylalanine and methionine homologs, respectively. These enzymes are similar to those found in Brassica sp. and are distinct from the tyrosine-dependent enzyme in that they contain no heme and are unaffected by Cyt P450 inhibitors. They are instead inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and by Cu2+. In both white mustard and oilseed rape (Brassica napus) methyl jasmonate specifically stimulates indolylglucosinolate biosynthesis and yet has no effect on sinalbin accumulation in either cotyledons or leaves of white mustard. White mustard appears to be unique among crucifers in having a Cyt P450 aldoxime-forming enzyme for biosynthesis of one glucosinolate, although it also contains all of the non-Cyt P450 enzyme systems found in other members of the family. Sinalbin biosynthesis in white mustard is therefore an inappropriate model system for the synthesis of other glucosinolates in crucifers, including canola and oilseed rape. PMID:12223771

  6. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).

  7. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Shen, Jianliang; Reimer, David; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  8. Use of acetylcholine mustard to study allosteric interactions at the M2 muscarinic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Hinako; Figueroa, Katherine W.; Ehlert, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    We explored the interaction of a nitrogen mustard derivative of acetylcholine with the human M2 muscarinic receptor expressed in CHO cells using the muscarinic radioligand, [3H]N-methylscopolamine. Acetylcholine mustard caused a concentration-dependent, first order loss of [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding at 37°C, with the half maximal rate constant occurring at 24 µM and a maximal rate constant of 0.16 min−1. We examined the effects of various ligands on the rate of alkylation of M2 receptors by acetylcholine mustard. N-methylscopolamine and McN-A-343 (4-(trimethylamino)-2-butynyl-(3-chlorophenyl)carbamate) competitively slowed the rate of alkylation, whereas the inhibition by gallamine reached a plateau at high concentrations, indicating allosteric inhibition. In contrast, WIN 51708 (17-β-hydroxy-17-α-ethynyl-5-α-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole) had no effect. We also measured the inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by acetylcholine mustard at 0°C, conditions under which there is little or no detectable covalent binding. In these experiments, the dissociation constant of the aziridinium ion of acetylcholine mustard was estimated to be 12.3 µM. In contrast, the parent mustard and alcoholic hydrolysis product of acetylcholine mustard were without effect. Our results show that measurement of the effects of ligands on the rate of inactivation of the orthosteric site by a small site-directed electrophile is a powerful method for discriminating competitive inhibition from allosterism. PMID:18682569

  9. Silibinin as a potential therapeutic for sulfur mustard injuries.

    PubMed

    Balszuweit, Frank; John, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent causing skin blistering, ulceration, impaired wound healing, prolonged hospitalization and permanent lesions. Silibinin, the lead compound from Silybum marianum, has also been discussed as a potential antidote to SM poisoning. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only with regard to nitrogen mustards. Moreover, there are no data on the efficacy of the water-soluble prodrug silibinin-bis-succinat (silibinin-BS). We investigated the effect of SIL-BS treatment against SM toxicity in HaCaT cells with regard to potential reduction of necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation including dose-dependency of any protective effects. We also demonstrated the biotransformation of the prodrug into free silibinin. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (30, 100, and 300μM) for 30min and treated thereafter with SIL-BS (10, 50, and 100μM) for 24h. Necrosis and apoptosis were quantified using the ToxiLight BioAssay and the nucleosome ELISA (CDDE). Pro-inflammatory interleukins-6 and -8 were determined by ELISA. HaCaT cells, incubated with silibinin-BS were lysed and investigated by LC-ESI MS/MS. LC-ESI MS/MS results suggest that SIL-BS is absorbed by HaCaT cells and biotransformed into free silibinin. SIL-BS dose-dependently reduced SM cytotoxicity, even after 300μM exposure. Doses of 50-100μM silibinin-BS were required for significant protection. Apoptosis and interleukin production remained largely unchanged by 10-50μM silibinin-BS but increased after 100μM treatment. Observed reductions of SM cytotoxicity by post-exposure treatment with SIL-BS suggest this as a promising approach for treatment of SM injuries. While 100μM SIL-BS is most effective to reduce necrosis, 50μM may be safer to avoid pro-inflammatory effects. Pro-apoptotic effects after high doses of SIL-BS are in agreement with findings in literature and might even be useful to eliminate cells irreversibly damaged by SM. Further investigations will focus on the

  10. Electrolyte and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Mustard, and Deionized Water Ingestion in Dehydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. Objective: To determine if ingesting PJ, mustard, or deionized water (DIW) while hypohydrated affects plasma sodium (Na+) concentration ([Na+]p), plasma potassium (K+) concentration ([K+]p), plasma osmolality (OSMp), or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 9 physically active, nonacclimated individuals (age = 25 ± 2 years, height = 175.5 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 13.8 kg). Intervention(s): Participants exercised vigorously for 2 hours (temperature = 37°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 24% ± 4%). After a 30-minute rest, a baseline blood sample was collected, and they ingested 1 mL/kg body mass of PJ or DIW. For the mustard trial, participants ingested a mass of mustard containing a similar amount of Na+ as for the PJ trial. Postingestion blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, and percentage change in plasma Na+ content and plasma volume. Results: Participants became 2.9% ± 0.6% hypohydrated and lost 96.8 ± 27.1 mmol (conventional unit = 96.8 ± 27.1 mEq) of Na+, 8.4 ± 2 mmol (conventional unit = 8.4 ± 2 mEq) of K+, and 2.03 ± 0.44 L of fluid due to exercise-induced sweating. They ingested approximately 79 mL of PJ or DIW or 135.24 ± 22.8 g of mustard. Despite ingesting approximately 1.5 g of Na+ in the PJ and mustard trials, no changes occurred within 60 minutes postingestion for [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content (P > .05). Conclusions: Ingesting a small bolus of PJ or large

  11. Characterization of Lung Fibroblasts More than Two Decades after Mustard Gas Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pirzad Jahromi, Gila; Ghanei, Mostafa; Hosseini, Seyed Kazem; Shamsaei, Alireza; Gholipourmalekabadi, Mazaher; Koochaki, Ameneh; Karkuki Osguei, Nushin; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In patients with short-term exposure to the sulfur mustard gas, the delayed cellular effects on lungs have not been well understood yet. The lung pathology shows a dominant feature consistent with obliterative bronchiolitis, in which fibroblasts play a central role. This study aims to characterize alterations to lung fibroblasts, at the cellular level, in patients with delayed respiratory complications after short-term exposure to the sulfur mustard gas. Methods Fibroblasts were isolated from the transbronchial biopsies of patients with documented history of exposure to single high-dose sulfur mustard during 1985–7 and compared with the fibroblasts of control subjects. Results Compared with controls, patients’ fibroblasts were thinner and shorter, and showed a higher population doubling level, migration capacity and number of filopodia. Sulfur mustard decreased the in vitro viability of fibroblasts and increased their sensitivity to induction of apoptosis, but did not change the rate of spontaneous apoptosis. In addition, higher expression of alpha smooth muscle actin showed that the lung's microenvironment in these patients is permissive for myofibroblastic differentiation. Conclusions These findings suggest that in patients under the study, the delayed pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard should be considered as a unique pathology, which might need a specific management by manipulation of cellular components. PMID:26679937

  12. Dermabrasion--a novel concept in the surgical management of sulphur mustard injuries.

    PubMed

    Rice, P; Brown, R F; Lam, D G; Chilcott, R P; Bennett, N J

    2000-02-01

    Since its first use on the battlefields of Northern France during the First World War (1914-1918), sulphur mustard has remained a significant chemical threat to military forces around the world. Progress towards an effective treatment for these injuries has been slow due to the lack of suitable animal models upon which to study the toxicology and pathology. However, porcine and human skin are similar in structure and exposures to sulphur mustard vapour have been performed on porcine models to define the development and subsequent resolution of mustard-induced skin injuries. Yucatan miniature (n = 12) and large white (n = 6) pig models were used to assess the usefulness of mechanical dermabrasion in accelerating the naturally slow rate of healing of sulphur mustard vapour-induced injuries to the skin. Burn injuries underwent debridement at 4 days post-exposure and the resulting lesions were assessed at various time points up to 8 weeks post-abrasion. Rates of re-epithelialisation were accelerated in the dermabrasion (treated) vs the control (untreated) group by up to a factor of three (ANOVA: p = .0196, Yucatan; p = 0.165, large white pig). It was concluded that dermabrasion of sulphur mustard burns is a valuable procedure in the surgical management of these injuries. PMID:10630317

  13. Possible protein phosphatase inhibition by bis(hydroxyethyl) sulfide, a hydrolysis product of mustard gas

    SciTech Connect

    Brimfield, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    Recently, the natural vesicant cantharidin was shown to bind exclusively to and inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in mouse tissue extracts (Li and Casida (1992) Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 11867-11870). To explore the generality of this effect in vesicant action, we measured the protein serinelthreonine phosphatase activity in mouse liver cytosol (in the form of the okadaic acid inhibitable increment of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP) phosphatase activity) in the presence of aqueous sulfur mustard or its hydrolysis product, bis(hydroxyethyl)sulfide (TDG). Sulfur mustard inhibited p-NPP hydrolysis. However, inhibition correlated with the time elapsed between thawing and the addition of mustard to the enzyme preparation, not with concentration. TDG exhibited a direct, concentration-related inhibition of p-NPP hydrolysis between 30 and 300 1LM. We conclude that sulfur mustard also has an inhibitory effect on protein serinelthreonine phosphatases. However, the inhibition is an effect of its non-alkykating hydrolysis product TDG, not of sulfur mustard itself.

  14. Enzyme-Based Test Strips for Visual or Photographic Detection and Quantitation of Gaseous Sulfur Mustard.

    PubMed

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Stepan, Martin; Vymazalova, Kamila; Gruber, Michael A; Duerkop, Axel; Damborsky, Jiri; Prokop, Zbynek; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur mustard is a chemical agent of high military and terroristic significance. No effective antidote exists, and sulfur mustard can be fairly easily produced in large quantity. Rapid field testing of sulfur mustard is highly desirable. Existing analytical devices for its detection are available but can suffer from low selectivity, laborious sample preparation, and/or the need for complex instrumentation. We describe a new kind of test strip for rapid detection of gaseous sulfur mustard that is based on its degradation by the enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase that is accompanied by a change of local pH. This change can be detected using pH indicators contained in the strips whose color changes from blue-green to yellow within 10 min. In addition to visual read-out, we also demonstrate quantitative reflectometric readout by using a conventional digital camera based on red-green-blue data acquisition. Organic haloalkanes, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, have a negligible interfering effect. The visual limit of detection is 20 μg/L, and the one for red-green-blue read-out is as low as 3 μg/L. The assays have good reproducibility ±6% and ±2% for interday assays and intraday assays, respectively. The strips can be stored for at least 6 months without loss of function. They are disposable and can be produced fairly rapidly and at low costs. Hence, they represent a promising tool for in-field detection of sulfur mustard. PMID:27118397

  15. Differential atrial filling after Mustard and Senning repairs. Detection by transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed Central

    Wyse, R K; Macartney, F J; Rohmer, J; Ottenkamp, J; Brom, A G

    1980-01-01

    The dominance of Mustard's operation for transposition of the great arteries has been challenged by the recent revival of Senning's repair because it promises better long-term results in terms of venous obstruction and atrial haemodynamics. These hypotheses were tested by recording jugular venous flow waveforms transcutaneously in 24 postoperative patients with simple complete transposition using a bidirectional Doppler blood velocimeter. Eight patients had undergone Mustard's operation and 16 the Senning alternative; all had previously had a postoperative cardiac catheterisation. Both groups of patients had similar left ventricular, pulmonary arterial, and systemic venous atrial pressures. No child showed any evidence at catheterisation of either mitral regurgitation or of superior vena caval pathway obstruction. These two findings were endorsed by the transcutaneous Doppler recordings. Jugular venous flow in normal children exhibits two maxima, one of atrial filling during ventricular systole, the other of ventricular filling occurs once the tricuspid valve has opened. Both operative procedures diminished the size of the former phase, but the Mustard did so more. After Mustard's operation forward flow during the atrial filling phase was absent in approximately half the cardiac cycles recorded, and severely diminished in the rest. By contrast, there was approximately a 90 per cent appearance of atrial filling waves after Senning's operation which also provided significantly better atrial function than Mustard's procedure in terms of peak velocity of blood entering the atrium and total atrial filling. It is therefore concluded that both procedures compromise atrial volume and compliance but Senning's repair to a much lesser extent. PMID:7459153

  16. Development of web based database on biochemical characteristics of rapeseed-mustard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Rapeseed-mustard oil is an essential dietary component, in India. The modification of rapeseed- mustard for fatty acid composition of seed oil to develop new genotypes having alternative oil and meal characteristics has been an important objective in quality breeding. Moreover, Breeding efforts in India are in progress to develop double low varieties to meet the internationally acceptable standards of oil and seed meal. So, information on the nutritional and anti-nutritional make-up of rapeseed-mustard oil and seed meal of the existing germplasm would be quite useful for the researchers especially breeders involved in the quality improvement programmes. In the present study database on biochemical characteristics of rapeseed-mustard has been developed using open source technology LAMP. The database provides the information on 14 important biochemical characters such as oil, saturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, eicosenoic, erucic acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ω6/ω3 ratio, protein, glucosinolate, phenol, and fiber content. It offers web interface to submit and search data in the database. The database presently comprises biochemical characteristics of germplasm accessions, advance breeding lines and notified varieties of rapeseed-mustard. The database developed will be useful to the breeders in the selection of desired genotype with specific traits. PMID:23861571

  17. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans.

    PubMed

    Mansour Razavi, Seyed; Salamati, Payman; Saghafinia, Masoud; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980-1988). More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim) articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic. PMID:23351810

  18. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Glucosinolate Content Varies Across a Natural Light Gradient.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lauren M

    2015-05-01

    Garlic mustard is a well-known invader of deciduous forests of North America, yet the influence of environmental factors on garlic mustard allelochemical production is not well understood. Three experiments were conducted to detect interactions between one garlic mustard allelochemical (glucosinolate) production and light availability. First, to detect patterns of glucosinolate production across a natural light gradient, leaves and roots of mature plants and first-year rosettes were sampled in patches ranging from 100 to 2 % of full sun within an Indiana forest. Second, to determine whether genetic variation drives observed correlations between glucosinolate content and light, seed collected across light gradients within six sites was grown in a common garden and glucosinolate production was measured. Finally, to understand whether local adaptation occurred in garlic mustard's response to light, seed collected from defined light environments across six sites was grown under four light treatments. Results of the field sampling showed that mature plants' root glucosinolate content was elevated in high compared to low light. In the common garden experiment, however, there was no correlation between light availability at seed origin and constitutive glucosinolate content. Additionally, in the common light treatments, there was no evidence for local adaptation to light environment. Overall, the results indicate that plasticity in response to light, not genetic variation among plants growing in different light environments, generates correlations between glucosinolate content and light in the field. Since mature garlic mustard populations in high light may exhibit increased glucosinolate content, it makes them potential targets for management. PMID:25912227

  19. [Physical and antioxidant characteristics of black (Brassica nigra) and yellow mustard (Brassica alba) seeds and their products].

    PubMed

    Mejia-Garibay, Beatriz; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Ángel; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-06-01

    The composition, some physical properties (density, refraction index, and color), antioxidant capacity (DPPH), and fatty acid profile of seeds of black (Brassica nigra) or yellow mustard (Brassica alba) were evaluated, as well as for their oils and residues from oil extraction. Density of the black and yellow mustard oils were 0.912 ± 0.01 and 0.916 ± 0.01 g/mL, respectively; their refraction indexes were 1.4611 ± 0.01 and 1.4617 ± 0.01, respectively; being not significantly different (p > 0.05) between two mustards. Color parameters of the black and yellow mustard oils presented greenish-yellow tones and reddish-yellow tones, respectively; regarding antioxidant activities, these ranged from 25 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 gin the yellow mustard oil to 1,366 mg equivalents of Trolox/100 g in the residues from oil extraction of black seed mustard. The fatty acid profile of the black mustard seed revealed that its predomipant fatty acid is oleic (22.96%), followed by linoleic (6.63%) and linolenic (3.22%), whereas foryellow mustard seed the major fatty acid is erucic (6.87%), followed by oleic (5.08%) and linoleic (1.87%) acids. PMID:26817385

  20. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  1. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  2. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-increased protease activity by niacinamide, N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.M.; Broomfield, C.A.; Smith, W.J.

    1991-03-11

    The pathologic mechanism of sulfur mustard-induced skin vesication is as yet undefined. Papirmeister et al. have postulated a biochemical mechanism for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injury involving sequelae of DNA alkylation, metabolic disruption resulting in NAD+ depletion and activation of protease. The authors have utilized a chromogenic peptide substrate assay to establish that human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed 24 hr previously to sulfur mustard exhibited an increase in proteolytic activity. Doses of compounds known to alter the biochemical events associated with sulfur mustard exposure or reduce protease activity were tested in this system for their ability to block the sulfur mustard-induced protease activity. Treatment with niacinamide 1 hr after or with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dexamethasone 24 hr prior to sulfur mustard exposure resulted in a decrease of 39%, 33% and 42% respectively of sulfur mustard-increased protease activity. These data suggest that therapeutic intervention into the biochemical pathways that culminate in protease activation might serve as an approach to treatment of sulfur mustard-induced pathology.

  3. No Effects of an Autumn Mustard Crop on Wireworm Densities or Damaage to Potatoes in the Following Growing Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals produced by mustard (Brassica) crops as they are tilled into the soil have been shown especially in laboratory trials to suppress soil-dwelling organisms, including fungal pathogens, nematodes, and some insect pests of crops. Here, I tested in the field whether an autumn mustard crop gro...

  4. Cleft Palate induced by Sulfur Mustard in mice fetus

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad; Sanjarmoosavi, Nasrin; Sanjarmoosavi, Naser; Shekouhi, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur Mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent which was widely used in the World War I and more recently during Gulf war in the early 1980s'. SM is a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic and carcinogenic effects; but only few studies have been published on its teratogenicity. Since SM has been widely used as a chemical weapon by the Iraqi regime against the Iranian soldiers as well as the civilian population particularly pregnant women in the border area; therefore, the investigation of SM adverse effects on cleft malformations which is one of the most frequent congenital anomalies is considered in this study. An experimental work has been carried out in embryopathy in mouse with intraperitoneal injection of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg SM at different periods of gestation. Cleft lip and palate were examined by stereomicroscopy. Current data demonstrate that exposure with SM on the 11th day of gestation can increase the incidence of cleft defects in comparison with control group (P<0.001). These results also show that SM treatment in GD 11 and 13 can lead to more anomalies compared with GD 14 (P<0.001). They also show that the teratogenic effects of SM are restrictively under the influence of the threshold dose and time of gestation. The present results suggest that exposure to sufficient doses of SM on critical days of gestation may increase the risk of congenital cleft malformations. PMID:24551757

  5. Reduction and Coordination of Arsenic in Indian Mustard1

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; Prince, Roger C.; George, Martin J.; Smith, Robert D.; George, Graham N.; Salt, David E.

    2000-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from AsIII-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element. PMID:10759512

  6. The treatment of sulphur mustard burns with laser debridement.

    PubMed

    Evison, D; Brown, R F R; Rice, P

    2006-01-01

    The chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard (SM), is a potent blistering agent in man. Skin exposure can produce partial-thickness burns which take up to three months to heal. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of early laser ablation as a means of accelerating this exceptionally slow rate of healing. Four circular partial-thickness SM burns were induced on the dorsum of nine large white pigs (under general anaesthesia). At 72 h post-exposure, three burns per animal were ablated with a single pass of an UltraPulse 5000C CO(2) laser, at a fluence of 5-6 J cm(-2). All the burns were dressed with silver sulphadiazine and a semi-occlusive dressing. At one, two and three weeks post-surgery three animals were culled and all lesions excised for histological analysis. Burn depth was confirmed and measurements of the radii of regenerative epithelium were performed allowing the area of the zone of re-epithelialisation in each lesion to be calculated. Laser-treated lesions showed a significant increase (350%) in healing rates compared to controls (p<0.005). At two weeks, the laser-treated sites were 95% healed in comparison with control sites (28% healed). These data suggest that laser ablation may be effective in the treatment of partial-thickness SM-induced skin injury. PMID:16996434

  7. Mechanisms of sulfur mustard-induced metabolic injury

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, M.E.; Smith, W.J.

    1993-05-13

    Studies on the mechanism of metabolic injury induced by sulfur mustard (2, 2'- dichlorodiethyl sulfide, HD) have demonstrated that exposure of human epidermal keratinocytes in culture to HD induces time- and dose-dependent NAD+ depletion and inhibition of glucose metabolism (Martens, Biochem. Pharmacol., in press). Both occurred relatively early after alkylation, preceding the loss of membrane integrity that is indicative of metabolic cell death. The inhibition of glycolysis induced by HD was only partially correlated with the depletion of NAD+ and, thus, was not simply of changes in the NAD+ level. Rather, HD appeared to induce complex shifts in the pattern of glucose metabolism that paralleled both the timing and degree of injury. In line with these findings, recent experiments have shown that partial protection against HD-induced NAD+ depletion by 1 mM niacinamide did not protect against the inhibition of glycolysis. In preliminary experiments examining the effect of HD-induced metabolic changes on the cellular energy state, dose-dependent depletion of ATP was seen at 24 hours after exposure, but not at 4 or 8 hours. As seen for glucose metabolism, 1 mM niacinamide did not prevent the loss of high-energy intermediate (ATP). We conclude from these studies that relationships among HD exposure, glucose metabolism, and intracellular NAD and ATP are more complex than originally proposed (Papirmeister et al, Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 5:S134, 1985).

  8. Multiphoton imaging: a view to understanding sulfur mustard lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werrlein, Robert J. S.; Madren-Whalley, Janna S.

    2003-07-01

    It is well known that topical exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) produces persistent, incapacitating blisters of the skin. However, the primary lesions effecting epidermal-dermal separation and disabling of mechanisms for cutaneous repair remain uncertain. Immunofluorescent staining plus multiphoton imaging of human epidermal tissues and keratinocytes exposed to SM (400 μM x 5 min)have revealed that SM disrupts adhesion-complex molecules which are also disrupted by epidermolysis bullosa-type blistering diseases of the skin. Images of keratin-14 showed early, progressive, postexposure collapse of the K5/K14 cytoskeleton that resulted in ventral displacement of the nuclei beneath its collapsing filaments. This effectively corrupted the dynamic filament assemblies that link basal-cell nuclei to the extracellular matrix via α6β4-integrin and laminin-5. At 1 h postexposure, there was disruption in the surface organization of α6β4 integrins, associated displacement of laminin-5 anchoring sites and a concomitant loss of functional asymmetry. Accordingly, our multiphoton images are providing compelling evidence that SM induces prevesicating lesions that disrupt the receptor-ligand organization and cytoskeletal systems required for maintaining dermal-epidermal attachment, signal transduction, and polarized mobility.

  9. Synergisms between yellow mustard mucilage and galactomannans and applications in food products--a mini review.

    PubMed

    Cui, Steve W; Eskin, Michael A N; Wu, Ying; Ding, Shaodong

    2006-12-21

    Yellow or white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is unique in the mustard family by containing large amounts of mucilaginous material in the seed coat. This material was shown to exhibit similar rheological properties to xanthan gum such as shear thinning flow behavior and weak gel structure. This review will discuss the synergistic interactions between yellow mustard mucilage (YMM) and galactomannans, particularly locust bean gum (LBG), and its potential food applications. In addition, synergistic interactions between YMM, with or without LBG, on starch paste viscosity and syneresis will also be reviewed. The thickening, texturizing and stabilizing properties of YMM, and its ability to form gels at very low concentration in the presence of LBG, could lead to many food and industrial applications. PMID:17196539

  10. Microarray gene expression analysis of the human airway in patients exposed to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Ali; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Ghanei, Mostafa; Nourani, Mohamad Reza

    2014-08-01

    There is much data about the acute effects of sulfur mustard gas on humans, animals and cells. But less is known regarding the molecular basics of chronic complications in humans. Basically, mustard gas, as an alkylating agent, causes several chronic problems in the eyes, skin and more importantly in the pulmonary system which is the main cause of death. Although recent proteomic research has been carried out on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum, but high-throughput transcriptomics have not yet been applied to chronic airway remodeling. This is the first cDNA-microarray report on the chronic human mustard lung disease, 25 years after exposure during the Iran-Iraq war. Microarray transcriptional profiling indicated that a total of 122 genes were significantly dysregulated in tissues located in the airway of patients. These genes are associated with the extracellular matrix components, apoptosis, stress response, inflammation and mucus secretion. PMID:24823320

  11. Antioxidants from defatted Indian Mustard (Brassica Juncea) protect biomolecules against in vitro oxidation.

    PubMed

    Dua, Anita; Chander, Subhash; Agrawal, Sharad; Mahajan, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Indian mustard seeds were defatted by distillation with hexane and the residue extracted with methanol was analyzed for potential antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, and polyphenols. Gallic acid (129.796 μg), caffeic acid (753.455 μg), quercetin (478.352 μg) and kaempferol (48.060 μg)/g dry seeds were identified by HPLC analysis of the extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protection of lipids, proteins and DNA against metal induced oxidation was examined. Defatted mustard seed remnant had excellent free radical scavenging activity and protects biomolecules with IC50 value 2.0-2.25 mg dry seed weight. Significant content of polyphenols in methanol extract of defatted seeds accounts for high antioxidant potential. We are the first to report the detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and protection of biomolecules against oxidative damage by methanol extract of mustard seed remnant after oil extraction. PMID:25320478

  12. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    PubMed

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness. PMID:27107236

  13. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  14. Assessing Natural Isothiocyanate Air Emissions after Field Incorporation of Mustard Cover Crop

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  15. Validation and comparison of two commercial ELISA kits and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of potentially allergenic mustard in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Štumr, Stepan; Korycanova, Kveta; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-05-01

    The study compares the applicability of two commercial mustard ELISA kits (Mustard ELISA Kit-specific and Mustard ELISA Kit-total) and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays (singleplex assay for white mustard, singleplex assay for black/brown mustard and duplex assay for the detection of white, black and brown mustard). Analyses of raw and brewed model sausages containing white and black/brown mustard in the range from 1 to 50 ppm indicate that both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays allow the detection of traces of mustard in raw and in brewed sausages. The ELISAs were found to be more sensitive than the real-time PCR assays. When the ELISAs and real-time PCR assays were applied to the analysis of 15 commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling concerning mustard, in one sample mustard was detected with both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays although mustard was not indicated on the food ingredient list. PMID:25529654

  16. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Cervelli, Jessica; Anderson, Dana R.; Holmes, Wesley W.; Conti, Michele L.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2010-10-15

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7-1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNF{alpha} and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant.

  17. Teratogenic Effects of Sulfur Mustard on Mice Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Sanjarmoosavi, Nasrin; Sanjarmoosavi, Naser; Shahsavan, Marziyeh; Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sulfur Mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent, in the World War I and more recently during Iraq-Iran war in early 1980s’. Its biological poisoning effect could be local or systemic and its effect depends on environmental conditions, exposed organs, and the extent and duration of exposure. It is considered as a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic, carcinogenic effects; although a few studies have been performed on its teratogenicity so far. Materials and Methods Mice were administered with SM intraperitoneally with a dose of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg in different periods of their gestation (gestational age of 11, 13 and 14 weeks). Control mice groups were included. Between 5 and 9 mice were used in each group. Dams underwent cesarean section on day 19 of their gestation. External examination was performed on the animals investigating craniofacial and septal defects and limb malformations such as adactyly and syndactyly. All data were analyzed by Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test. The P- value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Craniofacial and septal defects as well as the limb malformations were the most common types of birth defects, displaying an extremely complex biomedical problem. Conclusion This study confirms a significant correlation between SM exposure and its teratogenic effect. We postulated that the malformations could be caused by an uncontrolled migration of neural crest cells, causing developmental disorders. In addition to environmental factors, modifying genes could play an important role in the pathogenesis of the defects. PMID:23493485

  18. Historical perspective on effects and treatment of sulfur mustard injuries.

    PubMed

    Graham, John S; Schoneboom, Bruce A

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide; SM) is a potent vesicating chemical warfare agent that poses a continuing threat to both military and civilian populations. Significant SM injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in long-term complications affecting the skin, eyes, and lungs. This report summarizes initial and ongoing (chronic) clinical findings from SM casualties from the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), with an emphasis on cutaneous injury. In addition, we describe the cutaneous manifestations and treatment of several men recently and accidentally exposed to SM in the United States. Common, chronic cutaneous problems being reported in the Iranian casualties include pruritis (the primary complaint), burning, pain, redness, desquamation, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, erythematous papular rash, xerosis, multiple cherry angiomas, atrophy, dermal scarring, hypertrophy, and sensitivity to mechanical injury with recurrent blistering and ulceration. Chronic ocular problems include keratitis, photophobia, persistent tearing, sensation of foreign body, corneal thinning and ulceration, vasculitis of the cornea and conjunctiva, and limbal stem cell deficiency. Chronic pulmonary problems include decreases in lung function, bronchitis with hyper-reactive airways, bronchiolitis, bronchiectasis, stenosis of the trachea and other large airways, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, decreased total lung capacity, and increased incidences of lung cancer, pulmonary infections, and tuberculosis. There are currently no standardized or optimized methods of casualty management; current treatment strategy consists of symptomatic management and is designed to relieve symptoms, prevent infections, and promote healing. New strategies are needed to provide for optimal and rapid healing, with the goals of (a) returning damaged tissue to optimal appearance and normal function in the shortest period of time, and (b) ameliorating chronic

  19. Quality characterization of pasta enriched with mustard protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Alireza Sadeghi, M; Bhagya, S

    2008-06-01

    Mustard protein isolate (MPI) prepared by steam injection heating for removal of antinutritional factors was used at different levels, including 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, for supplementation of pasta products. The effects of supplementation levels on rheological properties of pasta dough and chemical composition, and cooking, nutritional, and color characteristics of dried samples were evaluated. The results showed that as the supplementation level increased, the dough development time (DDT) increased from 3.5 min in the control to 13.8 min in 10% supplementation level. Maximum consistency (MC) increased from 351 farinograph units (FU) in the control to 371 and 386 FU in 2.5% and 5% supplementation levels, respectively, but decreased to 346 FU in 10% supplementation level. Mixing tolerance index (MTI) decreased as the supplementation increased. The most pronounced effect of enrichment on chemical composition was the increase in protein content; the increase was around 4.5% with supplementation of each 5% MPI in pasta formulation. Study of cooking characteristics of enriched pasta samples showed that cooked weight, cooking loss, protein loss, and stickiness decreased and firmness increased as the supplementation level increased. The nutritional properties of sample showed that enrichment of semolina with MPI had a pronounced effect on lysine, cysteine, arginine, and histidine contents. All computed nutritional indices were higher in enriched samples compared to the control. Color measurement of sample showed that a and b values increased and L value decreased as the supplementation level increased. The SEM of different samples shows that enrichment of pasta with MPI increases the matrix around starch granules. PMID:18577015

  20. Intratracheal Heparin Improves Plastic Bronchitis Due to Sulfur Mustard Analog

    PubMed Central

    Houin, Paul R.; Veress, Livia A.; Rancourt, Raymond C.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Loader, Joan E.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM) and SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), cause fibrinous cast formation that occludes the conducting airways, similar to children with Fontan physiology-induced plastic bronchitis. These airway casts cause significant mortality and morbidity, including hypoxemia and respiratory distress. Our hypothesis was that intratracheal heparin, a highly cost effective and easily preserved rescue therapy, could reverse morbidity and mortality induced by bronchial cast formation. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 7.5% CEES via nose-only aerosol inhalation to produce extensive cast formation and mortality. The rats were distributed into three groups: non-treated, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated, and heparin-treated groups. Morbidity was assessed with oxygen saturations and clinical distress. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were obtained for analysis, and lungs were fixed for airway microdissection to quantify the extent of airway cast formation. Results Heparin, given intratracheally improved survival (100%) when compared to non-treated (75%) and PBS-treated (90%) controls. Heparin-treated rats also had improved oxygen saturations, clinical distress and airway cast scores. Heparin-treated rats had increased thrombin clotting times, factor Xa inhibition and activated partial thromboplastin times, indicating systemic absorption of heparin. There were also increased red blood cells (RBCs) in the BALF in 2/6 heparin-treated rats compared to PBS-treated control rats. Conclusions Intratracheal heparin 1 hr after CEES inhalation improved survival, oxygenation, airway obstruction, and clinical distress. There was systemic absorption of heparin in rats treated intratracheally. Some rats had increased RBCs in BALF, suggesting a potential for intrapulmonary bleeding if used chronically after SM inhalation. PMID:24692161

  1. EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY, SOIL TYPE, AND LITHIUM ADDITION ON SPINACH AND MUSTARD GREENS LEAF CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between 14 Dec. 2005 and 17 Feb 2006 to evaluate the effect of soil type, light environment, and lithium addition on the leaf nutrients of spinach and mustard greens. Cultivars Samish (Spinacia oleracea) and...

  2. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    SciTech Connect

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  3. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  4. Synthesis of a duplex oligonucleotide containing a nitrogen mustard interstrand DNA-DNA cross-link.

    PubMed

    Ojwang, J O; Grueneberg, D A; Loechler, E L

    1989-12-01

    Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents react with DNA and give adducts that block DNA replication, which is thought to result in cytotoxicity, especially in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells. One class of these agents is bifunctionally reactive (e.g., the nitrogen mustards) and forms DNA-DNA cross-links. It is unknown whether inter- or intrastrand cross-links are more effective at blocking DNA replication. To evaluate this, a DNA shuttle vector is being constructed with an interstrand cross-link at a unique site. In the first step of this project, a duplex oligonucleotide containing an interstrand cross-link is isolated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the reaction of nitrogen mustard with two partially complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. The purified oligonucleotide product is characterized and shown to be cross-linked in a 5'-GAC-3' 3'-CTG-5' sequence by a nitrogen mustard moiety that is bound at the N(7)-position of the guanines in the opposing strands; the glycosylic bonds of these guanine adducts are stabilized in their corresponding imidazole ring-opened form. Nitrogen mustard is shown to react with a variety of oligonucleotides and, based upon these results, its preferred targets for interstrand cross-linking are 5'-GXC-3' sequences, where X can be any of the four deoxyribonucleotide bases. PMID:2819709

  5. Doxepin cream vs betamethasone cream for treatment of chronic skin lesions due to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Amiri, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Oral doxepin was shown to reduce chronic pruritus due to sulfur mustard. The present study compared the effects of topical doxepin 5% with betamethasone 1% for the treatment of pruritus in veterans exposed to sulfur mustard. This investigator-blinded, randomized, clinical trial was conducted in an outpatient dermatology clinic. Seventy-five men who were exposed to sulfur mustard 23 to 28 years ago during the Iran-Iraq war who complained of pruritus were randomized to receive doxepin cream 5% (n = 40) or betamethasone cream 0.1% (n = 35) twice a day for 6 weeks. Pruritus severity and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were evaluated before and after each treatment. Both groups showed significant improvement regarding pruritus (P < .05), burning sensation, skin dryness (P < .001), and skin scaling (P < 0.05). The lesions of all regions significantly reduced after treatments (P < .05), except those on the head, face, and genitalia. Pruritus, visual analog scores, and DLQI significantly decreased (P < .01, P < .01, and P < .001, respectively) in doxepin- and betamethasone-treated groups, and there was no difference between groups. All DLQI subscores decreased after both type of treatments (P < .01). Equal efficacy of doxepin cream and betamethasone suggest that doxepin is a potential alternative to control pruritus caused by sulfur mustard in exposed veterans. PMID:21675494

  6. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation.

    PubMed

    Joardar, Anindita; Das, Sumantra

    2007-12-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) has been previously shown to facilitate some of the vital functions of astrocytes. Since some dietary oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), which is a precursor of DHA, we examined their effect on astrocyte development. Fatty acids (FAs) were isolated from commonly used oils and their compositions were determined by GLC. FAs from three oils, viz. coconut, mustard and linseed were studied for their effect on astrocyte morphology. Parallel studies were conducted with FAs from the same oils after heating for 72 h. Unlike coconut oil, FAs from mustard and linseed, both heated and raw, caused significant morphogenesis of astrocytes in culture. ss-AR binding was also substantially increased in astrocytes treated with FAs from raw mustard and linseed oils as compared to astrocytes grown in normal medium. The expression profile of the isoforms of GFAP showed that astrocyte maturation by FAs of mustard and linseed oil was associated with appearance of acidic variants of GFAP and disappearance of some neutral isoforms similar to that observed in cultures grown in serum containing medium or in the presence of DHA. Taken together, the study highlights the contribution of specific dietary oils in facilitating astrocyte development that can have potential impact on human health. PMID:17823864

  7. Mustard vesicating agent-induced toxicity in the skin tissue and silibinin as a potential countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to the vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) causes severe skin injury with delayed blistering. Depending upon the dose and time of their exposure, edema and erythema develop into blisters, ulceration, necrosis, desquamation, and pigmentation changes, which persist weeks and even years after exposure. Research advances have generated data that have started to explain the probable mechanism of action of vesicant-induced skin toxicity; however, despite these advances, effective and targeted therapies are still deficient. This review highlights studies on two SM analogs, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and NM, and CEES- and NM-induced skin injury mouse models that have substantially added to the knowledge on the complex pathways involved in mustard vesicating agent-induced skin injury. Furthermore, employing these mouse models, studies under the National Institutes of Health Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats program have identified the flavanone silibinin as a novel therapeutic intervention with the potential to be developed as an effective countermeasure against skin injury following exposure to mustard vesicating agents. PMID:27326543

  8. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar...

  9. A preliminary investigation of Giant red mustard (Brassica juncea) as a deterrent of silverleaf whitefly oviposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different pairs of plants planted in a single pot were tested in the greenhouse for oviposition preference by the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [Homoptera: Aleyrodidae]). Treatments consisted of the following in single pots: 2 giant red mustard plants (Brassica juncea ...

  10. Evaluation of mustard plants and other products to control sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major insect pest of vegetables and horticultural crops in the southeast US is the sweetpotato whitefly.Scientists at the USDA-Agriculture Research Service, Center for Veterinary Entomology, Gainesaville, Florida, evaluated the effect of giant red mustard plants and commercial products to control ...

  11. Spinach and mustard greens response to soil type, sulfur addition and lithium level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  12. Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.), an invasive weed of winter crops in Brazil, was evaluated for glucosinolate content of its plant tissues and nematicidal activity of its dry leaf meal (LM), whole seed meal (WSM) and hexane defatted seed meal (DSM) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants...

  13. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988). It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments. PMID:23351279

  14. What makes those collard, turnip and mustard greens so good for you?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collard, turnip, and mustard greens are economically important leafy-green vegetables grown throughout the United States that are especially important in the South. These cruciferous vegetables are known to be rich sources of numerous vitamins and other important nutritional components, but formal ...

  15. Efficacy of white mustard and soybean meal as a bioherbicide in organic broccoli and spinach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic cropping systems generally rely on mechanical or physical methods because of the lack of reliable organically accepted herbicides. Among the several potential bioherbicides being explored, white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal is among those bioherbicides that have been sho...

  16. Planting date and development of spring-seeded irrigated canola, brown mustard and camelina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increased emphasis on bio-diesel fuels, the influence of spring planting on the development of brown mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Arid), canola (B. napus cv. Hyola 401) and camelina (Camelina sativa cv. Boa) has become important. Field trials were conducted at Scottsbluff, NE, in 2005 and 2006 ...

  17. EFFECT OF SOIL TYPE, LIGHT INTENSITY, AND CULTIVAR ON LEAF NUTRIENTS IN MUSTARD GREENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas, (Lat. 26 deg 8' N) between 17 December 2001 and 14 February 2002 in order to evaluate the effect of soil type, light environment, and cultivar on mustard greens leaf nutrients. Cultivars Tendergreen and Florida Broadleaf (Brassica juncea) w...

  18. Comparative growth of Spring-planted canola, brown mustard and camelina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increased emphasis for diesel substitution, production of brown mustard (Brassica juncea), canola (B. napus) and camelina (Camelina sativa) used as biodiesel may increase in the High Plains. The objective was to elucidate the growth pattern of these crops when spring-planted in western Nebraska...

  19. Response of mustard greens to gypsum in sulfur deficient light and heavy textured soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-grown mustard greens, Brassica juncea (L.), ‘Florida Broadleaf’ were direct seeded on 12 Nov. 08 into light- and heavy-textured low sulfur soils near Weslaco, TX (Lat. 26° 08'). In order to determine the effects of added soil sulfur (S) on leaf blade S, rates of 0, 560, 1120, and 2240 kg/ha ...

  20. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency. PMID:23359937

  1. Treatment of sulfur mustard (HD)-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Byers, S L; Vesely, K R

    2000-12-01

    An in vivo sulfur mustard (HD) vapor exposure model followed by bronchoalveolar lavage was developed previously in this laboratory to study biochemical indicators of HD-induced lung injury. This model was used to test two treatment compounds--niacinamide (NIA) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)--for their ability to ameliorate HD-induced biochemical changes. Anesthetized rats were intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.35 mg of HD in 0.1 ml of ethanol or ethanol alone for 50 min. At the beginning of the exposure (t = 0), the rats were treated with either NIA (750 mg kg(-1)) or NAC (816 mg kg(-1)), i.p. At 24 h post-exposure, rats were euthanized and the lungs were lavaged with saline (three 5-ml washes). One milliliter of the recovered lavage fluid was analyzed for cellular components. The remaining fluid was centrifuged (10 min at 300 g) and the supernatant was assayed on a Cobas FARA clinical analyzer for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) and glutathione peroxidase (GP). The HD alone and HD+NIA treatment caused significant increases in all of the biochemical parameters compared with control levels. The NAC treatment yielded LDH, ALB and TP values that, although elevated, were not significantly different from the control. The GP levels were significantly higher than the control but significantly lower than the HD alone levels, indicating some protection compared with the HD alone group. The GGT levels were unaffected by NAC compared with HD alone. Cytological analysis of lavage fluid showed that the percentages of neutrophils were 5.3 +/- 1.0 (mean +/- SEM) for control, 46.6 +/- 4.5 for HD, 31.4 +/- 4.7 for HD + NIA and 21.6 +/- 4.7 for HD + NAC, respectively. The neutrophil counts were significantly higher for the three HD-exposed groups vs controls; however, the NAC-treated group had neutrophil counts lower than HD alone, indicating decreased inflammatory response. These results show that NAC may be

  2. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Thomas W. . E-mail: Thomas.Sawyer@drdc-rddc.gc.ca; Vair, Cory; Nelson, Peggy; Shei Yimin; Bjarnason, Stephen; Tenn, Catherine; McWilliams, Michael; Villanueva, Mercy; Burczyk, Andrew

    2007-06-15

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pH{sub i}) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pH{sub i} to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC{sub 50} values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlue{sup TM}. The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD{sub 50} obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pH{sub i}, so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pH{sub i} that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death.

  3. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    PubMed

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent. PMID:24200566

  4. Smad molecules expression pattern in human bronchial airway induced by sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Adelipour, Maryam; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Yazdani, Samaneh; Vahedi, Ensieh; Ghanei, Mostafa; Nourani, Mohammad Reza

    2011-09-01

    Airway remodelling is characterized by the thickening and reorganization of the airways seen in mustard lung patients. Mustard lung is the general description for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by sulfur mustard(SM). Pulmonary disease was diagnosed as the most important disorder in individuals that had been exposed to sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent developed during Wars. Iraqi forces frequently used it against Iranian during Iran -Iraq in the 1980-1988. Peribronchial fibrosis result from airway remodeling that include excess of collagen of extracellular matrix deposition in the airway wall. Some of Smads families in association with TGF-β are involved in airway remodeling due to lung fibrosis. In the present study we compared the mRNA expression of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 and Smad7 genes in airway wall biopsies of chemical-injured patients with non-injured patients as control. We used airway wall biopsies of ten unexposed patients and fifteen SM-induced patients. Smads expression was evaluated by RT-PCR followed by bands densitometry. Expression levels of Smad3 and Smad4 in SM exposed patients were upregulated but Smad2 and Smad7 was not significantly altered. Our results revealed that Smad3, and 4 may be involved in airway remodeling process in SM induced patients by activation of TGF-β. Smad pathway is the most represented signaling mechanism for airway remodeling and peribronchial fibrosis. The complex of Smads in the nucleus affects a series of genes that results in peribronchial fibrosis in SM-induced patients. PMID:21891820

  5. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  6. [On the methodology of the determination of alkylating activities of nitrogen mustards with nitrobenzylpyridine (NBP) in biological material (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G; Schulze, W; Wachtel, E

    1981-09-01

    It is dealt with modifications to the spectrophotometric determination of the alkylating behaviour of bifunctional nitrogen mustards with 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP). The authors succeeded in characterizing spectrophotometrically, by means of a one-phase procedure, not only soluble, but also difficultly soluble, therapeutically known and newly synthetized mustards in regard to their alkylating behaviour. In the framework of in vitro studies, the authors report of experimental details of the proper preparation of biological material for the determination of residual activities, the analytical approach being always depending on the structure of the respective mustard. The differences in the time courses of the acylating attacks in serum, blood and suspensions of leukaemic cells are demonstrated by the example of some selected nitrogen mustards. PMID:7301901

  7. Assay techniques for detection of exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide. Technical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This technical bulletin provides analytical techniques to identify toxic chemical agents in urine or blood samples. It is intended to provide the clinician with laboratory tests to detect exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide.

  8. Optimization for Reduced-Fat / Low-NaCl Meat Emulsion Systems with Sea Mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 20% and salt concentrations from 1.5% to 1.0% by partially substituting incorporated phosphate and sea mustard were investigated based on physicochemical properties of reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems. Cooking loss and emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness for reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems with 20% pork back fat and 1.2% sodium chloride samples with incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard were similar to the control with 30% pork back fat and 1.5% sodium chloride. Results showed that reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion system samples containing phosphate and sea mustard had higher apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that the incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard in the formulation will successfully reduce fat and salt in the final meat products. PMID:26761874

  9. Evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine specimens of sulfur mustard exposed patients

    PubMed Central

    Khafaei, Mostafa; Samie, Shahram; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Alvanegh, Akbar Ghorbani; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Chavoshei, Somaye; Dorraj, Ghamar Soltan; Esmailnejad, Mostafa; Nourani, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas), burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19–25 nucleotides) that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status. In this study, 32 mustard gas injured patients and 32healthy subjects participated. Comparative evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine samples was performed by Real Time PCR and Graph Pad software. The Mann Whitney t-test analysis of data showed that the expression level of miR-143 and miR-9 had a significant decrease in sulfur mustard individuals with the respective p-value of 0.0480 and 0.0272 compared to normal samples, with an imbalance of several above mentioned pathways. It seems that reducing the expression level of these genes has a very important role in the pathogenicity of mustard gas injured patients. PMID:27486378

  10. Evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine specimens of sulfur mustard exposed patients.

    PubMed

    Khafaei, Mostafa; Samie, Shahram; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Alvanegh, Akbar Ghorbani; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Chavoshei, Somaye; Dorraj, Ghamar Soltan; Esmailnejad, Mostafa; Tavallaie, Mahmood; Nourani, Mohammadreza

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas), burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19-25 nucleotides) that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status. In this study, 32 mustard gas injured patients and 32healthy subjects participated. Comparative evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine samples was performed by Real Time PCR and Graph Pad software. The Mann Whitney t-test analysis of data showed that the expression level of miR-143 and miR-9 had a significant decrease in sulfur mustard individuals with the respective p-value of 0.0480 and 0.0272 compared to normal samples, with an imbalance of several above mentioned pathways. It seems that reducing the expression level of these genes has a very important role in the pathogenicity of mustard gas injured patients. PMID:27486378

  11. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  12. A mediational model of PTSD in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, M Kay; Schnurr, Paula P; Adams, Gary A; Green, Bonnie L; Ford, Julian D; Friedman, Matthew J

    2004-08-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine associations among trauma-related contextual factors, initial psychological reactions, social support, and subsequent disclosure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of World War II (WWII) veterans exposed to mustard gas (N = 305). A structural model suggested that initial psychological reaction mediated the relationship between variables related to the context of mustard gas exposure and severity of PTSD symptoms 50 years later. Unexpectedly, social support appeared to be positively related to PTSD symptoms, and not related to the contextual variables or initial psychological reactions. These findings contribute to our understanding of PTSD in older veterans, and have relevance for early intervention services to prevent PTSD among those at risk for exposure to toxic agents. PMID:15462537

  13. Sulfur Mustard Exposure and Non-Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Shoeibi, Nasser; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Abrishami, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old man was referred with a complaint of visual loss in his left eye and his best corrected visual acuity was 20/80. Slit lamp examination showed arborizing conjunctival vessels and dry eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography revealed a non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. Cardiovascular, rheumatologic, and hematologic work up showed no abnormal findings. An ascertained history of exposure to sulfur mustard during the Iran-Iraq war was documented in his medical history. Four sessions of intravitreal bevacizumab injections were done as needed. After two-year follow-up, visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/25 and macular edema was resolved without any need for further interventions. We conclude that sulfur mustard gas exposure may be considered as a predisposing factor for central retinal vein occlusion, as was found in our patient (an Iranian war veteran) by excluding all yet known etiologies and predisposing factors. PMID:26722147

  14. Novel Hybrids of Natural Oridonin-Bearing Nitrogen Mustards as Potential Anticancer Drug Candidates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel hybrids from natural product oridonin and nitrogen mustards were designed and synthesized to obtain more efficacious and less toxic antitumor agents. The antiproliferative evaluation showed that most conjugates were more potent than their parent compounds oridonin and clinically used nitrogen mustards against four human cancer cell lines (K562, MCF-7, Bel-7402, and MGC-803). Furthermore, the representative compounds 16a–c exhibited antiproliferative activities against the multidrug resistant cell lines (SW620/AD300 and NCI-H460/MX20). It was shown that the most effective compound 16b possesses a strong inhibitory activity with an IC50 value 21-fold lower than that of oridonin in MCF-7 cells and also exhibits selective cytotoxicity toward the cancer cells. Intriguingly, compound 16b has been demonstrated to significantly induce apoptosis and affect cell cycle progression in human hepatoma Bel-7402 cells. PMID:25050168

  15. Novel hybrids of natural oridonin-bearing nitrogen mustards as potential anticancer drug candidates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengtao; Pei, Lingling; Wang, Chengqian; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Li, Dahong; Yao, Hequan; Wu, Xiaoming; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Sun, Yijun; Xu, Jinyi

    2014-07-10

    A series of novel hybrids from natural product oridonin and nitrogen mustards were designed and synthesized to obtain more efficacious and less toxic antitumor agents. The antiproliferative evaluation showed that most conjugates were more potent than their parent compounds oridonin and clinically used nitrogen mustards against four human cancer cell lines (K562, MCF-7, Bel-7402, and MGC-803). Furthermore, the representative compounds 16a-c exhibited antiproliferative activities against the multidrug resistant cell lines (SW620/AD300 and NCI-H460/MX20). It was shown that the most effective compound 16b possesses a strong inhibitory activity with an IC50 value 21-fold lower than that of oridonin in MCF-7 cells and also exhibits selective cytotoxicity toward the cancer cells. Intriguingly, compound 16b has been demonstrated to significantly induce apoptosis and affect cell cycle progression in human hepatoma Bel-7402 cells. PMID:25050168

  16. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants.

    PubMed

    Gravett, Matthew R; Hopkins, Farrha B; Self, Adam J; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M; Baker, Matthew J

    2014-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve agent VX and its hydrolysis products by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ethanol extracts of contaminated white mustard plants (Sinapis alba) which retained the compounds of interest for up to 45 days. VX is hydrolysed by the plants to ethyl methylphosphonic acid and then to methylphosphonic acid. The utility of white mustard as a nerve agent detector and remediator of nerve agent-polluted sites is discussed. The work described will help deter the employment of VX in conflict. PMID:25104906

  17. Reliable screening technique for evaluation of wild crucifers against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Y P; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-01

    Wild crucifers namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica fruticulosa, B. rugosa, B. spinescens, B. tournefortii, Camelina sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Crambe abysinnica, Cronopus didymus, Diplotaxis assurgens, D. gomez-campoi, D. muralis, D. siettiana, D. tenuisiliqua, Enatharocarpus lyratus, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba along with five cultivated Brassica species including B. rapa (BSH-1), B. juncea (Rohini), B. napus (GSC-6), B. carinata (DLSC-2) and Eruca sativa (T-27) were screened against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with a standardized technique under definite level of aphid pressure developed using specially designed cages. Observations have revealed that B. fruticulosa, B. spinescens, Camelina sativa, Crambe abysinnica and Lepidium sativum were resistant to mustard aphid L. erysimi with aphid infestation index (AII) ≤ 1. Capsella bursa-pastoris was highly susceptible to bean aphid, Aphis fabae during its vegetative stage (with 100% mortality). Other genotypes were found in the range of 'susceptible' to 'highly susceptible' with AII ranging 3-5. PMID:25651614

  18. NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nobakht, B Fatemeh; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouie, Afsaneh; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Parastar, Hadi; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Fariba; Taheri, Salman

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent and its effects on cells and tissues are varied and complex. Due to limitations in the diagnostics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals (SMEIs) by noninvasive approaches, there is a great necessity to develop novel techniques and biomarkers for this condition. We present here the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolic profiling of serum from and healthy controls to identify novel biomarkers in blood serum for better diagnostics. Of note, SMEIs were exposed to SM 30 years ago and that differences between two groups could still be found. Pathways in which differences between SMEIs and healthy controls are observed are related to lipid metabolism, ketogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism. PMID:26984270

  19. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Matthew R.; Hopkins, Farrha B.; Self, Adam J.; Webb, Andrew J.; Timperley, Christopher M.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve agent VX and its hydrolysis products by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ethanol extracts of contaminated white mustard plants (Sinapis alba) which retained the compounds of interest for up to 45 days. VX is hydrolysed by the plants to ethyl methylphosphonic acid and then to methylphosphonic acid. The utility of white mustard as a nerve agent detector and remediator of nerve agent-polluted sites is discussed. The work described will help deter the employment of VX in conflict. PMID:25104906

  20. Mustard seed (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runping; Zhou, Qiang; Wen, Chunmiao; Hu, Jian; Li, Hengjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Hua

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. All present treatments are symptomatic. The unsatisfactory outcome in the treatment of psoriasis is partially due to the poor compliance to the present therapies with more or less side-effects. As is known, drug homologous food is a popular intervention of some chronic diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. Mustard seed, consumed largely as a spice and a medicine in China, has recently been found to possess the bioactivities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anticancer. Therefore, it was supposed that mustard seed may have effects on psoriasis, and it was preliminarily validated using a BALB/c mouse model of psoriasiform inflammation induced by the topical application of imiquimod cream (Aldara) for 6 days consecutively. It was found that the forage containing 5% mustard seed obviously attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation, but did not clear it completely, accompanied by reduced infiltrations of T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages in lesional skin; reduced percentages of pDC and macrophages in the composition of immunocytes of spleens; reduced content of lesion nuclear factor-κB p65, plasma malondialdehyde, lesion inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-α, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 at mRNA and protein levels; increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and increased percentage of CD4(+) T cells and increased ratio of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells in the composition of immunocytes of spleen. These results presented herein provide a basis for mustard seed to be used as a promising intervention for psoriasis in the future. PMID:23682616

  1. Sulfur mustard gas exposure: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Goverman, J.; Montecino, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Sarhane, K.A.; Tompkins, R.G.; Fagan, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This report describes a case of burn injury following exposure to sulfur mustard, a chemical agent used in war. A review of the diagnostic characteristics, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic measures used to treat this uncommon, yet extremely toxic, entity is presented. The aim of this report is to highlight the importance of considering this diagnosis in any war victim, especially during these unfortunate times of rising terrorist activities. PMID:26170794

  2. Discrimination between ricin and sulphur mustard toxicity in vitro using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Notingher, I.; Green, C.; Dyer, C.; Perkins, E.; Hopkins, N.; Lindsay, C.; Hench, L. L.

    2004-01-01

    A Raman spectroscopy cell-based biosensor has been proposed for rapid detection of toxic agents, identification of the type of toxin and prediction of the concentration used. This technology allows the monitoring of the biochemical properties of living cells over long periods of time by measuring the Raman spectra of the cells non-invasively, rapidly and without use of labels (Notingher et al. 2004 doi:10.1016/j.bios.2004.04.008). Here we show that this technology can be used to distinguish between changes induced in A549 lung cells by the toxin ricin and the chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard. A multivariate model based on principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used for the analysis of the Raman spectra of the cells. The leave-one-out cross-validation of the PCA-LDA model showed that the damaged cells can be detected with high sensitivity (98.9%) and high specificity (87.7%). High accuracy in identifying the toxic agent was also found: 88.6% for sulphur mustard and 71.4% for ricin. The prediction errors were observed mostly for the ricin treated cells and the cells exposed to the lower concentration of sulphur mustard, as they induced similar biochemical changes, as indicated by cytotoxicity assays. The concentrations of sulphur mustard used were also identified with high accuracy: 93% for 200 microM and 500 microM, and 100% for 1,000 microM. Thus, biological Raman microspectroscopy and PCA-LDA analysis not only distinguishes between viable and damaged cells, but can also discriminate between toxic challenges based on the cellular biochemical and structural changes induced by these agents and the eventual mode of cell death. PMID:16849154

  3. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0059, respectively) were all significantly lower with the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the attenuation of postprandial glycaemic response following the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran to a soup. PMID:23025390

  4. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Štengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  5. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  6. Detoxification of sulfur mustard by enzyme-catalyzed oxidation using chloroperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Popiel, S; Nawała, J

    2013-10-10

    One of the most interesting methods for the detoxification of sulfur mustard is enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. This study examined the oxidative destruction of a sulfur mustard by the enzyme chloroperoxidase (EC 1.11.1.10). Chloroperoxidase (CPO) belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various organic compounds by peroxide in the presence of a halide ion. The enzymatic oxidation reaction is affected by several factors: pH, presence or absence of chloride ion, temperature, the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and enzyme and aqueous solubility of the substrate. The optimum reaction conditions were determined by analyzing the effects of all factors, and the following conditions were selected: solvent, Britton-Robinson buffer (pH=3) with tert-butanol (70:30 v/v); CPO concentration, 16U/mL; hydrogen peroxide concentration, 40mmol/L; sodium chloride concentration, 20mmol/L. Under these reaction conditions, the rate constant for the reaction is 0.006s(-1). The Michaelis constant, a measure of the affinity of an enzyme for a particular substrate, is 1.87×10(-3)M for this system. The Michaelis constant for enzymes with a high affinity for their substrate is in the range of 10(-5) to 10(-4)M, so this value indicates that CPO does not have a very high affinity for sulfur mustard. PMID:24034427

  7. The effect of mustard gas on the biological activity of soil.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N; Polyak, Yu; Kuzikova, I; Orlova, O; Zharikov, G

    2008-03-01

    A special group of substances that are very dangerous for the biosphere includes war gases such as mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The influence of mustard gas hydrolysis products (MGHPs) on soil microbiota has been investigated. These substances bear numerous toxic effects on soil microorganisms. They change significantly the number and the specific composition of soil microbiota and inhibit the enzyme activity of soils. The main "ecological targets" of mustard and its hydrolysis products' toxic action have been determined. MGHPs affect the growth and reproduction of soil micromycetes, as well as their morphological and cultural properties. Increase in number and size of mitochondria in the fungal cells is accompanied by increase in dehydrogenases activity. Cell permeability influenced by MGHPs grows in connection with concentration of toxicants. Increase of permeability corresponds to growth of the amount of unsaturated fatty acids. The changes in the fatty acid composition of lipids in the cells of the soil micromycetes display their adaptation to adverse impact of the substances studied. MGHPs and thiodiglycol enhance synthesis of polysaccharides and pigments. PMID:17537425

  8. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    PubMed

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates. PMID:23575118

  9. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  10. Biochemical manipulation of intracellular glutathione levels influences cytotoxicity to isolated human lymphocytes by sulfur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, C.L.; Innace, J.K.; Hovatter, R.C.; Meier, H.L.; Smith, W.J.

    1993-12-31

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major nonprotein thiol that can protect cells from damage due to electrophilic alkylating agents by forming conjugates with the agent. Sulfur mustard (HD) is an electrophilic alkylating agent that has potent mutagenic, carcinogenic, cytotoxic, and vesicant properties. Compounds that elevate or reduce intracellular levels of GSH may produce changes in cytotoxicity induced by sulfur mustard. Pretreatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) for 72 hr with 1 mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), which reduces intracellular GSH content to approximately 26% of control, appears to sensitize these in vitro cells to the cytotoxic effects of 10 AM HD but not to higher HD concentrations. Pretreatment of PBL for 48 hr with 10 mM N-acetyl cysteine (NA C), which elevates intracellular glutathione levels to 122% of control, appears to partially protect these in vitro cells from the cytotoxic effects of 10 LAIHD but not to higher HD concentrations. Augmentation of intracellular levels of glutathione may provide partial protection against cytotoxicity of sulfur mustard.

  11. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    SciTech Connect

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Bérard, Izabel; and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  12. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001). The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93) was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content. PMID:26785070

  13. Characterization of a new oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) allergen, Bra j IE: detection of an allergenic epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, R I; Gonzalez de la Peña, M A; Menendez-Arias, L; Lopez-Otin, C; Villalba, M; Rodriguez, R

    1993-01-01

    Bra j IE, a major allergen from oriental-mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds, has been isolated and characterized. Its primary structure has been elucidated. This protein is composed of two chains (37 and 92 amino acids) linked by disulphide bridges. The amino acid sequence obtained is closely related to that previously determined for Sin a I, an allergen isolated from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba). A common epitope has been detected in the large chain of both Bra j IE and Sin a I by means of electroblotting and immunodetection with 2B3, which is a monoclonal antibody raised against the yellow-mustard allergen. A histidine residue of the large chain of both mustard allergens has been found to be essential for the recognition by 2B3 antibody. A synthetic multiantigenic peptide containing this His was recognized by 2B3 as well as by sera of mustard-hypersensitive individuals. Therefore this antigenic determinant must be involved in the allergenicity of these proteins. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7688955

  14. Mass spectral studies on vinylic degradation products of sulfur mustards under gas chromatography/mass spectrometry conditions.

    PubMed

    Sai Sachin, L; Karthikraj, R; Kalyan Kumar, K; Sony, T; Prasada Raju, N; Prabhakar, S

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustards are a class of vesicant chemical warfare agents that rapidly degrade in environmental samples. The most feasible degradation products of sulfur mustards are chloroethyl vinylic compounds and divinylic compounds, which are formed by the elimination of one and two HCl molecules from sulfur mustards, respectively. The detection and characterization of these degradation products in environmental samples are an important proof for the verification of sulfur mustard usage. In this study, we synthesized a set of sulfur mustard degradation products, i.e., divinylic compounds (1-7) and chloroethyl vinylic compounds (8-14), and characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) under electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) (methane) conditions. The EI mass spectra of the studied compounds mainly included the fragment ions that resulted from homolytic cleavages with or without hydrogen migrations. The divinylic compounds (1-7) showed [M-SH](+) ions, whereas the chloroethylvinyl compounds (8-14) showed [M-Cl](+) and [M-CH2CH2Cl](+) ions. Methane/CI mass spectra showed [M+H](+) ions and provided molecular weight information. The GC retention index (RI) values were also calculated for the studied compounds. The EI and CI mass spectral data together with RI values are extremely useful for off-site analysis for the verification of the chemical weapons convention and also to participate in official Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons proficiency tests. PMID:26764309

  15. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001). The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93) was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content. PMID:26785070

  16. Development and validation of a triplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species and three celery varieties in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents a triplex real-time PCR assay allowing the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (white, black and brown mustard) and three celery varieties (celery roots, celery stalks and leaf celery) in foodstuffs. The triplex assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae. Low cross-reactivities were observed with fenugreek, cumin, ginger, caraway, turmeric, lovage and rye, the ΔCt values were, however, ⩾ 12 compared to positive controls. The triplex assay allows the detection of traces of DNA of the allergenic components in spite of an excess of the other DNA templates. Analysis of extracts from model sausages containing defined concentrations of mustard and celery showed that the triplex assay is applicable to both raw and processed foods. It was found to allow the detection of 1 ppm black/brown mustard and 50 ppm white mustard and celery in raw and brewed sausages with a probability ⩾ 95%. PMID:25872425

  17. Gene expression profile of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in lung tissue of patients exposed to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Tahmasbpour, Eisa; Ghanei, Mostafa; Qazvini, Ali; Vahedi, Ensieh; Panahi, Yunes

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent that targets several organs, especially lung tissue. Although pathological effects of SM on mustard lung have been widely considered, molecular and cellular mechanisms for these pathologies are poorly understood. We investigated changes in expression of genes related to oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant defense caused by SM in lung tissue of patients. We performed gene expression profiling of OS and antioxidant defense in lung tissue samples from healthy controls (n=5) and SM-exposed patients (n=6). Changes in gene expression were measured using a 96-well RT(2) Profiler ™PCR Array: Human Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense, which arrayed 84 genes functionally involved in cellular OS response. 47 (55.95%) genes were found to be significantly upregulated in patients with mustard lung compared with controls (p<0.05), whereas 7 (8.33%) genes were significantly downregulated (p<0.05). Among the most upregulated genes were OS responsive-1 (OXSR1), forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), and glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPX2), while metallothionein-3 (MT3) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were the most downregulated genes. Expression of hypoxia-induced genes (CYGB and MB), antioxidants and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing genes were significantly altered, suggesting an increased oxidative damage in mustard lungs. Mustard lungs were characterized by hypoxia, massive production of ROS, OS, disruption of epithelial cells, surfactant dysfunction, as well as increased risk of lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Oxidative stress induced by ROS is the major mechanism for direct effect of SM exposure on respiratory system. Antioxidant treatment may improve the main features of mustard lungs. PMID:27085470

  18. Quantitation of biomarkers of exposure to nitrogen mustards in urine from rats dosed with nitrogen mustards and from an unexposed human population.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Sharon W; Barr, John R; Ashley, David L; Olson, Carl T; Hayes, Timothy L

    2004-01-01

    The nitrogen mustards bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine (HN1), bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine (HN2), and tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) have the potential to be used as chemical terrorism agents because of their extreme vesicant properties. We modified a previously reported method to incorporate automated solid-phase extraction, improve chromatography, and include the urinary metabolite for HN3. The improved method was used to measure levels of the urinary metabolites N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) in rats dosed with HN1, HN2, and HN3, respectively, and to establish background levels of EDEA, MDEA, and TEA in human urine samples from a population with no known exposure to nitrogen mustards. Rat dosing experiments confirmed that EDEA, MDEA, and TEA could be detected in urine for at least 48 h after exposure to HN1, HN2, and HN3, respectively. Substantial amounts of EDEA (89 ng/mL), MDEA (170 ng/mL), and TEA (1105 ng/mL) were measured in the urine of rats exposed to 10 mg HN1, HN2, and HN3, respectively, 48 h after exposure. The background concentrations for TEA in the human population ranged from below the limit of detection (LOD 3 ng/mL) to approximately 6500 ng/mL. Neither EDEA (LOD 0.4 ng/mL) nor MDEA (LOD 0.8 ng/mL) was detected above the LOD in the human samples. PMID:15239850

  19. The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by indian mustard

    PubMed

    Vassil; Kapulnik; Raskin; Salt

    1998-06-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants exposed to Pb and EDTA in hydroponic solution were able to accumulate up to 55 mmol kg-1 Pb in dry shoot tissue (1.1% [w/w]). This represents a 75-fold concentration of Pb in shoot tissue over that in solution. A threshold concentration of EDTA (0.25 mm) was found to be required to stimulate this dramatic accumulation of both Pb and EDTA in shoots. Below this threshold concentration, EDTA also accumulated in shoots but at a reduced rate. Direct measurement of a complex of Pb and EDTA (Pb-EDTA) in xylem exudate of Indian mustard confirmed that the majority of Pb in these plants is transported in coordination with EDTA. The accumulation of EDTA in shoot tissue was also observed to be directly correlated with the accumulation of Pb. Exposure of Indian mustard to high concentrations of Pb and EDTA caused reductions in both the transpiration rate and the shoot water content. The onset of these symptoms was correlated with the presence of free protonated EDTA (H-EDTA) in the hydroponic solution, suggesting that free H-EDTA is more phytotoxic than Pb-EDTA. These studies clearly demonstrate that coordination of Pb transport by EDTA enhances the mobility within the plants of this otherwise insoluble metal ion, allowing plants to accumulate high concentrations of Pb in shoots. The finding that both H-EDTA and Pb-EDTA are mobile within plants also has important implications for the use of metal chelates in plant nutritional research. PMID:9625697

  20. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J.; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  1. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Study of the Nitrogen Mustards and Local Anesthetics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buess, Michael Lee

    The density matrix description of pulsed nitrogen -14 nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-echoes is presented. The parallel between this problem, when formulated in terms of the fictitious spin- 1/2 operators, and that of spin - 1/2 NMR spin-echoes in liquids is discussed along with the complications which arise in multiple-pulse NQR experiments in powders due to the random orientation of the electric field gradient tensors. The equipment and procedures involved in searching for, detecting and identifying NQR resonances using pulsed techniques are described. The ('14)N NQR spectra of several nitrogen mustard compounds in the solid state are reported and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. For the aniline derivatives, a correlation exists between l -(sigma), l being the nitrogen lone-pair electron density and (sigma) the average N-C sigma bond electron density, and the enhanced Hammett sigma constant (sigma)('-). An improved correlation is obtained between l-(sigma) and (sigma)(,R)('-), which emphasizes the importance of resonance effects in determining l-(sigma). The increase of hydrolysis and alkylation rates with increasing values of l-(sigma) is in agreement with the identification of the cyclic immonium ion as the intermediate in the hydrolysis and alkylation processes of the aromatic nitrogen mustards. A possible correlation is noted between the ('35)Cl NQR spectra for some of the mustards and measures of toxic and antitumor activity. ('14)N NQR spectra for several local anesthetics in the solid state are also reported and analyzed using the Townes and Dailey approach. The changes in the electron distributions at various nitrogen sites, produced by protonating the tertiary amino nitrogen, are discussed and shown to be in general agreement with expectations bases on the increased electrophilic character of the protonated amino group.

  2. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien; Bérard, Izabel

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  3. Application of 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the determination of the stability of aryl nitrogen mustards.

    PubMed

    Wilman, D E; Palmer, B D; Denny, W A

    1995-06-01

    An excellent correlation has been shown to exist between the 15N NMR chemical shifts of a series of aryl nitrogen mustards and the Hammett constant, sigma, which is much improved by the use of sigma-. These chemical shifts also correlate well with the hydrolysis rates of the compounds in 50% aqueous acetone at 66 degrees C and their alkylation of 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)pyridine under similar conditions. Thus 15N NMR is a straightforward and material-conserving method for estimating the relative stabilities of aryl nitrogen mustards. PMID:7783158

  4. Degradation of sulfur mustard on KF/Al2O3 supports: insights into the products and the reactions mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zafrani, Yossi; Goldvaser, Michael; Dagan, Shai; Feldberg, Liron; Mizrahi, Dana; Waysbort, Daniel; Gershonov, Eytan; Columbus, Ishay

    2009-11-01

    The degradation of the warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD) adsorbed onto KF/Al(2)O(3) sorbents is described. These processes were explored by MAS NMR, using (13)C-labeled sulfur mustard (HD*) and LC-MS techniques. Our study on the detoxification of this blister agent showed the formation of nontoxic substitution and less-toxic elimination products (t(1/2) = 3.5-355 h). Interestingly, the reaction rates were found to be affected by MAS conditions, i.e., by a centrifugation effect. The products and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed. PMID:19817399

  5. Sulfur mustard induced nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Weber, Jana; Balszuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Schmidt, Annette

    2013-12-01

    Sulfur Mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent, which is acutely toxic to a variety of organ systems including skin, eyes, respiratory system and bone marrow. The underlying molecular pathomechanism was mainly attributed to the alkylating properties of SM. However, recent studies have revealed that cellular responses to SM exposure are of more complex nature and include increased protein expression and protein modifications that can be used as biomarkers. In order to confirm already known biomarkers, to detect potential new ones and to further elucidate the pathomechanism of SM, we conducted large-scale proteomic experiments based on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) exposed to SM. Surprisingly, our analysis identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as one of the up-regulated proteins after exposure of HaCaT cells to SM. In this paper we demonstrate the sulfur mustard induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH in HaCaT cells by 2D gel-electrophoresis (2D GE), immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB) and a combination thereof. 2D GE in combination with MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis identified GAPDH as an up-regulated protein after SM exposure. Immunocytochemistry revealed a distinct nuclear translocation of GAPDH after exposure to 300μM SM. This finding was confirmed by fractionated WB analysis. 2D GE and subsequent immunoblot staining of GAPDH demonstrated two different spot locations of GAPH (pI 7.0 and pI 8.5) that are related to cytosolic or nuclear GAPDH respectively. After exposure to 300μM SM a significant increase of nuclear GAPDH at pI 8.5 occurred. Nuclear GAPDH has been associated with apoptosis, detection of structural DNA alterations, DNA repair and regulation of genomic integrity and telomere structure. The results of our study add new aspects to the pathophysiology of sulfur mustard toxicity, yet further studies will be necessary to reveal the specific function of nuclear GAPDH in the pathomechanism of sulfur mustard

  6. The gene coding for the mustard trypsin inhibitor-2 is discontinuous and wound-inducible.

    PubMed

    Ceci, L R; Spoto, N; de Virgilio, M; Gallerani, R

    1995-05-01

    The gene coding for the mustard trypsin inhibitor-2 has been isolated from a genomic library and characterized. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences indicates that the gene is interrupted by an intron of 193 bp. The eukaryotic peculiar regulatory sequences have been detected in the 5' flanking region of the gene. In addition, a decanucleotide has been detected that is highly similar to the proposed G-box and to the ABRE motifs required for the gene expression induced by methyl jasmonate and abscissic acid. Northern blot analysis demonstrates that the gene is expressed in immature seeds as well as in wounded leaves. PMID:7750566

  7. Quantum molecular modeling of the interaction between guanine and alkylating agents--1--sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Broch, H; Hamza, A; Vasilescu, D

    1996-06-01

    Interaction between Guanine and the episulfonium form of Sulfur mustard (HD) was studied using the ab initio LCAO-MO method at the HF/6-31G level. The alkylation mechanism on guanine-N7 was analyzed by using a supermolecular modeling. Our stereostructural results associated with the molecular electrostatic potentials and HOMO-LUMO properties, show that in vacuum the alkylation of the N7 of guanine by HD in the aggressive episulfonium form is a direct process without transition state and of which the pathway is determined. PMID:8832373

  8. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  9. Development and validation of a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra and Brassica juncea) in food.

    PubMed

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a duplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three potentially allergenic mustard species commonly used in food: white mustard (Sinapis alba), black mustard (Brassica nigra) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea). White mustard is detected in the "green" and black/brown mustard in the "yellow" channel. The duplex real-time PCR assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae species including broccoli, cauliflower, radish and rapeseed. Low cross-reactivities (difference in the Ct value ⩾ 11.91 compared with the positive control) were obtained with cumin, fenugreek, ginger, rye and turmeric. When applying 500 ng DNA per PCR tube, the duplex real-time PCR assay allowed the detection of white, black and brown mustard in brewed model sausages down to a concentration of 5mg/kg in 10 out of 10 replicates. The duplex real-time PCR assay was applied to verify correct labelling of commercial foodstuffs. PMID:24491701

  10. Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Wohlman, Irene M; Composto, Gabriella M; Heck, Diane E; Heindel, Ned D; Lacey, C Jeffrey; Guillon, Christophe D; Casillas, Robert P; Croutch, Claire R; Gerecke, Donald R; Laskin, Debra L; Joseph, Laurie B; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-15

    Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process. Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical countermeasures against vesicants. PMID:27125198

  11. Role of the cdc25C phosphatase in G2 arrest induced by nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, P M; Ferris, D K; Hoffmann, I; Jackman, J; Draetta, G; Kohn, K W

    1994-01-01

    G2 arrest induced by nitrogen mustard in human lymphoma CA46 cells is associated with a failure to activate hyperphosphorylated cdc2/cyclin B1 complexes. We investigated the possibility that this might be due to a suppression of cdc25C phosphatase activity. cdc25C from interphase cells migrated as a 54- to 57-kDa doublet in SDS gels and exhibited basal phosphatase activity. cdc25C from mitotic cells migrated as a 66-kDa hyperphosphorylated species and exhibited elevated phosphatase activity. cdc25C hyperphosphorylation and activation were mediated by cdc2, supporting the view of a cdc2-cdc25C autocatalytic feedback loop. Immunofluorescence and cell fractionation studies suggested cdc2-cdc25C interaction occurred within the cytoplasm. Cells arrested in G2 phase following nitrogen mustard treatment or cells arrested in S phase with aphidicolin failed to dephosphorylate and activate cdc2, and this correlated with failure to convert cdc25C into the most active hyperphosphorylated species. Our findings suggest that checkpoints guarding against mitotic entry in the presence of unreplicated or damaged DNA suppress formation of the cdc2-cdc25C autocatalytic feedback loop that normally brings about rapid activation of cdc2. Images PMID:7937793

  12. The activation of phosphoramide mustard anticancer drugs from ab initio simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allesch, Markus; Schwegler, Eric; Colvin, Mike; Gygi, Francois; Galli, Giulia

    2007-03-01

    The nitrogen mustard based DNA alkylating agents were the first nonhormonal drugs to be used effectively in the treatment of cancer and remain one of the most important drugs for the chemotherapeutic management of many common malignancies today. An understanding of the activation of these compounds is, in itself, of scientific interest, but also critical in designing improved analogs of greater selectivity and efficacy. We have investigated the activation pathways of one of the most active metabolites, phosphoramide mustard (PM), and its methylated ester (PMME). In particular, we have examined the activation barrier and reaction free energy for the intramolecular cyclization reaction using first principles molecular dynamics simulations with explicit and continuum solvation models. Structural, dynamical and electronic properties along the reaction path have been computed mainly to address the question why de-esterification is required to activate these drugs. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Relation between soil temperature and biophysical parameters in Indian mustard seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, T.; Chakravarty, N. V. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal changes in surface soil temperature were studied in winter crop. Significant changes in bare and cropped soil temperature were revealed. Air temperature showed a statistically positive and strong relationship (R2 = 0.79** to 0.92**) with the soil temperature both at morning and afternoon hours. Linear regression analysis indicated that each unit increase in ambient temperature would lead to increase in minimum and maximum soil temperatures by 1.04 and 1.02 degree, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was revealed among biophysical variables with the cumulative surface soil temperature. Linear and non-linear regression analysis indicated 62-69, 72-86 and 72-80% variation in Leaf area index, dry matter production and heat use efficiency in Indian mustard crop as a function of soil degree days. Below 60% variation in yield in Indian mustard was revealed as a function of soil temperature. In contrast, non-significant relationship between oil content and soil temperature was found, which suggests that oil accumulation in oilseed crops was not affected significantly by the soil temperature as an independent variable.

  14. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu Chen; Chang, Chen Kai; Chan, Shu Chang; Shieh, Jiunn Shiuh; Chiu, Chih Kwang; Duh, Pin-Der

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro. Methods The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1% oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines. Conclusions These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines. PMID:25183271

  15. Selective cytotoxicity of a system L specific amino acid nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed

    Haines, D R; Fuller, R W; Ahmad, S; Vistica, D T; Marquez, V E

    1987-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of DL-2-amino-7-bis[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid and DL-2-amino-5-bis[(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-napthoic+ ++ acid were accomplished. The correct assignment of the site of attachment of the bis(2-chloroethyl)amino side chain was ascertained by selective proton decoupling of the 13C NMR spectra performed on the corresponding nitrospirohydantoin precursors 2 and 3, which were obtained from the nitration of beta-tetralone hydantoin. The two target compounds 6 and 7 were designed as tumor-specific agents capable of being selectively transported into tumor cells by the leucine-preferring transport system (system L). Inhibition analysis of the initial rate of transport of the system L specific substrate 2-amino-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) by 6 and 7 indicated that the 7-substituted isomer 6 was an extremely potent competitive inhibitor of that transport system in murine L1210 leukemic cells (Ki = 0.2 microM). Evaluation of the selectivity of this compound indicated that it possessed enhanced in vitro antitumor activity and reduced myelosuppressive activity when compared to its prototype amino acid nitrogen mustard, L-phenylalanine mustard (L-PAM). In addition to being more selectively toxic to tumor cells, this compound differs from L-PAM in having a 2-3-fold shorter half-life (t1/2). PMID:3820226

  16. Predictors and outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas.

    PubMed

    Schnurr, P P; Ford, J D; Friedman, M J; Green, B L; Dain, B J; Sengupta, A

    2000-04-01

    Current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with participation in secret military tests of mustard gas during World War II was assessed in 363 male military veterans who were randomly sampled from a registry developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. Current prevalence was 32% for full PTSD and 10% for partial PTSD. Prevalence of PTSD varied as a function of risk and protective factors, including volunteering, physical symptoms during the tests, and prohibited disclosure. Prediction of partial PTSD was weaker than prediction of full PTSD. Veterans with full PTSD reported poorer physical health, a higher likelihood of several chronic illnesses and health-related disability, greater functional impairment, and higher likelihood of health care use than those with no PTSD. Veterans with partial PTSD also had poorer outcomes than did veterans with no PTSD in a subset of these domains. There is discussion of the traumatic elements of experimental mustard gas exposure, vulnerability to PTSD, and the relevance of these findings to understanding the broad range of outcomes associated with PTSD. PMID:10780126

  17. Development of the sulfur mustard resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Annette; Steinritz, Dirk; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-02-26

    Pairs of corresponding cytotoxic drug sensitive and resistant cell lines are powerful tools to develop treatment strategies. Developing cytotoxic drug resistant cell lines is a well-established method in cancer research. In more than fifty years of sulfur mustard (SM) resistant research such a cell pair has never been produced. Hereinafter we describe the first successful approach to develop a SM resistant keratinocyte cell line. Starting with the SM sensitive keratinocyte cell line HaCaT we used a strategy of continuous exposure with gradually increased concentrations. Cells were cultured in total for more than 40 months starting with an initial concentration of 0.07μM SM twice a week up to a final concentration of 7.2μM SM. The achieved cell line HaCaT/SM had an LC50 resistance increase of 4.7-fold and an LC90 increase of 8.2-fold. Hereinafter we demonstrate the production of the first sulfur mustard (SM) resistant cell line. The new achieved cell line called HaCaT/SM is able to tolerate a continuous exposure of an SM concentration, which is associated with an inhibitory effect of 93% within the original HaCaT cells, which were used as starting point. PMID:26463895

  18. Prevention and Treatment of Respiratory Consequences Induced by Sulfur Mustard in Iranian Casualties

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed M.; Salamati, Payman; Harandi, Ali Amini; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88). After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes. PMID:23671768

  19. Effect of sulfur mustard on mast cells in hairless guinea pig skin

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.S.; Bryant, M.A.; Braue, E.H.

    1993-05-13

    The skin of 24 anesthetized hairless guinea pigs was exposed to saturated sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide; HD) for 5 and 7 minutes using 14-mm diameter vapor cups. Animals were euthanatized 24 hours after exposure and skin specimens taken for morphometric evaluation of granulated mast cells with an image analysis system (IAS). Tissue specimens were processed in paraffin, sectioned at 5 microns and stained with Unna's stain for mast cells. The number of granulated mast cells and the area occupied by mast cell granules was determined. There were significantly fewer mast cells (p < 0.05) in either HD exposure group than in sham-exposed animals, with significantly fewer mast cells in the 7-minute than the 5-minute HD group. There were also significantly smaller areas occupied by granules in either HD exposure group than in sham-exposed animals. HD-induced lesions in the hairless guinea pig have shown signs of an inflammatory response, and with their granules of vasoactive histamine, mast cells might be expected to play a role in HD-induced injury. Changes in mast cells exposed to low sulfur mustard levels, as detected by an IAS, may serve as an early marker for cutaneous damage, which might not be as easily determined with routine light microscopy.

  20. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2013-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative identification of 71 phenolic compounds consisting of kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside-7-O-glucoside derivatives, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-glucoside hydroxycinnamoyl gentiobioses, hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids, and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids. Ten of the compounds, 3-O-diacyltriglucoside-7-O-glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin, had not been previously reported. The phenolic component profiles of these vegetables were significantly different than those of the leafy vegetables from B. oleracea. This is the first comparative study of these leafy vegetables. Ten of the vegetables had never been previously studied by LC-MS. PMID:20465307

  1. Phenolic component profiles of mustard greens, yu choy, and 15 other brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2010-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative identification of 71 phenolic compounds consisting of kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside-7-O-glucoside derivatives, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-glucoside hydroxycinnamoyl gentiobioses, hydroxycinnamoylmalic acids, and hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids. Ten of the compounds, 3-O-diacyltriglucoside-7-O-glucosides of kaempferol and quercetin, had not been previously reported. The phenolic component profiles of these vegetables were significantly different than those of the leafy vegetables from B. oleracea. This is the first comparative study of these leafy vegetables. Ten of the vegetables had never been previously studied by LC-MS. PMID:20465307

  2. Cancer Events After Acute or Chronic Exposure to Sulfur Mustard: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Salamati, Payman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been considered as a carcinogen in the laboratory studies. However, its carcinogenic effects on human beings were not well discussed. The main purpose of our study is to assess carcinogenesis of SM following acute and/or chronic exposures in human beings. Methods: The valid scientific English and Persian databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, IranMedex, and Irandoc were searched and the collected papers reviewed. The used keywords were in two languages: English and Persian. The inclusion criteria were the published original articles indexed in above-mentioned databases. Eleven full-texts out of 296 articles were found relevant and then assessed. Results: Studies on the workers of the SM factories during the World Wars showed that the long-term chronic exposure to mustards can cause a variety of cancers in the organs such as oral cavity, larynx, lung, and skin. Respiratory system was the most important affected system. Acute single exposure to SM was assumed as the carcinogenic inducer in the lung and blood and for few cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: SM is a proven carcinogen in chronic situations although data are not enough to strongly conclude in acute exposure. PMID:27280012

  3. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil. PMID:26208541

  4. Nanoencapsulation Enhances the Post-Emergence Herbicidal Activity of Atrazine against Mustard Plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia Bueno Reis; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been recently developed as a modified release system for atrazine, an herbicide that can have harmful effects in the environment. Here, the post-emergence herbicidal activity of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine was evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea) as target plant species model. Characterization of atrazine-loaded PCL nanocapsules by nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated a concentration of 7.5 x 1012 particles mL-1 and an average size distribution of 240.7 nm. The treatment of mustard plants with nanocapsules carrying atrazine at 1 mg mL-1 resulted in a decrease of net photosynthesis and PSII maximum quantum yield, and an increase of leaf lipid peroxidation, leading to shoot growth inhibition and the development of severe symptoms. Time course analysis until 72 h after treatments showed that nanoencapsulation of atrazine enhanced the herbicidal activity in comparison with a commercial atrazine formulation. In contrast to the commercial formulation, ten-fold dilution of the atrazine-containing nanocapsules did not compromise the herbicidal activity. No effects were observed when plants were treated with nanocapsules without herbicide compared to control leaves sprayed with water. Overall, these results demonstrated that atrazine-containing PCL nanocapsules provide very effective post-emergence herbicidal activity. More importantly, the use of nanoencapsulated atrazine enables the application of lower dosages of the herbicide, without any loss of efficiency, which could provide environmental benefits. PMID:26186597

  5. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    PubMed

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent. PMID:27295923

  6. Macromolecular metabolism of a differentiated rat keratinocyte culture system following exposure to sulfur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, F.L.; Zaman, S.; Scavarelli, R.; Bernstein, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    A method for producing a stratified, squamous epithelium in vitro by cultivating rat keratinocytes on nylon membranes has been developed in this laboratory. This epidermal-like culture is being used to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of skin vesication after topical exposure to the sulfur mustard bis(beta-chloroethyl) sulfide (BCES) dissolved in a selected solvent. Radiolabeled macromolecular precursors (thymidine, uridine, and leucine) have been used to study the effect of BCES on the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein, respectively, after topical exposure to the mustard at concentrations of 0.01-500 nmol/cm2 dissolved in 70% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). From these and other studies it has been determined that exposure to even the low concentration of 0.01 nmol BCES/cm2 for 30 min results in significant inhibition of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation, although complete recovery occurs by 24 h. Significant inhibition of (/sup 3/H)uridine and (/sup 14/C)leucine incorporation is observed only after exposure to much higher concentrations of BCES (10-500 nmol/cm2). This suggests a very early lesion in macromolecular metabolism with DNA being the primary target.

  7. Pilot-scale ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography: purification of sinalbin from white mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Pinel, Benoît; Boudesocque, Leslie; Lafosse, Michel; De La Poype, François; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2009-06-01

    The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) on a multigram scale from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba var. concerta) was successfully achieved by scaling up a strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC) laboratory procedure. Thus, the one-step sinalbin purification was performed with 2.35 g of crude extract in approximately 170 min (830 mg/h) up to 70.3 g in approximately 160 min (26.3 g/h) by switching from a 200 mL laboratory scale column to a 5.7 L pilot-scale column. The required biphasic solvent system contained ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in 3:2:5 v/v/v proportions, Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride) was added to the organic stationary phase (80 mM) and acted as ion-exchanger. Potassium iodide in the aqueous mobile phase (80 mM) was used as sinalbin displacer. The 28.5 mass scale factor arose from the increase in mobile phase flow-rate (from 2 to 50 mL/min), from the higher mass of injected white mustard seed extract (from 12 to 350 g), and from the calculated productivity (from 830 mg to 26.3 g). These results demonstrate that industry scale production of glucosinolates is easily performed by SIXCPC, thus providing pure reference standards for pharmacology studies. PMID:19479767

  8. Phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the phytoextraction of the potentially toxic elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse pot experiment was established using a highly contaminated grassland soil collected at the Wupper River (Germany). The impact of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), humate (HK), and phosphate potassium (PK) on the mobility and uptake of the elements by rapeseed also was investigated. Indian mustard showed the highest efficiency for phytoextraction of Al, Cr, Mo, Se, and V; sunflower for Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and rapeseed for Cu. The bioconcentration ratios were higher than 1 for the elements (except As and Cu), indicating the suitability of the studied plants for phytoextraction. Application of EDTA to the soil increased significantly the solubility of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and decreased the solubility of Al, As, Se, V, and Mo. Humate potassium decreased significantly the concentrations of Al and As in rapeseed but increased the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We may conclude that HK can be used for immobilization of Al and As, while it can be used for enhancing the phytoextraction of Cu, Se, and Zn by rapeseed. Phosphate potassium immobilized Al, Cd, Pb, and Zn, but enhanced phytoextraction of As, Cr, Mo, and Se by rapeseed. PMID:26040974

  9. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  10. Antifibrinolytic Mechanisms in Acute Airway Injury after Sulfur Mustard Analog Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aftab; Veress, Livia A.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury in response to mustard gas (sulfur mustard [SM]) inhalation results in formation of fibrin casts, which obstruct the airway. The objective of this study was to identify fibrinolytic pathways that could be contributing to the persistence of airway casts after SM exposure. Rats were exposed to the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, via nose-only aerosol inhalation. At 4 and 18 hours after exposure, animals were killed and airway–capillary leak estimated by measuring bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein and IgM content. The fibrin clot–degrading and plasminogen-activating capabilities of BALF were also assessed by activity assays, whereas Western blotting was used to determine the presence and activities of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, thrombin activatable fibrinolytic inhibitor and α2-antiplasmin. Measurement of tissue-specific steady-state mRNA levels was also conducted for each fibrinolytic inhibitor to assess whether its synthesis occurs in lung or at extrapulmonary sites. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrin-degrading and plasminogen-activating capabilities of the airways become impaired during the onset of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide–induced vascular leak. Findings of functionally active reservoirs of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and α2-antiplasmin in BALF indicate that airway fibrinolysis is inhibited at multiple levels in response to SM. PMID:24796565

  11. Nanoencapsulation Enhances the Post-Emergence Herbicidal Activity of Atrazine against Mustard Plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia Bueno Reis; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been recently developed as a modified release system for atrazine, an herbicide that can have harmful effects in the environment. Here, the post-emergence herbicidal activity of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine was evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea) as target plant species model. Characterization of atrazine-loaded PCL nanocapsules by nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated a concentration of 7.5 x 10(12) particles mL(-1) and an average size distribution of 240.7 nm. The treatment of mustard plants with nanocapsules carrying atrazine at 1 mg mL(-1) resulted in a decrease of net photosynthesis and PSII maximum quantum yield, and an increase of leaf lipid peroxidation, leading to shoot growth inhibition and the development of severe symptoms. Time course analysis until 72 h after treatments showed that nanoencapsulation of atrazine enhanced the herbicidal activity in comparison with a commercial atrazine formulation. In contrast to the commercial formulation, ten-fold dilution of the atrazine-containing nanocapsules did not compromise the herbicidal activity. No effects were observed when plants were treated with nanocapsules without herbicide compared to control leaves sprayed with water. Overall, these results demonstrated that atrazine-containing PCL nanocapsules provide very effective post-emergence herbicidal activity. More importantly, the use of nanoencapsulated atrazine enables the application of lower dosages of the herbicide, without any loss of efficiency, which could provide environmental benefits. PMID:26186597

  12. 38 CFR 3.316 - Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite. 3.316 Section 3.316 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Ratings and Evaluations;...

  13. Notes from the field: Exposures to discarded sulfur mustard munitions - Mid-Atlantic and New England States 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-04-26

    Before the 1970s, the United States sometimes disposed of at sea excess, obsolete, or unserviceable munitions, including chemical munitions. Chemical munitions known to have been disposed of at sea included munitions filled with sulfur mustard, a vesicant (i.e., an agent that causes chemical burns or blisters of the skin and mucous membranes). Signs and symptoms of exposure to a mustard agent can include redness and blistering of the skin, eye irritation, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, shortness of breath, and (rarely) diarrhea and abdominal discomfort. Since 2004, CDC has received notification of three separate incidents of exposure to sulfur mustard munitions. In one incident, a munition was found with ocean-dredged marine shells used to pave a driveway. The other two incidents involved commercial clam fishing operations. This report highlights the importance of considering exposure to sulfur mustard in the differential diagnosis of signs and symptoms compatible with exposure to a vesicant agent, especially among persons involved with clam fishing or sea dredging operations. PMID:23615677

  14. First report of natural occurrence of Turnip vein-clearing virus in garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2011-2013 plants of the invasive weed species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) were observed with virus-like disease symptoms in three separate locations in Ramsey and Anoka counties, Minnesota. Symptoms consisted of conspicuous mosaic, leaf deformation and stunting. Numerous virus-like pa...

  15. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS...

  16. A structural basis for a phosphoramide mustard-induced DNA interstrand cross-link at 5'-d(GAC).

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Q; Barsky, D; Colvin, M E; Melius, C F; Ludeman, S M; Moravek, J F; Colvin, O M; Bigner, D D; Modrich, P; Friedman, H S

    1995-01-01

    Phosphoramide mustard-induced DNA interstrand cross-links were studied both in vitro and by computer simulation. The local determinants for the formation of phosphoramide mustard-induced DNA interstrand cross-links were defined by using different pairs of synthetic oligonucleotide duplexes, each of which contained a single potentially cross-linkable site. Phosphoramide mustard was found to cross-link dG to dG at a 5'-d(GAC)-3'. The structural basis for the formation of this 1,3 cross-link was studied by molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry. Molecular dynamics indicated that the geometrical proximity of the binding sites also favored a 1,3 dG-to-dG linkage over a 1,2 dG-to-dG linkage in a 5'-d(GCC)-3' sequence. While the enthalpies of 1,2 and 1,3 mustard cross-linked DNA were found to be very close, a 1,3 structure was more flexible and may therefore be in a considerably higher entropic state. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8618865

  17. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and mustard seed meal for control of charcoal rot in California strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and mustard seed meal (MSM) appear to be promising non-fumigant alternatives for soilborne disease control. However studies of their effect on charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in California strawberry are limited. ASD with rice bran 20 t ha-1 (ASD-RB...

  18. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  19. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, E.L.; Boulware, S.; Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L.; DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M.; MacLeod, M.C.

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  20. TRANSGENIC INDIAN MUSTARD OVEREXPRESSING SELENOCYSTEINE LYASE, SELENOCYSTEINE METHYLTRANSFERASE, OR METHIONINE METHYLTRANSFERASE EXHIBIT ENHANCED POTENTIAL FOR SELENIUM PHPYTOREMEDIATION UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effective use of phytoremediation of Se as a clean-up technology could be enhanced by improving the ability of plants to accumulate Se. In this regar, three transgenic Indican mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) lines were tested under field conditions for their ability to accumulate selenium...

  1. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (sinapis arvensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of the Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS...

  2. Identification of Genes Involved in Wild Crucifer Rorippa indica Resistance Response on Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bandopadhyay, Lekha; Basu, Debabrata; Sikdar, Samir Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach is a perpetual annual threat in the cultivation of rapeseed- mustard (Brassica spp.) crop in tropical and sub-tropical climate. Cultivated Brassica germplasm has failed so far to provide any source of resistance. Wild germplasm is a potential source of resistance against many threatening herbivores. On wild germplasm screening, we noted that the wild crucifer Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern confers resistance against L. erysimi. In the present study L. erysimi challenged transcriptome of R. indica was compared to un-infested R. indica sample to get a molecular insight about the aphid resistance mechanism and identify the candidate defense response genes. Cloning, sequencing and in silico sequence analysis of complimentary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism identified 116 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments revealed thirty candidates which are from different functional categories including redox regulation, signalling, photosynthesis, structure, metabolism, defense response as well as a few of unknown function. Twenty four identifications were then studied by quantitative real time RT PCR analysis at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hour time point post infestation to understand the early-to-late defense response through their relative gene expression profiles. Seventeen fragments showed significant up or down regulation at p<0.05 level. The response was influenced by different phytohormonal signalling pathways simultaneously. The candidate defense response expressed sequence tags specifically for the resistance genes identified in this study have implication in building desired mustard aphid resistance in susceptible rapeseed-mustard plants in future. This is the first molecular report on crucifer defense response against mustard aphid L. erysimi. PMID:24040008

  3. Identification of genes involved in wild crucifer Rorippa indica resistance response on mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi challenge.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyay, Lekha; Basu, Debabrata; Sikdar, Samir Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (L.) Kaltenbach is a perpetual annual threat in the cultivation of rapeseed- mustard (Brassica spp.) crop in tropical and sub-tropical climate. Cultivated Brassica germplasm has failed so far to provide any source of resistance. Wild germplasm is a potential source of resistance against many threatening herbivores. On wild germplasm screening, we noted that the wild crucifer Rorippa indica (L.) Hiern confers resistance against L. erysimi. In the present study L. erysimi challenged transcriptome of R. indica was compared to un-infested R. indica sample to get a molecular insight about the aphid resistance mechanism and identify the candidate defense response genes. Cloning, sequencing and in silico sequence analysis of complimentary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism identified 116 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments revealed thirty candidates which are from different functional categories including redox regulation, signalling, photosynthesis, structure, metabolism, defense response as well as a few of unknown function. Twenty four identifications were then studied by quantitative real time RT PCR analysis at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hour time point post infestation to understand the early-to-late defense response through their relative gene expression profiles. Seventeen fragments showed significant up or down regulation at p<0.05 level. The response was influenced by different phytohormonal signalling pathways simultaneously. The candidate defense response expressed sequence tags specifically for the resistance genes identified in this study have implication in building desired mustard aphid resistance in susceptible rapeseed-mustard plants in future. This is the first molecular report on crucifer defense response against mustard aphid L. erysimi. PMID:24040008

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  5. Free radical production from the interaction of 2-chloroethyl vesicants (mustard gas) with pyridine nucleotide-driven flavoprotein electron transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brimfield, A.A. Mancebo, A.M.; Mason, R.P.; Jiang, J.J.; Siraki, A.G.; Novak, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical sequelae to chloroethyl mustard exposure correspond very well to toxic processes initiated by free radicals. Additionally, mustard solutions contain spontaneously formed cyclic onium ions which produce carbon free radicals when reduced electrochemically. Therefore, we hypothesized that the onium ions of sulfur or nitrogen mustards might produce carbon free radicals upon being reduced enzymatically, and that these radicals might constitute a metabolic activation. We set out to document radical production using an in vitro metabolic system and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Our system consisted of NADPH, one of several pyridine nucleotide-driven flavoprotein reductases, cytochrome c as a terminal electron acceptor, various sulfur or nitrogen mustards and the spin trap {alpha}-[4-pyridyl-1-oxide]-N-tert-butylnitrone in buffer. Reactions were started by adding the reductase to the other materials, vortexing and immediately transferring the mixture to a 10 mm EPR flat cell. Repeated scans on a Bruker ESP 300E EPR spectrometer produced a triplet of doublets with hyperfine splitting constants of a{sub N} = 15.483 G and a{sub H} = 2.512 G. The outcome supported our hypothesis that carbon-centered free radicals are produced when mustard-related onium ions are enzymatically reduced. The EPR results varied little with the chloroethyl compound used or with porcine or human cytochrome P450 reductase, the reductase domain of rat brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase or rat liver thioredoxin reductase. Our results offer new insight into the basis for mustard-induced vesication and the outcome of exposure to different mustards. The free radical model provides an explanation for similarities in the lesions arising from mustard exposure and energy-based lesions such as those from heat, ultraviolet and nuclear radiation as well as damage across tissue types such as skin, eyes or airway epithelium.

  6. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    PubMed

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:25986970

  7. Cancer of the larynx and other occupational hazards of mustard gas workers

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, K.P.; Skegg, D.C.; Stell, P.M.; Doll, R.

    1981-06-01

    An attempt was made to tract 511 men and women who manufactured mustard gas during the 1939-1945 war. Despite limitations in the identifying data available, 428 (84%) were traced to the end of 1974. The numbers of deaths from all neoplasms combined (45) and from all other causes (136) were slightly greater than those expected from national death rates, but not significantly so. Two deaths were attributed to carcinoma of the larynx and one to carcinoma of the trachea, compared with an expected number of 0.40 (P less than 0.02). Carcinoma of the larynx was also mentioned on the death certificate of another man. Seven subjects are known to have developed cancer of the larynx, compared with 0.75 expected (P less than 0.001). Excess mortality was also observed from cancer of the lung, pneumonia and accidents, but the excesses were small and difficult to interpret.

  8. Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

  9. Removal of sulphur mustard, sarin and simulants on impregnated silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amit; Srivastava, Avanish K; Singh, Beer; Goyal, Anshu

    2012-04-15

    Silica nanoparticles of diameter, 24-75 nm and surface area, 875 m(2)/g were synthesized using aero-gel route. Thereafter, nanoparticles were impregnated with reactive chemicals, and used as reactive adsorbent to study the removal of toxic nerve and blister chemical warfare agents and their simulants from solutions. Trichloroisocyanuric acid impregnated silica nanoparticles showed the best performance and indicated physisorption followed by chemisorption/degradation of toxicants. This indicated their suitability as universal decontaminant for nerve and blister agents. This system showed a decrease in t(1/2) from 1210 to 2.8 min for the removal of king of chemical warfare agents, i.e., sulphur mustard. Hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation and oxidation reactions were found to be the route of degradation of toxicants over impregnated silica nanoparticles. PMID:21871717

  10. Determination of nitrogen mustard degradation products in water samples using a portable capillary electrophoresis instrument.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    In this work, a new purpose-made portable CE instrument with a contactless conductivity detector was used for the determination of degradation products of nitrogen mustards in different water samples. The capillary was coated with poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) to avoid analyte-wall interactions. The coating procedure was studied to obtain the best repeatability of the migration time of the analytes. Four different coating procedures were compared; flushing the capillary with the copolymer at 100 psi for 2 min at 60°C provided the best RSD values (<4%). The analytical method was also optimized. The use of 20 mM of MES adjusted to pH 6.0 with His as running buffer allowed a good baseline separation of the three analytes in different water samples without matrix interferences. The method permitted the detection of the three degradation products down to 5 μM. PMID:23686627

  11. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  12. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2–4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2–4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set. PMID:27066163

  13. Bullous pemphigoid. Occurrence in a patient with mycosis fungoides receiving PUVA and topical nitrogen mustard therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.W.; Ali, M.; Murray, J.C.; Hazra, T.A.

    1985-04-01

    A 57-year-old woman with mycosis fungoides developed blisters within cutaneous plaques while receiving PUVA therapy and topical nitrogen mustard. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies showed the findings of bullous pemphigoid. Her bullous disease was controlled after cessation of these therapies and institution of prednisone and methotrexate. During the 5 months following completion of a course of electron-beam therapy, she has been free of the cutaneous manifestations of both diseases. Previous instances of PUVA-related pemphigoid have occurred in psoriatics. The role of ultraviolet light in the induction of pemphigoid is discussed, particularly with regard to its possible interaction with the altered skin of psoriasis or mycosis fungoides. Some of the rare cases of bullous mycosis fungoides might actually have represented ultraviolet-unmasked bullous pemphigoid.

  14. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set. PMID:27066163

  15. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard. PMID:25895272

  16. Genotypic Variation in the Phytoremediation Potential of Indian Mustard for Chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2008-05-01

    The term “phytoremediation” is used to describe the cleanup of heavy metals from contaminated sites by plants. This study demonstrates phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard ( Brasicca juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.) genotypes for chromium (Cr). Seedlings of 10 genotypes were grown hydroponically in artificially contaminated water over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr (VI), and the responses of genotypes in the presence of Cr, with reference to Cr accumulation, its phytotoxity and anti-oxidative system were investigated. The Cr accumulation potential varied largely among Indian mustard genotypes. At 100 μM Cr treatment, Pusa Jai Kisan accumulated the maximum amount of Cr (1680 μg Cr g-1 DW) whereas Vardhan accumulated the minimum (107 μg Cr g-1 DW). As the tolerance of metals is a key plant characteristic required for phytoremediation purpose, effects of various levels of Cr on biomass were evaluated as the gross effect. The extent of oxidative stress caused by Cr stress was measured as rate of lipid peroxidation. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was enhanced at all Cr treatments when compared to the control. Inductions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants were monitored as metal-detoxifying responses. All the genotypes responded to Cr-induced oxidative stress by modulating nonenzymatic antioxidants [glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (Asc)] and enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The level of induction, however, differed among the genotypes, being at its maximum in Pusa Jai Kisan and its minimum in Vardhan. Pusa Jai Kisan was grown under natural field conditions with various Cr treatments, and Cr-accumulation capacity was studied. The results confirmed that Pusa Jai Kisan is a hyperaccumulator of Cr and hypertolerant to Cr-induced stress, which makes this genotype a viable candidate for use in the development of

  17. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil).

    PubMed

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura; da Silva, Glenda Nicioli; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm the role of AITC as a potential antiproliferative compound that modulates gene expression according to the tumor cell TP53 genotype. PMID:25771977

  18. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of heme oxygenase expression in response to sulfur mustard.

    PubMed

    Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent which reacts with nucleophilic groups on DNA, RNA and proteins. It is capable of inducing cellular toxicity and oxidative stress via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The accumulation of high amounts of the reactive species causes harmful effects such as DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis. Although SM (also known as mustard gas) and its derivatives are rapidly removed from the body, long-term damages are much more serious than the short-term effects and may be correlated with the subsequent changes occurred on the genome. In order to defend against oxidative properties of this toxic molecule, cells trigger several anti-oxidant pathways through up-regulating the corresponding genes. Enzymes like heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase are the examples of such genes. These enzymes produce anti-oxidant substances that are able to scavenge the reactive species, alleviate their noxious effects and protect the cells. Following SM gas exposure, gene transcription (mRNA levels) of these enzymes are ramped up to help detoxify the cells. Yet, some studies have reported that the up-regulated transcription does not necessarily translate into higher protein expression levels. The exact reason why this phenomenon happens is not clear. Creation of mutations in the genome sequence may lead to protein structure changes. Phosphorylation or other post-translational alterations of proteins upon SM exposure are also considered as possible causes. In addition, alterations in some microRNAs responsible for regulating post-translation events may inhibit the expression of the anti-oxidant proteins in the poisoned cells at translational level. PMID:26096165

  19. Architectural and Biochemical Expressions of Mustard Gas Keratopathy: Preclinical Indicators and Pathogenic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, Patrick; Lyman, Megan; Swartz, Adam; Tuznik, Kaylie; Kniffin, Denise; Whitten, Kim; Milhorn, Denise; Hamilton, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    A subset of victims of ocular sulfur mustard (SM) exposure develops an irreversible, idiotypic keratitis with associated secondary pathologies, collectively referred to as mustard gas keratopathy (MGK). MGK involves a progressive corneal degeneration resulting in chronic ocular discomfort and impaired vision for which clinical interventions have typically had poor outcomes. Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae similar to that observed in human casualties. However, a better understanding of the temporal changes that occur during the biphasic SM injury is crucial to mechanistic understanding and therapeutic development. Here we evaluate the histopathologic, biochemical and ultrastructural expressions of pathogenesis of the chronic SM injury over eight weeks. We confirm that MGK onset exhibits a biphasic trajectory involving corneal surface regeneration over the first two weeks, followed by the rapid development and progressive degeneration of corneal structure. Preclinical markers of corneal dysfunction were identified, including destabilization of the basal corneal epithelium, basement membrane zone abnormalities and stromal deformation. Clinical sequelae of MGK appeared abruptly three weeks after exposure, and included profound anterior edema, recurring corneal erosions, basement membrane disorganization, basal cell necrosis and stromal degeneration. Unlike resolved corneas, MGK corneas exhibited frustrated corneal wound repair, with significantly elevated histopathology scores. Increased lacrimation, disruption of the basement membrane and accumulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in the aqueous humor provide several mechanisms for corneal degeneration. These data suggest that the chronic injury is fundamentally distinct from the acute lesion, involving injury mechanisms that operate on different time scales and in different corneal tissues. Corneal edema appears to be the

  20. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. PMID:25791923

  1. Impacts of mustard gas exposure on veterans mental health: A study on the role of education

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Gholam-Reza; Ameli, Javad; Roeintan, Rahim; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Saburi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The mustard gas (MG) exposure can impair physical health and therefore increase the probability of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of MG exposure on veterans’ mental health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In order to assess prevalence of mental health and PTSD of 100 MG victims 25 years after the exposure to MG in Iran-Iraq conflict, the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively was administered. Results: The mean (±standard deviation (SD)) age of participants was 40.63 (±5.86) years. The mean GHQ-28 (47.34) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cutoff point (23) of the Iranian community. Also, it was found that 38 participants (38%) suffer from PTSD. The results of this study showed that academic education in the PTSD group was less than that in the non-PTSD group (P=0.03). In addition, in multivariate analysis it was found that only education level of the veterans and their wives were effective on the mental health score (adjusted P=0.036 and 0.041, respectively). The mean score of depression and psychosocial activity subscale in patients at higher education level was lower than patients at lower education level (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study found that sulfur mustard (SM) exposure can be effect on mental health even 25 years after exposure. Therefore, the psychological state should be more considered in chemical injured veterans and it is important that providing more mental health centers for this community. PMID:24459369

  2. Chronic alteration in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate levels regulates capsaicin and mustard oil responses

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mayur J.; Belugin, Sergei; Akopian, Armen N.

    2011-01-01

    There is an agreement that acute (in minutes) hydrolysis and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) modulate TRPV1 and TRPA1 activities. Since inflammation results in PIP2 depletion, persisting for long periods (hours-to-days) in pain models and in clinic, we examined whether chronic depletion and accumulation of PIP2 affects capsaicin and mustard oil responses. In addition we also wanted to evaluate whether the effects of PIP2 depend on TRPV1 and TRPA1 co-expression, and whether the PIP2 actions vary in expression cells versus sensory neurons. Chronic PIP2 production was stimulated by over-expression of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase, while PIP2-specific phospholipid 5′-phosphatase was selected to reduce plasma membrane levels of PIP2. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin (100 nM; CAP) responses and receptor tachyphylaxis are not significantly influenced by chronic changes in PIP2 levels in wild-type (WT) or TRPA1 null-mutant sensory neurons, as well as CHO cells expressing TRPV1 alone or with TRPA1. However, low concentrations of CAP (20 nM) produced a higher response after PIP2 depletion in cells containing TRPV1 alone, but not TRPV1 together with TRPA1. Mustard oil (25 μM; MO) responses were also not affected by PIP2 in WT sensory neurons and cells co-expressing TRPA1 and TRPV1. In contrast, PIP2 reduction leads to pronounced tachyphylaxis to MO in cells with both channels. Chronic effect of PIP2 on TRPA1 activity depends on presence of the TRPV1 channel and cell type (CHO vs. sensory neurons). In summary, chronic alterations in PIP2 levels regulate magnitude of CAP and MO responses, as well as MO-tachyphylaxis. This regulation depends on co-expression profile of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and cell type. PMID:21337373

  3. Acute and chronic effects of sulfur mustard on the skin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Harandi, Ali Amini; Emadi, Seyed Emad; Emadi, Seyed Naser

    2010-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2-dichlorodiethyl sulfide, SM) is one of the vesicant classes of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering in the skin and mucous membranes, where it can have lingering long-term effects for up to ten years (1). SM was employed extensively by the Iraqi army against not only Iranian soldiers but also civilians between 1983 and 1988, resulting in over 100,000 chemical casualties. Approximately 45,000 victims are still suffering from long-term effects of exposure (2,3). More than 90% of the patients exposed to SM exhibit various cutaneous lesions in the affected area. The human skin can absorb approximately 20% of the SM through exposure. Up to 70% of the chemical is concentrated in the epidermis and the remainder in the basement membrane and in the dermis (4).Sulfur mustard exists in different physical states. The liquid form of SM evaporates slowly in cold weather and can penetrate through the clothing, thereby increasing exposure. However, the gas form readily diffuses in the air and it can be inhaled, leading to systemic absorption. In addition, warm temperatures are ideal conditions that liquid SM present in the clothing of the exposed individual could be converted to gas form. SM-induced clinical cutaneous symptoms include itching and burning. Other clinical findings include erythema or painless sunburn, bulla, hypo- and hyper pigmentation in both exposed and unexposed areas (5,6) The mechanism and biochemical cascade of SM-induced cutaneous manifestations are not completely understood but several published pathways support many of the know facts. Our current understanding fails to explain the time interval between the acute chemical exposure and the late-onset and delayed tissue damage (7,8). The aim of this article is to review the acute and long-term cutaneous findings resulting from SM exposure. Also, cellular and molecular mechanism involved in SM-induced skin pathology have been discussed. PMID:20868209

  4. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethyl)amine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks. PMID:25688587

  5. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus).

    PubMed

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Karanam, Sita Kumari; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds) was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation. PMID:24516460

  6. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus)

    PubMed Central

    Imandi, Sarat Babu; Karanam, Sita Kumari; Garapati, Hanumantha Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds) was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation. PMID:24516460

  7. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Saber; Panahi, Yunes; Salimian, Jafar; Fu, Junjiang; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl) sulphide) is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs expression. It seems SM can induce the epigenetic modifications that are translated into change in gene expression. Classification of epigenetic modifications long after exposure to SM would clarify its mechanism and paves a better strategy for the treatment of SM-affected patients. In this study, we review the key aberrant epigenetic modifications that have important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compared with mustard lung. PMID:26557960

  8. The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. , Macnaughton, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

  9. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study.

    PubMed

    Imani, Saber; Panahi, Yunes; Salimian, Jafar; Fu, Junjiang; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2015-08-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl) sulphide) is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs expression. It seems SM can induce the epigenetic modifications that are translated into change in gene expression. Classification of epigenetic modifications long after exposure to SM would clarify its mechanism and paves a better strategy for the treatment of SM-affected patients. In this study, we review the key aberrant epigenetic modifications that have important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compared with mustard lung. PMID:26557960

  10. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    PubMed

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment. PMID:27229135

  11. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process. PMID:25765856

  12. Study the density, ultrasonic and compressibility of binary mixture of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol and mustard oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monupal, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    The ultrasonic velocities, compressibility and bulk modulus of binary mixtures of aqueous solution of isopropyl alcohol with mustard oil have been measured at different concentrations at room temperature. The results are varied with the concentration in such a way i.e. ultrasonic velocity and Bulk Modulus is decreases with the increase in concentration and compressibility is increases with the increase in concentration of aqueous isopropyl alcohol. It is due to molecular interactions present in the mixtures.

  13. Elicitation of jasmonate-mediated host defense in Brassica juncea (L.) attenuates population growth of mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Kaur, Amandeep; Negi, Manisha; Venkatachalam, Perumal; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2014-07-01

    The productivity of Brassica oilseeds is severely affected by its major pest: aphids. Unavailability of resistance source within the crossable germplasms has stalled the breeding efforts to derive aphid resistant cultivars. In this study, jasmonate-mediated host defense in Indian mustard Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. was evaluated and compared with regard to its elicitation in response to mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) and the defense elicitor methyl jasmonate (MeJ). Identification of jasmonate-induced unigenes in B. juncea revealed that most are orthologous to aphid-responsive genes, identified in taxonomically diverse plant-aphid interactions. The unigenes largely represented genes related to signal transduction, response to biotic and abiotic stimuli and homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in addition to genes related to cellular and metabolic processes involved in cell organization, biogenesis, and development. Gene expression studies revealed induction of the key jasmonate biosynthetic genes (LOX, AOC, 12-OPDR), redox genes (CAT3 and GST6), and other downstream defense genes (PAL, ELI3, MYR, and TPI) by several folds, both in response to MeJ and plant-wounding. However, interestingly aphid infestation even after 24 h did not elicit any activation of these genes. In contrast, when the jasmonate-mediated host defense was elicited by exogenous application of MeJ the treated B. juncea plants showed a strong antibiosis effect on the infesting aphids and reduced the growth of aphid populations. The level of redox enzymes CAT, APX, and SOD, involved in ROS homeostasis in defense signaling, and several defense enzymes viz. POD, PPO, and PAL, remained high in treated plants. We conclude that in B. juncea, the jasmonate activated endogenous-defense, which is not effectively activated in response to mustard aphids, has the potential to reduce population growth of mustard aphids. PMID:24771023

  14. Atopic dermatitis-associated protein interaction network lead to new insights in chronic sulfur mustard skin lesion mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mojtaba; Jafari, Mohieddin; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Davoodi, Seyed-Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Chronic sulfur mustard skin lesions (CSMSLs) are the most common complications of sulfur mustard exposure; however, its mechanism is not completely understood.According to clinical signs, there are similarities between CSMSL and atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, proteomic results of AD were reviewed and the AD-associated protein-protein interaction network (PIN) was analyzed. According to centrality measurements, 16 proteins were designated as pivotal elements in AD mechanisms. Interestingly, most of these proteins had been reported in some sulfur mustard-related studies in late and acute phases separately. Based on the gene enrichment analysis, aging, cell response to stress, cancer, Toll- and NOD-like receptor and apoptosis signaling pathways have the greatest impact on the disease. By the analysis of directed protein interaction networks, it is concluded that TNF, IL-6, AKT1, NOS3 and CDKN1A are the most important proteins. It is possible that these proteins play role in the shared complications of AD and CSMSL including xerosis and itching. PMID:24117202

  15. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. PMID:23411305

  16. Screening of nitrogen mustards and their degradation products in water and decontamination solution by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hoe-Chee; Lee, Hoi-Sim; Sng, Mui-Tiang

    2006-01-13

    Analysing nitrogen mustards and their degradation products in decontamination emulsions posed a significant challenge due to the different phases present in such matrices. Extensive sample preparation may be required to isolate target analytes. Furthermore, numerous reaction products are formed in the decontamination emulsion. A fast and effective qualitative screening procedure was developed for these compounds, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This eliminated the need for additional sample handling and derivatisation that are required for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. A liquid chromatograph with mixed mode column and isocratic elution gave good chromatography. The feasibility of applying this technique for detecting these compounds in spiked water and decontamination emulsion was demonstrated. Detailed characterisation of the degradation products in these two matrices was carried out. The results demonstrated that N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) are not the major degradation products of their respective nitrogen mustards. Degradation profiles of nitrogen mustards in water were also established. In verification analysis, it is important not only to develop methods for the identification of the actual chemical agents; the methods must also encompass degradation products of the chemical agents as well so as to exclude false negatives. This study demonstrated the increasingly pivotal role that LC-MS play in verification analysis. PMID:16310795

  17. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years. PMID:19054545

  18. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. PMID:23735551

  19. The role of root damage in the chelate-enhanced accumulation of lead by Indian mustard plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunling; Shen, Zhenguo; Li, Xiangdong; Baker, Alan J M

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, increasing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) concentration from 0 to 0.5 mmol L(-1) resulted in progressive increases in root elongation and in shoot and root dry matter (DM) of Indian mustard seedlings (Brassica juncea. L.) exposed at 0.5 mmol L(-1) of lead (Pb). The highest concentration of Pb in the shoots of Indian mustard reached 1140 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) in the treatment with 0.5 mmol L(-1) of Pb + 0.25 mmol L(-1) of EDTA. A significantly positive correlation was found between the concentrations of Pb and EDTA in the shoots of mustard. Roots were pretreated with an MC (methanol:trichloromethane) solution, 0.1 mol L(-1) of HCl, and 65 degrees C hot water. The plants were then exposed to 0.5 mmol L(-1) of Pb + 3 mmol L(-1) of EDTA in solution for 2 d. The pretreatments with MC, HCl, and hot water all increased the concentration of Pb in shoots by 14-, 7-, and 15-fold, respectively, compared with the shoots that had not been pretreated. Therefore, some physiological damage to roots would be useful to enhance the uptake of metal by plants and to minimize the application of doses of chelates in the practical operation of chelate-assisted phytoremediation. PMID:17305306

  20. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  1. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. ‘a’. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In

  2. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2016-01-01

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  3. Airway Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Acute Mortality Due to Lethal Sulfur Mustard Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Veress, Livia A.; Anderson, Dana R.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Houin, Paul R.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; Loader, Joan E.; Paradiso, Danielle C.; Smith, Russell W.; Rancourt, Raymond C.; Holmes, Wesley W.; White, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical weapon stockpiled today in volatile regions of the world. SM inhalation causes a life-threatening airway injury characterized by airway obstruction from fibrin casts, which can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is more than 80%. No therapy exists to prevent mortality after SM exposure. Our previous work using the less toxic analog of SM, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, identified tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) an effective rescue therapy for airway cast obstruction (Veress, L. A., Hendry-Hofer, T. B., Loader, J. E., Rioux, J. S., Garlick, R. B., and White, C. W. (2013). Tissue plasminogen activator prevents mortality from sulfur mustard analog-induced airway obstruction. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 48, 439–447). It is not known if exposure to neat SM vapor, the primary agent used in chemical warfare, will also cause death due to airway casts, and if tPA could be used to improve outcome. Methods: Adult rats were exposed to SM, and when oxygen saturation reached less than 85% (median: 6.5 h), intratracheal tPA or placebo was given under isoflurane anesthesia every 4 h for 48 h. Oxygen saturation, clinical distress, and arterial blood gases were assessed. Microdissection was done to assess airway obstruction by casts. Results: Intratracheal tPA treatment eliminated mortality (0% at 48 h) and greatly improved morbidity after lethal SM inhalation (100% death in controls). tPA normalized SM-associated hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and lactic acidosis, and improved respiratory distress. Moreover, tPA treatment resulted in greatly diminished airway casts, preventing respiratory failure from airway obstruction. Conclusions: tPA given via airway more than 6 h after exposure prevented death from lethal SM inhalation, and normalized oxygenation and ventilation defects, thereby rescuing from respiratory distress and failure. Intra-airway tPA should be considered as a life

  4. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  5. Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuter, Kelly A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David S.; Su, Jianping; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Narula, Navneet; Guo, Shuguang; Wakida, Nicole; Raub, Chris; Berns, Michael W.; George, Steven C.; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution imaging technology capable of delivering real-time, near-histologic images of tissues. Mustard gas is a vesicant-blistering agent that can cause severe and lethal damage to airway and lungs. The ability to detect and assess airway injury in the clinical setting of mustard exposure is currently limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability to detect and monitor progression of half-mustard [2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES)] airway injuries with OCT techniques. A ventilated rabbit mustard exposure airway injury model is developed. A flexible fiber optic OCT probe is introduced into the distal trachea to image airway epithelium and mucosa in vivo. Progression of airway injury is observed over eight hours with OCT using a prototype time-domain superluminescent diode OCT system. OCT tracheal images from CEES exposed animals are compared to control rabbits for airway mucosal thickening and other changes. OCT detects the early occurrence and progression of dramatic changes in the experimental group after exposure to CEES. Histology and immunofluorescence staining confirms this finding. OCT has the potential to be a high resolution imaging modality capable of detecting, assessing, and monitoring treatment for airway injury following mustard vesicant agent exposures.

  6. Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Kelly A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David S.; Su, Jianping; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Narula, Navneet; Guo, Shuguang; Wakida, Nicole; Raub, Chris; Berns, Michael W.; George, Steven C.; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, high-resolution imaging technology capable of delivering real-time, near-histologic images of tissues. Mustard gas is a vesicant-blistering agent that can cause severe and lethal damage to airway and lungs. The ability to detect and assess airway injury in the clinical setting of mustard exposure is currently limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability to detect and monitor progression of half-mustard [2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES)] airway injuries with OCT techniques. A ventilated rabbit mustard exposure airway injury model is developed. A flexible fiber optic OCT probe is introduced into the distal trachea to image airway epithelium and mucosa in vivo. Progression of airway injury is observed over eight hours with OCT using a prototype time-domain superluminescent diode OCT system. OCT tracheal images from CEES exposed animals are compared to control rabbits for airway mucosal thickening and other changes. OCT detects the early occurrence and progression of dramatic changes in the experimental group after exposure to CEES. Histology and immunofluorescence staining confirms this finding. OCT has the potential to be a high resolution imaging modality capable of detecting, assessing, and monitoring treatment for airway injury following mustard vesicant agent exposures. PMID:19725748

  7. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    PubMed

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  8. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Long; Tao, Zong-Ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2016-08-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. PMID:27156168

  9. Polysaccharides in germination. Xyloglucans (`amyloids') from the cotyledons of white mustard

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Sheila E. B.; Rees, D. A.; Wight, N. J.

    1971-01-01

    Two xyloglucan fractions have been isolated from the cotyledons of resting white-mustard seeds, the first by extraction with hot EDTA, and the second by subsequent extraction with alkali or lithium thiocyanate. Although both appear to have the `amyloid' type of structure in which chains of (1→4)-linked β-d-glucopyranose residues carry d-xylose-rich side chains through position 6, these side chains are rather different in structure in the two polysaccharide fractions, and the second or `insoluble' xyloglucan has fewer of them. The side chains in both polysaccharides are also different from those in other seed amyloids, especially in having xylose linked through positions 3 and 4 (instead of through position 2 as usual) and in containing fucose residues. Both polysaccharides show the characteristic blue `amyloid' colour with iodine in the presence of sodium sulphate, and it is suggested that this arises by the interaction of iodine molecules and possibly iodide ions within the interstices between aggregated xyloglucan chains. `Soluble' xyloglucan is metabolized during germination and is presumed to have a reserve function. `Insoluble' xyloglucan is metabolized less completely over the period studied but its lack of turnover during cell-wall differentiation indicates that it also is a reserve. These and other β-(1→4)-linked reserve polysaccharides of seeds might also have a structural function which is of particular value for the survival of the dormant seed. PMID:5001672

  10. Lack of FLT3-TKD835 gene mutation in toxicity of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Rafiee, Mohammad; Keramati, Mohammad-Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Asgharzadeh, Ali; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Sheikhi, Maryam; Amini, Nafiseh; Zarmehri, Azam Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Sulfur mustard (SM) was used by the Iraqi army against the Iranian troops in the Iran-Iraq war from 1983–1988. This chemical gas affects different organs including the skin, lungs and the hematopoietic system. Any exposure to SM increases the risk of chromosomal breaking, hyperdiploidy and hypodiploidy. Studies have shown that the risk for acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia increases in veterans exposed to SM. FLT3 mutations including ITD and TKD mutations had been observed in some cases of leukemia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the frequency of FLT3-TKD835 mutations in the veterans exposed to SM agent. Materials and Methods: We studied 42 patients who were exposed to SM during the war in Khorasan Razavi province, Mashhad, Iran in 2012. As control group, 30 healthy males were selected from first-degree relatives of the patients. For assessment of TKD835 mutation, DNA was extracted and RFLP-PCR was performed. Results: Analysis of RFLP-PCR data showed no FLT-3 TKD mutation in any of the patients. Conclusion: Although contact with SM can increase the risk of malignancy especially hematologic neoplasms, results of the study show that another mechanism of leukemogenesis, other than FLT3-TKD mutation, may be the reason for increased risk of leukemia in SM toxicity. PMID:26523218

  11. [Long-term complications of sulfur mustard exposure: a therapeutic update].

    PubMed

    Shiyovich, Arthur; Rosman, Yossi; Krivoy, Amir; Statlender, Liran; Kassirer, Michael; Shrot, Shai

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating chemical warfare agent with high military significance due to its high toxicity, resistance and availability. SM was widely used in military conflicts, the last being the Iran-Iraq war with more than 100,000 Iranians exposed, one-third of whom are still suffering from late effects. The intensity of the delayed complications correlates to the extent, the area and the route of exposure. The clinical manifestations most commonly involve respiratory, ocular and dermal effects. Respiratory complications include dyspnea, cough and expectorations and various obstructive and restrictive lung diseases. Dermal complications are itching, burning sensation, blisters, dry skin, dermatitis and pigmentary changes. Ocular complications include photophobia, red eye, tearing, corneal ulcers and blindness. Although the picture remains incomplete the major mechanisms responsible for the clinical and pathological effects of SM are: DNA alkylation and cross-linking, protein modification and membrane damage in addition to induction of inflammatory mediators in the target tissues causing extensive necrosis, apoptosis and loss of tissue structure. The current report reviews long-term complications of SM exposure, focusing on new treatments tested in clinical trials conducted on humans. Such treatments include: N-acetyl cysteine, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, Interferon-gamma, furosemide and morphine for the respiratory complications. Ocular complications may entail: Invasive procedures treating corneal complication, limbal ischemia and stem cell deficiency. Treatment for dermatological complications include: anti-depressants, pimercrolimus, Unna's boot, capsaicin, phenol and menthol, Aloe vera and olive oil, curcumin and Interferon-gamma. PMID:24791566

  12. Sulfur Mustard Research—Strategies for the Development of Improved Medical Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kehe, Kai; Balszuweit, Frank; Emmler, Judith; Kreppel, Helmut; Jochum, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating substance being used as chemical warfare agent (vesicant). It is still regarded as a significant threat in chemical warfare and terrorism. Exposure to SM produces cutaneous blisters, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract injury, eye lesions, and bone marrow depression. Victims of World War I as well as those of the Iran-Iraq war have suffered from devastating chronic health impairment. Even decades after exposure, severe long-term effects like chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, recurrent corneal ulcer disease, chronic conjunctivitis, abnormal pigmentation of the skin, and different forms of cancer have been diagnosed. Methods: This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature and own results concerning detection, organ toxicity of SM, its proposed toxicodynamic actions, and strategies for the development of improved medical therapy. Results: Despite extensive research efforts during the last century, efficient antidotes against SM have not yet been generated because its mechanism of action is not fully understood. However, deeper insights into these mechanisms gained in the last decade and promising developments of new drugs now offer new chances to minimize SM-induced organ damage and late effects. Conclusion: Polymerase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and probably regulators of DNA damage repair are identified as promising approaches to improve treatment. PMID:18615149

  13. Evaluation of barrier creams against sulphur mustard. I. In vitro studies using human skin.

    PubMed

    Chilcott, Robert P; Jenner, John; Hotchkiss, Sharon A M; Rice, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a range of passive and reactive barrier cream formulations against the chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM) using an in vitro diffusion cell system containing human skin. In general, proprietary formulations were relatively effective under occluded conditions, but ineffective under unoccluded conditions. For example, SM skin absorption rates through occluded control and Stokoderm pre-treated skin were 538 +/- 193 and 200 +/- 51 microg x cm(-2) x h(-1), respectively (p < 0.05). Under unoccluded conditions, control and Stokoderm pre-treated skin absorption rates were 4.41 +/- 1.90 and 36.84 +/- 15.19 microg x cm(-2) x h(-1) (p < 0.05). Novel (perfluorinated) barrier creams were generally more effective under unoccluded conditions; pre-treatment with one formulation led to an 18-fold reduction in skin absorption rate and reduced the total amount of SM penetrated by 95% of the applied dose. Several proprietary formulations also had adverse effects on the effectiveness of the skin decontaminant fuller's earth. The rate (Jss) and total amount (percentage of dose) of SM absorbed through the skin were deemed to be independent parameters of barrier cream performance. These data indicate that (1) perceived conditions of use, (2) compatibility with existing protective equipment and (3) the rate and extent of SM skin absorption must all be taken into account when evaluating barrier creams in vitro. PMID:12218284

  14. Inhalation Exposure Systems for the Development of Rodent Models of Sulfur Mustard-Induced Pulmonary Injury

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Waylon M.; Kracko, Dean A.; Lehman, Mericka R.; Irvin, Clinton M.; Blair, Lee F.; White, Richard K.; Benson, Janet M.; Grotendorst, Gary R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; McDonald, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical threat agent for which its effects have no current treatment. Due to the ease of synthesis and dispersal of this material, the need to develop therapeutics is evident. The present manuscript details the techniques used to develop SM laboratory exposure systems for the development of animal models of pulmonary injury. These models are critical for evaluating SM injury and developing therapeutics against that injury. Iterative trials were conducted to optimize a lung injury model. The resulting pathology was used as a guide, with a goal of effecting homogeneous and diffuse lung injury comparable to that of human injury. Inhalation exposures were conducted by either nose-only inhalation or intubated inhalation. The exposures were conducted to either directly vaporized SM or SM that was nebulized from an ethanol solution. Inhalation of SM by nose-only inhalation resulted in severe nasal epithelial degeneration and minimal lung injury. The reactivity of SM did not permit it to transit past the upper airways to promote lower airway injury. Intratracheal inhalation of SM vapors at a concentration of 5400 mg · min/m3 resulted in homogeneous lung injury with no nasal degeneration. PMID:20025432

  15. The Drosophila protein Mustard tailors the innate immune response activated by the IMD pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Berkey, Cristin D.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a Drosophila melanogaster transposon insertion mutant with tolerance to V. cholerae infection and markedly decreased transcription of diptericin as well as other genes regulated by the IMD innate immunity signaling pathway. We present genetic evidence that this insertion affects a locus previously implicated in pupal eclosion. This genetic locus, which we have named mustard (mtd), contains a LysM domain, often involved in carbohydrate recognition, and a TLDc domain of unknown function. Over twenty Mtd isoforms containing one or both of these conserved domains are predicted. We establish that the mutant phenotype represents a gain of function and can be replicated by increased expression of a short, nuclearly localized Mtd isoform comprised almost entirely of the TLDc domain. We show that this Mtd isoform does not block Relish cleavage or translocation into the nucleus. Lastly, we present evidence suggesting that the eclosion defect previously attributed to the Mtd locus may be the result of the unopposed action of the NF-κB homolog, Relish. Mtd homologs have been implicated in resistance to oxidative stress. However, this is the first evidence that Mtd or its homologs alter the output of an innate immunity signaling cascade from within the nucleus. PMID:22427641

  16. Activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by sulfur mustard in HeLa cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, O.E.; Smith, W.J.

    1993-05-13

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) E.C.2.4.2.30 has been proposed to play a key role in the NAD+ depletion following alkylation of DNA in sulfur mustard (HD) exposures. Papirmeister et al. (Fundam Appl Toxicol 5:Sl34, 1985) hypothesized that activation of PADPRP was central to the subsequent depletion of NAD+ and activation of proteolytic enzymes leading to vesication. NAD+ depletion following HD exposure has been previously documented and the results have been used to infer the effect of HD exposure on PADPRP. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate the direct effect of HD on PADPRP activity. HeLa cells culture were used as the model system. At 10 microns HD PADPRP activity was increased above the levels of controls in the first hour. The activity peaked at 4 hrs and by 6 hrs had returned to control levels. The 24-hour level of PADPRP activity was again elevated above the controls. The 100 microns HD exposures had maximal enzymatic response in HeLa cells within the first hour. The level had decreased 40% from the maximum by the second hour reaching a plateau at 30% of the maximum response after 4 hrs. Cells exposed to 100 microns HD showed enzyme levels at or below those seen with the 10 microns dose after 24 hours. The doses of HD used did not decrease viability as measured by trypan blue dye exclusion within 24 hr.

  17. Nitric Oxide Alleviates Salt Stress Inhibited Photosynthetic Performance by Interacting with Sulfur Assimilation in Mustard.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur (S) on stomatal responses and photosynthetic performance was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 μM NO (as sodium nitroprusside) and 200 mg S kg(-1) soil (S) more prominently influenced stomatal behavior, photosynthetic and growth performance both in the absence and presence of salt stress. The chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized chloroplast thylakoids, but combined application of NO and S resulted in well-developed chloroplast thylakoids and properly stacked grana. The leaves from plants receiving NO plus S exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress than the plants receiving NO or S. These plants also exhibited increased activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants receiving NO plus S resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH). These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation. The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic performance of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received S. PMID:27200007

  18. Non-invasive quantification of skin injury resulting from exposure to sulphur mustard and Lewisite vapours.

    PubMed

    Chilcott, R P; Brown, R F; Rice, P

    2000-05-01

    The severity and progression of skin lesions resulting from exposure to the chemical warfare agents Lewisite (L) and sulphur mustard (SM) have been investigated using the non-invasive biophysical methods of evaporimetry and reflectance spectroscopy in large white pigs in vivo. Erythema (redness) expressed immediately after exposure to L or SM vapours appeared to be related to the lesion severity as demonstrated by histopathological analysis. Skin brightness correlated well with scab formation whereas blueness (cyanosis) did not appreciably alter throughout the study. Rates of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) changed both with occlusion (during vapour exposure) and also mirrored the progression of macroscopic skin injury after 12 h. Whilst no single parameter could be used in isolation to ascertain the severity and subsequent progression of the skin lesions, measurement of erythema, skin brightness and TEWL could provide quantitative, non-invasive methods for determining the efficacy of antidotes or therapies to prevent the toxic effects of chemical warfare agents. However, neither colourimetry or TEWL provided a clinical evaluation of such lesions that were comparable with the prognostic capabilities of laser Doppler imaging. PMID:10741590

  19. Nitric Oxide Alleviates Salt Stress Inhibited Photosynthetic Performance by Interacting with Sulfur Assimilation in Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur (S) on stomatal responses and photosynthetic performance was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 μM NO (as sodium nitroprusside) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (S) more prominently influenced stomatal behavior, photosynthetic and growth performance both in the absence and presence of salt stress. The chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized chloroplast thylakoids, but combined application of NO and S resulted in well-developed chloroplast thylakoids and properly stacked grana. The leaves from plants receiving NO plus S exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress than the plants receiving NO or S. These plants also exhibited increased activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants receiving NO plus S resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH). These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation. The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic performance of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received S. PMID:27200007

  20. Mustard tuber wastewater treatment and simultaneous electricity generation using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Fu, Guokai; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Chunling

    2013-05-01

    Mustard tuber wastewater (MTWW) was utilized as fuel in the typical dual-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to recover bio-energy and to obtain effluent treatment simultaneously. The whole experiment was divided into four phases characterized by increasing contents of primary clarifier effluent (PCE). Results showed substrate1, with which MFC generated a maximum power density of 246 mW/m(2), was the most appropriate fuel in terms of power recovery and the internal resistance and columbic efficiency were 121 Ω and 67.7±1%, respectively. When feeding MFCs with substrate4, 85±0% of COD could be removed, which was the highest COD removal, however, the power retrieve efficiency was much lower. Interestingly, significantly negative correlation (P<0.01, F-test) between contents of PCE and maximum cell voltages and positive correlation between the contents and internal resistances were found. It was the complexity and colloidal particulates present in PCE that gradually increased internal resistance and accordingly decreased power-generating performance. PMID:23567712

  1. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  2. Comparative Proteomic Study Reveals the Molecular Aspects of Delayed Ocular Symptoms Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Pashandi, Zaiddodine; Saraygord-Afshari, Neda; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Naderi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent which produces ocular, respiratory, and skin damages. Eyes are the most sensitive organ to SM due to high intrinsic metabolic and rapid turnover rate of corneal epithelium and aqueous-mucous interfaces of the cornea and conjunctiva. Here we investigate underlying molecular mechanism of SM exposure delayed effects which is still a controversial issue after about 30 years. Materials and Methods. Following ethical approval, we have analyzed serum proteome of ten severe SM exposed male patients with delayed eye symptoms with two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The western blotting was used to confirm the proteins that have been identified. Results. We have identified thirteen proteins including albumin, haptoglobin, and keratin isoforms as well as immunoglobulin kappa chain which showed upregulation while transferrin and alpha 1 antitrypsin revealed downregulation in these patients in comparison with healthy control group. Conclusions. Our results elevated participation of free iron circulatory imbalance and local matrix-metalloproteinase activity in development of delayed ocular symptoms induced by SM. It demonstrates that SM induced systemic toxicity leads to some serum protein changes that continually and gradually exacerbate the ocular surface injuries. PMID:25685557

  3. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  4. Sulfur mustard-induced neutropenia: treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Dana R; Holmes, Wesley W; Lee, Robyn B; Dalal, Stephen J; Hurst, Charles G; Maliner, Beverly I; Newmark, Jonathan; Smith, William J

    2006-05-01

    Although best known as a blistering agent, sulfur mustard (HD) can also induce neutropenia in exposed individuals, increasing their susceptibility to infection. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and pegylated G-CSF (peg-G-CSF) have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as hematopoietic growth factors to treat chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of G-CSF and peg-G-CSF in ameliorating HD-induced neutropenia. African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) were challenged with HD and, at 1, 3, 5, or 7 days after exposure, G-CSF therapy (10 microg/kg per day for 21 days) was initiated. Peg-G-CSF (300 microg/kg, single treatment) was similarly tested, with treatment given at 3 days after exposure. Untreated HD-exposed animals recovered from neutropenia 28 days after exposure, whereas G-CSF- or peg-G-CSF-treated animals recovered 8 to 19 days after exposure (p < 0.05). These results indicate that G-CSF or peg-G-CSF may provide Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments that will reduce the duration of HD-induced neutropenia. PMID:16761898

  5. Effect of temperature on the desorption and decomposition of mustard from activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Karwacki, C.J.; Buchanan, J.H.; Mahle, J.J.; Buettner, L.C.; Wagner, G.W.

    1999-12-07

    Experimental data are reported for the desorption of bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, (a sulfur mustard or HD) and its decomposition products from activated coconut shell carbon (CSC). The results show that under equilibrium conditions changes in the HD partial pressure are affected primarily by its loading and temperature of the adsorbent. The partial pressure of adsorbed HD is found to increase by about a decade for each 25 C increase in temperature for CSC containing 0.01--0.1 g/g HD. Adsorption equilibria of HD appear to be little affected by coadsorbed water. Although complicated by its decomposition, the distribution of adsorbed HD (of known amount) appears to occupy pores of similar energy whether dry or in the presence of adsorbed water. On dry CSC adsorbed HD appears stable, while in the presence of water its decomposition is marked by hydrolysis at low temperature and thermal decomposition at elevated temperatures. The principal volatile products desorbed are 1,4-thioxane, 2-chloroethyl vinyl sulfide and 1,4-dithiane, with the latter favoring elevated temperatures.

  6. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Svoboda, Kathy K.; Casillas, Robert P.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Gordon, Marion K.; Gerecke, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. PMID:23357548

  7. Use of Immunohistochemistry Techniques in Patients Exposed to Sulphur Mustard Gas

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Chilosi, Marco; Mohammad Hosseini Akbari, Hassan; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Harandi, Ali Amini; Shamsaei, Hassan; Bahadori, Moslem; Tazelaar, Henry D.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a pathologic study with further using an immunohistochemical technique (using anti-p63 and anti-CK5) on tissues obtained by open lung biopsy from 18 patients with previous exposure to sulphur mustard (SM) as case group and 8 unexposed patients (control group). The most frequent pathologic diagnosis was constrictive bronchiolitis (44.4%), followed by respiratory (22.2%) and chronic cellular bronchiolitis (16.7%) in the case group, and hypersensitivity bronchiolitis (50%) in the control group. The pathologic diagnoses were significantly different in the case and control groups (P = 0.042). In slides stained by anti-p63 and anti-CK5, the percent of stained cells and the mean number of epithelial cells were lower in the case group in comparison to the control group. This difference was significant for the mean number of cells stained by anti-CK5 (P = 0.042). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between pathologic diagnosis and total number of cells and mean number of cells stained with anti-p63 and anti-CK5 (P  value = 0.002, <0.001, 0.044). These results suggest that constrictive bronchiolitis may be the major pathologic consequence of exposure to SM. Moreover, decrease of p63 in respiratory tissues affected by SM may suggest the lack of regenerative capacity in these patients. PMID:21776342

  8. Overexpression of ATP Sulfurylase in Indian Mustard Leads to Increased Selenate Uptake, Reduction, and Tolerance1

    PubMed Central

    Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Hwang, Seongbin; Mel Lytle, C.; Zhu, Yongliang; Tai, Jenny C.; Bravo, Rogelio C.; Chen, Yichang; Leustek, Tom; Terry, Norman

    1999-01-01

    In earlier studies, the assimilation of selenate by plants appeared to be limited by its reduction, a step that is thought to be mediated by ATP sulfurylase. Here, the Arabidopsis APS1 gene, encoding a plastidic ATP sulfurylase, was constitutively overexpressed in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Compared with that in untransformed plants, the ATP sulfurylase activity was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in shoots and roots of transgenic seedlings, and 1.5- to 2-fold higher in shoots but not roots of selenate-supplied mature ATP-sulfurylase-overexpressing (APS) plants. The APS plants showed increased selenate reduction: x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that root and shoot tissues of mature APS plants contained mostly organic Se (possibly selenomethionine), whereas wild-type plants accumulated selenate. The APS plants were not able to reduce selenate when shoots were removed immediately before selenate was supplied. In addition, Se accumulation in APS plants was 2- to 3-fold higher in shoots and 1.5-fold higher in roots compared with wild-type plants, and Se tolerance was higher in both seedlings and mature APS plants. These studies show that ATP sulfurylase not only mediates selenate reduction in plants, but is also rate limiting for selenate uptake and assimilation. PMID:9880353

  9. A simple degradation method for sulfur mustard at ambient conditions using nickelphthalocyanine incorporated polypyrrole modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pushpendra K.; Sikarwar, Bhavna; Gupta, Garima; Nigam, Anil K.; Tripathi, Brijesh K.; Pandey, Pratibha; Boopathi, Mannan; Ganesan, Kumaran; Singh, Beer

    2014-01-01

    Electrocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard (SM) was studied using a gold electrode modified with nickelphthalocyanine and polypyrrole (NiPc/pPy/Au) in the presence of a cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide. Several techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for the characterization of modified electrodes. NiPc/pPy/Au modified electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical sensing and degradation ability towards SM. The present modification indicated two electron involvements in the electrocatalytic degradation of SM in addition to being an irreversible adsorption controlled process. Degraded products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moreover, electrochemical parameters of oxidation of SM such as heterogeneous rate constant (0.436 s-1), transfer coefficient (0.47) and the number of electrons involved (2) were deduced from cyclic voltammetry results. The NiPc/pPy/Au modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic degradation towards SM when compared to bare gold, pPy/Au and NiPc/Au modified electrode at ambient conditions.

  10. Impregnated silica nanoparticles for the reactive removal of sulphur mustard from solutions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Beer; Saxena, Amit; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Ganesan, Kumaran; Pandey, Pratibha

    2009-01-30

    High surface area (887.3m(2)/g) silica nanoparticles were synthesized using aerogel route and thereafter, characterized by N(2)-Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), SEM and TEM techniques. The data indicated the formation of nanoparticles of silica in the size range of 24-75 nm with mesoporous characteristics. Later, these were impregnated with reactive chemicals such as N-chloro compounds, oxaziridines, polyoxometalates, etc., which have already been proven to be effective against sulphur mustard (HD). Thus, developed novel mesoporous reactive sorbents were tested for their self-decontaminating feature by conducting studies on kinetics of adsorptive removal of HD from solution. Trichloroisocyanuric acid impregnated silica nanoparticles (10%, w/w)-based system was found to be the best with least half-life value (t(1/2)=2.8 min) among prepared systems to remove and detoxify HD into nontoxic degradation products. Hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation and oxidation reactions were found to be the route of degradation of HD over prepared sorbents. The study also inferred that 10% loading of impregnants over high surface area and low density silica nanoparticles enhances the rate of reaction kinetics and seems to be useful in the field of heterogeneous reaction kinetics. PMID:18513865

  11. Enhanced accumulation of Pb in Indian mustard by soil-applied chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, M.J.; Dushenkov, S.; Zakharova, O.; Gussman, C.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.; Salt, D.E.; Raskin, I.

    1997-03-01

    Phytoremediation is emerging as a potential cost-effective solution for the remediation of contaminated soils. Because contaminants such as lead (Pb) have limited bioavailability in the soil, a means of solubilizing the Pb in the soil and facilitating its transport to the shoots of plants is vital to the success of phytoremediation. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) was used to demonstrate the capability of plants to accumulate high tissue concentrations of Pb when grown in Pb-contaminated soil. Concentrations of 1.5% Pb in the shoots of B. juncea were obtained from soils containing 600 mg of Pb/kg amended with synthetic chelates such as EDTA. The accumulation of Pb in the tissue corresponded to the concentration of Pb in the soil and the concentration of EDTA added to the soil. The accumulation of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn from contaminated soil amended with EDTA and other synthetic chelators was also demonstrated. The research indicates that the accumulation of metal in the shoots of B. juncea can be enhanced through the application of synthetic chelates to the soil, facilitating high biomass accumulation as well as metal uptake. 23 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Ion-exchange aspects of toxic metal uptake by Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Crist, Ray H; Martin, J Robert; Crist, DeLanson R

    2004-01-01

    Uptake of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) as +2 ions by excised roots of Indian mustard was demonstrated to be an ion-exchange process with existing Ca or protons released to the solution. This initial reaction at the root-aqueous interface is important in the uptake of these toxic metals from contaminated soil. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-amended soil for phytoremediation has Pb in anionic form as [Pb-EDTA]2-, which was not taken up by excised roots. In nonliving B. juncea, Pb2+ was translocated from a solution through a cut stem to petiole and leaves much more quickly than anionic [Pb-EDTA]2-. However, in living plants [Pb-EDTA]2- was more quickly translocated from a solution through roots and petiole to leaves than Pb2+. The final amount of uptake on roots of the living plants was the same for both forms of Pb. The present results are important toward understanding the mechanism of phytoremediation of toxic metal-contaminated soil for two reasons: 1) the initial process, uptake of metal ions by roots, was shown to occur by cation exchange and 2) since [Pb-EDTA]2- was not sorbed by excised roots, other factors such as transpiration and active transport are important in applications using EDTA-amended soils contaminated by Pb. PMID:15224777

  13. Early indicators of survival following exposure to mustard gas: Protective role of 25(OH)D.

    PubMed

    Das, Lopa M; Binko, Amy M; Traylor, Zachary P; Duesler, Lori R; Dynda, Scott M; Debanne, Sara; Lu, Kurt Q

    2016-04-25

    The use of sulfur mustard (SM) as a chemical weapon for warfare has once again assumed center stage, endangering civilian and the military safety. SM causes rapid local skin vesication and late-onset systemic toxicity. Most studies on SM rely on obtaining tissue and blood for characterizing burn pathogenesis and assessment of systemic pathology, respectively. However the present study focuses on developing a non-invasive method to predict mortality from high dose skin SM exposure. We demonstrate that exposure to SM leads to a dose dependent increase in wound area size on the dorsal surface of mice that is accompanied by a progressive loss in body weight loss, blood cytopenia, bone marrow destruction, and death. Thus our model utilizes local skin destruction and systemic outcome measures as variables to predict mortality in a novel skin-based model of tissue injury. Based on our recent work using vitamin D (25(OH)D) as an intervention to treat toxicity from SM-related compounds, we explored the use of 25(OH)D in mitigating the toxic effects of SM. Here we show that 25(OH)D offers protection against SM and is the first known demonstration of an intervention that prevents SM-induced mortality. Furthermore, 25(OH)D represents a safe, novel, and readily translatable potential countermeasure following mass toxic exposure. PMID:26940683

  14. Photoassisted and photocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard using TiO2 nanoparticles and polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Sarabadani, Mansour; Ashrafi, Davood; Saeidian, Hamdollah; Babri, Mehran

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition of highly toxic chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide or HD), has been studied by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation on titania nanoparticles. Direct photolysis degradation of HD with irradiation system was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of HD was investigated in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyoxometalates embedded in titania nanoparticles in liquid phase at room temperature (33 ± 2 °C). Degradation products during the treatment were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas apparent first-order kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were slow (0.0091 min(-1)), the highest degradation rate is obtained in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles as nanophotocatalyst. Simultaneous photolysis and photocatalysis under the full UV radiation leads to HD complete destruction in 3 h. No degradation products observed in the presence of nanophotocatalyst without irradiation in 3 h. It was found that up to 90 % of agent was decomposed under of UV irradiation without TiO(2), in 6 h. The decontamination mechanisms are often quite complex and multiple mechanisms can be operable such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and elimination. By simultaneously carrying out photolysis and photocatalysis in hexane, we have succeeded in achieving faster HD decontamination after 90 min with low catalyst loading. TiO(2) nanoparticles proved to be a superior photocatalyst under UV irradiation for HD decontamination. PMID:22707206

  15. Quenching action of monofunctional sulfur mustard on chlorophyll fluorescence: towards an ultrasensitive biosensor.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Simerjit; Singh, Minni; Flora, Swaran Jeet Singh

    2013-11-01

    An ultrasensitive fluorimetric biosensor for the detection of chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) was developed using its monofunctional analogue. SM is a vesicant and a potent chemical threat owing to its direct toxic effects on eyes, lungs, skin and DNA. This work investigates the quenching action of the analyte on chlorophyll fluorescence as elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies suggesting the electrophilic attack of carbonium ion on nitrogens of the porphyrin moiety of chlorophyll. The properties of immobilisation matrix were optimised and scanning electron microscope observations confirmed improvement in pore size of sol-gels by addition of 32 % (v/v) glycerol, a feature enabling enhanced sensitivity towards the analyte. Chlorophyll embedded sol-gel was treated with increasing concentrations of monofunctional SM and the corresponding drop in maximum fluorescence intensity as measured by emission at 673 nm was observed, which varied linearly and had a detection limit of 7.68 × 10(-16) M. The biosensor was found to be 6 orders of magnitude more sensitive than the glass microfibre-based disc biosensor previously reported by us. PMID:23955347

  16. Evaluation of candidate decontaminants against percutaneous sulfur mustard and thickened soman challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.A.; Hobson, D.W.; Menton, R.G.; Olson, C.T.; Korte, D.W.

    1993-05-13

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of candidate skin decontaminants relative to a standard control decontaminant, XE-555 resin, against percutaneous sulfur mustard (HD) or thickened soman (TGD) challenge. Male, New Zealand White rabbits were used as the model system with lesion area as the end point for HD exposures and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition as the endpoint for TGD exposure. Initial studies were performed to establish assay parameters for, and to validate the use of, AChE inhibition as an endpoint for assessing candidate decontaminant efficacy against nerve agent exposures. XE-555 resin was concurrently evaluated with each candidate decontaminant for both assay control and comparative purpose. Decontamination was initiated at 1, 3, or 5 min after HD exposures and 2 min after TGD exposures. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD) compounds 1513, 1514, 1515, 1516, and 1517 were evaluated against HD and against TGD. Results from these studies demonstrated the utility of AChE inhibition for evaluating skin decontaminants. None of the candidate decontaminants evaluated was more effective than the standard control decontaminant against HD or TGD exposures.

  17. Overexpression of Glutathione Synthetase in Indian Mustard Enhances Cadmium Accumulation and Tolerance1

    PubMed Central

    Liang Zhu, Yong; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Jouanin, Lise; Terry, Norman

    1999-01-01

    An important pathway by which plants detoxify heavy metals is through sequestration with heavy-metal-binding peptides called phytochelatins or their precursor, glutathione. To identify limiting factors for heavy-metal accumulation and tolerance, and to develop transgenic plants with an increased capacity to accumulate and/or tolerate heavy metals, the Escherichia coli gshII gene encoding glutathione synthetase (GS) was overexpressed in the cytosol of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). The transgenic GS plants accumulated significantly more Cd than the wild type: shoot Cd concentrations were up to 25% higher and total Cd accumulation per shoot was up to 3-fold higher. Moreover, the GS plants showed enhanced tolerance to Cd at both the seedling and mature-plant stages. Cd accumulation and tolerance were correlated with the gshII expression level. Cd-treated GS plants had higher concentrations of glutathione, phytochelatin, thiol, S, and Ca than wild-type plants. We conclude that in the presence of Cd, the GS enzyme is rate limiting for the biosynthesis of glutathione and phytochelatins, and that overexpression of GS offers a promising strategy for the production of plants with superior heavy-metal phytoremediation capacity. PMID:9880348

  18. Sulfur mustard inhalation induced respiratory lesions in guinea pigs: Physiological, biochemical, and histological study

    SciTech Connect

    Allon, N.; Gilat, E.; Amir, A.; Fishbine, E.; Liani, H.

    1993-05-13

    Inhalation exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) vapor causes long term damage to the respiratory system. The lesions were characterized by specific physiological, biochemical and histopathological methods. Awake 128 guinea-pigs (GP) were exposed for 10 min to SM (1200-1700 microns x min/1). Respiratory parameters were monitored per animal before, during and after the exposure using plethysmography. Biochemical and histological evaluations were performed at different time intervals for up to 7 days post exposure. SM inhalation resulted in a decrease in both respiratory rate and minute volume, and in an increase in tidal volume. These changes occurred immediately after the onset of exposure and lasted for up to 7 days. The changes in the respiratory parameters were accompanied by a massive reduction in O2 diffusion capacity. Evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid indicated neutrophil infiltration, an increase in the protein content, and in the activity of both lysosomal enzymes and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in the alveolar space. In addition, a decrease in glutathione content was observed one day post exposure in the BAL fluid and the lung whereas an increase in lung glutathione content was observed 6 days later. Histological evaluation of the lungs and trachea revealed severe lesions in both tissues. Recovery was incomplete 7 days post exposure. The detailed characterization of the effect of SM inhalation offers a reliable model for the evaluation of potential therapies against SM exposure.

  19. Imaging sulfur mustard lesions in human epidermal tissues and keratinocytes by confocal and multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werrlein, Robert; Madren-Whalley, Janna S.

    2002-06-01

    Topical exposure to sulfur mustard (HD), a known theat agent, produces persistent and debilitating cutaneous blisters. The blisters occur at the dermal-epidermal junction following a dose-dependent latent period of 8-24 h, however, the primary lesions causing vesication remain uncertain. Immunofluorescent images reveal that a 5-min exposure to 400 (mu) M HD disrupts molecules that are also disrupted by epidermolysis bullosa-type blistering diseases of the skin. Using keratinocyte cultures and fluorochomes conjugated to two different keratin-14 (K14) antibodies (clones CKB1 and LL002), results have shown a statistically significant (p<0.1) 1-h decrease of 29.2% in expression of the CKB1 epitope, a nearly complete loss of CKB1 expression within 2 h, and progressive cytoskeletal (K14) collapse without loss in expression of the LL002 epitope. With human epidermal tissues, multi-photon images of (alpha) 6 integrin and laminin 5 showed disruptive changes in the cell-surface organization and integrity of these adhesion molecules. At 1 H postexposure, analyses showed a statistically significant (p<0.1) decrease of 27.3% in (alpha) 6 integrin emissions, and a 32% decrease in laminin 5 volume. Multi-photon imaging indicates that molecules essential for epidermal-dermal attachment are early targets in the alkylating events leading to HD-induced vesication.

  20. Epigenetic modulations in early endothelial cells and DNA hypermethylation in human skin after sulfur mustard exposure.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Balszuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Simons, Thilo; Striepling, Enno; Bölck, Birgit; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-02-26

    Victims that were exposed to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) suffer from chronic dermal and ocular lesions, severe pulmonary problems and cancer development. It has been proposed that epigenetic perturbations might be involved in that process but this has not been investigated so far. In this study, we investigated epigenetic modulations in vitro using early endothelial cells (EEC) that were exposed to different SM concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 23.5 and 50μM). A comprehensive analysis of 78 genes related to epigenetic pathways (i.e., DNA-methylation and post-translational histone modifications) was performed. Moreover, we analyzed global DNA methylation in vitro in EEC after SM exposure as a maker for epigenetic modulations and in vivo using human skin samples that were obtained from a patient 1 year after an accidently exposure to pure SM. SM exposure resulted in a complex regulation pattern of epigenetic modulators which was accompanied by a global increase of DNA methylation in vitro. Examination of the SM exposed human skin samples also revealed a significant increase of global DNA methylation in vivo, underlining the biological relevance of our findings. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that SM affects epigenetic pathways and causes epigenetic modulations both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26392148

  1. Checkpoint kinase 1 is activated and promotes cell survival after exposure to sulphur mustard.

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Paul A; Blain, Peter G

    2015-01-22

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a vesicating agent that has been used several times as a weapon during military conflict and continues to pose a threat as an agent of warfare/terrorism. After exposure, SM exerts both acute and delayed long-term toxic effects principally to the skin, eyes and respiratory system. These effects are thought to be mediated, at least in part, by direct interaction of SM with DNA, forming a myriad of DNA lesions and initiating effects on cell cycle and cell death pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated that a complex network of cellular DNA damage response pathways are utilised in cells exposed to SM, consistent with SM causing multiple forms of DNA damage. The present study focused on the role of Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), a protein with putative roles in homologous recombination repair, p53 activation and the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints after certain forms of DNA damage. The data showed that SM caused robust activation of CHK1, monitored by multi-site phosphorylation analysis and that this activation was dependent on the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) protein kinase. Furthermore, specific inhibition of CHK1 increased SM toxicity in multiple human cell lines, with concomitant increases in markers of apoptosis, DNA damage and mitosis. Finally, the effect of CHK1 inhibition on SM toxicity was much more marked in cells with non-functional p53. PMID:25448276

  2. Water-soluble yellow mustard mucilage: A novel ingredient with potent antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Hui, D; Eskin, N A M; Cui, S W

    2016-10-01

    The antioxidant properties of the water-soluble yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.) mucilage (WSM) were compared with citrus pectin and xanthan gum using in vitro methods. The antioxidants ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were used as controls. The antioxidant activity, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, and reducing power on Fe were measured. Molecular weight (MW), uronic acid content, and viscosity for the three polysaccharides were obtained to investigate the relationships between the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the three different polysaccharides. The results showed that the overall antioxidant activity of polysaccharides was lower than that for ascorbic acid and BHA. Of the three polysaccharides, WSM exhibited the strongest antioxidant properties, followed by citrus pectin and xanthan gum. Statistical analysis showed that the MW and uronic acid content had significant effects on antioxidant activity (P<0.05). MW, uronic acid and apparent viscosity had significant effects on reducing power on Fe (P<0.05). Concentration also significantly affected DPPH free radical scavenging effect and reducing power on Fe (P<0.05). The study indicated a great potential of using WSM as a novel ingredient in food industries due to its superior antioxidant activities compared to citrus pectin and xanthan gum. PMID:27238588

  3. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a crucial mediator of the noxious effects of mustard oil.

    PubMed

    Everaerts, Wouter; Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Farre, Ricard; Leten, Cindy; Apetrei, Aurelia; Dewachter, Ilse; van Leuven, Fred; Vennekens, Rudi; De Ridder, Dirk; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2011-02-22

    Mustard oil (MO) is a plant-derived irritant that has been extensively used in experimental models to induce pain and inflammation. The noxious effects of MO are currently ascribed to specific activation of the cation channel TRPA1 in nociceptive neurons. In contrast to this view, we show here that the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 has a surprisingly large contribution to aversive and pain responses and visceral irritation induced by MO. Furthermore, we found that this can be explained by previously unknown properties of this compound. First, MO has a bimodal effect on TRPA1, producing current inhibition at millimolar concentrations. Second, it directly and stably activates mouse and human recombinant TRPV1, as well as TRPV1 channels in mouse sensory neurons. Finally, physiological temperatures enhance MO-induced TRPV1 stimulation. Our results refute the dogma that TRPA1 is the sole nocisensor for MO and motivate a revision of the putative roles of these channels in models of MO-induced pain and inflammation. We propose that TRPV1 has a generalized role in the detection of irritant botanical defensive traits and in the coevolution of multiple mammalian and plant species. PMID:21315593

  4. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds.

    PubMed

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required. PMID:27275005

  5. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    PubMed Central

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required. PMID:27275005

  6. Skin decontamination of mustards and organophosphates: comparative efficiency of RSDL and Fuller's earth in domestic swine.

    PubMed

    Taysse, L; Daulon, S; Delamanche, S; Bellier, B; Breton, P

    2007-02-01

    Research in skin decontamination and therapy of chemical warfare agents has been a difficult problem due to the simultaneous requirement of rapid action and non-aggressive behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two decontaminating systems: the Canadian Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) and the Fuller's Earth (FE). The experiment was conducted with domestic swine, as a good model for extrapolation to human skin. RSDL and FE were tested against sulphur mustard (SM), a powerful vesicant, and VX, a potent and persistent cholinesterase inhibitor. When used 5 min after contamination, the results clearly showed that both systems were active against SM (10.1 mg/cm(2)) and VX (0.06 mg/cm(2)). The potency of the RSDL/sponge was statistically better than FE against skin injury induced by SM, observed 3 days post-exposure. RSDL was rather more efficient than FE in reducing the formation of perinuclear vacuoles and inflammation processes in the epidermis and dermis. Against a severe inhibition (67%) of plasmatic cholinesterases induced by VX poisoning, the potencies of the RSDL/sponge and FE were similar. Both systems completely prevented cholinesterase inhibition, which indirectly indicates a prevention of toxic absorption through the skin. PMID:17370872

  7. Sulfur Mustard Effects on Mental Health and Quality-of-Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Negahban, Zahra; Pirhosseinloo, Mohsen; Razavi, Mahdiyeh Sadat; Hadjati, Gholamreza; Salamati, Payman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Mental disorders are more common among the chemically injured veterans rather the than the normal population. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mustard gas (MG) on mental health and quality-of-life (QOL) in the people exposed to it based on reviewing valid published articles. Methods: We searched English databases including Medline, ISI and Scopus as well as Farsi databases including Iranmedex and Irandoc and reviewed them. The used keywords were in two English and Farsi languages. Forty related full texts out of more than 300 articles were assessed and for their qualification, only the publications in accredited journals were considered sufficient. Results: The average mental health score of victims using the general health questionnaire (GHQ) was 48.92. The frequency of anxiety was (18-65%), insomnia (13.63%), social performance disturbances (10.73%), severe depression (6-46%), low concentration (54%), emotional problems (98%), behavioral abnormalities (80%), thought processing disturbances (14%), memory impairment (80%), personality disorders (31%), seizures (6%), psychosis (3%). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common and important disorders with lifetime PTSD (8-59%), current PTSD (2-33%) and the QOL in chemical warfare victims decreased. Conclusion: Exposure to chemical weapons may lead to physical, mental, social, and economic damages and consequently decrease the victims’ (QOL. Therefore, they should be taken into more care. PMID:25780370

  8. Acute and chronic respiratory lesions induced by sulfur mustard in guinea pigs: Role of tachykinins

    SciTech Connect

    Calvet, J.H.; Trouiller, G.; Harf, A.

    1993-05-13

    We investigated in anesthetized guinea pigs the involvement of tachykinins in respiratory alterations after an airway intoxication by sulfur mustard (SM). Early lesions were evaluated after 5h. Respiratory system resistance (R) and compliance were measured by the occlusion method and airway microvascular permeability by measuring the Evans Blue dye concentration in the trachea and main bronchi. Two groups of animals were studied treated with capsaicin (which induces a tachykinin depletion) or by its vehicle. Capsaicin pretreatment had no effect on the measured parameters. We also measured 14 J after the intoxication tracheal epithelium neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (the main enzyme which degrades tachykinins). In addition bronchial responsiveness to exogenous substance P was studied in two groups of animals intoxicated with SM or not. Tracheal epithelium NEP activity was decreased from 0.448 + or 0.027 nmol.min- 1.mg protein- 1 in controls to 0. 182 + or 0.038 in intoxicated animals. Response to substance P was greater in intoxicated animals with R=2.98 + or - 1.57 cmH20.MI-1.s versus 0.35 + or 0.02 in controls, after 5.10-5 M aerosolized substance P These results suggest tachykinins are not preponderant in the early stage lesions but that bronchial hyperactivity is present at recovery, related to epithelium NEP depletion.

  9. Comparison of the Lonidamine Potentiated Effect of Nitrogen Mustard Alkylating Agents on the Systemic Treatment of DB-1 Human Melanoma Xenografts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Putt, Mary E.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Garman, Bradley; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Glickson, Jerry D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous NMR studies demonstrated that lonidamine (LND) selectively diminishes the intracellular pH (pHi) of DB-1 melanoma and mouse xenografts of a variety of other prevalent human cancers while decreasing their bioenergetic status (tumor βNTP/Pi ratio) and enhancing the activities of melphalan and doxorubicin in these cancer models. Since melphalan and doxorubicin are highly toxic agents, we have examined three other nitrogen (N)-mustards, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and bendamustine, to determine if they exhibit similar potentiation by LND. As single agents LND, melphalan and these N-mustards exhibited the following activities in DB-1 melanoma xenografts; LND: 100% tumor surviving fraction (SF); chlorambucil: 100% SF; cyclophosphamide: 100% SF; bendamustine: 79% SF; melphalan: 41% SF. When combined with LND administered 40 min prior to administration of the N-mustard (to maximize intracellular acidification) the following responses were obtained; chlorambucil: 62% SF; cyclophosphamide: 42% SF; bendamustine: 36% SF; melphalan: 10% SF. The effect of LND on the activities of these N-mustards is generally attributed to acid stabilization of the aziridinium active intermediate, acid inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, which acts as a scavenger of aziridinium, and acid inhibition of DNA repair by O6-alkyltransferase. Depletion of ATP by LND may also decrease multidrug resistance and increase tumor response. At similar maximum tolerated doses, our data indicate that melphalan is the most effective N-mustard in combination with LND when treating DB-1 melanoma in mice, but the choice of N-mustard for coadministration with LND will also depend on the relative toxicities of these agents, and remains to be determined. PMID:27285585

  10. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Rancourt, Raymond C. Veress, Livia A. Ahmad, Aftab Hendry-Hofer, Tara B. Rioux, Jacqueline S. Garlick, Rhonda B. White, Carl W.

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  11. Metal accumulation, biochemical response and yield of Indian mustard grown in soil amended with rural roadside pond sediment.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Kumar Paul, Ranjit; Das, D K

    2013-06-01

    This present study aims to discern the effect of roadside pond sediments on Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) by examining heavy metal uptake by different parts of the plant and its influence on biochemical properties, biomass, yield and oil content in plant. Although the treated soils were clearly contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) after application of pond sediments and chemical fertilizers, but the metal content in mustard leaves and seeds are below the permissible limit of consumable food. HMs accumulation was proportionally lesser in grains than in shoots and roots. All the biochemical characteristics were significantly (p<0.05) responded to the pond sediments application as compared to the control. Increase in photosynthetic pigment was also observed during growing period while pond sediment was used as amendment. This study revealed that Brassica juncea is well adapted to tolerate and accumulate high quantities of HMs due to increased level of antioxidants (cysteine and ascorbic acid) in roots, shoots and leaves. Multivariate techniques like principal component analysis and cluster analysis (CA) were used as classification techniques. On the basis of factor loadings and principal component scores, different parameters were grouped based on their similarity or closeness, separately in leaves, roots and seeds. A very similar grouping was also obtained using CA. However, pond sediment did not thwart the enhancement of mustard yield and oil content. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for mustard as an alternative soil amendment for nutrients, but long-term use may require the cessation to restrict HMs contamination in soils. PMID:23597677

  12. Influence of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: a rhizobox study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary; Kwon, Soon-lk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) root exudation on soil solution properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metal solubility) in the rhizosphere using a rhizobox. Measurement was conducted following the cultivation of Indian mustard in the rhizobox filled four different types of heavy metal contaminated soils (two alkaline soils and two acidic soils). The growth of Indian mustard resulted in a significant increase (by 0.6 pH units) in rhizosphere soil solution pH of acidic soils and only a slight increase (< 0.1 pH units) in alkaline soils. Furthermore, the DOC concentration increased by 17-156 mg/L in the rhizosphere regardless of soil type and the extent of contamination, demonstrating the exudation of DOC from root. Ion chromatographic determination showed a marked increase in the total dissolved organic acids (OAs) in rhizosphere. While root exudates were observed in all soils, the amount of DOC and OAs in soil solution varied considerably amongst different soils, resulting in significant changes to soil solution metals in the rhizosphere. For example, the soil solution Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased in the rhizosphere of alkaline soils compared to bulk soil following plant cultivation. In contrast, the soluble concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in acidic soils decreased in rhizosphere soil when compared to bulk soils. Besides the influence of pH and DOC on metal solubility, the increase of heavy metal concentration having high stability constant such as Cu and Pb resulted in a release of Cd and Zn from solid phase to liquid phase. PMID:20397393

  13. [Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish to prevent asthma].

    PubMed

    Du, Li-Na; Zhu, Wei-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yang; Yu, Xiang; Li, Miao; Jin, Yi-Guang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the manuscript was to optimize formulations and preparation technologies of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish, and to evaluate its anti-asthma effect on rats. The single factor experiments included spreading thickness, types of crosslinking agents, dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate amount, sodium polyacrylate amount, types of adhesive agents with human sense as the evaluation index. Blank cataplasm matrix was optimized by the orthogonal experiment with the amount of glycerine, citric acid, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the major influential factors. Initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense were as the evaluation index. The optimized formulation of blank cataplasm were as followings: glycerine-water-ethanol-PEG400-dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate-citric acid-sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2 : 8 : 0.8 : 0.4 : 0.07: 0.15 : 0.1 : 0.5. The active ingredients of white mustard seed, corydalis, and gansui root were extracted by alcohol extraction method. Asiasarum volatile oil was extracted by oil extractor. The optimized drug loading amount was 11% with initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense as the evaluation index. Asthma rats model were established by sensitized with ovalbumin and nose-scratching time as the evaluation index. High dose (17%) group of drug-loaded cataplasm had the obvious inhibition effect on nose-scratching time of rats (P = 0.037 < 0.05). In comparison, middle dose (11%), low dose (4%) and positive-control groups had no obvious inhibitive effect on rats. White mustard seed cataplasm supplied a novel choice for anti-asthma therapy. And the overall pharmacodynamics assessment will be carried out on molecular level in near future. PMID:25911808

  14. Relationship between levels of IFNγ, TNFα, and TGFβ and pruritus in sulfur mustard-exposed veterans.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Saadat, Alireza; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    One of the foremost negative effects of sulfur mustard (SM) is chronic pruritus, which affects the quality-of-life. In the present study, pruritus was assessed in relation with inflammatory factors in the blood. Seventy-two blood samples were collected from SM-injured veterans of the Iran-Iraq War (Case Group; n = 36) and non-exposed patients (Control Group; n = 36) suffering from skin pruritus. Pruritus severity in all subjects was assessed, as were levels of IFNγ, TGFβ, and TNFα. The results indicated that total pruritus severity did not significantly differ between the two groups. While WBC counts in Control patients were significantly higher than among the exposed veterans, there were no significant differences in levels of any specific WBC sub-classes. Levels of serum IFNγ and TGFβ in the control subjects were significantly greater than those in the exposed veterans. In contrast, serum TNFα in the SM-exposed group appeared to be in the normal range, albeit significantly higher than that of the control group. A positive correlation between pruritus and each of the evaluated cytokines was noted in the Case Group. As for the non-SM-exposed veterans, correlations were significant only in the cases of IFNγ (stimulated) and TGFβ. The results of the present study suggested that there might be a relationship between cytokine alterations and pruritus in SM-exposed veterans. Based on these studies, designing of new treatments to modulate blood levels of mediators might be helpful to decrease the problem of SM-induced pruritus, thereby improving the quality-of-life in exposed veterans. PMID:22994697

  15. Delayed neurological complications of sulphur mustard and tabun poisoning in 43 Iranian veterans.

    PubMed

    Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Nemati-Karimooy, Habibollah; Hasanabadi, Hosein; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-12-01

    Delayed neurotoxic complications of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as sulphur mustard (SM) and tabun, in human beings have not been reported in detail. We thus aimed to investigate possible neurotoxic complications of these agents in Iranian veterans 22-27 years after exposure. After co-ordination with the veteran foundation and obtaining the approval of the medical research ethics committee, 43 Iranian veterans with late complications of CWA exposure during the Iran-Iraq conflict were studied after obtaining signed written informed consent. Demographic and clinical findings were recorded on pre-designed forms. Neurological examination was performed by a neurologist. Routine biochemical tests were performed for all the patients. Electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and electroencephalography (EEG) were carried out as clinically indicated. The majority of the patients (38) had been exposed to SM and only five patients to tabun. Hyperaesthesia was the most objective finding (72.1%). Fatigue (93%), paraesthesia (88.3%) and headache (83.7%) were the most common subjective findings in the patients. Sensory nerve impairments, including paraesthesia (88.3%), hyperaesthesia (72.1%) and hypoesthesia (11.6%), were the most common observed clinical complications. EMG and NCV were impaired in seven patients (16.3%) who were all SM-exposed patients but did not show any significant correlation with organ complications. EEG was negative even in the seized patients. Cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly above the normal ranges. Late neurological complications of CWA, particularly SM poisoning, are considerable even after three decades of exposure and require medical attention. PMID:22762514

  16. Purification, sequencing and characterization of phospholipase D from Indian mustard seeds.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Hafeeza; Mansfeld, Johanna; Schierhorn, Angelika; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD; E.C. 3.1.4.4) is widespread in plants where it fulfills diverse functions in growth and in the response to stresses. The enzyme occurs in multiple forms that differ in their biochemical properties. In the present paper PLD from medicinally relevant Indian mustard seeds was purified by Ca(2+)-mediated hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatography to electrophoretic homogeneity. Based on mass-spectrometric sequence analysis of tryptic protein fragments, oligonucleotide primers for cloning genomic DNA fragments that encoded the enzyme were designed and used to derive the complete amino acid sequence of this PLD. The sequence data, as well as the molecular properties (molecular mass of 92.0 kDa, pI 5.39, maximum activity at pH 5.5-6.0 and Ca(2+) ion concentrations ⩾60 mM), allowed the assignment of this enzyme to the class of α-type PLDs. The apparent kinetic parameters Vmax and Km, determined for the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in an aqueous mixed-micellar system were 356±15 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) and 1.84±0.17 mM, respectively. Phosphate analogs such as NaAlF4 and Na3VO4 displayed strong inhibition of the enzyme. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate had a strong activating effect at 2-10 mM CaCl2. PLD was inactivated at temperatures >45 °C. The enzyme exhibited the highest activity toward PC followed by phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. PCs with short-chain fatty acids were better substrates than PCs with long fatty acid chains. Lyso-PC was not accepted as substrate. PMID:26057230

  17. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  18. Characterization of Distinct Macrophage Subpopulations during Nitrogen Mustard-Induced Lung Injury and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Venosa, Alessandro; Malaviya, Rama; Choi, Hyejeong; Gow, Andrew J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is an alkylating agent known to cause extensive pulmonary injury progressing to fibrosis. This is accompanied by a persistent macrophage inflammatory response. In these studies, we characterized the phenotype of macrophages accumulating in the lung over time following NM exposure. Treatment of rats with NM (0.125 mg/kg, intratracheally) resulted in an increase in CD11b(+) macrophages in histologic sections. These cells consisted of inducible nitric oxide synthase(+) (iNOS) proinflammatory M1 macrophages, and CD68(+), CD163(+), CD206(+), YM-1(+), and arginase-II(+)antiinflammatory M2 macrophages. Although M1 macrophages were prominent 1-3 days after NM, M2 macrophages were most notable at 28 days. At this time, they were enlarged and vacuolated, consistent with a profibrotic phenotype. Flow cytometric analysis of isolated lung macrophages identified three phenotypically distinct subpopulations: mature CD11b(-), CD43(-), and CD68(+) resident macrophages, which decreased in numbers after NM; and two infiltrating (CD11b(+)) macrophage subsets: immature CD43(+) M1 macrophages and mature CD43(-) M2 macrophages, which increased sequentially. Time-related increases in M1 (iNOS, IL-12α, COX-2, TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinase-9, matrix metalloproteinase-10) and M2 (IL-10, pentraxin-2, connective tissue growth factor, ApoE) genes, as well as chemokines/chemokine receptors associated with trafficking of M1 (CCR2, CCR5, CCL2, CCL5) and M2 (CX3CR1, fractalkine) macrophages to sites of injury, were also noted in macrophages isolated from the lung after NM. The appearance of M1 and M2 macrophages in the lung correlated with NM-induced acute injury and the development of fibrosis, suggesting a potential role of these macrophage subpopulations in the pathogenic response to NM. PMID:26273949

  19. Pentoxifylline attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced acute lung injury, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Vayas, Kinal N; Cervelli, Jessica A; Malaviya, Rama; Hall, LeRoy; Massa, Christopher B; Gow, Andrew J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2014-08-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic alkylating agent that causes damage to the respiratory tract. Evidence suggests that macrophages and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α contribute to pulmonary injury. Pentoxifylline is a TNFα inhibitor known to suppress inflammation. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of pentoxifylline to mitigate NM-induced lung injury and inflammation. Exposure of male Wistar rats (150-174 g; 8-10 weeks) to NM (0.125 mg/kg, i.t.) resulted in severe histopathological changes in the lung within 3d of exposure, along with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell number and protein, indicating inflammation and alveolar-epithelial barrier dysfunction. This was associated with increases in oxidative stress proteins including lipocalin (Lcn)2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in the lung, along with pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic (COX-2(+) and MMP-9(+)), and anti-inflammatory/wound repair (CD163+ and Gal-3(+)) macrophages. Treatment of rats with pentoxifylline (46.7 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3d beginning 15 min after NM significantly reduced NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress, as measured histologically and by decreases in BAL cell and protein content, and levels of HO-1 and Lcn2. Macrophages expressing COX-2 and MMP-9 also decreased after pentoxifylline, while CD163+ and Gal-3(+) macrophages increased. This was correlated with persistent upregulation of markers of wound repair including pro-surfactant protein-C and proliferating nuclear cell antigen by Type II cells. NM-induced lung injury and inflammation were associated with alterations in the elastic properties of the lung, however these were largely unaltered by pentoxifylline. These data suggest that pentoxifylline may be useful in treating acute lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress induced by vesicants. PMID:24886962

  20. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Jill A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Devine, Patrick J.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  1. The short-term effect of mustard gas on the serum immunoglobulin levels.

    PubMed

    Keyhani, Abdolhossein; Eslami, Mohammad Bagher; Razavimanesh, Hossein

    2007-03-01

    Mustard gas (MG), as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto) antigenic stimulation of the patients' immune systems. PMID:17303924

  2. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  3. Comparison of Three Phytochrome-mediated Processes in the Hypocotyl of Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Kinnersley, Alan M.; Davies, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    Anthocyanin synthesis, hair formation, and the synthesis of ascorbic acid oxidase are all phytochrome-mediated reactions occurring in the hypocotyl of mustard (Sinapis alba L.), controlled by phytochrome actually located in the hypocotyl. A comparison of these three reactions showed that in certain respects they differ greatly in their response to light. The ability of the seedling to respond to light by showing the three responses was strongly influenced by the state of development of the seedling. White light given very early after seed imbibition was unable to evoke any of the three reactions. By 50 hours after imbibition, all systems were fully inducible by light. The addition of actinomycin D to a fully competent seedling coincident with illumination strongly inhibited the development of all three responses. In contrast, the addition of cordycepin at this time inhibited the synthesis of anthocyanin and ascorbic acid oxidase but had no effect on hair formation. Cycloheximide inhibited all three responses when given up to several hours after light. This suggests the necessity for RNA and protein synthesis for light-induced expression of these reactions, and that the RNA species involved in the three reactions may have differing degrees of polyadenylation. The lag period between the onset of light and the first display of the response was 3 hours for anthocyanin and ascorbic acid oxidase synthesis, and about 5 hours for hair formation. Amounts of light sufficient to give large increases in the levels of ascorbic acid oxidase and hair formation gave a much smaller increase in anthocyanin synthesis. Hair formation and ascorbic acid oxidase synthesis showed a much greater sensitivity to induction at early stages of seedling development than did anthocyanin synthesis. Following an inductive light period, anthocyanin synthesis was sensitive to far red light inhibition for a period twice as long as the other two reactions. The differences in the response of the three

  4. Influence of sulfur and cadmium on antioxidants, phytochelatins and growth in Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Humayra; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Bagheri, Rita; Ahmad, Javed; Arif, Ibrahim A; Baig, M Affan; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Soils in many parts of the world are contaminated with heavy metals, leading to multiple, deleterious effects on plants and threats to world food production efficiency. Cadmium (Cd) is one such metal, being toxic at relatively low concentrations as it is readily absorbed and translocated in plants. Sulfur-rich compounds are critical to the impact of Cd toxicity, enabling plants to increase their cellular defence and/or sequester Cd into vacuoles mediated by phytochelatins (PCs). The influence of sulfur on Cd-induced stress was studied in the hyperaccumulator plant Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) using two sulfur concentrations (+S, 300 µM [Formula: see text] and S-deficient -S, [Formula: see text]) with and without the addition of Cd (100 µM CdCl2) at two different time intervals (7 and 14 days after treatment). Compared with control plants (+S/-Cd), levels of oxidative stress were higher in S-deficient (-S/-Cd) plants, and greatest in S-deficient Cd-treated (-S/+Cd) plants. However, additional S (+S/+Cd) helped plants cope with oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase emerged as a key player against Cd stress under both -S and +S conditions. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase declined in Cd-treated and S-deficient plants, but was up-regulated in the presence of sulfur. Sulfur deficiency mediated a decrease in ascorbate and glutathione (GSH) content but changes in ascorbate (reduced : oxidized) and GSH (reduced : oxidized) ratios were alleviated by sulfur. Our data clearly indicate that a sulfur pool is needed for synthesis of GSH, non-protein thiols and PCs and is also important for growth. Sulfur-based defence mechanisms and the cellular antioxidant pathway, which are critical for tolerance and growth, collapsed as a result of a decline in the sulfur pool. PMID:25587194

  5. Influence of sulfur and cadmium on antioxidants, phytochelatins and growth in Indian mustard

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Humayra; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Bagheri, Rita; Ahmad, Javed; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Baig, M. Affan; Qureshi, M. Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Soils in many parts of the world are contaminated with heavy metals, leading to multiple, deleterious effects on plants and threats to world food production efficiency. Cadmium (Cd) is one such metal, being toxic at relatively low concentrations as it is readily absorbed and translocated in plants. Sulfur-rich compounds are critical to the impact of Cd toxicity, enabling plants to increase their cellular defence and/or sequester Cd into vacuoles mediated by phytochelatins (PCs). The influence of sulfur on Cd-induced stress was studied in the hyperaccumulator plant Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) using two sulfur concentrations (+S, 300 µM SO42− and S-deficient −S, 30μMSO42−) with and without the addition of Cd (100 µM CdCl2) at two different time intervals (7 and 14 days after treatment). Compared with control plants (+S/−Cd), levels of oxidative stress were higher in S-deficient (−S/−Cd) plants, and greatest in S-deficient Cd-treated (−S/+Cd) plants. However, additional S (+S/+Cd) helped plants cope with oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase emerged as a key player against Cd stress under both −S and +S conditions. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase declined in Cd-treated and S-deficient plants, but was up-regulated in the presence of sulfur. Sulfur deficiency mediated a decrease in ascorbate and glutathione (GSH) content but changes in ascorbate (reduced : oxidized) and GSH (reduced : oxidized) ratios were alleviated by sulfur. Our data clearly indicate that a sulfur pool is needed for synthesis of GSH, non-protein thiols and PCs and is also important for growth. Sulfur-based defence mechanisms and the cellular antioxidant pathway, which are critical for tolerance and growth, collapsed as a result of a decline in the sulfur pool. PMID:25587194

  6. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Svoboda, Kathy K.; Casillas, Robert P.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Gordon, Marion K.; Gerecke, Donald R.

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  7. Evaluation of agonist-antagonist properties of nitrogen mustard and cyano derivatives of delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Wiley, J L; Compton, D R; Gordon, P M; Siegel, C; Singer, M; Dutta, A; Lichtman, A H; Balster, R L; Razdan, R K; Martin, B R

    1996-01-01

    delta 8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 8-THC) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid with a characteristic pharmacological profile of in vivo effects. Previous studies have shown that modification of the structure of delta 8-THC by inclusion of a nitrogen-containing functional group alters this profile and may alkylate the cannabinoid receptor, similar to the manner in which beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) alkylates the micro-opioid receptor. Two novel analogs of delta 8-THC were synthesized: a nitrogen mustard analog with a dimethylheptyl side chain (NM-delta 8-THC) and a cyano analog with a dimethylpentyl side chain (CY-delta 8-THC). Both analogs showed high affinity for brain cannabinoid receptors and when administered acutely, produced characteristic delta 9-THC-like effects in mice, including locomotor suppression, hypothermia, antinociception and catalepsy. CY-delta 8-THC shared discriminative stimulus effects with CP 55,940; for NM-delta 8-THC, these effects also occurred, but were delayed. Although both compounds attenuated the effects of delta 9-THC in the mouse behavioral tests, evaluation of potential antagonist effects of these compounds was complicated by the fact that two injections of delta 9-THC produced similar results, suggesting that acute tolerance or desensitization might account for the observations. NM-delta 8-THC, but not CY-delta 8-THC, attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of CP 55,940 in rats several days following injection. Hence, addition of a nitrogen-containing functional group to a traditional cannabinoid structure does not eliminate agonist effects and may produce delayed attenuation of cannabinoid-induced pharmacological effects. PMID:9076759

  8. Transcriptome analysis of a petal anthocyanin polymorphism in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Dick, Cynthia; Carlson, Matthew L; Whittall, Justen B

    2014-01-01

    Angiosperms are renown for their diversity of flower colors. Often considered adaptations to pollinators, the most common underlying pigments, anthocyanins, are also involved in plants' stress response. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well characterized across many angiosperms and is composed of a few candidate genes, the consequences of blocking this pathway and producing white flowers has not been investigated at the transcriptome scale. We take a transcriptome-wide approach to compare expression differences between purple and white petal buds in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis, to determine which genes' expression are consistently correlated with flower color. Using mRNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly, we assembled an average of 722 bp per gene (49.81% coding sequence based on the A. thaliana homolog) for 12,795 genes from the petal buds of a pair of purple and white samples. Our results correlate strongly with qRT-PCR analysis of nine candidate genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway where chalcone synthase has the greatest difference in expression between color morphs (P/W = ∼7×). Among the most consistently differentially expressed genes between purple and white samples, we found 3× more genes with higher expression in white petals than in purple petals. These include four unknown genes, two drought-response genes (CDSP32, ERD5), a cold-response gene (GR-RBP2), and a pathogen defense gene (DND1). Gene ontology analysis of the top 2% of genes with greater expression in white relative to purple petals revealed enrichment in genes associated with stress responses including cold, drought and pathogen defense. Unlike the uniform downregulation of chalcone synthase that may be directly involved in the loss of petal anthocyanins, the variable expression of several genes with greater expression in white petals suggest that the physiological and ecological consequences of having white petals may be microenvironment

  9. Mechanistic insights of sulfur mustard-induced acute tracheal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Ji; Xu, Rui; Meng, Xiao; Chu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Chao; Lian, Cheng-Jin; Wang, Tao; Guo, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Sheng-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is believed to be a major threat to civilian populations because of the persistent asymmetric threat by nonstate actors, such as terrorist groups, the ease of synthesis and handling, and the risk of theft from stockpiles. The purpose of this study was to establish mechanisms of acute tracheal injury in rats induced by SM using histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical parameters. Male rats (Sprague-Dawley) were anesthetized, intratracheally intubated, and exposed to 2 mg/kg of SM. Animals were euthanized 6-, 24-, 48-, and 72-hour postexposure, and intracavitary blood samples from the heart and tracheal tissues were collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid tracheal injury, including tracheal epithelial cell shedding, focal ulceration, and abundant lymphocyte invasion of the submucosa. There was also evidence of a large number of apoptotic cells in the epithelium and submucosa, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL) 1β, IL-6, and γ-glutamyl transferase peaked at 24 hours, and the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance peaked at 6 hours. The SM exposure also resulted in a loss of the cellular membrane, leakage of cytoplasm, fuzzy mitochondrial cristae, medullary changes in ciliated and goblet cells, and the nuclear chromatin appeared marginated in basal cells and fibroblasts. The results in the propylene glycol group were the same as the control group. These data demonstrated the histologic changes, inflammatory reactions, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage following SM (2 mg/kg)-induced acute tracheal injury; the severity of changes was time dependent. PMID:25163474

  10. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog–Induced Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Loader, Joan E.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes the rare but life-threatening disorder of plastic bronchitis, characterized by bronchial cast formation, resulting in severe airway obstruction that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is greater than 80%. To date, no antidote exists for SM toxicity. In addition, therapies for plastic bronchitis are solely anecdotal, due to lack of systematic research available to assess drug efficacy in improving mortality and/or morbidity. Adult rats exposed to SM analog were treated with intratracheal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (0.15–0.7 mg/kg, 5.5 and 6.5 h), compared with controls (no treatment, isoflurane, and placebo). Respiratory distress and pulse oximetry were assessed (for 12 or 48 h), and arterial blood gases were obtained at study termination (12 h). Microdissection of fixed lungs was done to assess airway obstruction by casts. Optimal intratracheal tPA treatment (0.7 mg/kg) completely eliminated mortality (0% at 48 h), and greatly improved morbidity in this nearly uniformly fatal disease model (90–100% mortality at 48 h). tPA normalized plastic bronchitis–associated hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and lactic acidosis, and improved respiratory distress (i.e., clinical scores) while decreasing airway fibrin casts. Intratracheal tPA diminished airway-obstructive fibrin–containing casts while improving clinical respiratory distress, pulmonary gas exchange, tissue oxygenation, and oxygen utilization in our model of severe chemically induced plastic bronchitis. Most importantly, mortality, which was associated with hypoxemia and clinical respiratory distress, was eliminated. PMID:23258228

  11. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Jill A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Devine, Patrick J.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-01-01

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by chemical exposures including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. PMID:24642057

  12. Mitigation of nitrogen mustard mediated skin injury by a novel indomethacin bifunctional prodrug.

    PubMed

    Composto, Gabriella M; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L; Gerecke, Donald R; Casillas, Robert P; Heindel, Ned D; Joseph, Laurie B; Heck, Diane E

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that is highly reactive in the skin causing extensive tissue damage and blistering. In the present studies, a modified cutaneous murine patch model was developed to characterize NM-induced injury and to evaluate the efficacy of an indomethacin pro-drug in mitigating toxicity. NM (20μmol) or vehicle control was applied onto 6mm glass microfiber filters affixed to the shaved dorsal skin of CD-1 mice for 6min. This resulted in absorption of approximately 4μmol of NM. NM caused localized skin damage within 1 d, progressing to an eschar within 2-3 d, followed by wound healing after 4-5 d. NM-induced injury was associated with increases in skin thickness, inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced numbers of sebocytes, basal keratinocyte double stranded DNA breaks, as measured by phospho-histone 2A.X expression, mast cell degranulation and increases in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Wound healing was characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and marked increases in basal cells expressing proliferating cell nuclear antigen. A novel indomethacin-anticholinergic prodrug (4338) designed to target cyclooxygenases and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), was found to markedly suppress NM toxicity, decreasing wound thickness and eschar formation. The prodrug also inhibited mast cell degranulation, suppressed keratinocyte expression of iNOS and COX-2, as well as markers of epidermal proliferation. These findings indicate that a novel bifunctional pro-drug is effective in limiting NM mediated dermal injury. Moreover, our newly developed cutaneous patch model is a sensitive and reproducible method to assess the mechanism of action of countermeasures. PMID:27189522

  13. Chronic alteration in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate levels regulates capsaicin and mustard oil responses.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mayur J; Belugin, Sergei; Akopian, Armen N

    2011-06-01

    There is an agreement that acute (in minutes) hydrolysis and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2) ) modulate TRPV1 and TRPA1 activities. Because inflammation results in PIP(2) depletion, persisting for long periods (hours to days) in pain models and in the clinic, we examined whether chronic depletion and accumulation of PIP(2) affect capsaicin (CAP) and mustard oil (MO) responses. In addition, we wanted to evaluate whether the effects of PIP(2) depend on TRPV1 and TRPA1 coexpression and whether the PIP(2) actions vary in expression cells vs. sensory neurons. Chronic PIP(2) production was stimulated by overexpression of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase, and PIP(2) -specific phospholipid 5'-phosphatase was selected to reduce plasma membrane levels of PIP(2) . Our results demonstrate that CAP (100 nM) responses and receptor tachyphylaxis are not significantly influenced by chronic changes in PIP(2) levels in wild-type (WT) or TRPA1 null-mutant sensory neurons as well as CHO cells expressing TRPV1 alone or with TRPA1. However, low concentrations of CAP (20 nM) produced a higher response after PIP(2) depletion in cells containing TRPV1 alone but not TRPV1 together with TRPA1. MO (25 μM) responses were also not affected by PIP(2) in WT sensory neurons and cells coexpressing TRPA1 and TRPV1. In contrast, PIP(2) reduction leads to pronounced tachyphylaxis to MO in cells with both channels. Chronic effect of PIP(2) on TRPA1 activity depends on presence of the TRPV1 channel and cell type (CHO vs. sensory neurons). In summary, chronic alterations in PIP(2) levels regulate magnitude of CAP and MO responses as well as MO tachyphylaxis. This regulation depends on coexpression profile of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and cell type. PMID:21337373

  14. Ovarian Xenobiotic Biotransformation Enzymes Are Altered During Phosphoramide Mustard-Induced Ovotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Jill A.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-01-01

    The anti-neoplastic prodrug, cyclophosphamide, requires biotransformation to phosphoramide mustard (PM), which partitions to volatile chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). PM and CEZ are ovotoxicants, however their ovarian biotransformation remains ill-defined. This study investigated PM and CEZ metabolism mechanisms through the utilization of cultured postnatal day 4 (PND4) Fisher 344 (F344) rat ovaries exposed to vehicle control (1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) or PM (60μM) for 2 or 4 days. Quantification of mRNA levels via an RT2 profiler PCR array and target-specific RT-PCR along with Western blotting found increased mRNA and protein levels of xenobiotic metabolism genes including microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1) and glutathione S-transferase isoform pi (Gstp). PND4 ovaries were treated with 1% DMSO, PM (60μM), cyclohexene oxide to inhibit EPHX1 (CHO; 2mM), or PM + CHO for 4 days. Lack of functional EPHX1 increased PM-induced ovotoxicity, suggesting a detoxification role for EPHX1. PND4 ovaries were also treated with 1% DMSO, PM (60μM), BSO (Glutathione (GSH) depletion; 100μM), GEE (GSH supplementation; 2.5mM), PM ± BSO, or PM ± GEE for 4 days. GSH supplementation prevented PM-induced follicle loss, whereas no impact of GSH depletion was observed. Lastly, the effect of ovarian GSH on CEZ liberation and ovotoxicity was evaluated. Both untreated and GEE-treated PND4 ovaries were plated adjacent to ovaries receiving PM + GEE or PM + BSO treatments. Less CEZ-induced ovotoxicity was observed with both GEE and BSO treatments indicating reduced CEZ liberation from PM. Collectively, this study supports ovarian biotransformation of PM, thereby influencing the ovotoxicity that ensues. PMID:25070981

  15. Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-04-01

    Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

  16. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    PubMed

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  17. Applying pattern recognition methods to analyze the molecular properties of a homologous series of nitrogen mustard agents.

    PubMed

    Bartzatt, Ronald; Donigan, Laura

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the pharmacological properties of a homologous series of nitrogen mustard (N-mustard) agents formed after inserting 1 to 9 methylene groups (-CH2-) between 2 -N(CH2CH2Cl)2 groups. These compounds were shown to have significant correlations and associations in their properties after analysis by pattern recognition methods including hierarchical classification, cluster analysis, nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), detrended correspondence analysis, K-means cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, and self-organizing tree algorithm (SOTA) analysis. Detrended correspondence analysis showed a linear-like association of the 9 homologs, and hierarchical classification showed that each homolog had great similarity to at least one other member of the series-as did cluster analysis using paired-group distance measure. Nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling was able to discriminate homologs 2 and 3 (by number of methylene groups) from homologs 4, 5, and 6 as a group, and from homologs 7, 8, and 9 as a group. Discriminant analysis, K-means cluster analysis, and hierarchical classification distinguished the high molecular weight homologs from low molecular weight homologs. As the number of methylene groups increased the aqueous solubility decreased, dermal permeation coefficient increased, Log P increased, molar volume increased, parachor increased, and index of refraction decreased. Application of pattern recognition methods discerned useful interrelationships within the homologous series that will determine specific and beneficial clinical applications for each homolog and methods of administration. PMID:16796353

  18. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, Leila; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Ghanei, Mostafa; Nourani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs, and respiratory tract in Iranian veterans. The most common disease is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO)). SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are known as protective antioxidants against the harmful effects of ROS. Twenty exposed SM individuals (43.2±6.4 years), and 10 normal controls (41.3±2.5 years) were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of SODs was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that CuZnSOD and MnSOD mRNA were up-regulated 2.79±1.09 and 2.49±1.11 folds, respectively in SM-injured patients in comparison with control levels. In contrast, Immunohistochemistry results showed downregulation of CuZnSOD protein expression in SM injured patients. Our results revealed that SODs may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress due to mustard gas toxicity in airway wall of SM exposed patients. PMID:23754354

  19. Effect of electroplating factory effluent on the germination and growth of hyacinth bean and mustard. [Dolichos lablab; Brassica compestris

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Khan, A.U.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of electroplating factory effluent in different concentrations (viz., 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0%) on the germination and growth of hyacinth beans (Dolichos lablab) and mustard seeds (Brassica compestris) was studied. The germination of seeds was delayed with the increase of effluent concentration and the germination of mustard seeds was totally inhibited at 1.5% effluent concentration while hyacinth bean seeds tolerated the effluent up to 2.5% concentration. The metal content in the hyacinth bean plants increased with increasing effluent concentration but after 1.0% effluent concentration, the concentration of all the metals (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Fe) decreased in the plants except Cr, which increased throughout. Percentage germination, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, and shoot length of the plants were also analyzed. Cd, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb were not detectable in the hyacinth bean plants.

  20. Mutations in the IMD Pathway and Mustard Counter Vibrio cholerae Suppression of Intestinal Stem Cell Division in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhipeng; Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and an intestinal pathogen of humans that causes severe epidemic diarrhea. In the absence of adequate mammalian models in which to study the interaction of V. cholerae with the host intestinal innate immune system, we have implemented Drosophila melanogaster as a surrogate host. We previously showed that immune deficiency pathway loss-of-function and mustard gain-of-function mutants are less susceptible to V. cholerae infection. We find that although the overall burden of intestinal bacteria is not significantly different from that of control flies, intestinal stem cell (ISC) division is increased in these mutants. This led us to examine the effect of V. cholerae on ISC division. We report that V. cholerae infection and cholera toxin decrease ISC division. Because IMD pathway and Mustard mutants, which are resistant to V. cholerae, maintain higher levels of ISC division during V. cholerae infection, we hypothesize that suppression of ISC division is a virulence strategy of V. cholerae and that accelerated epithelial regeneration protects the host against V. cholerae. Extension of these findings to mammals awaits the development of an adequate experimental model. PMID:23781070

  1. Thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard: Analysis of in vitro biotransformation by mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases using nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Brimfield, A.A.; Hodgson, Ernest

    2006-06-15

    Thiodiglycol (2,2'-bis-hydroxyethylsulfide, TDG), the hydrolysis product of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, has been implicated in the toxicity of sulfur mustard through the inhibition of protein phosphatases in mouse liver cytosol. The absence of any inhibitory activity when TDG was present in assays of pure enzymes, however, led us to investigate the possibility for metabolic activation of TDG to inhibitory compound(s) by cytosolic enzymes. We have successfully shown that mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) rapidly oxidize TDG in vitro, but the classic spectrophotometric techniques for following this reaction provided no information on the identity of TDG intermediates and products. The use of proton NMR to monitor the oxidative reaction with structural confirmation by independent synthesis allowed us to establish the ultimate product, 2-hydroxyethylthioacetic acid, and to identify an intermediate equilibrium mixture consisting of 2-hydroxyethylthioacetaldehyde, 2-hydroxyethylthioacetaldehyde hydrate and the cyclic 1,4-oxathian-2-ol. The intermediate nature of this mixture was determined spectrophotometrically when it was shown to drive the production of NADH when added to ADH and NAD.

  2. The design, synthesis and anticancer activity of new nitrogen mustard derivatives of natural indole phytoalexin 1-methoxyspirobrassinol.

    PubMed

    Mezencev, R; Kutschy, P; Salayova, A; Updegrove, T; McDonald, J F

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards cis-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[N,N-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (4) and trans-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[N,N-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (5) derived from 1-methoxyspirobrassinol, an indole phytoalexin produced by the Japanese radish Raphanus sativus var. hortensis were designed as prospective dual-action compounds with DNA-alkylating effect and glutathione-depleting effects that may sensitize cancer cells to alkylating agents. Both new compounds demonstrated cytostatic/cytotoxic effects on various leukemia and ovarian cancer cell lines and dsDNA-destabilizing effects in vitro. Compound 4, the more promising of the two compounds, exerts earlier onset of anticancer effects on Jurkat cells via induction of apoptosis compared to the traditional alkylating anticancer agent melphalan. In addition, it demonstrated higher potency on ovarian cancer OVCAR-3 cell line and lower fold resistance between Jurkat and Jurkat-M cells selected for the resistance to melphalan. Therefore, compound 4 may be less affected by certain cancer drug resistance mechanisms than melphalan and it may become a prototype of a new class of anticancer active nitrogen mustards that combine DNA-damaging and DNA-damage-sensitizing properties. PMID:19473057

  3. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase IIα Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xingzhi; Li, Changzheng

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μM , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μM, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μM, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μM) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1) and alkylating agents (G2). BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation. PMID:24995306

  4. Phytoremediation of arsenic and lead in contaminated soil using Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    PubMed

    Salido, Arthur L; Hasty, Kelly L; Lim, Jae-Min; Butcher, David J

    2003-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the performance of phytoremediation of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil at an EPA Superfund site (Barber Orchard). Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) were used to extract arsenic. On average, fern shoot arsenic concentrations were as high as 20 times the soil arsenic concentrations under field conditions. It was estimated that 8 years would be required to reduce the acid-extractable portion of soil arsenic to safe levels (40 mg/kg). The effect of soil pH on arsenic extraction was also investigated. Results indicate that increasing soil pH may improve arsenic removal. Indian mustard plants (Brassica juncea) were used under greenhouse conditions to phytoextract soil lead. EDTA was applied to soil and was found to improve lead extraction. When the EDTA concentration was 10 mmol EDTA/kg soil in soil containing 338 mg Pb/kg soil, mustard plants extracted approximately 32 mg of lead. In conclusion, phytoremediation would be a suitable alternative to conventional remediation techniques, especially for soils that do not require immediate remediation. PMID:12929493

  5. Factors affecting the dissolution and degradation of oriental mustard-derived sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Tsao, R; Yu, Q; Friesen, I; Potter, J; Chiba, M

    2000-05-01

    Sinigrin, the predominant glucosinolate in the oriental mustard Brassica juncea, is mainly degraded upon the enzymatic action of myrosinase under normal conditions to give allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in an aqueous media. Because AITC is considered to be the principal nematicidal ingredient in B. juncea, its stability in aqueous media is an important issue in achieving efficient nematode control. Pure sinigrin and AITC were found to be relatively stable in buffered water in the pH range of 5.00-7.00 but less stable at pH 9.00. Both sinigrin and AITC were more stable in soil water (supernatant of a 1:1 water/air-dried soil mixture) than in buffered water at the same pH range of 5.00-9.00. Sinigrin dissolved from the mustard bran or ground seed into water very quickly and was degraded by codissolved myrosinase to AITC. The AITC that formed from the degradation of sinigrin was found to be more stable in the soil water than in the buffered water. Buffer capacity was considered to be one of the factors that contributed to the stabilization of AITC in the soil water, but other unknown factors from both bran or seed and soil may also have contributed to the stabilization. PMID:10820112

  6. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  7. Structural flexibility of the sulfur mustard molecule at finite temperature from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Lach, Joanna; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the most dangerous chemical compounds used against humans, mostly at war conditions but also in terrorist attacks. Even though the sulfur mustard has been synthesized over a hundred years ago, some of its molecular properties are not yet resolved. We investigate the structural flexibility of the SM molecule in the gas phase by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough conformation analysis of 81 different SM configurations using density functional theory is performed to analyze the behavior of the system at finite temperature. The conformational diversity is analyzed with respect to the formation of intramolecular blue-shifting CH⋯S and CH⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that all structural rearrangements between SM local minima are realized either in direct or non-direct way, including the intermediate structure in the last case. We study the lifetime of the SM conformers and perform the population analysis. Additionally, we provide the anharmonic dynamical finite temperature IR spectrum from the Fourier Transform of the dipole moment autocorrelation function to mimic the missing experimental IR spectrum. PMID:26774981

  8. Efficiency influence of exogenous betaine on anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Chai, Hong-Xiang; Fan, Ming-Yu; Du, Jun

    2012-01-01

    When treating a composite mustard tuber wastewater with high concentrations of salt (about 20 g Cl(-) L(-1)) and organics (about 8000 mg L(-1) COD) by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) in winter, both high salinity and low temperature will inhibit the activity of anaerobic microorganisms and lead to low treatment efficiency. To solve this problem, betaine was added to the influent to improve the activity of the anaerobic sludge, and an experimental study was carried to investigate the influence of betaine on treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater by the ASBBR. The results show that, when using anaerobic acclimated sludge in the ASBBR, and controlling biofilm density at 50% and water temperature at 8-12 degrees C, the treatment efficiency of the reactor could be improved by adding the betaine at different concentrations. The efficiency reached the highest when the optimal dosage ofbetaine was 0.5 mmol L(-1). The average effluent COD, after stable acclimation, was 4461 mg L(-1). Relative to ASBBR without adding betaine, the activity of the sludge increased significantly. Meanwhile, the dehydrogenase activity of anaerobic microorganisms and the COD removal efficiency were increased by 18.6% and 18.1%, respectively. PMID:22988630

  9. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua P; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from beta-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury. PMID:20561902

  10. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  11. A Simplified Method for Quantifying Sulfur Mustard Adducts to Blood Proteins by Ultra-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Isotope Dilution Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pantazides, Brooke G.; Crow, Brian S.; Garton, Joshua W.; Quiñones-González, Jennifer A.; Blake, Thomas A.; Thomas, Jerry D.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard binds to reactive cysteine residues, forming a stable sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl [S-HETE] adduct that can be used as a long-term biomarker of sulfur mustard exposure in humans. The digestion of sulfur mustard-exposed blood samples with proteinase K following total protein precipitation with acetone produces the tripeptide biomarker [S-HETE]-Cys-Pro-Phe. The adducted tripeptide is purified by solid phase extraction, separated by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography, and detected by isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. This approach was thoroughly validated and characterized in our laboratory. The average interday relative standard deviation was ≤ 9.49%, and the range of accuracy was between 96.1-109% over a concentration range of 3.00 to 250. ng/mL with a calculated limit of detection of 1.74 ng/mL. A full 96-well plate can be processed and analyzed in 8 h which is five times faster than our previous 96-well plate method and only requires 50 µL of serum, plasma, or whole blood. Extensive ruggedness and stability studies and matrix comparisons were conducted to create a robust, easily transferrable method. As a result, a simple and high-throughput method has been developed and validated for the quantitation of sulfur mustard blood protein adducts in low volume blood specimens which should be readily adaptable for quantifying human exposures to other alkylating agents. PMID:25622494

  12. UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn analysis of anthocyanins, flavonol glycosides, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in red mustard green (Brassica juncea (L) Coss variety)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the polyphenols in red mustard greens and identified 209 phenolic compounds: 67 anthocyanin, 102 flavonol glycosides, and 40 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The glycosylation patterns of the flavonoids were assigned ...

  13. Use of a mustard trap crop to study efficacy of Beauveria bassiana treatments to corn and soybean for control of tarnished plant bug in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary field study was conducted in 2012 to measure impact of spraying tassel-stage corn and blooming early-maturity-group soybean with Beauveria bassiana on tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) populations before they colonize cotton. Four-row strips of mustard (total...

  14. COMPARISON OF SISTER-CHROMATID EXCHANGE IN MOUSE PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES EXPOSED IN VITRO AND IN VIVO TO PHOSPHORAMIDE MUSTARD AND 4-HYDROXYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was designed to investigate the genotoxicity of 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) and phosphoramide mustard (PAM), both reactive metabolites of cyclophosphamide (CP), for possible differences in SCE-inducing activity in mouse T- and B-lymphocytes. ouse peripher...

  15. Development of a liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring procedure for concurrent verification of exposure to different forms of mustard agents.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Thong-Hiang; Ho, Mer-Lin; Loke, Weng-Keong

    2008-01-01

    A novel liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) procedure has been developed for retrospective diagnosis of exposure to different forms of mustard agents. This concise method is able to validate prior exposure to nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2, and HN-3) or sulfur mustard (HD) in a single run, which significantly reduces analysis time compared to separate runs to screen for different mustards' biomarkers based on tandem mass spectrometry. Belonging to one of the more toxic classes of chemical warfare agents, these potent vesicants bind covalently to the cysteine-34 residue of human serum albumin. This results in the formation of stable adducts whose identities were confirmed by a de novo sequencing bioinformatics software package. Our developed technique tracks these albumin-derived adduct biomarkers in blood samples which persist in vitro following exposure, enabling a detection limit of 200 nM of HN-1, 100 nM of HN-2, 200 nM of HN-3, or 50 nM of HD in human blood. The CWA-adducts formed in blood samples can be conveniently and sensitively analyzed by this MRM technique to allow rapid and reliable screening. PMID:18269793

  16. Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of varieties and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, B-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy Brassica crops: collard (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard (B. juncea L.) and turnip (B. rapa) greens are important commercial and culinary vegetables; especially in the southern United States. However, almost no information on essential human-health vitamins [ascorbic acid (vit C), folate (vit...

  17. Characterization of mustard 2S albumin allergens by bottom-up, middle-down, and top-down proteomics: a consensus set of isoforms of Sin a 1.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Marlene; Wigger, Tina; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2015-03-01

    The mustard allergen Sin a 1 belongs to the 2S-albumin family of seed-storage proteins. Because of its high abundance in mustard seeds and the potential to elicit severe allergenic reactions, Sin a 1 is considered to be a major allergen in mustard. Eight Sin a 1 isoforms have been identified using DNA cloning and sequencing, and we aim in this study to thoroughly investigate sequence heterogeneity using a novel combination of bottom-up, middle-down, and top-down proteomics. The characterization of purified Sin a 1 extract shows that sequence diversity is far more pronounced than previously assumed. We identified in total 24 sequence polymorphisms including 17 yet unpublished point mutations. Using middle-down and top-down approaches on the subunit and protein level of Sin a 1, we were able to detect eight consensus isoforms of Sin a 1(including four novel isoforms), which we detect in the majority of the four different mustard samples included in this study. In addition, we provide for the first time data on relative abundance of the main Sin a 1 isoforms and identify phytic acid as a potential ligand of Sin a 1. Together, these data can form the basis for a more detailed investigation of the effect of Sin a 1 polymorphic sites on allergenicity of isoforms. PMID:25660635

  18. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2. PMID:23231956

  19. Biology of 11-Spotted Beetle Coccinella undicimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solangi, Bhai Khan; Ghani Lanjar, Abdul; Lohar, Mohammad Khan

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the biology of 11-spotted beetle Coccinella undecimpunctata L. on mustard aphid during the year 2006. The oviposition, fecundity, adult emergence, fertility percentage, sex ratio, longevity and mortality were studied in the laboratory on 10 separately reared pairs of beetles. The results indicated that average pre-copulation period was 4.1±1.28 days post copulation period 3.6±1.26 days, oviposition period, 37.7±6.88 days and post oviposition period 4.0±1.63 days. The mean fecundity was 593.4±86.5 eggs, fertile eggs were 531.80±76.16 with the fertility percentage of 89.63±3.44. the incubation was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.94 days while 1st and 2nd instar larva period was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.87 days and for 3rd and 4th instar larvae averaged 3.5±1.26 and 3.3±0.94 days, respectively whereas the total larval period was 12.9±1.28 days and pupal period 5.6±0.96 days. The average number of pupae observed were 19.9±6.69, while the male emergence was 7.4±2.63 (38.50±13.12%) and the female emergence was 8.9±3.66 (43.48±8.24%). The sex ratio (male: female) averaged 1:1.25±1: 0.45. thus the total male + female emergence was 81.99±13.37 per beetle pair. The mortality recorded was 3.7±3.43 beetles showing an averaged mortality of 17.57±14.51%. Longevity of the male was 36.5±4.17 days and the female longevity of 46.0±9.14 days. It was recorded that longevity period was significantly greater in case of female ladybird beetles as compared to their males. Adult emergence was greater in females of 11-spotted beetles as compared to males and thus the sex ratio was higher in females as compared to males. The longevity was comparably higher in case of females than in male beetles.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:22104123

  1. Small Intestinal Cannabinoid Receptor Changes Following a Single Colonic Insult with Oil of Mustard in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Edward S.; Wallace, Nathaniel H.; Schneider, Craig R.; D'Andrea, Michael R.; Hornby, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids are known to be clinically beneficial for control of appetite disorders and nausea/vomiting, with emerging data that they can impact other GI disorders, such as inflammation. Post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a condition of perturbed intestinal function that occurs subsequent to earlier periods of intestinal inflammation. Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) and CB2R alterations in GI inflammation have been demonstrated in both animal models and clinically, but their continuing role in the post-inflammatory period has only been implicated to date. Therefore, to provide direct evidence for CBR involvement in altered GI functions in the absence of overt inflammation, we used a model of enhanced upper GI transit that persists for up to 4 weeks after a single insult by intracolonic 0.5% oil of mustard (OM) in mice. In mice administered OM, CB1R immunostaining in the myenteric plexus was reduced at day 7, when colonic inflammation is subsiding, and then increased at 28 days, compared to tissue from age-matched vehicle-treated mice. In the lamina propria CB2R immunostaining density was also increased at day 28. In mice tested 28 day after OM, either a CB1R-selective agonist, ACEA (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c.) or a CB2R-selective agonist, JWH-133 (3 and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced the enhanced small intestinal transit in a dose-related manner. Doses of ACEA and JWH-133 (1 mg/kg), alone or combined, reduced small intestinal transit of OM-treated mice to a greater extent than control mice. Thus, in this post-colonic inflammation model, both CBR subtypes are up-regulated and there is increased efficacy of both CB1R and CB2R agonists. We conclude that CBR remodeling occurs not only during GI inflammation but continues during the recovery phase. Thus, either CB1R- or CB2-selective agonists could be efficacious for modulating GI motility in individuals experiencing diarrhea-predominant PI-IBS. PMID:21779244

  2. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken. PMID:25790995

  3. Enhanced Accumulation of Copper and Lead in Amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Methods/Principal Findings Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg−1 soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1–15.5 mg kg−1, for Cu 11.6–16.8 mg kg−1) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50–54%) and Cu (34–38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC) ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3–4.3 and 1.8–3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. Conclusions Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils. PMID:23667546

  4. Synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of 9-anilinoacridines bearing N-mustard residue on both anilino and acridine rings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Huang; Lin, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Xiuguo; Chou, Ting-Chao; Tsai, Tsong-Jen; Kapuriya, Naval; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Su, Tsann-Long

    2009-07-01

    A series of 9-anilinoacridines having an alkylating N-mustard pharmacophore on both anilino (C-3' or C-4') and acridine (C-4) rings with O-ethyl (O-C(2)) or O-butyl (O-C(4)) spacer were synthesized to evaluate their cytotoxicity against human lymphoblastic leukemia (CCRF-CEM) cell growth in vitro. It was revealed that these conjugates exhibited significant in vitro cytotoxicity. Among these agents, compound 13 was the most cytotoxic with IC(50) value of 1.3 nM and is as potent as taxol (IC(50)=1.1 nM). The structure-activity relationship study showed that the length of the spacer and the position of the substituent do affect their cytotoxicity. PMID:18752869

  5. Design and synthesis of novel hydroxyanthraquinone nitrogen mustard derivatives as potential anticancer agents via a bioisostere approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Ming; Ma, Feng-Yan; Jin, Hai-Shan; Zheng, Shilong; Zhong, Qiu; Wang, Guangdi

    2016-01-01

    A series of hydroxyanthraquinones having an alkylating N-mustard pharmacophore at 1′-position were synthesized via a bioisostere approach to evaluate their cytotoxicity against four tumor cell lines (MDA-MB-231, HeLa, MCF-7 and A549). These compounds displayed significant in vitro cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, reflecting the excellent selectivity for the human breast cancer. Among them, compound 5k was the most cytotoxic with IC50 value of 0.263 nM and is more potent than DXR (IC50 = 0.294 nM) in inhibiting the growth of MCF-7 cells. The excellent cytotoxicity and good selectivity of compound 5k suggest that it could be a promising lead for further design and development of anticancer agents, especially for breast cancer. PMID:26291039

  6. Assessment of apoptosis occurring in spleen cells from nitrogen mustard-treated or gamma-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Hugel, B; Weltin, D; Holl, V; Marchal, J; Dufour, P; Freyssinet, J M; Bischoff, P L

    1998-01-01

    The short-term consequences on spleen cells of the intraperitoneal administration of nitrogen mustard (HN-2) to mice or of a whole-body gamma irradiation have been evaluated. Experiments were designed to assess the induction of apoptosis in spleen cells following exposure to these agents. The occurrence of this type of cell death was analysed by several methods, in particular the quantification in the blood of phosphotidylserine-bearing microparticles shed by apoptotic cells. In response to HN-2 or radiations, spleens undergo a rapid involution of their weight and cellularity. Ex vivo apoptosis occurs within 24 hours in cultured lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner after both treatments. As compared with untreated controls, circulating microparticles increased 3-fold after the injection of 5 mg/kg of HN-2. PMID:9858897

  7. The action of mono- and di-functional sulphur mustards on the ribonucleic acid-containing bacteriophage μ2

    PubMed Central

    Shooter, K. V.; Edwards, P. A.; Lawley, P. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacteriophage μ2 is inactivated by both mono- and di-functional sulphur mustards at relatively low extents of alkylation. No degradation of alkylated RNA was detected. Cross-linking of RNA to protein was observed with the difunctional agent, but this reaction was only a minor contribution to the inactivation. Analyses of the reaction products in bacteriophage RNA showed that, at the mean lethal doses, more than one mono-alkylation of guanine had occurred but the sum total of other types of RNA alkylation was close to a single event. The results therefore suggest that inactivation results from the mono-alkylation of adenine or cytosine. In experiments with the difunctional agent cross-linking of RNA bases or of RNA to protein also prevented replication, the existence of these reactions accounting for the greater sensitivity of the bacteriophage to this agent. PMID:5145907

  8. Structural features of dilute acid, steam exploded, and alkali pretreated mustard stalk and their impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Manali; Raj, Tirath; Vijayaraj, M; Chopra, Anju; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-06-25

    To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from <10% to 81% after pretreatment. Glucose yield at 2 and 72h are well correlated with surface area and maximum adsorption capacity. However, no such relationship is observed for xylose yield. Mass balance of the process is also studied. Dilute acid pretreatment is the best methodology in terms of maximum sugar yield at lower enzyme loading. PMID:25839820

  9. Attenuation of Nitrogen Mustard-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Fibrosis by Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antibody.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R; Venosa, Alessandro; Verissimo, Vivianne L; Cervelli, Jessica A; Vayas, Kinal N; Hall, LeRoy; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes acute injury to the lung that progresses to fibrosis. This is accompanied by a prominent infiltration of macrophages into the lung and upregulation of proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of anti-TNFα antibody to mitigate NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Treatment of rats with anti-TNFα antibody (15 mg/kg, iv, every 9 days) beginning 30 min after intratracheal administration of NM (0.125 mg/kg) reduced progressive histopathologic alterations in the lung including perivascular and peribronchial edema, macrophage/monocyte infiltration, interstitial thickening, bronchiolization of alveolar walls, fibrin deposition, emphysema, and fibrosis. NM-induced damage to the alveolar-epithelial barrier, measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and cell content, was also reduced by anti-TNFα antibody, along with expression of the oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1. Whereas the accumulation of proinflammatory/cytotoxic M1 macrophages in the lung in response to NM was suppressed by anti-TNFα antibody, anti-inflammatory/profibrotic M2 macrophages were increased or unchanged. Treatment of rats with anti-TNFα antibody also reduced NM-induced increases in expression of the profibrotic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. This was associated with a reduction in NM-induced collagen deposition in the lung. These data suggest that inhibiting TNFα may represent an efficacious approach to mitigating lung injury induced by mustards. PMID:26243812

  10. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro; Hall, LeRoy; Gow, Andrew J.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute

  11. Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2014-05-15

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. PMID:24631613

  12. Absence of a p53 allele delays nitrogen mustard-induced early apoptosis and inflammation of murine skin

    PubMed Central

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Roy, Srirupa; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Bifunctional alkylating agent sulfur mustard (SM) and its analog nitrogen mustard (NM) cause DNA damage leading to cell death, and potentially activating inflammation. Transcription factor p53 plays a critical role in DNA damage by regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Earlier studies by our laboratory demonstrated phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and an increase in total p53 in epidermal cells both in vitro and in vivo following NM exposure. To elucidate the role of p53 in NM-induced skin toxicity, we employed SKH-1 hairless mice harboring wild type (WT) or heterozygous p53 (p53+/−). Exposure to NM (3.2 mg) caused a more profound increase in epidermal thickness and apoptotic cell death in WT relative to p53+/− mice at 24 h. However, by 72 h after exposure, there was a comparable increase in NM-induced epidermal cell death in both WT and p53+/− mice. Myeloperoxidase activity data showed that neutrophil infiltration was strongly enhanced in NM-exposed WT mice at 24 h persisting through 72 h of exposure. Conversely, robust NM-induced neutrophil infiltration (comparable to WT mice) was seen only at 72 h after exposure in p53+/− mice. Similarly, NM-exposure strongly induced macrophage and mast cell infiltration in WT, but not p53+/− mice. Together, these data indicate that early apoptosis and inflammation induced by NM in mouse skin are p53-dependent. Thus, targeting this pathway could be a novel strategy for developing countermeasures against vesicants-induced skin injury. PMID:23845566

  13. Activation of DNA damage repair pathways in response to nitrogen mustard-induced DNA damage and toxicity in skin keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a structural analog of chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), forms adducts and crosslinks with DNA, RNA and proteins. Here we studied the mechanism of NM-induced skin toxicity in response to double strand breaks (DSBs) resulting in cell cycle arrest to facilitate DNA repair, as a model for developing countermeasures against vesicant-induced skin injuries. NM exposure of mouse epidermal JB6 cells decreased cell growth and caused S-phase arrest. Consistent with these biological outcomes, NM exposure also increased comet tail extent moment and the levels of DNA DSB repair molecules phospho H2A.X Ser139 and p53 Ser15 indicating NM-induced DNA DSBs. Since DNA DSB repair occurs via non homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) or homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways, next we studied these two pathways and noted their activation as defined by an increase in phospho- and total DNA-PK levels, and the formation of Rad51 foci, respectively. To further analyze the role of these pathways in the cellular response to NM-induced cytotoxicity, NHEJ and HRR were inhibited by DNA-PK inhibitor NU7026 and Rad51 inhibitor BO2, respectively. Inhibition of NHEJ did not sensitize cells to NM-induced decrease in cell growth and cell cycle arrest. However, inhibition of the HRR pathway caused a significant increase in cell death, and prolonged G2M arrest following NM exposure. Together, our findings, indicating that HRR is the key pathway involved in the repair of NM-induced DNA DSBs, could be useful in developing new therapeutic strategies against vesicant-induced skin injury. PMID:24732344

  14. Nrf2 Regulates the Sensitivity of Mouse Keratinocytes to Nitrogen Mustard via Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 (Mrp1).

    PubMed

    Udasin, Ronald G; Wen, Xia; Bircsak, Kristin M; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Shakarjian, Michael P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine, HN2) are potent vesicants developed as chemical warfare agents. These electrophilic, bifunctional alkylating agents cause skin injury, including inflammation, edema, and blistering. HN2 covalently modifies macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins or is scavenged by glutathione, forming adducts that can contribute to toxicity. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1/MRP1) is a transmembrane ATPase known to efflux glutathione-conjugated electrophiles. In the present studies, we examined the effects of modulating Mrp1-mediated transport activity on the sensitivity of primary and PAM212 mouse keratinocytes to HN2. Primary keratinocytes, and to a lesser extent, PAM212 cells, express Mrp1 mRNA and protein and possess Mrp1 functional activity, as measured by calcein efflux. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, increased Mrp1 mRNA, protein, and functional activity in primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells and decreased their sensitivity to HN2-induced growth inhibition (IC(50) = 1.4 and 4.8 µM in primary keratinocytes and 1 and 13 µM in PAM212 cells, in the absence and presence of sulforaphane, respectively). The Mrp1 inhibitor, MK-571, reversed the effects of sulforaphane on HN2-induced growth inhibition in both primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells. In primary keratinocytes from Nrf2(-/-) mice, sulforaphane had no impact on Mrp1 expression or activity, or on sensitivity to HN2, demonstrating that its effects depend on Nrf2. These data suggest that Mrp1-mediated efflux is important in regulating HN2-induced keratinocyte growth inhibition. Enhancing HN2 efflux from keratinocytes may represent a novel strategy for mitigating vesicant-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26454883

  15. Activation of DNA damage repair pathways in response to nitrogen mustard-induced DNA damage and toxicity in skin keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Swetha; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM), a structural analog of chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM), forms adducts and crosslinks with DNA, RNA and proteins. Here we studied the mechanism of NM-induced skin toxicity in response to double strand breaks (DSBs) resulting in cell cycle arrest to facilitate DNA repair, as a model for developing countermeasures against vesicant-induced skin injuries. NM exposure of mouse epidermal JB6 cells decreased cell growth and caused S-phase arrest. Consistent with these biological outcomes, NM exposure also increased comet tail extent moment and the levels of DNA DSB repair molecules phospho H2A.X Ser139 and p53 Ser15 indicating NM-induced DNA DSBs. Since DNA DSB repair occurs via non homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) or homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathways, next we studied these two pathways and noted their activation as defined by an increase in phospho- and total DNA-PK levels, and the formation of Rad51 foci, respectively. To further analyze the role of these pathways in the cellular response to NM-induced cytotoxicity, NHEJ and HRR were inhibited by DNA-PK inhibitor NU7026 and Rad51 inhibitor BO2, respectively. Inhibition of NHEJ did not sensitize cells to NM-induced decrease in cell growth and cell cycle arrest. However, inhibition of the HRR pathway caused a significant increase in cell death, and prolonged G2M arrest following NM exposure. Together, our findings, indicating that HRR is the key pathway involved in the repair of NM-induced DNA DSBs, could be useful in developing new therapeutic strategies against vesicant-induced skin injury. PMID:24732344

  16. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, were instilled into the trachea. Arterial O2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts were evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. PMID:23727623

  17. The effects of atorvastatin on mustard-gas-exposed patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghobadi, Hassan; Lari, Shahrzad M.; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Mahmoudpour, Afsoun; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statins have anti-inflammatory effects in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study designed to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on serum highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and pulmonary function in sulfur mustard exposed patients with COPD. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to sulfur mustard and high serum hs-CRP entered in this study. Participants were randomized to receive 40 mg atorvastatin or placebo in a double-blind clinical trial. Forty-five patients completed the study (n = 23 atorvastatin and n = 22 placebo). Pulse oximetry (SpO2), pulmonary function test (PFT), and 6 min walk distance test (6MWD) was measured. COPD assessment test (CAT) and St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) were also completed by patients at the beginning of trial and after 9 weeks of prescription of 40 mg/day atorvastatin or placebo. At fourth week, SpO2, PFT, and 6MWD were again measured. After 9 weeks serum hs-CRP was re-measured. Results: There was no significant difference between atorvastatin and the placebo group in SpO2, FEV1, and 6MWD after fourth week (P = 0.79, P = 0.12, P = 0.12, respectively). The difference between baseline and ninth week was calculated for two groups of trial and control in term of serum hs-CRP, SpO2, FEV1, and 6MWD. Significant improvement was not observed between two groups in above mentioned variables (P = 0.35, P = 0.28, P = 0.94, P = 0.43, respectively). However, the quality of life was improved by administration of atorvastatin using the CAT score (P < 0.001) and SGRQ total score (P = 0.004). Conclusion: Atorvastatin does not alter serum hs-CRP and lung functions but may improve quality of life in SM-injured patients with COPD. PMID:24778661

  18. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  19. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    PubMed

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  20. Comparison of fixation and processing methods for hairless guinea pig skin following sulfur mustard exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.A.; Braue Jr, E.H.

    1992-12-31

    Ten anesthetized hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR were exposed to 10 pi of neat sulfur mustard (HD) in a vapor cup on their skin for 7 min. At 24 h postexposure, the guinea pigs were euthanatized and skin sections taken for histologic evaluation. The skin was fixed using either 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), McDowell Trump fixative (4CF-IG), Zenker`s formol-saline (Helly`s fluid), or Zenker`s fluid. Fixed skin sections were cut in half: one half was embedded in paraffin and the other half in plastic (glycol methacrylate). Paraffin-embedded tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin; plastic-embedded tissue was stained with Lee`s methylene blue basic fuchsin. Skin was also frozen unfixed, sectioned by cryostat, and stained with pinacyanole. HD-exposed skin was evaluated histologically for the presence of epidermal and follicular necrosis, microblister formation, epidermitis, and intracellular edema to determine the optimal fixation and embedding method for lesion preservation. The percentage of histologic sections with lesions varied little between fixatives and was similar for both paraffin and plastic embedding material. Plastic-embedded sections were thinner, allowing better histologic evaluation, but were more difficult to stain. Plastic embedding material did not infiltrate tissue fixed in Zenker`s fluid or Zenker`s formol-saline. Frozen tissue sections were prepared in the least processing time and lesion preservation was comparable to fixed tissue. It was concluded that standard histologic processing using formalin fixation and paraffin embedding is adequate for routine histopathological evaluation of HD skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig.... Sulfur mustard, Vesicating agents, Pathology, Hairless guinea pig model, Fixation.

  1. Quantitative determination of the hydrolysis products of nitrogen mustards in human urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Sharon W; Ashley, David L; Calafat, Antonia M

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards are a public health concern because of their extreme vesicant properties and the possible exposure of workers during the destruction of chemical stockpiles. A sensitive, rapid, accurate, and precise analysis for the quantitation of ultratrace levels of N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) in human urine as a means of assessing recent exposure to the nitrogen mustards bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine and bis(2-chloroethyl)methylamine, respectively, was developed. The method was based on solid-phase extraction, followed by analysis of the urine extract using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with TurbolonSpray ionization and multiple-reaction monitoring. The method limits of detection were 0.41 ng/mL for EDEA and 0.96 ng/mL for MDEA in 1 mL of urine with coefficients of variation < 10% for both compounds. PMID:12587675

  2. Selenium distribution and speciation in plant parts of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) from a seleniferous area of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Eiche, E; Bardelli, F; Nothstein, A K; Charlet, L; Göttlicher, J; Steininger, R; Dhillon, K S; Sadana, U S

    2015-02-01

    The concentration, distribution, and speciation of selenium in different parts of wheat and Indian mustard, grown in a seleniferous area in Punjab, were investigated using synchrotron based (XAS) and classical acid digestion and extraction methods. The analyses revealed a high Se enrichment in all investigated plant parts, with Se levels in the range of 133-931 mg/kg (dry weight, dw). Such high Se enrichment is mainly due to the considerable amounts of easily available Se detected in the soil, which are renewed on a yearly basis to some extent via irrigation. Speciation analysis in soil and plants indicated selenate and organic Se as major Se species taken up by plants, with a minor presence of selenite. The analyses also revealed that the highest Se enrichment occurs in the upper plant parts, in agreement with the high uptake rate and mobility of selenate within plants. In both wheat and mustard, highest Se enrichments were found in leaves (387 mg/kg·dw in wheat and 931 mg/kg·dw in mustard). Organic species (dimethylselenide and methylselenocysteine) were found in different parts of both plants, indicating that an active detoxification response to the high Se uptake is taking place through methylation and/or volatilization. The high proportion of selenate in wheat and mustard leaves (47% and 70%, respectively) is the result of the inability of the plant metabolism to completely transform selenate to non-toxic organic forms, if oversupplied. Methylselenocysteine, a common Se species in accumulating plants, was detected in wheat, suggesting that, in the presence of high Se concentration, this plant develops similar response mechanisms to accumulator plants. PMID:25461096

  3. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  4. Analysis of towed camera images to determine the effects of disposed mustard-filled bombs on the deep water benthic community off south Oahu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Christopher; Carton, Geoffrey; Tomlinson, Michael; Gleason, Arthur

    2016-06-01

    Still images from a towed camera sled were used to evaluate the potential ecological effects of M47A2 mustard-filled (1,1‧-thiobis[2-chloroethane]) bombs disposed of in over 500 m of water off the south coast of Oahu in 1944. The types of munitions and munitions debris in the images were identified by an ordnance and explosives safety specialist. To the extent feasible, non-munitions related debris were also identified. Biologists then examined the images and identified the types and numbers of animals: (1) on or near (<1 m) the M47A2 bombs; (2) on other manmade debris, including other munitions; and (3) on the natural substrate that was predominantly sediment with little, if any, topographic relief. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze these data to identify differences between the biota inhabiting the three substrates. The analysis indicated that the types and numbers of animals associated with the M47A2 bombs were not significantly different from those observed on other types of munitions and other manmade debris; however they were significantly different from the animals found only on the natural sediment. Based on these results, it appears that the mustard-filled bombs are providing hard substrate similar to other disposed objects, attracting "hard substrate species" that would not have otherwise colonized the area. Even though it is apparent that many of the mustard-filled bombs have breached and their contents exposed, the analysis did not find any evidence of animals avoiding the mustard-filled bombs.

  5. The synthesis and biological evaluation of new DNA-directed alkylating agents, phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates containing a urea linker.

    PubMed

    Marvania, Bhavin; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Christian, Wilson; Chen, Tai-Lin; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Suman, Sharda; Tala, Kiran; Lee, Te-Chang; Shah, Anamik; Su, Tsann-Long

    2014-08-18

    We synthesized a series of phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates to study their antitumorigenic effects. These agents were prepared by the condensation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl isocyanate with 6-amino-4-methylamino or 4-anilinoquinolines. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that the C2-methylquinoline derivatives (18a-o) were generally more cytotoxic than the C2-phenylquinoline conjugates (23a-d) in inhibiting the cell growth of various human tumor cell lines in vitro. However, the methylamino or aniline substituents at C4 of quinoline did not influence the cytotoxic effects. The title conjugates were capable of inducing DNA cross-linking and promoting cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This study demonstrates that phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates are generally more potent than phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinazoline conjugates against the cell growth of various tumor cell-lines. PMID:25014640

  6. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-12-01

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  7. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y; Ganie, Arshid H; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard. PMID:27524987

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  9. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y.; Ganie, Arshid H.; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard. PMID:27524987

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt).

    PubMed

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  11. Pot experiment to study the uptake of Cd and Pb by three Indian mustards (Brassica juncea) grown in artificially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Shih-Wen; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Most of the metals-contaminated and fallow lands in Taiwan are a result of irrigation with illegal effluent of factories. Phytoextraction methods can be applied to reach the target of fallow-lands reuse and earn more incomes for farmers. In many studies, Indian mustards (Brassica juncea) were planted in the metal-contaminated soils to study their suitability in phytoextraction. However, the total removal of metals by plants was quite different between accessions. In this pot study, three accessions of B. juncea (cv. 182921, cv. 211000, and cv. 426308) were planted in artificially Cd- or Pb-contaminated soils to investigate the differences between them. EDTA was applied to study its effect in increasing the bioavailability of Cd and Pb and their uptake by these Indian mustards. Experimental result showed that three accessions of Indian mustard can accumulate a high concentration of Cd and Pb when growing in the artificially Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Their shoot Cd or Pb concentrations were significantly enhanced, resulting from the application of EDTA. Among the three accessions, B. juncea cv. 211000 accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd and Pb in their shoots compared with B. juncea cv. 182921 and cv. 426308, but its total removal was the lowest due to its lower biomass. PMID:18709923

  12. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. PMID:24817050

  13. Modulatory potential of smokeless tobacco on the garlic, mace or black mustard-altered hepatic detoxication system enzymes, sulfhydryl content and lipid peroxidation in murine system.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Singh, S P

    1997-09-16

    The present study evaluates the potential of smokeless tobacco to modify the chemopreventive efficacy of minor dietary constituents, including garlic, mace or black mustard, via modulating the competing pathways of hepatic detoxication system and antioxidant defense mechanism in murine system. Garlic (100 mg/kg b.w. per day) by gavage and mace (1% w/w) or black mustard (1% w/w) in diet induced a significant increase in the levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH), cytochrome b5 (Cyt.b5) and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt.P-450) in murine liver. The hepatic levels of GST and -SH were significantly depressed whereas microsomal Cyt.b5, Cyt.P-450 and MDA levels were elevated in groups treated with smokeless tobacco (50 or 100 mg/kg b.w. per day). The data revealed the inhibitory potential of smokeless tobacco on garlic-induced hepatic GST/GSH system besides the significant augmentation by smokeless tobacco on garlic or mace or black mustard-induced microsomal cytochromes. The possible implications of modulation in competing bioactivation and detoxication pathways in the process of chemical carcinogenesis are discussed. PMID:9310267

  14. Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.

    PubMed

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Kozłowska, Halina

    2008-10-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark. PMID:18771273

  15. The effects of the presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations on the rhizosphere nematode and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Li, Junsheng; Stewart, C Neal; Luo, Zunlan; Xiao, Nengwen

    2015-10-15

    The adventitious presence of transgenic crops in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern. In this context, their effects on non-target, below-ground organisms are not well understood. Here, we introduced, at various frequencies, Bt-transgenic oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus) into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations in the presence and absence of the target herbivore (Plutella xylostella). The impacts on soil nematode and microbial communities were assessed in this system. There were no significant changes on the number of nematode genera and abundance in proportions of OSR with mustard. Nonetheless, the Shannon-Wiener and Pielou evenness index was lowest in plant stands containing 50% of Bt-transgenic OSR. Among treatments, there was no significant variation for culturable soil microbes. There was a positive association between foliar herbivory and the abundance of plant parasitic (PP) and cp-3 nematodes, whereas there was no association between herbivory and soil microbial populations. There was no direct effects of the presence of Bt-transgenic OSR in wild mustard populations on the rhizosphere nematode and microbial communities, whereas its indirect effects via aboveground herbivory might be important to consider for biosafety assessments. PMID:26047860

  16. 78 FR 31479 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Leavenworthia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34271)), the Information Quality Act (section 515... areas contain good quality or better occurrences (A, B, or C-ranked) and natural habitat, as identified... size and is located along an unnamed tributary to Cedar Creek, and south of KY 1442. This...

  17. 78 FR 31498 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Leavenworthia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Register on July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27824). It remained a Category 1 species in subsequent notices including December 15, 1980 (45 FR 82480-82569), November 28, 1983 (48 FR 53640-53670), September 27, 1985 (50 FR 39526-39584), February 21, 1990 (55 FR 6184-6229) and September 30, 1993 (58 FR 51144-511920)....

  18. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/ PMID:26589635

  19. Brassica database (BRAD) version 2.0: integrating and mining Brassicaceae species genomic resources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica database (BRAD) was built initially to assist users apply Brassica rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomic data efficiently to their research. However, many Brassicaceae genomes have been sequenced and released after its construction. These genomes are rich resources for comparative genomics, gene annotation and functional evolutionary studies of Brassica crops. Therefore, we have updated BRAD to version 2.0 (V2.0). In BRAD V2.0, 11 more Brassicaceae genomes have been integrated into the database, namely those of Arabidopsis lyrata, Aethionema arabicum, Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus, Camelina sativa, Capsella rubella, Leavenworthia alabamica, Sisymbrium irio and three extremophiles Schrenkiella parvula, Thellungiella halophila and Thellungiella salsuginea. BRAD V2.0 provides plots of syntenic genomic fragments between pairs of Brassicaceae species, from the level of chromosomes to genomic blocks. The Generic Synteny Browser (GBrowse_syn), a module of the Genome Browser (GBrowse), is used to show syntenic relationships between multiple genomes. Search functions for retrieving syntenic and non-syntenic orthologs, as well as their annotation and sequences are also provided. Furthermore, genome and annotation information have been imported into GBrowse so that all functional elements can be visualized in one frame. We plan to continually update BRAD by integrating more Brassicaceae genomes into the database. Database URL: http://brassicadb.org/brad/. PMID:26589635

  20. The effect of vitamin E on pathological changes in kidney and liver of sulphur mustard-exposed guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Tabatabayee, Abbas; Amiri, Sediqa; Vahedi, Nasim

    2012-04-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) gas is a poisonous chemical agent causing various systemic action in laboratory animals. There is no definite treatment for disorders induced by SM. In this study, the effect of vitamin E alone and in combination with dexamethasone on the pathological changes in the kidney and liver of SM-exposed (SME) guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs were divided into five groups (n = 5 in each). These groups were exposed to ethanol (control group), 100 mg/m(3) inhaled SM (SME group), SME treated with vitamin E, 600 mg/kg (SME + E), SME treated with dexamethasone, 5 mg/kg (SME + D), and SME treated with both drugs (SME + E + D), respectively. Pathological evaluation of the kidneys and livers was done 14 days post exposure. There were statistically significant pathological changes in the liver and kidney of SME group compared to control animals (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Treatment of SME animals with vitamin E, dexamethasone and their combination caused statistically significant improvement in the pathological changes in the livers and kidneys (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). These results showed a preventive effect of vitamin E on pathological changes in the liver and more prominently in the kidneys of SME guinea pigs. PMID:21967843

  1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors regulate the mechanism of sulfur mustard-initiated cell death in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Meier, H L; Millard, C; Moser, J

    2000-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) produces slow-healing skin lesions that contain large, tight fluid-filled blisters. These lesions are the result of severe damage to areas of the body exposed to HD and require extensive medical care before complete recovery is achieved. Converting the mechanism of HD-initiated cell death from an inflammatory oncosis (homicide) to benign apoptosis (assisted suicide) may reduce the extent of cellular damage and the time required for healing. HD-exposed human lymphocytes lose cellular function, membrane integrity and viability, and suffer degradation of their nuclear components. The treatment of HD-exposed cells with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors prevents or alters the HD-initiated loss of cell viability, membrane integrity, cellular metabolic constituent (NAD) and cellular energy (ATP), while initiating alterations in nuclear constituents. It is hoped that by preventing or altering these HD-initiated changes we can limit the extent of the injury, decrease the time required for repair and reduce the loss of performance suffered by exposed individuals. The use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors to assist in initiating apoptosis in affected cells should help to achieve these objectives while preventing the chance of further disease development later in the exposed individuals. PMID:11428651

  2. Geophysical investigation at Mustard Gas Burial Ground, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, Indiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Sjostrom, K.J.; Murphy, W.L.

    1997-06-01

    A geophysical investigation was conducted at the Mustard Gas Burial Ground (MGBG) at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division, Crane, IN. The MGBG, an approximately 2-acre area, is a former Solid Waste Management Unit. The objective of the investigation was to detect and delineate anomalies indicating the locations of buried structures, objects, or disturbed zones associated with past hazardous waste burial at the MGBG. The locations of these objects are needed so they can be excavated for removal to a permanent treatment or disposal site. Frequency and time domain electromagnetic (EM) along with magnetic survey methods were used at the MGBG. All the surveys performed at the MGBG indicated an anomalous area approximately 10 ft in diameter centered on Station 255 on Line 130. The estimated depth of the anomaly, based on results of the transient EM surveys, is 1 to 2 ft. The anomaly is presumed to be ferrous in nature since it was detected by the magnetometer. An additional, 2- to 3-ft diameter anomaly, caused by a small metallic object was detected by the transient EM surveys.

  3. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    PubMed

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  4. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  5. Proteomic assessment of sulfur mustard-induced protein adducts and other protein modifications in human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mol, Marijke A.E. Berg, Roland M. van den; Benschop, Henk P.

    2008-07-01

    Although some toxicological mechanisms of sulfur mustard (HD) have been uncovered, new knowledge will allow for advanced insight in the pathways that lead towards epidermal-dermal separation in skin. In the present investigation, we aimed to survey events that occur at the protein level in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) during 24 h after exposure to HD. By using radiolabeled {sup 14}C-HD, it was found that proteins in cultured HEK are significant targets for alkylation by HD. HD-adducted proteins were visualized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Several type I and II cytokeratins, actin, stratifin (14-3-3{sigma}) and galectin-7 were identified. These proteins are involved in the maintenance of the cellular cytoskeleton. Their alkylation may cause changes in the cellular architecture and, in direct line with that, be determinative for the onset of vesication. Furthermore, differential proteomic analysis was applied to search for novel features of the cellular response to HD. Partial breakdown of type I cytokeratins K14, K16 and K17 as well as the emergence of new charge variants of the proteins heat shock protein 27 and ribosomal protein P0 were observed. Studies with caspase inhibitors showed that caspase-6 is probably responsible for the breakdown of type I cytokeratins in HEK. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of toxicological relevance and possible clues for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-20

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg{sup -1} and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg{sup -1}. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  7. Prediction of acute mammalian toxicity using QSAR methods: a case study of sulfur mustard and its breakdown products.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Patricia; Begluitti, Gino; Tincher, Terry; Wheeler, John; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2012-01-01

    Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR), has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance's database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (LD₅₀) for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD₅₀ value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD₅₀ value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s) of interest, during emergency responses, LD₅₀ values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD₅₀ models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD) are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD₅₀ values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field. PMID:22842643

  8. Impact of topical application of sulfur mustard on mice skin and distant organs DNA repair enzyme signature.

    PubMed

    Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Sarrazy, Fanny; Batal, Mohamed; Caillat, Sylvain; Pitiot, Benoit; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Boudry, Isabelle; Douki, Thierry

    2016-01-22

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that, upon topical application, damages skin and reaches internal organs through diffusion in blood. Two major toxic consequences of SM exposure are inflammation, associated with oxidative stress, and the formation of alkylated DNA bases. In the present study, we investigated the impact of exposure to SM on DNA repair, using two different functional DNA repair assays which provide information on several Base Excision Repair (BER) and Excision/Synthesis Repair (ESR) activities. BER activities were reduced in all organs as early as 4h after exposure, with the exception of the defense systems against 8-oxo-guanine and hypoxanthine which were stimulated. Interestingly, the resulting BER intermediates could activate inflammation signals, aggravating the inflammation triggered by SM exposure and leading to increased oxidative stress. ESR activities were found to be mostly inhibited in skin, brain and kidneys. In contrast, in the lung there was a general increase in ESR activities. In summary, exposure to SM leads to a significant decrease in DNA repair in most organs, concomitant with the formation of DNA damage. These synergistic genotoxic effects are likely to participate in the high toxicity of this alkylating agent. Lungs, possibly better equipped with repair enzymes to handle exogenous exposure, are the exception. PMID:26551547

  9. Development and application of acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for chemical warfare nerve and sulfur mustard agents.

    PubMed

    Watson, Annetta; Opresko, Dennis; Young, Robert; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios. PMID:16621779

  10. Design and synthesis of peptide conjugates of phosphoramide mustard as prodrugs activated by prostate-specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinghua; Hu, Longqin

    2016-06-15

    A series of Glutaryl-Hyp-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-4-aminobenzyl phosphoramide mustard conjugates (1a-e) was designed and synthesized as potential prodrugs for site-specific activation by PSA in prostate cancer cells. All conjugates were found to be substrates of PSA with cleavage occurring between Gln and the para-aminobenzyl (PAB) linker. Structure-activity relationship studies on these conjugates indicated that introduction of electron-withdrawing fluorine(s) on the phenyl ring in the PAB linker uniformly improved the chemical stability of the conjugates while the position of substitution affected differently the self-immolative process of conjugates upon proteolysis. Introduction of a fluorine at ortho position to benzylic phosphoramide as in 1b results in better stability of the conjugate prior to activation while maintaining its antiproliferative activity upon activation by PSA. The conjugate 1b with 2-fluoro substitution was identified as a promising lead for further evaluation and optimization in the development of prostate cancer-targeted prodrugs. PMID:27156193

  11. Ultraviolet Light Inhibition of Phytochrome-Induced Flavonoid Biosynthesis and DNA Photolyase Formation in Mustard Cotyledons (Sinapis alba L.).

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, G.; Ehmann, B.; Wellmann, E.

    1995-01-01

    In cotyledons of etiolated mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings, phytochrome-far-red-absorbing form-induced flavonoid biosynthesis was found to be inhibited by short-term ultraviolet (UV) irradiations. UV inhibition was shown for the synthesis of quercetin, anthocyanin, and also for the accumulation of the mRNA for chalcone synthase, the key enzyme of this pathway. The UV effect was more pronounced on flavonoid biosynthesis, a process that selectively occurs in the epidermal layers, than on the synthesis of mRNA for chlorophyll a/b-binding protein localized in the mesophyll tissue. These UV inhibitory effects were accompanied by cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation showing a linear fluence-response relationship. CPD formation and UV inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis was found to be partially reversible by blue/UV-A light via DNA photolyase (PRE), allowing photoreactivation of the DNA by splitting of CPDs, which are the cause of the UV effect. Like flavonoid formation PRE was also induced by the far-red-absorbing form of phytochrome and induction was inhibited by UV. A potential risk of inhibition, in response to solar UV-B irradiation, was shown for anthocyanin formation. This inhibition, however, occurred only if photoreactivation was experimentally reduced. The PRE activity present in the etiolated seedlings (further increasing about 5-fold during light acclimatization) appears to be sufficient to prevent the persistence of CPDs even under conditions of high solar irradiation. PMID:12228467

  12. Bacterial diversity in Philippine fermented mustard (burong mustasa) as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Larcia, L L H; Estacio, R C; Dalmacio, L M M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies on the bacterial profile of burong mustasa, a traditional Philippine fermented food, had been conducted using culture-dependent techniques. Since these methods may underestimate the total microbiota of a sample, a culture-independent study was done to determine the bacterial diversity in burong mustasa through molecular biology techniques. Bacterial DNA was isolated from fermented mustard samples at different stages of fermentation. The isolated genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA). The 1.5 kb amplicons obtained were subjected to nested PCR using primers for the internal variable region of the 16S rDNA. The 585 bp nested PCR amplicons were then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to separate the different bacteria present in each sample. Distinct and unique bands in the DGGE profile were excised, reamplified, purified and sequenced for bacterial identification. Molecular cloning of the 1.5 kb 16S rDNA was also performed using the pGEM-T Easy Vector System. The cloned gene was sequenced for bacterial identification. The identified microbiota in burong mustasa at different stages of fermentation include lactic acid bacteria and several uncultured bacteria (initial up to the final stages); acetic acid bacteria (middle stage); and Streptobacillus and Fusobacterium species (initial stage). The potential probiotic bacteria found in burong mustasa are Weissella and Lactobacillus. PMID:22146686

  13. Hybridization study of developmental plastid gene expression in mustard (Sinapsis alba L.) with cloned probes for most plastid DNA regions.

    PubMed

    Link, G

    1984-07-01

    An approach to assess the extent of developmental gene expression of various regions of plastid (pt)DNA in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is described. It involves cloning of most ptDNA regions. The cloned regions then serve as hybridization probes to detect and assess the abundance of complementary RNA sequences represented in total plastid RNA. By comparison of the hybridization pattern observed with plastid RNA from either dark-grown or light-grown plants it was found that many ptDNA regions are constitutively expressed, while several 'inducible' regions account for much higher transcript levels in the chloroplast than in the etioplast stage. The reverse situation, i.e. 'repressed' regions which would account for higher transcript levels in the etioplast, was not observed. The hybridization results obtained with RNA from 'intermediatetype' plastids suggest that transient gene expression is a common feature during light-induced chloroplast development. The time-course of gene expression differs for various ptDNA regions. PMID:24310436

  14. Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodward, C.L.

    1994-12-31

    Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.4 LD%) HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with nothing or one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding non-decontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing of HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or ND-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

  15. Hypochlorite solution as a decontaminant in sulfur mustard contaminated skin defects in the euthymic hairless guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, M.B.; Bongiovanni, R.; Scharf, B.A.; Gresham, V.C.; Woodard, C.L.

    1993-05-13

    Hypochlorite solutions are thought to be efficacious when used to topically decontaminate intact skin. However, few studies have examined the efficacy of decontamination of chemically contaminated wounds. Therefore, we compared the decontamination efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions), calcium hypochlorite (0.5% and 2.5% solutions) and sterile water to untreated controls in wounds exposed to sulfur mustard (HD). Anesthetized euthymic hairless guinea pigs (EHGP) (n=6) were exposed to 0.4 LD50 HD in a full-thickness 8 mm surgical biopsy skin defect (i.e., wound). Each animal was subsequently decontaminated, after a two-minute intra-wound exposure to liquid HD, with one of the decontamination solutions. Decontamination efficacy was determined by the visual grading of the HD-traumatized wound lesion and by comparison of the expected HD-induced leukocyte suppression. Leukocyte suppression was inconsistent in all animals; therefore, the visual grading was the only viable evaluation method. No significant differences were observed among wounds decontaminated with any of the solutions. However, the skin surrounding undecontaminated (but exposed) control animals showed the least visual pathology. The lesions induced following decontamination are presumed to be due to the mechanical flushing HD onto the peri-lesional skin, or by chemical damage induced by the solution, or HD-solution interaction. Further studies are required to best delineate the optimal decontamination process for HD contaminated wounds.

  16. Evaluation of the effects of hypochlorite solutions in the decontamination of wounds exposed to either vx or sulfur mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, D.W.; Snider, T.H.; Korte, D.W.

    1993-05-13

    The decontamination safety and efficacy of aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and calcium hypochlorite Ca(OC1)2 against sulfur mustard (HD) and the organophosphonate O-ethyl S-(2-Diisopropylnmino)-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) were examined in the New Zealand White rabbit. Tests on shaved rabbit dorsa indicated moderate irritation due to either NaOC1 or Ca(OCI)2 at 5 percent but no appreciable irritation at 0.5 percent concentrations. Against VX applied topically on shaved rabbit dorsa, significant protection, as indicated by higher 24-hr median lethality doses, was afforded by 0.5 and 5.0 percent NaOC1. However, when VX was applied either directly into a dermal wound or onto a swatch of fabric sampled from battle dress uniform (BDU) and subsequently placed into a wound, only 5.0 percent NaOC1 offered significant protection. Against HD, 0.5 and 5.0 percent NaOC1 were equally effective decontaminants as indexed by dermal lesion areas resulting from 1- to 60-min exposures. Neither NaOC1 solution demonstrated sustained efficacy against HD applied on fabric and placed in wounds.

  17. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  18. The effects of sulfur mustard exposure and freezing on transdermal penetration of tritiated water through ex vivo pig skin.

    PubMed

    Payne, O J; Graham, S J; Dalton, C H; Spencer, P M; Mansson, R; Jenner, J; Azeke, J; Braue, E

    2013-02-01

    The percutaneous absorption of tritiated water ((3)H(2)O) through sulfur mustard (SM) exposed abdominal pig skin was measured using in vitro Franz-type static diffusion cells. The barrier function to water permeation following exposure to liquid SM for 8 min and excision 3h later did not change significantly. A small, but statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in steady state penetration (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp) and lag time (t(L)) of (3)H(2)O was observed between fresh skin and skin stored frozen (-20 °C) for up to two weeks. Steady-state penetration and Kp values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in skin stored frozen compared with fresh skin. Fresh naïve skin had an average Kp of 1.65 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen naïve skin was 2.04 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Fresh SM exposed skin had a mean Kp of 1.72 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen SM exposed skin was 2.31 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Lag times were also shorter (P<0.05) in skin that had been stored frozen. Frozen, SM-exposed porcine abdominal skin may be used for in vitro penetration studies, but effects of treatment and storage on the barrier layer should be taken into account. PMID:23041075

  19. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  20. Desorption of bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, mustard agent, from the surface of hardened cement paste (HCP) wafers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hairong; Zhou, Xuezhi; Guan, Yingqiang; Zhou, Liming; Wang, Xinming; Yan, Huijuan

    2013-05-01

    The decontamination of surfaces exposed to chemical warfare agents is an interesting scientific topic. The desorption behavior of bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (sulfur mustard, HD) from the surface of the HD-contaminated hardened cement paste (HCP) was investigated under different weather conditions, which should provide scientific reference data for protection and decontamination projects involving HD-contaminated HCP in different conditions. The desorption of HD from the surface of HCP wafers was studied, and the effects of the purge air flow rate, water content, sorption temperature, and substrate age were investigated. HD desorption was detected from the surface of HD-contaminated HCP, but the desorption velocity was relatively slow. The desorption quantity remained within an order of magnitude throughout a time span of 36h (25°C at 200mL/min of purge air), and the amount of HD that was desorbed from each square meter of HCP surface was approximately 1.1g (25°C at 200mL/min of purge air), which was approximately 5.5 percent of the total HD that was initially applied. A higher flow rate of the purge air, increased water content, and longer substrate age of HCP all increased the HD desorption. In contrast, increased temperatures suppressed HD desorption. PMID:23395389

  1. Start-up of a combined anaerobic/partial nitritation/anammox process for high-salt mustard wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Peng; Ma, Teng-Fei; Hu, Xiao; Fang, Fang; Shen, Yu; Yang, Ji-Xiang; Guo, Jin-Song; Bao, Zhen-Guo; Yan, Peng

    2015-01-01

    To treat high salinity wastewater from the mustard pickling industry, a combined anaerobic, partial nitritation (PN), and anammox process was employed using three connected reactors: an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) for anaerobic treatment, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for PN, and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) for anammox. The start-up of the three individual reactors was investigated. Results showed that each reactor started up successfully, notwithstanding the stepwise increase of influent salinity to about 16.1 g NaCl/L. In the ASBBR, 89.7 % of chemical oxygen demand in the influent was removed and organic nitrogen was converted to ammonium (NH4 (+)-N). The SBR performed well with NO3 (-)-N concentration of 4.9 mg/L and ratio of NO2 (-)-N to NH4 (+)-N at the range of 1.0 to 1.3 in the effluent, which favored the anammox process. After the start-up of the UASB, the anammox process also showed stability and efficiency with a high total nitrogen removal efficiency of 86.2 % under high salinity of 12.0 g NaCl/L and nitrogen loading rate of 258 mg/(L · day). PMID:25240848

  2. Niacinamide pretreatment reduces microvesicle formation in hairless guinea pigs cutaneously exposed to sulfur mustard. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Clark, C.R.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1991-12-31

    It has been proposed that sulfur mustard (HD) may indirectly activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) by alkylating cellular DNA (Papirmeister et al., 1985). Activation of PADPRP results in the depletion of cellular NAD+ which initiates a series of biochemical processes that have been proposed to culminate in blister formation. Preventing PADPRP activation and NAD+ depletion should inhibit blister formation. Niacinamide is both an inhibitor of PADPRP and a precursor for NAD+ synthesis. The present study was undertaken to determine whether niacinamide can protect against HD-induced microvesication in cutaneously exposed hairless guinea pigs. Each site was exposed to HD for 8 min by means of a vapor cup. Niacinamide (750 mg/kg, ip) given as a 30-min pretreatment inhibited microvesicle formation by 50% after HD application. However, niacinamide given 2 hr after HD application did not reduce microvesicle formation. There was no benefit when niacinamide was given as both a pretreatment and treatment when compared to niacinamide given only as a pretreatment. The reduction in microvesication 24 hr after HD did not correlate with skin NAD+ content. Niacinamide did not reduce the degree of erythema or edema. Ballooning degeneration of basal epidermal cells was present in some niacinamide pretreated HD exposure sites.

  3. Control by Phytochrome of Cytoplasmic Precursor rRNA Synthesis in the Cotyledons of Mustard Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Thien, Wilfried; Schopfer, Peter

    1982-01-01

    The influence of phytochrome (high irradiance reaction; operationally, continuous far red light) on the incorporation of [3H]uridine into the cytoplasmic 2.5 megadalton precursor rRNA in the cotyledons of mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings has been investigated. After irradiating 36-hour-old etiolated seedlings with 12 hours of far red light, the rate of incorporation is stimulated about 2-fold, leading to 50% labeling of the precursor rRNA pool about 15 minutes after the tracer has reached the nucleotide precursor pool. In the dark control, there is a significantly smaller pool of precursor rRNA which is half-saturated with label only after about 27 minutes. Since neither the specific radioactivity of the UTP pool nor the processing of the precursor rRNA demonstrate a corresponding light-dependent change, it is concluded that phytochrome mediates an increase of the transcription of the rRNA genes. This gene activation accounts for the increased accumulation of mature cytoplasmic rRNA during the course of photomorphogenesis of the cotyledons. PMID:16662362

  4. Zinc oxide nanocubes as a destructive nanoadsorbent for the neutralization chemistry of 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide: A sulfur mustard simulant.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanocubes were surveyed for their destructive turn-over to decontaminate 2-chloro ethyl phenyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. Prior to the reaction, nanocubes were prepared through sol-gel method using monoethanolamine, diethylene glycol, and anhydrous citric acid as the stabilizing, cross linking/structure directing agents, respectively. The formation of nanoscale ZnO, the cubic morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical-adsorptive characteristics were certified by FESEM-EDS, TEM-SAED, XRD, FTIR, BET-BJH, H2-TPR, and ESR techniques. Adsorption and destruction reactions were tracked by GC-FID analysis in which the effects of polarity of the media, reaction time, and temperature on the destructive capability of the surface of nanocubes were investigated and discussed. Results demonstrated that maximum neutralization occurred in n-heptane solvent after 1/2h at 55°C. Kinetic study construed that the neutralization reaction followed the pseudo-second order model with a squared correlation coefficient and rate constant of 0.9904 and 0.00004gmg(-1)s(-1), respectively. Furthermore, GC-MS measurement confirmed the formation of 2-hydroxy ethyl phenyl sulfide (2-HEPS) and phenyl vinyl sulfide (PVS) as neutralization products that together with Bronsted and Lewis acid/base approaches exemplify the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the surface of zinc oxide nanocubes. PMID:27309947

  5. Sampling of resident earthworms using mustard expellant to evaluate ecological risk at a mixed hazardous and radioactive waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Stair, D.M. Jr.; Keller, L.J.; Hensel, T.W.

    1994-12-31

    As residents of contaminated soils and as prey for many species of wildlife, earthworms can serve as integrative biomonitors of soil contamination, which is biologically available to the terrestrial food chain. The assessment of contaminants within earthworm tissue provides a more realistic measurement of the potential biological hazards and ecological risks than physical and chemical measurements of soil. A unique sampling procedure using a mixture of ground mustard powder and water was implemented for cost-effectively collecting earthworms without digging; the procedure minimized occupational exposure to soil contaminants and reduced the quantity of investigation-derived wastes. The study site is located at a closed burial ground for low-level radioactive waste and transuranic waste that lies within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee. Earthworms were maintained in the laboratory for four days to allow passage of the contents of the digestive tract. Earthworm body burdens, castings, and soil were analyzed for gamma-emitting radioisotopes (potassium 40, cobalt 60, cesium 137), strontium 90, trace metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, and selenium), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Ecological effects of soil contamination on the earthworms were also assessed through analysis of weight, abundance, and reproductive success.

  6. Effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake, heavy metal content and residual fertility in a rice-mustard cropping sequence under acid lateritic soils.

    PubMed

    Rautaray, S K; Ghosh, B C; Mittra, B N

    2003-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years in sandy loam acid lateritic soil to study the direct effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on rice (Oryza sativa) and their residual effect on mustard (Brassica napus var glauca) grown in sequence. Rice yields were higher when fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers were used in an integrated manner as compared to sole application of chemical fertilizers. Yields of mustard were also higher under the residual effect of the former rather than the latter. However, this beneficial residual effect under integrated nutrient sources was inadequate for the mustard crop in the low fertility test soil. Hence, direct application of fertilizers was needed, in addition to residual fertility. The effect of fly ash on mean rice equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was highest (up to 14%) when it was used in combination with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. While the yield increase was 10% when it was used in combination with only chemical fertilizers. The minimum yield advantage, 3%, occurred when fly ash was applied alone. The equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was equally influenced by either of the organic wastes. Cadmium and Ni content in rice grain and straw were less under the direct effect of fly ash. The residual effect on mustard was similar for Ni content in seed and stover; however, Cd content was increased. Beneficial residual soil chemical properties in terms of pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K were noted for integrated nutrient treatments involved fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers as compared to continuous use of only chemical fertilizers. Application of fly ash alone was effective in raising soil available P. Thus, integrated use of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers was beneficial in improving crop yield, soil pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K in sandy loam acid lateritic soil. PMID:14575950

  7. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I R; Khan, Nafees A; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown without Ni stress. The H2O2 application also resulted in alleviation of photosynthetic inhibition induced by 200 mg Ni kg(-1) soil through increased photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), sulfur-use efficiency (SUE), and glutathione (GSH) reduced production together with decreased lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in both the cultivars. However, the effect of H2O2 was more pronounced in Varuna than RH30. The greater increase in photosynthetic-NUE and SUE and GSH production with H2O2 in Varuna resulted from higher increase in activity of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) assimilation enzymes, nitrate reductase and ATP-sulfurylase, respectively resulting in enhanced N and S assimilation. The increased N and S content contributed to the higher activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase under Ni stress. Application of H2O2 also regulated PS II activity and stomatal movement under Ni stress for maintaining higher photosynthetic potential in Varuna. Thus, H2O2 may be considered as a potential signaling molecule for augmenting photosynthetic potential of mustard plants under optimal and Ni stress conditions. It alleviates Ni stress through the regulation of stomatal and non-stomotal limitations, and photosynthetic-NUE and -SUE and GSH production. PMID:26870064

  8. Effect of Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr Natural Isotopes on Foliar Structure and Plant Spectral Reflectance of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)

    SciTech Connect

    Maruthi Sridhar, Y.S.B.B.; Han, F.X.; Monts, D.L.; Diehl, S.V.

    2008-07-01

    The objectives of this study are: 1.) evaluate the capacity of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) for uptake and accumulation of Cs and Sr natural isotopes; 2.) identify foliar structural and other physiological changes (biomass, relative water content, etc.) resulting from the accumulation of these two elements; and 3.) monitor Cs and Sr uptake and bioaccumulation process by spectral reflectance. Potted Indian mustard plants were exposed to different concentrations of Cs (50 and 600 ppm) and Sr (50 and 300 ppm) natural isotopes in solution form for 23 days. Bioaccumulation of Cs and Sr was found in the order of leaves > stems > roots for both Cs- and Sr-treated plants. The highest leaf Sr accumulation is observed to be 2708 mg kg{sup -1}, and the highest leaf Cs accumulation is 12251 mg kg{sup -1}. High translocation efficiency for both elements is documented by shoot/root concentration ratios greater than one. Relative water content (RWC) of the plants showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Cs-treated plants. Cs accumulation also affected the pigment concentration and internal structure of the leaf and the spectral characteristics of plants. Within the applied concentration range, Sr accumulation resulted in no significant changes in RWC, structural and spectral characteristics of mustard plants. Cs shoot concentration showed significant negative correlation with relative water content RWC (r = -0.88) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (r = -0.68) of plant shoots. The canopy spectral reflectance and NDVI analysis clearly revealed (p < 0.05) the stress caused by Cs accumulation. (authors)

  9. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm2) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 hr with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 hr with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. PMID:23845594

  10. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Emami, Mohammad Hossein; Talaei, Mohammad; Panahi, Yunes; Saburi, Amin; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks) and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP) or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO]) for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036) and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104) in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms. PMID:25657745

  11. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  12. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. I. R.; Khan, Nafees A.; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown without Ni stress. The H2O2 application also resulted in alleviation of photosynthetic inhibition induced by 200 mg Ni kg-1 soil through increased photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), sulfur-use efficiency (SUE), and glutathione (GSH) reduced production together with decreased lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in both the cultivars. However, the effect of H2O2 was more pronounced in Varuna than RH30. The greater increase in photosynthetic-NUE and SUE and GSH production with H2O2 in Varuna resulted from higher increase in activity of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) assimilation enzymes, nitrate reductase and ATP-sulfurylase, respectively resulting in enhanced N and S assimilation. The increased N and S content contributed to the higher activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase under Ni stress. Application of H2O2 also regulated PS II activity and stomatal movement under Ni stress for maintaining higher photosynthetic potential in Varuna. Thus, H2O2 may be considered as a potential signaling molecule for augmenting photosynthetic potential of mustard plants under optimal and Ni stress conditions. It alleviates Ni stress through the regulation of stomatal and non-stomotal limitations, and photosynthetic-NUE and -SUE and GSH production. PMID:26870064

  13. Simultaneous determination of sulfur mustard and related oxidation products by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method coupled with a chemical conversion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meiling; Xu, Bin; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yajiao; Zong, Cheng; Chen, Jia; Guo, Lei; Xie, Jianwei

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating vesicant with high toxicity and complicated metabolism, the in vivo profile of its oxidation metabolism is not still fully known and urgently needs to be clarified well. In this work, an isotope-dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method coupled with chemical conversion was developed for the simultaneous quantification of SM and its oxidation products, i.e., mustard sulfoxide (SMO) and mustard sulfone (SMO2). The accurate measurement of SM and its oxidation products with high reaction activity was achived via the method of chemical conversion of 2-(3,5-bis(mercaptomethyl)phenoxy) acetic acid into stable derivative products. Method validation was performed in whole blood matrix, the linear range of the method was between 0.2 and 1000μg/L with correlation coefficients (r(2))>0.99, and the lower limits of quantification for SM, SMO and SMO2 were 1, 1, 0.2μg/L, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a toxicokinetics research of SM and its oxidation products after SM dermal exposed rats in a single dose. All three target analytes were found in whole blood samples from poisoned rats, and significant time-dependent responses were also observed. Among them, SMO2 with relatively high toxicity was identified and quantified in vivo for the first time, while SMO was the major product in whole blood and some of them continued to be oxidized to SMO2in vivo. These results give a direct experimental evidence to support that a large amount of SM is converted into the corresponding SMO and SMO2, and these oxidation products might cause potential combined toxic effects. PMID:27322628

  14. Relationship between airway reactivity induced by methacholine or ultrasonically nebulized distilled cold water and BAL fluid cellular constituents in patients with sulfur mustard gas-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Emad, Ali; Emad, Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate the relationship between the bronchial reactivity to methacholine and distilled cold water and inflammatory bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) cells in mustard gas-induced asthma. This was a randomized, crossover clinical study set in a university hospital. The patients were 17 veterans with mustard gas-induced asthma and 17 normal veterans as a control group. Inhalation challenges with ultrasonically nebulized distilled water and methacholine and BAL via bronchoscopy and were performed in all patients and subjects. All patients did sustain a 20% fall in FEV(1) after methacholine, whereas two of them did not with distilled cold water. The patients were sensitive to distilled cold water with a median PD20 of 8.44 +/- 6.55 mL and sensitive to methacholine with the median PC20 of 4.88 +/- 4.22 mg/mL. Significant correlation was found between PC20 of methacholine and PD20 of distilled cold water (r = -0.74, p = 0.005). The proportion of BAL macrophages was significantly lower in patients with asthma than in the control group (p = 0.001). The proportions of lymphocytes and neutrophils were similar in the two groups. The percentage of eosinophils was higher in BAL fluid from the asthmatics compared with that in BAL fluid from the control group (p < 0.001). The percentage of the BAL eosinophils significantly correlated with both PC20 of methacholine (r = - 0.58, p = 0.01) and PD20 of distilled cold water (r = -0.81, p = 0.002). No relationship between PC20 of methacholine or PD20 of distilled cold water was found for other inflammatory BAL cells. This study showed that in patients with mustard gas-induced asthma, the degree of airway responsiveness to both methacholine and distilled water was associated with the percentage of BAL eosinophils. PMID:17894540

  15. Inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized oriental mustard extract.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Fang, Yuan; Holley, Richard A

    2014-09-18

    Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) against 4 Campylobacter jejuni strains in Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth at 4, 21, 37 and 42°C and to screen the C. jejuni strains for their ability to degrade sinigrin (which forms AITC) in pH7.0 MH broth at 35°C for 21d. Also evaluated was the antimicrobial activity of an edible 0.2% κ-carrageenan/2% chitosan-based coating containing AITC or deodorized oriental mustard extract against a 4 strain C. jejuni cocktail (6.2log10CFU/g) on vacuum-packaged fresh chicken breasts during 4°C storage. MIC values of AITC were 0.63 to 1.25ppm and 2.5 to 5ppm against tested strains at 37 and 42°C, respectively. However, the MBC was 2.5 and 5ppm at 37 and 42°C, respectively, and increased to a range of 40 to 160ppm at 4°C. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 50 or 100μl/g AITC reduced viable C. jejuni to undetectable levels on chicken breast after 5d at 4°C, while 25μl/g AITC or 200 to 300mg/g mustard extract in coatings reduced C. jejuni numbers by 1.75 to 2.78log10CFU/g more than control coatings without antimicrobial. Both oriental mustard extract (50 to 300mg/g) and AITC (≥25μl/g) reduced aerobic bacteria by 1.72 to 2.75log10CFU/g and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by 0.94 to 3.36log10CFU/g by 21d compared to the control coating. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing ≥50μl/g AITC or ≥300mg/g oriental mustard showed excellent potential to control C. jejuni viability on raw chicken. PMID:25058687

  16. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  17. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzhong; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hongyuan; Lu, Yiming; Hu, Zhenlin; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH), which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA) of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA) of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50) SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05) reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes) of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries. PMID:26501264

  18. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    PubMed Central

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2015-01-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (“R”) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the “R” S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis “R” biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4–48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (“S”) biotypes. Seeds of the “S” biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the “R” biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months' of dry storage. The “R” biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of “R” and “S” biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, “R” seeds were significantly heavier than those of the “S” seeds. Differential seed germinability between “S” and “R” biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination. PMID:26258120

  19. The Effect of Mustard Gas on Salivary Trace Metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Mo, Sr, Cd, Ca, Pb, Rb)

    PubMed Central

    Zamani Pozveh, Elham; Seif, Ahmad; Ghalayani, Parichehr; Maleki, Abbas; Mottaghi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    We have determined and compared trace metals concentration in saliva taken from chemical warfare injures who were under the exposure of mustard gas and healthy subjects by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for the first time. The influence of preliminary operations on the accuracy of ICP-OES analysis, blood contamination, the number of restored teeth in the mouth, salivary flow rate, and daily variations in trace metals concentration in saliva were also considered. Unstimulated saliva was collected at 10:00–11:00 a.m. from 45 subjects in three equal groups. The first group was composed of 15 healthy subjects (group 1); the second group consisted of 15 subjects who, upon chemical warfare injuries, did not use Salbutamol spray, which they would have normally used on a regular basis (group 2); and the third group contained the same number of patients as the second group, but they had taken their regular medicine (Salbutamol spray; group 3). Our results showed that the concentration of Cu in saliva was significantly increased in the chemical warfare injures compared to healthy subjects, as follows: healthy subjects 15.3± 5.45(p.p.b.), patients (group 2) 45.77±13.65, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3) 29 ±8.51 (P <0.02). In contrast, zinc was significantly decreased in the patients, as follows: healthy subjects 37 ± 9.03(p.p.b.), patients (group 2) 12.2 ± 3.56, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3) 20.6 ±10.01 (P < 0.01). It is important to note that direct dilution of saliva samples with ultrapure nitric acid showed the optimum ICP-OES outputs. PMID:25965704

  20. Identification of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantification of MicroRNAs in Serum Samples of Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Sedigheh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Khateri, Shahriar; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective In spite of accumulating information about pathological aspects of sulfur mustard (SM), the precise mechanism responsible for its effects is not well understood. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Accurate normalization using appropriate reference genes, is a critical step in miRNA expression studies. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate reference gene for microRNA quantification in serum samples of SM victims. Materials and Methods In this case and control experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we evaluated the suitability of a panel of small RNAs including SNORD38B, SNORD49A, U6, 5S rRNA, miR-423-3p, miR-191, miR-16 and miR-103 in sera of 28 SM-exposed veterans of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and 15 matched control volunteers. Different statistical algorithms including geNorm, Normfinder, best-keeper and comparative delta-quantification cycle (Cq) method were employed to find the least variable reference gene. Results miR-423-3p was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and miR- 103 and miR-16 ranked after that. Conclusion We demonstrate that non-miRNA reference genes have the least stabil- ity in serum samples and that some house-keeping miRNAs may be used as more reliable reference genes for miRNAs in serum. In addition, using the geometric mean of two reference genes could increase the reliability of the normalizers. PMID:26464821

  1. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target.

    PubMed

    Fedeles, Bogdan I; Zhu, Angela Y; Young, Kellie S; Hillier, Shawn M; Proffitt, Kyle D; Essigmann, John M; Croy, Robert G

    2011-09-30

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action that likely explains this activity. Cellular fractionation experiments indicated that mitochondria are the major intracellular sink for 11β; flow cytometry studies showed that 11β exposure rapidly induced oxidative stress, mitochondria being an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, 11β inhibited oxygen consumption both in intact HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria. Specifically, 11β blocked uncoupled oxygen consumption when mitochondria were incubated with complex I substrates, but it had no effect on oxygen consumption driven by substrates acting downstream of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Moreover, 11β enhanced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that complex I inhibition is responsible for ROS production. At the cellular level, the presence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E) significantly reduced the toxicity of 11β, implicating ROS production as an important contributor to cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings establish complex I inhibition and ROS generation as a new mechanism of action for 11β, which supplements conventional DNA adduct formation to promote cancer cell death. PMID:21832047

  2. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis).

    PubMed

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar K

    2015-01-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant ("R") biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the "R" S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis "R" biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4-48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible ("S") biotypes. Seeds of the "S" biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the "R" biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months' of dry storage. The "R" biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of "R" and "S" biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, "R" seeds were significantly heavier than those of the "S" seeds. Differential seed germinability between "S" and "R" biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination. PMID:26258120

  3. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  4. Structural Changes in the Skin of Hairless Mice Following Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Correlate with Inflammation and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Laurie B.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Heck, Diane E.; Black, Adrienne T.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Cervelli, Jessica A.; Casillas, Robert P.; Babin, Michael C.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes dermal inflammation, edema and blistering. To investigate the pathogenesis of SM-induced injury, we used a vapor cup model which provides an occlusive environment in which SM is in constant contact with the skin. The dorsal skin of SKH-1 hairless mice was exposed to saturated SM vapor or air control. Histopathological changes, inflammatory markers and DNA damage were analyzed 1–14 days later. After 1 day, SM caused epidermal thinning, stratum corneum shedding, basal cell karyolysis, hemorrhage and macrophage and neutrophil accumulation in the dermis. Cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated histone 2A.X (phospho-H2A.X), markers of apoptosis and DNA damage, respectively, were increased whereas proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was down-regulated after SM exposure. By 3 days, epithelial cell hypertrophy, edema, parakeratosis and loss of epidermal structures were noted. Enzymes generating pro-inflammatory mediators including myeloperoxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 were upregulated. After 7 days, keratin-10, a differentiation marker, was evident in the stratum corneum. This was associated with an underlying eschar, as neoepidermis began to migrate at the wound edges. Trichrome staining revealed increased collagen deposition in the dermis. PCNA expression in the epidermis was correlated with hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis. By 14 days, there was epidermal regeneration with extensive hyperplasia, and reduced expression of cleaved caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 and phospho-H2A.X. These findings are consistent with the pathophysiology of SM-induced skin injury in humans suggesting that the hairless mouse can be used to investigate the dermatoxicity of vesicants and the potential efficacy of countermeasures. PMID:21672537

  5. Detection of DNA damage in oocytes of small ovarian follicles following phosphoramide mustard exposures of cultured rodent ovaries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, Stephanie K; Desmeules, Patrice; Truong, To-Quyen; Devine, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    Healthy oocytes are critical for producing healthy children, but little is known about whether or not oocytes have the capacity to identify and recover from injury. Using a model ovotoxic alkylating drug, cyclophosphamide (CPA), and its active metabolite, phosphoramide mustard (PM), we previously showed that PM (≥3μM) caused significant follicle loss in postnatal day 4 (PND4) mouse ovaries in vitro. We now investigate whether PM induces DNA damage in oocytes, examining histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Exposure of cultured PND4 mouse ovaries to 3 and 0.1μM PM induced significant losses of primordial and small primary follicles, respectively. PM-induced γH2AX was observed predominantly in oocytes, in which foci of γH2AX staining increased in a concentration-dependent manner and peaked 18-24h after exposure to 3-10μMPM. Numbers of oocytes with ≥5 γH2AX foci were significantly increased both 1 and 8days after exposure to ≥1μMPM compared to controls. Inhibiting the kinases that phosphorylate H2AX significantly increased follicle loss relative to PM alone. In adult mice, CPA also induced follicle loss in vivo. PM also significantly decreased primordial follicle numbers (≥30μM) and increased γH2AX foci (≥3μM) in cultured PND4 Sprague-Dawley rat ovaries. Results suggest oocytes can detect PM-induced damage at or below concentrations which cause significant follicle loss, and there are quantitative species-specific differences in sensitivity. Surviving oocytes with DNA damage may represent an increased risk for fertility problems or unhealthy offspring. PMID:21439308

  6. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Hwa-Yong; Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Si-Nae; Kwon, Min-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ja; Song, Dong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  7. Removing the mustard oil bomb from seeds: transgenic ablation of myrosin cells in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) produces MINELESS seeds

    PubMed Central

    Borgen, Birgit Hafeld; Thangstad, Ole Petter; Ahuja, Ishita; Rossiter, John Trevor; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2010-01-01

    Many plant phytochemicals constitute binary enzyme–glucoside systems and function in plant defence. In brassicas, the enzyme myrosinase is confined to specific myrosin cells that separate the enzyme from its substrate; the glucosinolates. The myrosinase-catalysed release of toxic and bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, upon activation or tissue damage, has been termed ‘the mustard oil bomb’ and characterized as a ‘toxic mine’ in plant defence. The removal of myrosin cells and the enzyme that triggers the release of phytochemicals have been investigated by genetically modifying Brassica napus plants to remove myrosinase-storing idioblasts. A construct with the seed myrosin cell-specific Myr1.Bn1 promoter was used to express a ribonuclease, barnase. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing barnase were embryo lethal. Co-expressing barnase under the control of the Myr1.Bn1 promoter with the barnase inhibitor, barstar, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enabled a selective and controlled death of myrosin cells without affecting plant viability. Ablation of myrosin cells was confirmed with light and electron microscopy, with immunohistological analysis and immunogold-electron microscopy analysis showing empty holes where myrosin cells normally are localized. Further evidence for a successful myrosin cell ablation comes from immunoblots showing absence of myrosinase and negligible myrosinase activity, and autolysis experiments showing negligible production of glucosinolate hydrolysis products. The plants where the myrosin defence cells have been ablated and named ‘MINELESS plants’. The epithiospecifier protein profile and glucosinolate levels were changed in MINELESS plants, pointing to localization of myrosinases and a 35 kDa epithiospecifier protein in myrosin cells and a reduced turnover of glucosinolates in MINELESS plants. PMID:20219777

  8. Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect

    PubMed Central

    Gerecke, Donald R.; Chen, Minjun; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Gordon, Marion K.; Chang, Yoke-Chen; Tong, Weida; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering at the dermal–epidermal junction of skin. To better understand the progression of SM-induced blistering, gene expression profiling for mouse skin was performed after a single high dose of SM exposure. Punch biopsies of mouse ears were collected at both early and late time periods following SM exposure (previous studies only considered early time periods). The biopsies were examined for pathological disturbances and the samples further assayed for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the differently expressed genes, performed with ArrayTrack showed clear separation of the various groups. Pathway analysis employing the KEGG library and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and hematopoietic cell lineage are common pathways affected at different time points. Gene ontology analysis identified the most significantly altered biological processes as the immune response, inflammatory response, and chemotaxis; these findings are consistent with other reported results for shorter time periods. Selected genes were chosen for RT-PCR verification and showed correlations in the general trends for the microarrays. Interleukin 1 beta was checked for biological analysis to confirm the presence of protein correlated to the corresponding microarray data. The impact of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor I, against SM exposure was assessed. These results can help in understanding the molecular mechanism of SM-induced blistering, as well as to test the efficacy of different inhibitors. PMID:18955075

  9. Long term impact of sulfur mustard exposure on peripheral blood mononuclear subpopulations--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Kariminia, Amina; Yaraee, Roya; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Ardestani, Sussan K; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Mostafaie, Ali; Foroutan, Abbas; Rezaei, Abbas; Shams, Jalaleddin; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Soroush, Mohammad R; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammadreza; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Ajdary, Soheila; Darabi, Hiedeh; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Kazemi, Hadi; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2013-11-01

    The most important long-term morbidity problem of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is pulmonary complications but the pathogenesis of these complications is not clearly understood. This study evaluates the peripheral blood mononuclear sub-sets and their correlation with pulmonary function in SM exposed civilian cases 20 years post-exposure as gathered in the context of the Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS). Samples were randomly selected from two groups, SM-exposed (n=372) and control (n=128), with the same ethnicity, culture, and demography. Three color flow cytometry was applied for peripheral blood mononuclear sub-population determination. Results indicated a significant decrease in CD45+/CD3+, CD45+/CD3+/CD4+, and an increase in CD3+/CD16+56+ percentages. It was also found that absolute count of NK cells was highly increased in peripheral blood of exposed cases. There was a significant increase in NK cell count of SM exposed group with pulmonary problems as compared to the same group without pulmonary problems (p-value<0.04) based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). The findings showed a significant negative correlation between absolute numbers of T lymphocyte and FVC % and positive correlation with FEV1/FVC%. The results also demonstrated that absolute numbers of monocytes had a negative correlation with FVC %. We propose that NK and T cells are probably involved in the pathogenesis or immune reactions to the delayed pulmonary complications induced by SM. This hypothesis should be tested in a more severe pulmonary complicated group. PMID:23434855

  10. Fibrinogen and inflammatory cytokines in spontaneous sputum of sulfur-mustard-exposed civilians--Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Yaraee, Roya; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Rezaei, Abbas; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kazemi, Hadi; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Foroutan, Abbas; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) causes late complications in respiratory system of exposed individuals. In this preliminary study, the levels of IL-1α and β, TNF, IL-1Ra, IL-6 and fibrinogen in the spontaneous sputum of SM-exposed individuals were examined 20 years after exposure and the correlation with pulmonary function was tested. The participants were categorized into two major subgroups (hospitalized and non-hospitalized) based on the severity of the clinical complications immediately after exposure. Every participant was visited by a physician; the respiratory functions were checked using spirometry and were categorized as normal, mild, moderate or severe pulmonary complications. The levels of cytokines in the sputum and serum samples were measured using ELISA method. The mean values of TNF, IL-1α and IL-1β were 524.15, 115.15, 1951.33 pg/ml respectively, and the mean levels of IL-1Ra and IL-6 were 6410.52 and 124.44 pg/ml respectively; fibrinogen was 71.59 ng/ml and index of IL-Ra/IL-1β was 7.78. There was more TNF-α and IL-1β and less IL-1Ra and fibrinogen in the sputum of the hospitalized subgroup. The level of TNF-α and IL-1β also increased in moderate and severe pulmonary status comparing with the group with mild disorders, while fibrinogen was lower or decreased significantly in problematic patients. IL-1β and TNF showed positive correlation (r=0.5, and r=0.59, respectively); fibrinogen and IL1Ra/IL-1β have negative correlation with lung function according to the GOLD classification (r=-0.4, and r=-0.61, respectively). It is concluded that sputum cytokines and fibrinogen, reflect the degree of the severity of airway inflammation and the cytokine levels in the sputum might be completely different from the serum fluctuations. PMID:23375935

  11. Airway tissue factor-dependent coagulation activity in response to sulfur mustard analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Guo, XiaoLing; Jones, Tara N.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in response to mustard gas (SM) inhalation. Obstructive, fibrin-containing airway casts have recently been reported in a rat inhalation model employing the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). The present study was designed to identify the mechanism(s) causing activation of the coagulation cascade after CEES-induced airway injury. Here we report that CEES inhalation elevates tissue factor (TF) activity and numbers of detached epithelial cells present in lavage fluid (BALF) from rats after exposure (18 h). In vitro studies using 16HBE cells, or with rat BALF, indicated that detached epithelial cells could convert factor X (FX) to the active form FXa when incubated with factor VII and could elicit rapid clotting of plasma. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated elevated cell surface (TF) expression on CEES-exposed 16HBE cells as a function of time. However, total cell TF expression did not increase. Since membrane surfaces bearing TF are important determinants of clot initiation, anticoagulants directed against these entities were tested for ability to limit plasma clotting or FX activation capacity of BALF or culture media. Addition of tifacogin, a TF pathway inhibitor, effectively blocked either activity, demonstrating that the procoagulant actions of CEES were TF pathway dependent. Lactadherin, a protein capable of competing with clotting factors for phospholipid-binding sites, was partially effective in limiting these procoagulant actions. These findings indicate that TF pathway inhibition could be an effective strategy to prevent airway obstruction after SM or CEES inhalation. PMID:21964405

  12. Investigating the Association between Angiogenic Cytokines and Corneal Neovascularization in Sulfur Mustard Intoxicated Subjects 26 Years after Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Mohammad; Aidenloo, Naser Samadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Karim; Motarjemizadeh, Qader

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between the concentrations of three major angiogenic cytokines–vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 (VEGF-A165), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)–in the tear of sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed subjects and corneal neovascularization (CNV) 26 years after exposure. Materials and Methods: The concentrations of VEGF-A, bFGF, and PDGF-BB were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in reflex tears of (i) SM-injured patients with CNV (positive case group including 18 individuals) and (ii) SM-injured patients without CNV (negative case group including 22 individuals). Then results were compared to corresponding values obtained from tears of 40 healthy control subjects. Results: The mean concentrations of all investigated growth factors, VEGF-A165, bFGF, and PDGF-BB, were significantly higher in positive cases than controls (P ≤ 0.001, P = 0.028, and P = 0.041, respectively). Whereas, VEGF-A165 was the only growth factor which displayed significantly elevated concentrations in negative case group compared to the healthy individuals (P = 0.030). Additionally, the mean level of VEGF-A165 was also higher in positive patient group than negative patients (P = 0.022). Subjects with increased concentrations of tear VEGF-A165 were more than 10 times more likely to suffer from CNV than normal individuals (odds ratio (OR) = 10.43, confidence interval (CI): 2.14–38.46, P = 0.001), while elevated levels of bFGF and PDGF-BB increased the risk of CNV by about twofold. Conclusion: Although all investigated cytokines had increased in tears of positive patients, VEGF-A was the only one which showed a significant correlation with the severity of CNV, and thus played a crucial role in corneal angiogenesis. PMID:25948970

  13. Protective role of spleen-derived macrophages in lung inflammation, injury, and fibrosis induced by nitrogen mustard.

    PubMed

    Venosa, Alessandro; Malaviya, Rama; Gow, Andrew J; Hall, Leroy; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2015-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a vesicant that causes lung injury and fibrosis, accompanied by a persistent macrophage inflammatory response. In these studies we analyzed the spleen as a source of these cells. Splenectomized (SPX) and sham control rats were treated intratracheally with NM (0.125 mg/kg) or PBS control. Macrophage responses were analyzed 1-7 days later. Splenectomy resulted in an increase in lung macrophages expressing CCR2, but a decrease in ATR-1α(+) cells, receptors important in bone marrow and spleen monocyte trafficking, respectively. Splenectomy was also associated with an increase in proinflammatory M1 (iNOS(+), CD11b(+)CD43(+)) macrophages in lungs of NM-treated rats, as well as greater upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. Conversely, a decrease in CD11b(+)CD43(-) M2 macrophages was observed in SPX rats, with no changes in CD68(+), CD163(+), CD206(+), or YM-1(+) M2 macrophages, suggesting distinct origins of M2 subpopulations responding to NM. Macrophage expression of M2 genes including IL-10, ApoE, PTX-2, PTX-3, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7 was also reduced in NM-treated SPX rats compared with shams, indicating impaired M2 activity. Changes in lung macrophages responding to NM as a consequence of splenectomy were correlated with exacerbated tissue injury and more rapid fibrogenesis. These data demonstrate that the spleen is a source of a subset of M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory activity; moreover, in their absence, proinflammatory/cytotoxic M1 macrophages predominate in the lung, resulting in heightened pathology. Understanding the origin of macrophages and characterizing their phenotype after vesicant exposure may lead to more targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing toxicity and disease pathogenesis. PMID:26475734

  14. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Dick, Cynthia A; Buenrostro, Jason; Butler, Timothy; Carlson, Matthew L; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Whittall, Justen B

    2011-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s) of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP), suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS) at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments. PMID:21490971

  15. Determination of nitrogen mustard hydrolysis products, ethanolamines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Isaac; Seto, Yasuo

    2006-07-28

    A method for determining N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethanolamine (TEA), hydrolysis products of nitrogen mustards, in water, urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization by tert-butyldimethylsilylation (TBDMS) is described. The sample solution was evaporated to dryness, and reacted with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) at 60 degrees C for 1h. The TBDMS derivatives were separated on a DB-5 column and detected by electron-ionization MS. The quantitation of EDEA, MDEA and TEA was performed by measuring the respective peak areas on the extracted ion chromatograms of m/z 216, m/z 202 and m/z 346, respectively, using nonadecane (C19), the peak area of which was measured at m/z 268, as an internal standard. When the water sample was initially analyzed, considerable loss of EDEA, MDEA and TEA occurred by evaporation. The addition of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the water sample (final 1 mM), however, permitted quantitative recoveries to be achieved (88%, 88% and 79% for EDEA-(TBDMS)2, MDEA-(TBDMS)2 and TEA-(TBDMS)3, respectively). The limits of detections (LODs, scan mode, S/N = 3) were 2.5, 2.5 and 10 ng/ml for EDEA, MDEA and TEA, respectively. Ethanolamines could be also determined in urine samples (volume 0.1 ml), with reasonable recoveries of 72-100% by the addition of HCl (final 1 mM). For the analysis of serum samples, the sample was precipitated by the addition of perchloric acid (final 3.2%), and the resulting supernatant was neutralized with potassium carbonate, and then acidified by the addition of HCl. The recovery of TBDMS derivatives of ethanolamines was found to rather low (7-31%). PMID:16707130

  16. Detection of DNA damage in oocytes of small ovarian follicles following phosphoramide mustard exposures of cultured rodent ovaries in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Desmeules, Patrice; Truong, To-Quyen; Devine, Patrick J.

    2011-06-01

    Healthy oocytes are critical for producing healthy children, but little is known about whether or not oocytes have the capacity to identify and recover from injury. Using a model ovotoxic alkylating drug, cyclophosphamide (CPA), and its active metabolite, phosphoramide mustard (PM), we previously showed that PM ({>=} 3 {mu}M) caused significant follicle loss in postnatal day 4 (PND4) mouse ovaries in vitro. We now investigate whether PM induces DNA damage in oocytes, examining histone H2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX), a marker of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Exposure of cultured PND4 mouse ovaries to 3 and 0.1 {mu}M PM induced significant losses of primordial and small primary follicles, respectively. PM-induced {gamma}H2AX was observed predominantly in oocytes, in which foci of {gamma}H2AX staining increased in a concentration-dependent manner and peaked 18-24 h after exposure to 3-10 {mu}M PM. Numbers of oocytes with {>=} 5 {gamma}H2AX foci were significantly increased both 1 and 8 days after exposure to {>=} 1 {mu}M PM compared to controls. Inhibiting the kinases that phosphorylate H2AX significantly increased follicle loss relative to PM alone. In adult mice, CPA also induced follicle loss in vivo. PM also significantly decreased primordial follicle numbers ({>=} 30 {mu}M) and increased {gamma}H2AX foci ({>=} 3 {mu}M) in cultured PND4 Sprague-Dawley rat ovaries. Results suggest oocytes can detect PM-induced damage at or below concentrations which cause significant follicle loss, and there are quantitative species-specific differences in sensitivity. Surviving oocytes with DNA damage may represent an increased risk for fertility problems or unhealthy offspring.

  17. Procedures for Analysis of Dried Plasma Using Microsampling Devices to Detect Sulfur Mustard-Albumin Adducts for Verification of Poisoning.

    PubMed

    John, Harald; Willoh, Sophia; Hörmann, Philipp; Siegert, Markus; Vondran, Antje; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    Incorporation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) produces a covalent adduct with human serum albumin (HSA) representing an established plasma biomarker of poisoning. Bioanalytical verification requires both plasma generation from whole blood and shipping to specialized laboratories following strict guidelines for complex packaging. These needs often push the infrastructural boundary in crisis regions and war zones. Therefore, we herein originally introduce different reliable bioanalytical procedures using filter paper as well as novel volumetric microsampling tools (Mitra devices and Noviplex DUO cards) to generate dried plasma samples not liable to the shipping constraints. In addition, the Noviplex device enables in-transit separation of plasma from whole blood without the need of a centrifuge. Plasma-loaded and dried devices were subjected to pronase treatment yielding the alkylated dipeptide hydroxyethylthioethyl-CysPro (HETE-CP) derived from the HSA-SM adduct that was detected by microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem-mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI MS/MS). For all devices, samples exposed to SM yielded excellent linearity (0.025-50 μM SM) and good precision (≤13%) and fulfilled forensic quality criteria for ion ratios of qualifying and quantifying product ions. Stability of the HSA-SM adduct in dried and liquid plasma is shown under conditions of three climatic zones (temperate climate, hot and dry climate, and hot and humid climate) for at least 9 days simulating the period of delayed sample shipping. Our results originally document that dried plasma is appropriate for storage and shipping at ambient temperature and that novel microsampling tools are of essential benefit when targeting the HSA-SM adduct for verification analysis. PMID:27482832

  18. Nitrilotriacetate- and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj, Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Quartacci, M F; Baker, A J M; Navari-Izzo, F

    2005-06-01

    In a pot experiment the effects of nitrilotriacetate (NTA) and citric acid applications on Cd extractibility from soil as well as on its uptake and accumulation by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were investigated. Plants were grown in a sandy soil with added CdS at four levels ranging from 50 to 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. After 30 days of growth, pots were amended with NTA or citric acid at 10 and 20 mmol kg(-1). Control pots were not treated with chelates. Harvest of plants was performed immediately before and one week after chelate addition. Soil water-, NH(4)NO(3)- and EDTA-extractable Cd fractions increased constantly with both increasing soil metal application and chelate concentration. Shoot dry weights did not suffer significant reductions with increasing Cd addition to the soil except for both NTA treatments in which at 200 mg Cd kg(-1) a 30% decrease in dry matter was observed. Generally, following NTA and citric acid amendments, Cd concentration in shoots increased with soil Cd level. However, due to Cd toxicity, at the highest metal application rate both NTA treatments lowered Cd concentration in the above-ground parts. Compared to the control, at 10 mmol kg(-1) citric acid did not change Cd concentration in shoots, whereas NTA-treated plants showed an about 2-fold increase. The addition of chelates at 20 mmol kg(-1) further enhanced Cd concentration in shoots up to 718 and 560 microg g(-1) dry weight in the NTA and citrate treatments, respectively. PMID:15857636

  19. Soil Cd availability to Indian mustard and environmental risk following EDTA addition to Cd-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X J; Luo, Y M; Zhao, Q G; Baker, A J M; Christie, P; Wong, M H

    2003-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of EDTA on the extractability of Cd in the soil and uptake of Cd by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Twenty levels of soil Cd concentration ranging from 10 to 200 mg kg(-1) were produced by spiking aliquots of a clay loam paddy soil with Cd(NO3)2. One week before the plants were harvested EDTA was applied to pots in which the soil had been spiked with 20, 40, 60...200 mg Cd kg(-1). The EDTA was added at the rate calculated to complex with all of the Cd added at the 200 mg kg(-1) level. Control pots spiked with 10, 30, 50... 190 mg Cd kg(-1) received no EDTA. The plants were harvested after 42 days' growth. Soil water- and NH4NO3-extractable Cd fractions increased rapidly following EDTA application. Root Cd concentrations decreased after EDTA application, but shoot concentrations increased when the soil Cd levels were >130 mg kg(-1) and Cd toxicity symptoms were observed. The increases in soil solution Cd induced by EDTA did not increase plant total Cd uptake but appeared to stimulate the translocation of the metal from roots to shoots when the plants appeared to be under Cd toxicity stress. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms by which EDTA may change the solubility and bioavailability of Cd in the soil and the potential for plant uptake and environmental risk due to leaching losses to groundwater. PMID:12688496

  20. Impact of oilseed rape expressing the insecticidal serine protease inhibitor, mustard trypsin inhibitor-2 on the beneficial predator Pterostichus madidus.

    PubMed

    Ferry, N; Jouanin, L; Ceci, L R; Mulligan, E A; Emami, K; Gatehouse, J A; Gatehouse, A M R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Insect-resistant transgenic plants have been suggested to have deleterious effects on beneficial predators feeding on crop pests, through transmission of the transgene product by the pest to the predator. To test this hypothesis, effects of oilseed rape expressing the serine protease inhibitor, mustard trypsin inhibitor -2 (MTI-2), on the predatory ground beetle Pterostichus madidus were investigated, using diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella as the intermediary pest species. As expected, oilseed rape expressing MTI-2 had a deleterious effect on the development and survival of the pest. However, incomplete pest mortality resulted in survivors being available to predators at the next trophic level, and inhibition studies confirmed the presence of biologically active transgene product in pest larvae. Characterization of proteolytic digestive enzymes of P. madidus demonstrated that adults utilize serine proteases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities; the former activity was completely inhibited by MTI-2 in vitro. When P. madidus consumed prey reared on MTI-2 expressing plants over the reproductive period in their life cycle, no significant effects upon survival were observed as a result of exposure to the inhibitor. However, there was a short-term significant inhibition of weight gain in female beetles fed unlimited prey containing MTI-2, with a concomitant reduction of prey consumption. Biochemical analyses showed that the inhibitory effects of MTI-2 delivered via prey on gut proteolysis in the carabid decreased with time of exposure, possibly resulting from up-regulation of inhibitor-insensitive proteases. Of ecological significance, consumption of MTI-2 dosed prey had no detrimental effects on reproductive fitness of adult P. madidus. PMID:15643975

  1. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hongyuan; Lu, Yiming; Hu, Zhenlin; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH), which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA) of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA) of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50) SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p<0.05) reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes) of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries. PMID:26501264

  2. Dynamics of pesticide residues in nectar and pollen of mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) grown in Himachal Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amit; Sharma, D C

    2008-09-01

    Residues dynamics of Endosulfan (525.00 g a.i. ha(-1)), Imidacloprid seed treatment (21 g a.i. kg(-1)), Lambdacyhalothrin (75.00 g a.i. ha(-1)) and Spiromesifen (225.00 g a.i. ha(-1)) in nectar and pollen of mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. grown in Himachal Pradesh (India) were determined through bioassay (using Drosophila melanogaster Meig. as test organism) and GC (Gas chromatographic) and HPLC (High performance liquid chromatographic) methods. In general chromatographic methods were more sensitive for the determination of above given pesticides compared to bioassay method. Average recoveries in nectar samples varied between 82.85 and 88.90% by bioassay and 91.20 and 93.55% by chromatographic techniques. In pollen samples, recoveries varied between 81.44 and 86.44% by bioassay and 88.50 and 91.30% by chromatographic methods. Imidacloprid residues were neither found in nectar nor in pollen samples at the time of sampling i.e. 50% of flowering. The order of average half life of residues was: Lambdacyhalothrin (12.45 h) < Spiromesifen (19.99 h) < Endosulfan (27.49 h) for nectar and Spiromesifen (9.69 h) < Lambdacyhalothrin (12.44 h) < Endosulfan (17.84 h) for pollen samples. It was found that Imidcloprid seed treatment was practically harmless to honey bees, whereas a waiting period of 5 days must be observed on crops sprayed with these chemicals during blooms to avoid any accidental hazards to honey bees. PMID:17952621

  3. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials. PMID:22319878

  4. Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect

    SciTech Connect

    Gerecke, Donald R. Chen Minjun; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Gordon, Marion K.; Chang, Y.-C.; Tong Weida; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2009-01-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering at the dermal-epidermal junction of skin. To better understand the progression of SM-induced blistering, gene expression profiling for mouse skin was performed after a single high dose of SM exposure. Punch biopsies of mouse ears were collected at both early and late time periods following SM exposure (previous studies only considered early time periods). The biopsies were examined for pathological disturbances and the samples further assayed for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the differently expressed genes, performed with ArrayTrack showed clear separation of the various groups. Pathway analysis employing the KEGG library and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and hematopoietic cell lineage are common pathways affected at different time points. Gene ontology analysis identified the most significantly altered biological processes as the immune response, inflammatory response, and chemotaxis; these findings are consistent with other reported results for shorter time periods. Selected genes were chosen for RT-PCR verification and showed correlations in the general trends for the microarrays. Interleukin 1 beta was checked for biological analysis to confirm the presence of protein correlated to the corresponding microarray data. The impact of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor I, against SM exposure was assessed. These results can help in understanding the molecular mechanism of SM-induced blistering, as well as to test the efficacy of different inhibitors.

  5. Epidermal hydration and skin surface lipids in patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Layegh, Pouran; Maleki, Masoud; Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Momenzadeh, Akram; Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite almost the three decades passed since the chemical attacks of Iraqi's army against the Iranian troops, some veterans are still suffering from long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning, including certain skin complaints specially dryness, burning, and pruritus. We thus aimed to evaluate the skin's water and lipid content in patients with a disability of >25% due to complications of SM poisoning and compare them with a matched control group. Materials and Methods: Sixty-nine male participants were included in this study; 43 SM-exposed patients, and 26 normal controls from their close relatives. The water and lipid content was measured in four different locations: Extensor and flexor sides of forearms and lateral and medial sides of legs by the Corneometer CM 820/Sebumeter SM 810. Collected data was analyzed and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the patients and controls was 49.53 ± 11.34 (ranges: 40-71) and 29.08 ± 8.836 (ranges: 15-49 years), respectively. In the veterans group, the main cutaneous complaint was itching and skin dryness. Cherry angioma, dry skin, and pruritus were significantly more common in the SM-exposed cases than in the controls. (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04, respectively). The moisture and lipid content of all areas were lower in the SM-exposed group, but it was only significant in skin sebum of lateral sides of legs (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Exposure to SM could decrease the function of stratum corneum and lipid production as a barrier, even after several years of its exposure. PMID:26622252

  6. Sulfur mustard-induced increase in intracellular free calcium level and arachidonic acid release from cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.; Legere, R.H.; Majerus, B.J.; Petrali, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanism of action of the alkylating agent bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard, SM) was studied using the in thai vitro mouse neuroblastoma-rat glioma hybrid NG 108-1 S clonal p cell line model. Following 0.3 mM SM exposure, cell viability remained high (>80% of untreated control) up to 9 hr and then declined steadily to about 40% of control after 20-24 hr. During the early period of SM exposure, when there was no significant cell viability loss, the following effects were observed. The cellular glutathione level decreased 20% after 1 hr and 34% after 6 hr. Between 2 and 6 hr, there was a time-dependent increase (about 10 to 30%) in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+), which was localized to the limiting membrane of swollen endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria, to euchromatin areas of the nucleus, and to areas of the cytosol and plasma membrane. Moreover,there was also a time-dependent increase in the release of isotopically labeled arachidonic acid ((3H)AA) from cellular membranes. Increase in (3H)AA release was 28% at 3 hr and about 60-80% between 6 and 9 hr. This increase in I3HIAA release was inhibited by quinacrine (20 uM), which is a phospholipase (PLA2) inhibitor. At 16 hr after SM exposure, there was a large increase (about 200% of control) in I3HIAA release, which was coincident with a 50% loss of cell viability. These results suggest a Ca2+-mediated toxic mechanism of SM via PLA2 activation and arachidonate release.

  7. Bioinoculants: A sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways. PMID:24097367

  8. Internal conductance under different light conditions along the plant profile of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Brown.).

    PubMed

    Monti, Andrea; Bezzi, Guido; Venturi, Gianpietro

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the internal conductance (g(i)) along the plant profile of Ethiopian mustard under two light conditions: (i) light from the top only (I1); (ii) light from the top integrated by supplementary lateral light along the whole plant profile (I2). Lateral light strongly increased the productivity (e.g. +104% of seed oil) and net photosynthesis (A). The latter appeared more driven by g(i) (r=0.78**) than by stomatal conductance (g(s)) (r=0.51*). Importantly, irradiance also considerably shortened the time from leaf appearance to senescence, which means that corresponding leaves in I1 and I2 had different ages. Therefore, since leaf age and irradiance have counteracting effects on g(i), I1 sometimes showed higher g(i) values than I2. With respect to irradiance, leaf age had clearly higher effects on g(i), which radically declined from the top to the basal leaves, even under constant light conditions. The internal conductance caused a significant drawdown of CO(2) from the sub-stomatal cavity (C(i)) to the site of carboxylation (C(c)) that, in turn, led to a substantial underestimation of V(cmax) calculated using the A/C(i) model. Again, the trends of g(i) and g(s) were not consistent along the plant profile, and so the ratio between stomatal and internal limitations to A changed from top to bottom leaves, accordingly. This study suggests that g(i) may be a valuable trait for increasing photosynthetic capacity and productivity; nonetheless, it suggests caution in selecting leaves for high g(i), as the latter can considerably change along the plant profile due to leaf age and irradiance effects. PMID:19237547

  9. Comparative study between extraction techniques and column separation for the quantification of sinigrin and total isothiocyanates in mustard seed.

    PubMed

    Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A

    2012-07-15

    Glucosinolates are β-thioglycosides which are found naturally in Cruciferae including the genus Brassica. When enzymatically hydrolysed, glucosinolates yield isothiocyanates and give a pungent taste. Both glucosinolates and isothiocyanates have been linked with anticancer activity as well as antifungal and antibacterial properties and therefore the quantification of these compounds is scientifically important. A wide range of literature exists on glucosinolates, however the extraction and quantification procedures differ greatly resulting in discrepancies between studies. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the most popular extraction procedures to identify the most efficacious method and whether each extraction can also be used for the quantification of total isothiocyanates. Four extraction techniques were compared for the quantification of sinigrin from mustard cv. Centennial (Brassica juncea L.) seed; boiling water, boiling 50% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile, boiling 100% methanol and 70% (v/v) aqueous methanol at 70 °C. Prior to injection into the HPLC, the extractions which involved solvents (acetonitrile or methanol) were freeze-dried and resuspended in water. To identify whether the same extract could be used to measure total isothiocyanates, a dichloromethane extraction was carried out on the sinigrin extracts. For the quantification of sinigrin alone, boiling 50% (v/v) acetonitrile was found to be the most efficacious extraction solvent of the four tested yielding 15% more sinigrin than the water extraction. However, the removal of the acetonitrile by freeze-drying had a negative impact on the isothiocyanate content. Quantification of both sinigrin and total isothiocyanates was possible when the sinigrin was extracted using boiling water. Two columns were compared for the quantification of sinigrin revealing the Zorbax Eclipse to be the best column using this particular method. PMID:22743340

  10. Protective effects of the thiol compounds GSH and NAC against sulfur mustard toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Balszuweit, Frank; Menacher, Georg; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Popp, Tanja; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent causing blistering, inflammation and ulceration of the skin. Thiol compounds such as glutathione (GSH) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) have been suggested as potential antidotes. We investigated SM toxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and used GSH and NAC to counteract its cytotoxic effects. Cells were treated with 1, 5 or 10mM GSH or NAC and exposed to 30, 100 or 300μM SM. Different treatment regimens were applied to model extra- and intra-cellular GSH/NAC effects on SM toxicity. Necrosis, apoptosis and interleukin-6 and -8 levels were determined 24h post-exposure. Necrosis and apoptosis increased with SM dose. Interleukin-6 and -8 production peaked at 100μM and decreased at 300μM probably due to reduced ability for interleukin biosynthesis. Intracellular GSH/NAC diminished necrosis induced by 100μM SM. Extracellular GSH/NAC protected against necrosis and apoptosis induced by 100 and 300μM SM. Interleukin-6 and -8 production, induced by 100μM SM was reduced by GSH/NAC. However, low-dose GSH/NAC treatment of cells exposed to 300μM SM led to increased interleukin production. Thus, moderately poisoned cells are mostly responsible for SM-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. GSH and NAC treatment can reduce SM-induced toxic effects. Protective effects were more pronounced by extracellular GSH or NAC administration. Rescue of severely poisoned cells may result in a strong secretion of pro- inflammatory cytokines. In summary, thiol compounds such as GSH or NAC constitute a promising approach to improve the therapy for SM injury. Additional intervention to prevent adverse effects of interleukin production might be beneficial. PMID:26361990

  11. Inhalation exposure to sulfur mustard in the guinea pig model: Clinical, biochemical and histopathological characterization of respiratory injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Allon, Nahum; Amir, Adina; Manisterski, Eliau; Rabinovitz, Ishay; Dachir, Shlomit; Kadar, Tamar

    2009-12-01

    Guinea pigs (GP) were exposed (head only) in individual plethysmographs to various concentrations of sulfur mustard vapor, determined online, using FTIR attached to flow chamber. The LCt{sub 50} and the inhaled LD{sub 50} were calculated at different time points post exposure. Surviving animals were monitored for clinical symptoms, respiratory parameters and body weight changes for up to 30 days. Clinical symptoms were noted at 3 h post exposure, characterized by erythematic and swelling nose with extensive mucous secretion (with or without bleeding). At 6 h post exposure most of the guinea pigs had breathing difficulties, rhonchi and dyspnea and few deaths were noted. These symptoms peaked at 48 h and were noted up to 8 days, associated with few additional deaths. Thereafter, a spontaneous healing was noted, characterized by recovery of respiratory parameters and normal weight gain with almost complete apparent healing within 2 weeks. Histopathological evaluation of lungs and trachea in the surviving GPs at 4 weeks post exposure revealed a dose-dependent residual injury in both lung and trachea expressed by abnormal recovery of the tracheal epithelium concomitant with a dose-dependent increase in cellular volume in the lungs. These abnormal epithelial regeneration and lung remodeling were accompanied with significant changes in protein, LDH, differential cell count and glutathione levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). It is suggested that the abnormal epithelial growth and cellular infiltration into the lung as well as the continuous lung inflammation could cause recurrent lung injury similar to that reported for HD exposed human casualties.

  12. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Shanthi Keating, Aileen F.

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  13. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of DRDE-07 and its analogs against sulfur mustard in the in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Vinod; Pathak, Uma; Meshram, Ghansham Pundilikji

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM), a chemical warfare agent, is classified as a class I human carcinogen by IARC. No effective antidote against this agent is available. The synthetic aminothiol, amifostine, earlier known as WR-2721, has been extensively used as a chemical radioprotector for normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. SM is a radiomimetic agent; this prompted us to evaluate the protective efficacy of amifostine and three of its analogs, DRDE-07 [S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulphide], DRDE-30 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl propyl sulphide] and DRDE-35 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl butyl sulphide], against sulfur mustard-induced mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. The antidotes were also evaluated for possible mutagenic activity. DRDE-07 was mutagenic in strain TA104 in the absence of S9; DRDE-30 was mutagenic in strain TA100; amifostine and DRDE-35 did not show mutagenic activity in any of the five tester strains used. SM is mutagenic in strains TA97a and TA102, with or without S9 activation. In the antimutagenicity studies, DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 showed promising antimutagenic activity against SM in the absence of S9, in comparison to amifostine. DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 are promising protective agents against SM-induced mutagenicity. PMID:25308705

  14. Quantification, localization, and speciation of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed-meals produced by hydraulic press.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Walse, Spencer S; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Freeman, John L

    2012-07-17

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se) especially in seeds when grown in soils laden with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard) and in their hydraulically pressed seed meals, which are used as a Se supplement in livestock animal feeds. Complementary techniques were used to measure total Se concentrations, to map the localization of Se, and to quantify different Se forms. Seeds and hydraulically pressed seed meals contained an average of 1.8 and 2.0 μg Se g(-1) DW, respectively. Selenium was primarily located in cotyledons and roots of seed embryos. Microfocused Se K-edge XANES and bulk XANES showed that seeds contained 90% of Se as C-Se-C forms. Hydraulically pressing seeds for oil caused changes in the forms of Se as follows: 40-55% C-Se-C forms, 33-42% selenocystine, 5-12% selenocysteine, and 11-14% trimethylselenonium ion. Aqueous extracts of seed and seed meals were also analyzed by SAX-HPLC/ICPMS and found to contain mainly the C-Se-C form SeMet, but also another C-Se-C form MeSeCys, which is of dietary pharmacological interest for cancer inhibition. In addition, SAX-HPLC/ICPMS also detected selenocystine and selenocysteine, further confirming the results obtained by XANES analyses. PMID:22747111

  15. Potent antitumor 9-anilinoacridines and acridines bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue on the acridine chromophore: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Tsann-Long; Lin, Yi-Wen; Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Bacherikov, Valeriy A; Chen, Ching-Huang; Liu, Leroy F; Tsai, Tsong-Jen

    2006-06-15

    A series of 9-anilinoacridine and acridine derivatives bearing an alkylating N-mustard residue at C4 of the acridine chromophore were synthesized. The N-mustard pharmacophore was linked to the C4 of the acridine ring with an O-ethyl (O-C(2)), O-propyl (O-C(3)), or O-butyl (O-C(4)) spacer. It revealed that all newly synthesized compounds were very potent cytotoxic agents against human leukemia and various solid tumors in vitro. These agents did not exhibit cross-resistance against vinblastine-resistant (CCRF-CEM/VBL) or taxol-resistant (CCRF-CEM/taxol) cells. It also showed that these agents were DNA cross-linking agents rather than topoisomerase II inhibitors. Of these agents, compounds 27a and 27c were shown to have potent antitumor activity in nude mice bearing the human breast carcinoma MX-1 xenograft. The therapeutic efficacies of these two agents are comparable to that of taxol. PMID:16759114

  16. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A.

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)–glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants. PMID:25730495

  17. Clinically-Relevant Cutaneous Lesions by Nitrogen Mustard: Useful Biomarkers of Vesicants Skin Injury in SKH-1 Hairless and C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Inturi, Swetha; White, Carl W.; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    A paucity of clinically applicable biomarkers to screen therapies in laboratory is a limitation in the development of countermeasures against cutaneous injuries by chemical weapon, sulfur mustard (SM), and its analog nitrogen mustard (NM). Consequently, we assessed NM-caused progression of clinical cutaneous lesions; notably, skin injury with NM is comparable to SM. Exposure of SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 (haired) mice to NM (3.2 mg) for 12–120 h caused clinical sequelae of toxicity, including microblister formation, edema, erythema, altered pigmentation, wounding, xerosis and scaly dry skin. These toxic effects of NM were similar in both mouse strains, except that wounding and altered pigmentation at 12–24 h and appearance of dry skin at 24 and 72 h post-NM exposure were more pronounced in C57BL/6 compared to SKH-1 mice. Conversely, edema, erythema and microblister formation were more prominent in SKH-1 than C57BL/6 mice at 24–72 h after NM exposure. In addition, 40–60% mortality was observed following 120 h of NM exposure in the both mouse strains. Overall, these toxic effects of NM are comparable to those reported in humans and other animal species with SM, and thus represent clinically-relevant cutaneous injury endpoints in screening and optimization of therapies for skin injuries by vesicating agents. PMID:23826320

  18. Characterization of acute and long-term pathologies of superficial and deep dermal sulfur mustard skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Cohen, Maayan; Kamus-Elimeleh, Dikla; Fishbine, Eliezer; Sahar, Rita; Gez, Rellie; Brandeis, Rachel; Horwitz, Vered; Kadar, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard induces severe acute and prolonged damage to the skin and only partially effective treatments are available. We have previously validated the use of hairless guinea pigs as an experimental model for skin lesions. The present study aimed to characterize a model of a deep dermal lesion and to compare it with the previously described superficial lesion. Clinical evaluation of the lesions was conducted using reflectance colorimetry, trans-epidermal water loss and wound area measurements. Prostaglandin E(2) content, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activity, and histopathology were conducted up to 4 weeks post-exposure. Sulfur mustard skin injury, including erythema and edema, impairment of skin barrier and wounds developed in a dose-dependent manner. Prostaglandin E(2) content and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 activities were elevated during the wound development and the healing process. Histological evaluation revealed severe damage to the epidermis and deep dermis and vesications. At 4 weeks postexposure, healing was not completed: significantly impaired stratum corneum, absence of hair follicles, and epidermal hyperplasia were observed. These results confirm the use of the superficial and deep dermal skin injuries in the hairless guinea pigs as suitable models that can be utilized for the investigation of the pathological processes of acute as well as long-term injuries. These models will be further used to develop treatments to improve the healing process and prevent skin damage and long-term effects. PMID:23082902

  19. Impact of fermentation on phenolic compounds in leaves of pak choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) and Chinese leaf mustard (Brassica juncea coss).

    PubMed

    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Four different cultivars of Chinese Brassica vegetables (two pak choi cultivars and two Chinese leaf mustard cultivars) were fermented according to a traditional Chinese method called pickling. The plant material was investigated before and after the fermentation procedure to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes in its polyphenols. A detailed description of the identified phenolic compounds of leaf mustard by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) is presented here for the first time, including hydroxycinnamic acid mono- and diglycosides (gentiobioses) and flavonoid tetraglycosides. Flavonoid derivatives with a lower molecular mass (di- and triglycosides) and aglycones of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were detected in fermented cabbages compared to the main compounds detected in nonfermented cabbages (tri- and tetraglycosides of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of malic acid, glycoside, and quinic acid). During the fermentation process, contents of flavonoid derivatives and some hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were found to decrease. Some marginal losses of polyphenols were observed even in the kneading step of the plant material prior to the fermentation procedure. The antioxidative potential of fermented cabbages was much higher compared to that of nonfermented cabbages in the TEAC assay, but not observable in the DPPH assay. The increase of the antioxidative potential detected in the TEAC assay was attributed to the qualitative changes of polyphenols as well as other reductones potentially present. PMID:18078315

  20. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiugong; Ray, Radharaman; Xiao, Yan; Barker, Peter E; Ray, Prabhati

    2007-01-01

    Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using SM-exposed normal human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells and bronchial/tracheal epithelial (BTE) cells. Cell viability, expression of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were examined, since these proinflammatory cytokines/mediators are import indicators of tissue inflammatory responses. We suggest that the influence of roxithromycin on SM-induced inflammatory reaction could play an important therapeutic role in the cytotoxicity exerted by this toxicant. Results MTS assay and Calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (EthD-1) fluorescence staining showed that roxithromycin decreased SM cytotoxicity in both SAE and BTE cells. Also, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-stimulated overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF at both the protein level and the mRNA level, as measured by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or real-time RT-PCR. In addition, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-induced overexpression of iNOS, as revealed by immunocytochemical analysis using quantum dots as the fluorophore. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that roxithromycin has inhibitory effects on the cytotoxicity and inflammation provoked by SM in human respiratory epithelial cells. The decreased cytotoxicity in roxithromycin-treated cells likely depends on the ability of the macrolide to down-regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and